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Pendekatan konflik etnik cultural: Primordialism, instrumentalism, construktivism psychological narrative structural: Inter-ethnic conflict state and

ethnic conflict globalization and ethnic conflict cultural approach to understand ethnic conflict based on cultural approach is to understand the ch aracters of identity that attach to the related of ethnic, religious, group comm unities cultural approach => psychocultural narrative primordialist view the primordial sentiment as such is a core identity, basic identity (religion, c ultural value), that influence people's behavior, the associational forms of cum munal membership, and it's relation to the other community, including conflict r elations stephan wolf: "there's no such thing as primordial conflict." identitas dasar manusia diciptakan bukan untuk dipertentangkan. agama: tidak ada yang memerintahkan untuk berperang untuk saling menghancurkan. primordial defend subjective view that cross cutting in one particular point. primordial as a public discource. insrumental view this view understands cultural identity as a product of manipulation and mobiliz ation of certain political elites for their political purpose (demagogy) ethnic communities are created and transformed by particular elite in modernizin g and in post-industrial societies undergoing dramatic change. konflik balkan ethnic issues are a good excuse to create problems and build up political suppor t by doing so. genocide toward bosnian and albanian ethnic in kosovo conduct by serbian goverme nt paramilitary unit: red star belgrade. construktivism view when community members and political elite work together in making ethnic confli ct. the awareness of myths, history, locality, tradition, and cultural symbolism amo ng the member of ethnic and religious groups forms group identity that is then u sed by elite groups to create or reconstruct a new communal identity suitable wi th their imagination genosida rwanda belgian rule recognized and affirmed this preexisting distinction the words tutsi means those 'rich in cattle' and the word hutu means "servant" o r "subject" the belgian introduced separate ID card for the two tribes.

understanding ethnic cocflict Primordialism, instrumentalism, construktivism ======> what drive the people? elite politics fueled by political interest psychocultural narrative : narrative process is involved in an ethnic group sens e of personal or cultural identity. shared narratives recount and reinforce emotionally significant events and exper iences within a group, sometimes through dramatic rituals but also as they frame daily interactions and behaviors 1. past events as methapors and lessons narrative invoke the past in response to contemporary needs "by placing the present in the context of the past and of the community, the myt h of descent interprets present social changes and collective endeavors in a man ner the satisfies the drive for meaning" 2. narratives as collective memories memories associated with historical events may often be far more recent and deve lop as political claim-making a good deal after the event took place. memories exist in relationships and because the group is interested in the memor ies that "provide frameworks within which localized a kind of (group) mapping." 3. Fears and threats to identity narratives are central to out what in their "imagined past" is shared, what dang ers they face, and offering a dream for their future." 4. ethnocentrism and moral superiority claims group are not morally neutral what is notable here is the in group ethnocentric bias in claims that both justi fy a group's collective actions and frame the group as the protector of the high est moral virtues. konflik israel-palestina the narrative of "chosen trauma" "referring to specific psychocultural experiences whice symbolize a group's deep est perceived threats and fears and are filled with feelings of helplessness and victimization." baca perang sampit, jakarta riot 1998 rohingya in burma konflik assam india