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An adaptive power aware routing in MANETs
R.Madhanmohan, K.Selvakumar, Department of Computer Science & Engineering,Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar,India

Abstract:
Research on power aware routing in MANET is a challenging task today. We have focused on efficient power aware routing algorithm which is described in this paper. The routing protocol named Power aware Ad hoc on demand distance vector ( PA-AODV) is proposed for low

Energy consumption. Similarly shortest path issues are also solved. This protocol enables the updating in routing table for minimizing the energy consumption. PAAODV uses an energy threshold function for filtering out the nodes with low logical residual energy, and reducing the broadcast operations in route discovery. Simulation results shows that PA-AODV performs well compared to ad-hoc ondemand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol even after introducing energy related fields in PA-AODV.

Keywords:
Power aware ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector, residual energy, shortest path, system lifetime, traffic anticipation

1 Introduction
A critical design issue for future wireless ad hoc networks is the development of suitable communication architectures, protocols, and services that efficiently reduce power consumption thereby increasing the operational lifetime of network enabled wireless devices [1].In wireless ad hoc networks nodes are connected without any static infrastructure such as base station.

Movement of hosts randomly, will cause hanging network topology. Thus routing protocols are used to maintain routes instead of changing network connectivity. The applications of these networks covers major areas such as Military, Emergency,law enforcement and rescue missions,etc. Power-Aware Routing protocols take various power metrics or cost functions into account in route selection. This paper acquires different approach of power-aware routing by maximizing the life time

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

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of network This PA-AODV involves with energy reservation, traffic anticipation and new path cost function

Related Work
We propose a power-aware routing protocol (PA-AODV) which extends the Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol. AODV AODV is on-demand routing protocol which uses single path [4]. When a source node generates a packet for a particular destination node, it broadcasts a route request (RREQ) packet. The RREQ contains the source IP address, source sequence number, broadcast ID, destination IP address, destination sequence number, hopcount where the source and destination IP addresses remain constant for the lifetime of the network, source sequence number is a monotonically increasing indicator of packet “freshness”, destination sequence number is the last known sequence number for destination node at source node. The hop-count is initialized to zero and incremented at each intermediate node which processes the RREQ. A RREQ is uniquely identified by the combination of source sequence number and broadcast ID. An intermediate node only processes a RREQ if it has not received a previous copy of it. If an intermediate node has a route to destination node with destination sequence number at least that in the RREQ, it returns a route reply (RREP) packet, updated with the information that it has. If not, it records the information of source IP address, source sequence number, broadcast ID, destination IP address and expiration time for reverse path route entry, and forwards the RREQ to its neighbors. Like the RREQ, a RREP is only processed on first

Existing Work
Mobile devices which are supported by battery powers, thus energyefficient issue is a major issue in MANET. These issues are categorized as Low-Power Mode and Transmission power control. With low-power mode the mobile nodes supports low-power sleeping mode and the challenges arise when the mobile nodes are changed from the sleeping mode to wake up mode. Transmission Power Control has strong impact on transmission range, bit error rate and inter-radio interference, which are typically contradicting factors [2]. By adjusting its transmission power, mobile node can select its immediate neighbors from others, thus the network topology can be controlled in this way. Power-Aware Routing uses various power metrics comparing with other protocols such as DSDV, AODV, DSR. Different metrics along with their impacts on the performance in Distributed Power Management Policy for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks. The routing algorithm for static MANET in [3], which aims to maximize system lifetime by balancing the energy consumption. A new power-cost metric based on the combination of both nodes’ lifetime and distance based power metrics in [12].

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sighting and is discarded unless it has a greater destination sequence number than the previous RREP or the same destination sequence number but a smaller hop-count. The RREP packet contains the source IP address, destination IP address, destination sequence number, hop-count, route expiration time. The route expiration time[5] is the time after which the route is considered to have expired and a new route discovery process must be undertaken. Source node sends packets via the first path it hears about. If it receives a later RREP which has either fresher information or a shorter hop-count, it swaps to that, discarding the original route information. When an active route link breaks, a route error (RERR) packet, with sequence number incremented from the corresponding RREP and hop-count of ∞, is sent by the upstream node of the broken link to source node. Upon receipt of a RERR, source node initiates a new route discovery process if it still has packets to send to destination node. Nodes also periodically send “hello” messages to neighboring nodes to maintain knowledge of local connectivity.

2. Transmission power is well known to each host, which is involved in estimating the energy consumption of sending a packet; 3. The source node of a request is capable of anticipating the number of the packets to be transmitted. The set of nodes in MANET is N = {1, 2… n} and system life time is calculated by System Lifetime (N) = min{NLT (i) | i N} ----- (1) Where NLT is node life time and Logical residual energy is driven by LEi(t) = Ei(t) - Σ(Reserved Energy of node i at time t) --------- (2) Where Ei(t) = the physical residual energy of node i at time t. Working functions of PA- AODV The nodes of MANET have Energy Reservation Table (ERT) instead of the route cache in the common ondemand protocols. Each item in ERT is mapped to a route passing this node, and records the corresponding energy reserved. This table has the entries such as Request ID, Source ID ,Destination ID, Amount of Energy Reserved, Last Operation Time, Route, and their functions .

2 Power aware on-demand routing protocol
Assumptions and equations The PA-AODV has set to have the following assumptions: 1. Each mobile node is capable of reading its own physical residual energy;

Route discovery Route discovery in PA-AODV incorporating energy fields for choosing energy efficient path. The duration, E, [6] of a path is defined as the minimum residual energy over all of its links which is denoted by

E=

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where h is link number, and H is number of links/hops in the path. The energy, E, is also recorded in the RREQ, updated, as necessary, at each intermediate node. Thus, all information required for calculating the residual energy is available via the RREQs, minimizing added complexity. Packet forwarding After establishing the route source node sends the data packets to destination node. After the node on the route forwards a data packet, it will update the corresponding item in the routing table by firstly subtracting the amount of energy just consumed from the amount of energy reserved.

part likely average end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, residual energy, network life time.
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Fig.1 End-to-end delay Route Maintenance When a node finds an error in forwarding a data packet, it will initiate a route error packet (RERR) and send it back to the source. Each node that receives the RERR packet would remove the corresponding item from routing table and switch to alternate path. For the nodes that could not receive the RERR packet on the route, expiration time out is used to switch from that path to other.
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Simulation Environment

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The simulation of this work is done by using NS-2.34. This discrete event simulator uses 1000m * 1000m physical area and the total of 100 nodes is used with this work. Here the speed a node is 10 m/s and each node uses same transmission power. The performance metrics used with this

Fig.2 Network lifetime Fig.1 represents the average end-to-end delay where the proposed (PA-AODV) protocol is having minimum end-to-end

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delay when compare with AODV. Fig.2 shows that the network life time of PA-AODV is much better than the AODV. Packet delivery ratio is much greater in our proposed work compare with AODV is given in Fig.3. The network residual energy of PC-AODV is higher than the AODV is described in Fig.4.
PACKET DELIVERY RATIO
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4.

Conclusion

We have analyzed the performance metrics such as Packet delivery ratio, Average end-to-end delay,Network life time and Residual energy with the AODV. Our proposed work outperforms well than AODV. Future Work In near future we will analyze this proposed protocol with other existing protocols and also additional performance metrics will be used for better performances. References
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Supporting Dynamic Power Controlled Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, Wireless Networks, Kluwer Academic Publishers,2003.

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Fig.3 Packet delivery ratio
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2.[S. Singh,98 ] S.Singh, M. Woo, and C.
S. Raghavendra, “Power- Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Proc. Of the International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Dallas, Texas, October 1998, pp. 181–190. 3.[J. R. Lorch,98] J.R.Lorch and A. J. Smith, “Software Strategies for Portable Computer Energy Management”, IEEE Personal Communications, Jun 1998, pp. 60–73. 4.[Jae-Hwan Chang,2002] Jae-Hwan Chang and Leandros Tassiulas, Energy

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Fig.4 Network residual energy

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Conserving Routing in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks, University of Maryland at College Park,2002. 5. [Jhunu Debbarma,2012] Jhnnu Debbarma,Sudipta Roy, Rajat K. Pal, Cross-Layer Design Approach with Power, International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN) Vol. 4, No. 3, June 2012.

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8.[Adamou M, 2007] Adamou M. and Sarkar S.,”A Framework for Optimal Battery Management for Wireless Nodes”. Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOMP 2007, pp. 1783-1792. 9.[Ajina A ,2010] Ajina A, G.R.Sakthidharan , Kanchan M. Miskin “Study of Energy Efficient Power Aware RoutingAlgorithm and their Applications” This paper appears in: 2010 Second International Conference on Machine Learning and Computing 978-0-76953977-5/10 $26.00 © 2010 IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICMLC.2010.44. 10.[ AL-Gabri Malek, 2010] AL-Gabri Malek, Chunlin Li, Li Layuan, WangBo “New Energy Model: Prolonging the Lifetime of Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocols (AODV)” “2010 International Conference 978-1-42445824-0/$26.00 _c 2010 IEEE. 11.[Alokes Chattopadhyay, 2007] Alokes Chattopadhyay, Markose Thomas,

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