You are on page 1of 8

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 8, AUGUST 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617 https://sites.google.

com/site/journalofcomputing WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG

81

COMPARATIVE STUDY AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF VANET USING CLUSTERING AND MESH BASED APPROACH
Ankita Anand and Parminder Singh
Abstract— Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have actually attracted a lot of attention over the last few years as being used to improve road safety.In this paper Vanet has been introduced having two scenarios, one with cluster based and the another without clustering(i.e Mesh based). In cluster based technique vehicles are restricted to move in a particular direction and in the one without clustering, vehicles are not clustered, and every vehicle remains independent and free to move independently in any direction. For this the network simulator NS2 has been used.And then NS2 is using (.tr) files from MOVE.It results in a wireless Mesh based Vanet using Traffic aggregation device,wireless mesh router,wired connectivity gateway and end user device. Index Terms—Clustering, IEEE 802.11, mesh networks, Vanet,.

——————————

——————————

1 INTRODUCTION
IEEE 802.11p is an approved amendment to the IEEE standard to add wireless access in vehicular environments[1].The IEEE 802.11 standard body is currently working on a new amendment, IEEE 802.11p, to address these concerns. This document is named Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment, also known as WAVE. As of writing, the draft document for IEEE 802.11p is making progress and moving closer towards acceptance by the general IEEE 802.11 working group. It is projected to pass letter ballot in the first half of 2008[2]. A Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network, or VANET, is a technology that uses moving cars as nodes in a network to create a mobile network. VANET turns every participating car into a wireless router or node, allowing cars approximately 100 to 300 metres of each other to connect and, in turn, create a network with a wide range. As cars fall out of the signal range and drop out of the network, other cars can join in, connecting vehicles to one another so that a mobile Internet is created. It is estimated that the first systems that will integrate this technology are police and fire vehicles to communicate with each other for safety purposes [3].
————————————————
Colli-

Safety warning message

I should drive away from this

accident scene

Fig1.1: Traffic safety application executing in VANET environment [4] Vehicular Adhoc network (VANET) is a new form of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET). It integrates mobile connectivity protocols to expedite data transfer between vehicles as well as between roadside equipment and available traffic in network. In VANET, Wireless device sends information to nearby vehicles, and messages can be transmit from one vehicle to another vehicle. Therefore, using VANET can increase safety and traffic optimization. Similar to other technology, in VANET flexibility ever in accessing Internet services and various types of personal communication applications [5]

• F.A. Er Ankita Anand is student of M.tech IT at Chandigarh Engineering College, Landran (Mohali) Punjab. • S.B. Parminder Singh is with the Department of Information technology, Chandigarh Engineering College, Landran (Mohali) Punjab.

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 8, AUGUST 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617 https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG

82

1.2 Scope [6]
The most favorable target is the more useful, efficient and safer roads will built through vehicular networks by informing to basic authorities and drivers in time in the future. Another target is to discover the advancement of vehicular ad hoc networking (VANET) wireless technologies.

1.3 Benefits of Vanet [7]
• •
2 1

Congestions : Reduced Accidents are avoided Improved Entertainment WIFI access Online Music Real time position Find restaurants


There is an accident in my area

Left lane closed ahead due to the accident,Please

• •

Fig1: An example of road emergency response operation under VANET

• •

Fig: 1.2 An example of road emergency operation under Vanet.

1.4 Mesh Networks [8]
A mesh network is a local area network (LAN) that employs one of two connection arrangements, full mesh topology or partial mesh topology. In the full mesh topology, each node (workstation or other device) is connected directly to each of the others. In the partial mesh topology, some nodes are connected to all the others, but some of the nodes are connected only to those other nodes with which they exchange the most data. The illustration shows a full mesh network with five nodes. Each node is shown as a sphere, and connections are shown as straight lines. The connections can be wired or wireless.

1.1Applications of Vanet [6]
Mostly interests to MANETS belong to the VANETS but the features are different. Vehicles are likely to move in structured way. The connection with wayside equipment can similarly be indicated absolutely accurately. In the end, mostly automobiles are limited in their motion range, such as being controlled to pursue a paved way. VANET suggests unlimited advantage to companies of any size. Vehicles access of fast speed internet which will change the automobiles’ on-board system from an effective widget to necessary productivity equipment, making nearly any internet technology accessible in the car. Thus this network does pretend specific security concerns as one problem is no one can type an email during driving safely. This is not a potential limit of VANET as productivity equipment. It permits the time which has wasted for something in waiting called “dead time”, has turned into the time which is used to achieve tasks called “live time”. If a traveler downloads his email, he can transform jam traffic into a productive task and read on-board system and read it himself if traffic stuck. One can browse the internet when someone is waiting in car for a relative or friend. If GPS system is integrated it can give us a benefit about traffic related to reports to support the fastest way to work. Finally, it would permit for free, like Skype or Google Talk services within workers, reducing telecommunications charges.

Fig 1.3 Mesh Network

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 8, AUGUST 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617 https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG

83

A mesh network is reliable and offers redundancy. If one Node can no longer operate; all the rest can still communicate with each other, directly or through one or more intermediate nodes. Mesh networks work well when the nodes are located at scattered points that do not lie near a common line.

Mesh.tcl

In this scenario, vehicles are taken as nodes and these vehicles are moving in a cluster.Every vehicle is dependent on another vehicle, which results in Limited Mobility. Firstly a cluster head is decided, which can also be considered as a source node, afterwards another nodes also start working. Source node sends data packets to another nodes and then these packets are transferred and pass on through various nodes to reach its destination (i.e the receiving node). It also causes packet delay sometimes as if lets say there are 100 packets,but its not possible to send all the 100 packets at the same time,so we might send 50 packets at a time,which automatically creates a packet delay because some of the packets may be dropped or lost during the process too.

Fig 1.4 Wired Mesh Network [9]

1.5 AODV and AODV+
AODV and AODV+ are the two protocols that are used in this paper. As there are two scenarios, one with Cluster based and the another with without clustering i.e Mesh based Vanet.For the first scenario, Cluster based Vanet AODV is used and for the second scenario, Mesh based Vanet, AODV+ has been used. As the earlier research done is on cluster based routing, which results in limited mobility i.e vehicles are restricted to move in a group or a caravan of vehicles, which restricts the vehicles, to move independently. So in this paper, a mesh based vehicular network is introduced which will have dynamically configurable parameter which includes QoS with respect packet delievery.And in addition Cluster based Vanet has also been shown for the comparison between the throughput in both the cases. •

Fig 2.1: Clustered Vehicle VANETMesh.tcl

2 METHODOLOGY USED
There are two scenarios: With clustering and Without clustering (i.e Mesh based VANET) Work is done on Fedora and windows. In Fedora, MOVE has been used to find out the Global map. The two scenarios are as follows:

In this scenario (Non-Clustered i.e Mesh Based) vehicles are not clustered and are not restricted to move in a group or a caravan of vehicles. Every vehicle is independent of one another. Vehicles used to move in a direction but are not connected to each other, So the chances of packet delay reduces as if vehicles are not connected, then dropping of a packet or problem in any one of the packet does not results in failing down the whole process of sending or receiving packets.

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 8, AUGUST 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617 https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG

84

Mobility Model: It represents the generation of road map topology and vehicle movement

Fig 2.2: Non-Clustered Vehicles(Mesh based VANET) Fig 2.1.2: Mobility Model

2.1 SIMULATION FOR VANET:
Rapid generation of realistic simulation for VANET.

In mobility model configuration can be set for roads or the whole scenario with the help of Map configuration editor. Map configuration Editor: It specifies the input and the output files and the road defaults if road types are not defined and road parameters if they are not inputted.

Fig 2.1.1: Rapid generator for VANET Fig 2.1.3: Map configuration Editor Here, two models are taken into consideration: • • Mobility Model. Traffic Model.

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 8, AUGUST 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617 https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG

85

Random Map Generator: It specifies the total random layout, which includes, Grid layout and the spider layout.

Static Mobility:It is a static traffic model generator for Ns2.It includes general options like channel type,network interface type,interface queue type, antenna model, ad hoc routing protocol, radio propagating model, Mac type, Max packet in Ifq,link layer type and mobile node starting positions, agent options, and connections.

Fig 2.1.4: Random Map Generator

Traffic Model: It basically represents the Generation of network traffic. •

Fig 2.1.6: Static model generator for VANET Dynamic Mobility:It is a dynamic traffic model generator for Ns2. It also includes general options like channel type,network interface type,interface queue type, antenna model, ad hoc routing protocol, radio propagating model, Mac type, Max packet in Ifq,link layer type and mobile node starting positions, agent options, and connections for dynamic mobility of vehicles.

Fig 2.1.5: Traffic Model

Traffic model shows two mobilities for Ns2 i.e: • • Static Mobility Dynamic Mobility Fig 2.1.7: Dynamic model generator for VANET

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 8, AUGUST 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617 https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG

86

3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results comes out as Generated packets, Packet status, Throughput of sending packets, Throughput of receiving packets, and Throughput of dropping packets, for both the scenarios i.e for Clustered vehicles as well as for nonclustered vehicles(Mesh based) so as for analysis of the both. (i) Generated packets: It tells us about how many packets are generated as well as their packet identification. Here is a graph of generated packets is plotted on the XY axis. When a packet is transmitted, some packet delay comes. Like if 1000 packets are to be transmitted, all the 1000 cannot be transmitted at once, but the packets can be transmitted in installments, thereby resulting in the packet delay.

Fig 3.2:Packet Status (iii)Throughput of sending packets: It tells the throughput of sending packets on XY axis,with throughput of sending packets i.e the number of packets send per second on y axis and time on x axis.

Fig 3.1:Generated Packets (ii)Packet Status: Packet status tells the actual status of the packets i.e how many packets are send, how many are received and how many of them are dropped during the process. Here is graph plotted on the XY axis. Time in seconds is on the X axis and traffic in bytes is on the Y-axis. Red colour signfies the message, blue is indicating the acknowledgement and green one is showing TCP.TCP sink basically tells us about the source node i.e which node can be considered as a source node and the path of the nodes.

Fig 3.3: Throughput of sending packets

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 8, AUGUST 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617 https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG

87

(iv) Throughput of receiving packets: It tells the throughput of receiving packets on XY axis, with throughput of receiving packets i.e no.of packets packets received per second on y-axis and time on y-axis.

(vi)Throughput of receiving packets on the basis of category and value: It tells the throughput of receiving packets on the basis of their category and value on XY axis, with its category on x-axis and value on y-axis.

Fig 3.4: Throughput of receiving packets

Fig 3.6: Throughput of receiving packets on the basis of category and value (vii)Throughput of dropping packets:

(v)Throughput of sending packets on the basis of category and value: It tells the throughput of sending packets on the basis of their category and value on XY axis, with its category on x-axis and value on y-axis.

It tells the throughput of dropping packets on XY axis, with throughput of dropping packets i.e no. of packets dropped per second on y axis and time on x axis.

Fig 3.5: Throughput of sending packets on the basis of category and value

Fig 3.7: Throughput of dropping packets

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 8, AUGUST 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617 https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG

88

4 CONCLUSION
In this paper, comparison analysis has been done taking two scenarios,one with the clustered vehicles in VANET environment and the another with the vehicles as nodes in a Mesh based VANET(Vehicular adhoc network)and the performance has been evaluated in terms of packet delivery , packet status , dropping , receiving and sending throughput of the packets. And it is concluded that the scenario with the Mesh based VANET is better, as in Mesh based VANET, vehicles are not clustered and so are free to move independently in any direction and are not restricted to move in a group or caravan of vehicles. Every vehicle is independent from the one another.

col”,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distancevector_routing_protocol. [11] “Countingtoinfinityproblem”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Counting-toinfinity_problem#Count-to-infinity_problem”. [12] “Multicastrouting”,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multicast. Author: Er Ankita Anand B.tech in Information Technology from Ramgarhia institute of Engg and Technology (Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar) M.tech in Information Technology from Chandigarh Engineering College, Landran (Mohali)…(Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar) Contributed and presented paper”Analytical study and implementing security algorithm over VANET”in AICTE and Deptt of science and technology (Ministry of science and tech, Govt of India) sponsored International conference in computing and communication, ICACC2012 Contributed technical paper-“Multimedia systems” in CSI Regional student convention 2010 on Transdisciplinary Computer Applications and Design challenges, organized by Computer Society of India. Participated in CSI regional student convention workshop on “Emerging technologies in open source web platform, organized by Computer society of India.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Foremost of all, I express my sincere indebtedness to the “Almighty”, for bestowing me with all the favorable circumstances and kept me in high spirits. I am very grateful to my advisor, Er Parminder Singh, Asst Prof. at Chandigarh Engineering College, Landran for his patience, encouragement, and many fruitful discussions from the very early stage of this research Finally, I wish to express my appreciation to my family for their continuous love and encouragement, for always believing in me, for never failing to provide all the support, and for coping with the pressure that naturally comes with such endeavour.

References
[1] [2] “IEEE802.11p”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I EEE_802.11p Daniel Jiang, Luca DelgrossiMercedes-Benz Research & Development North America, Inc,“IEEE 802.11p: Towards an International Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments”. “VANET”,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vehicular_adhoc_network. Nai-Wei Lo, Hsiao-Chien Tsai “Illusion Attack on VANET Applications – A Message Plausibility Problem”. Xiaodong Lin, Rongxing Lu, Chenxi Zhang, Haojin Zhu, PinHan Ho,and Xuemin (Sherman) Shen, University of Waterloo “Security in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”,2008. What is Vanet-applications of Vanet http://www.wifinotes.com/mobile-communicationtechnologies/what-is-vanet.html. Xiaonan Liu, Zhiyi Fang, Lijun Shi, “Securing Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”,2007 “Meshneworks”,http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/m esh-network. http://www.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ecsl.cs. sunysb.edu/multichannel/hyacintharch.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.ecsl.cs.sunysb.edu/multichan nel/&usg=__2q4ORl_MOJ8dQyMILaa5S_oH0=&h=378&w=614&sz=8&hl=en&start=38&zoom=1 &tbnid=DHxJGKBvjm1qZM:&tbnh=84&tbnw=136&ei=zU7pT8 7GYjsrAemu_mHDg&prev=/search%3Fq%3DMesh%2Bnetwor ks%26start%3D20%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1280% 26bih%3D621%26tbm%3Disch%26prmd%3Dimvnsb&itbs=1

[3] [4] [5]

[6]

[7] [8]

[9]

[10] “Distancevectorroutingproto© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617