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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA PERLIS FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE BACHELOR OF (HONS) APPLIED CHEMISTRY CMT564 WATER AND WASTEWATER

TRIP REPORT TO INDAH WATER TREATMENT PLANT AND DEPARTMENT OF WATER SUPPLY AT PULAU PINANG

NAME MATRIC NUMBER DEPART DATE DATE OF REPORT SUBMISSION PREPARED FOR

: MOHD SYAZWAN BIN ZAKARIA : 2010393037 : 10 / 05/ 2012 : 16 / 05 / 2012 : SIR ZAIDI BIN ABD. GHANI

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TABLE OF CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………….3 OBJECTIVE OF THE TRIP…………………………………………………………..4 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………….4 WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS…………………5-6 WATER TREATMENT PROCESS………………………………………………..7 I) II) III) INTRODUCTION WATER PURIFICATION THE WATER TREATMENT………………………………………8-9

PROBLEM OCCUR AND SOLUTION ……………………………………….…9 CONCLUSION ………………………………………………...…………………………9 REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………9 APPENDICES I) II) WASTE TREATMENT PICTURE ………………………………10-12 WATER TREATMENT PICTURE ………………………………13-15

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all, i would like to say Alhamdulillah to Allah S.W.T , for giving me the strength and health to do this trip report until it done. Not forgotten my family who are always being there whenever i need them and keep continuing supporting me from behind. In addition, fully thanks to Indah Water Treatment Plant And Department Of Water Supply for receive our arrival on their place and share the knowledge that they know. Truly, i got many Information Due To Water And Wastewater Treatment process. The most things is, I can observe all the process in reality.it is really nice experience in which i will store in my mind for the rest of my life. Then I would like to thank our lecturer Mr Zaidi Bin Abd Ghani for guiding us throughout this trip and this report. He inspired us greatly to work in this assignment and keep being patient eventhough we almost forgot to submit this report. His willingness to motivate us contributed tremendously to our report. Besides, i would like to express my gratitude to all my fellow friends who keep cheering my life and without you guys, i would not able to be like who i am today and also for helping me during our trip and throughout this report. Finally, without helps of the particular name mentioned above, i could face many difficulties while doing this assignment. Thank you very much…

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OBJECTIVE OF THE TRIP 1) To observe the real process of water and wastewater treatment. 2) To learn the process from the expert in this process. INTRODUCTION In Wednesday 10 May 2012 at 8.00 a.m, all the part 4 students are headed to Pulau Pinang for a water and wastewater syllabus trip. We are going to indah water treatment plant and department of water supply. First of all we are headed to indah water sewage treatment plant at bayan baru. This function of this place is to treat the waste water and discharge them back into the environment where the water is not in polute condition. We arrive at this place around 10.30 a.m. we being introduced to mr loga where he will conduct us and share his knowledge about all the process occur here. Basically, wastewater treatment is the process of taking wastewater and making it suitable for discharge back into the environment. Wastewater can be formed by a variety of activities, including washing, bathing, and using the toilet. Rainwater runoff is also considered wastewater. No matter where it comes from, this water is full of bacteria, chemicals, and other contaminants. Wastewater treatment reduces the contaminants to acceptable levels so as to be safe for discharge into the environment. In Malaysia (refer to Indah Water Treatment Plant, Bayan Baru Penang), the domestic waste that they handling with is about 200,000 people. Then, after visiting indah water, now we’are headed to department of water supply in about 12.30pm. We have been introduced to Encik Lah and En Ramli ( technician ) . In simple words, water treatment describes those processes used to make water more acceptable for a desired end-use. These can include use as drinking water, industrial processes, medical and many other uses. The goal of all water treatment process is to remove existing contaminants in the water, or reduce the concentration of such contaminants so the water becomes fit for its desired end-use. One such use is returning water that has been used back into the natural environment without adverse ecological impact. The processes involved in treating water for drinking purpose may be solids separation using physical processes such as settling and filtration, and chemical processes such as disinfection and coagulation. Biological processes are also employed in the treatment of wastewater and these processes may include, for example, aerated lagoons, activated sludge or slow sand filters.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS in general use, there are two types of wastewater treatment systems: a) a biological treatment plant and a b) Physical/chemical treatment plant. Most households and businesses create waste that can be broken down by natural means. Biological treatment plants use bacteria and other biological matter to break down waste.(biological treatment process were applied in Indah Water Penang) industrial wastewater can contain chemicals that can harm the environment, so a chemical plant is needed to treat this waste. Physical/chemical wastewater treatment plants use both physical processes and chemical reactions to treat wastewater. A biological wastewater treatment plant, such as a municipal treatment plant, uses several tanks to treat the wastewater that comes into it. Firstly, the preliminary stage were taken, where we can see the ‘’in-coming’’. Here, all the waste come from almost 200,000 people were come in (refer figure 1). Upon arrival via the sewer system, the wastewater is sent through a bar screen (refer figure 2) , which removes large solid objects such as sticks and rags. Next is the primary stage, where this primary stage can be recognized if there are screening machine. In this primary step, it is intended to remove large suspended solids in the sewage. Primary treatment is the second step in wastewater treatment. It allows for the physical separation of solids and greases from the wastewater. The screened wastewater flows into a primary settling tank where it is held for several hours. This allows solid particles to settle to the bottom of the tank and oils and greases to float to the top. Mr Loga brought us to pre –limp tank where there are also fine screen (refer figure 3). The function of fine screen is to filter more small and more thin particle of waste that apart from the screening machine in in let station before. Here, the process slowly shows the effective. Leaving the prelimp tank , the wastewater flow is slowed down entering the grit tank (refer figure 4).this allows sand, gravel, and other heavy material that was small enough not to be caught by the bar screen to settle to the bottom. All the collected debris from the grit tank and bar screen is disposed of at a sanitary landfill or recycled. All the sand is being settled at the bottom by using diffuser (told by Mr Loga). After screening the solids and removing the grit, the wastewater still contains light organic suspended solids. Some of these can be removed by gravity in a sedimentation tank. These tanks are typically twelve feet deep and hold the wastewater for two or three hours. What settles out is called sludge. The sludge is removed from the primary treatment tank with mechanical scrapers and pumps. Grease, oil, and other floating substances rise to the top, where they are removed by surface skimming equipment. They emit the air to trap greece and make it floating.the usage of floating pump is to pull the floating greece to go to conveyor. Here, there are no sand, greece and even any plastic material. What are left are only suspended solid. All the waste from the conveyor will go to the bio scrabble adour to trap all the odour come from the waste. This bio scrabble adour were made from trees and were changes every 6 months (told by Mr Loga). Then, we are moving to secondary treatment where there are using modified oxidation ditch. As general, secondary treatment removes soluble materials that require oxygen for decay, as well as further removal of suspended solids. It also known as biological treatment because it removes dissolved organic material from wastewater. The partially treated wastewater from the settling tank flows by gravity into an aeration tank. Here it is mixed with solids containing micro-organisms that use oxygen to consume the remaining organic matter in the wastewater as their food supply. The aeration tank uses 5

air bubbles to provide the mixing and the oxygen, both of which are needed for the micro-organisms to multiply. From here the liquid mixture, composed of solids with micro-organisms and water, is sent to the final clarifier. Here the solids settle to the bottom where some of the material is sent to the solids handling process, and some is recirculated to replenish the population of micro-organisms in the aeration tank to treat incoming wastewater. From the explaination from Mr Loga, he said after screening and grit removal,sewage will enter (refer figure 8) the outer channel(1st channel) where most of the biological reaction take places. Here the aeration process occur (refer figure 6) .Then the 2nd channel where the suitable disolved oxygen (d.o) is 1.0mg/l.the 3rd channel must have more D.O which is 1.5 ppm. This is compulsory to make sure that the bacteria have more weighed. When the bacterium is heavy and can live happily, then they will make sediment. After this process, the waste will go to the chamber and clarifier where here is the best sediment for suspended solid. Here the water is more cool than at M.O.D. at clarifier process, regardless which method of secondary treatment is used, the end result is a mixture of microorganisms and partially treated wastewater that is essentially free of dissolved and suspended organic material. The organic material that was dissolved or suspended in the wastewater has now been broken down and consumed by these microorganisms. These microorganisms, while very small, are still large enough to settle out of the wastewater. Wastewater leaving trickling filters and activated sludge aeration tanks is then sent to secondary clarifiers (settling tanks) where the microorganisms settle out. At this point, the wastewater treatment process is nearly completed. By theoretical, after this process, it should be disinfection where we injected into the wastewater and the wastewater is held in a basin for about fifteen minutes to allow the chlorine to react with any remaining pathogens. Since chlorine is toxic to fish, the chlorine is often removed from the wastewater as a last step. The treated wastewater can then be released into a stream. But luckily Mr Loga told us that here, in Malaysia or more specifically, in waste treatment plant bayan baru, they do not use the chlorine due to the standard water produce is followed the standard given by the government. The standard suspended solid for COD is below than 20 mg/l and for BOD is below 50 mg/l. Next destination is pumping station where the sediment will be sent out back to the aeration back to supply oxygen. Then we going to thickening building where here they used the chemical to thicken the sludge by using polymey aronflac cationic . This is also known as tertiary treatment. Finally,this is the last step and luckily, the discharge back the treatment water into the river and no pollutant anymore.

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WATER TREATMENT PROCESS INTRODUCTION For the second place that we visit is Sungai Dua Treatment plant (Refer figure 1). I would like to share a little information about this treatment plant where this information is gain from the Mr Mohd Nizam Omar, the Principal of Water Supply Corporation Academy. The Sungai dua Treatment plant is the most important water treatment plant in the state of Penang. As at 2004, 80% of the total water supplied throughout the state comes from this plant. The Muda River serves as its primary sources of water and at the Lahar Tiang intake, the river water is pumped into the 14km Sungai Dua Canal Which then deliver the river water to the treatment plant. Located on a 13-hectare site in seberang Perai, phase 1 of the sungai dua treatment plant was completed in 1973, with an initial design capacity of 159 million litres a day (MLD). Various Upgrades has increased the plant’s maximum design capacity up to 886 MLD. During dry season, the plants also draw water via a 20km steel pipe from the largest dam in the state, the Mengkuang Dam. Completed in 1985, this dam has a maximum storage capacity of 23.6 billion litres. And to meet future water supply needs, the Sungai Dua Treatment Plant is being continually upgrade. The lattest technique that they will use is Lamella system / multi tray system. This system need only maintain 6 month only compared with sand and gravel filtrations which need at least 1 month to be maintaining. The Mengkuang Dam2 is still in build process it’s expected to complete in 2015. It can supply in million gallons in order to complete a user need. WATER PURIFICATION Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from contaminated water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacology, chemical and industrial applications. In general the methods used include physical processes such as filtration and sedimentation, biological processes such as slow sand filters or activated sludge, chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light. The purification process of water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi; and a range of dissolved and particulate material derived from the surfaces that water may have made contact with after falling as rain.

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THE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS First of all, the first step is collecting raw water (Refer Figure 2) and conveyed to the plant for treatment. The sources of raw water is such as groundwater, lake, reservoir,rivers,canals, and desalination of seawater and others that suitable. Then, the next process is screening. We cannot observe this screening process due to the far location. The function of Screening process is to remove large debris such as sticks, leaves, trash and other large particles which may interfere with subsequent purification steps. Most deep groundwater does not need screening before other purification steps. This screening process also prevents damage to pump and clogging of pipe. Next process is go to the mixing process (Refer figure 3). During this process, there is several additions of chemicals inside the water. The chemical are: a) Aluminium Sulphate( Refer figure 4) : the function of this chemicals is to trap the dirt / impurities inside the water . b) Hydrated Lime (Figure 5): is being used if the water is quite pollute. c) Chlorine : being used in Small quantity and the function is to eliminate waste inside the water d) Polyelectrolyte : the function is to coagulate aids. It being used to improve coagulation and for thicker floc formation. Then, the process is being continued by coagulation and flocculation. Coagulation (Refer figure 6 ) removes small particles that are made up of microbes, silt and other suspended material in the water. Treatment chemicals such as alum are added to the water and mixed rapidly in a large basin. The chemicals cause small particles to clump together (coagulate). Gentle mixing brings smaller clumps of particles together to form larger groups called "floc". Some of the floc begins to settle during this stage. In a more simpler words , it also used to destabilize the suspended particles and allow them to agglomerate to form larger particle which can sediment under gravity. Then, the process followed is flocculation (Refer figure 7). Flocculation is a process which clarifies the water. Clarifying means removing any turbidity or colour so that the water is clear and colourless. Clarification is done by causing a precipitate to form in the water which can be removed using simple physical methods. Initially the precipitate forms as very small particles but as the water is gently stirred, these particles stick together to form bigger particles. Many of the small particles that were originally present in the raw water adsorb onto the surface of these small precipitate particles and so get incorporated into the larger particles that coagulation produces. In this way the coagulated precipitate takes most of the suspended matter out of the water and is then filtered off. In simpler words, the process of flocculation is to form larger particle by bridging the small particle to long molecules. The coagulant (chemicals that causing coagulation) that normally used is iron (iii) chloride, iron (ii) sulfate, alum polyaluminium chloride (PAC) The next process is sedimentation (refer figure 8). Sedimentation occurs in a large basin where water is again allowed to flow very slowly. Sludge, a residue of solids and water, accumulates at the basin's bottom and is pumped or scraped out for eventual disposal. Sedimentation is also sometimes called clarification.

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Followed up the sedimentation process is filtration (Refer figure 9). Here, after separating most floc, the water is filtered as the final step to remove remaining suspended particles and unsettled floc. Here in Sungai dua Treatment plant, they used the type of sand filter. They need almost 35 hours to do the cleaning filter. Next process is clear water tank but before that is we used the wash water tank. Here the function is to increase the pH and here also they added the fluoride fot teeth protection from decayed. Here the addition of chemical is again being used which is chlorine, Hydrated Lime and Sodium Silico Fluoride. The clear water now flow to the clear water tank but must be remember that the water cannot being used because the pH of water is still in acidic condition (Refer Figure 10). pH around range 46. Thus finally it goes to treated water pumps and storage reservoir. The reservoirs provide a water reserve to meet the changing water demands of the communities they serve. Finally, the water will being supply to all consumers.

PROBLEM THAT SUNGAI DUA TREAMENT PLANT FACES AND SOLUTION By nature, Penang is a state with limited water resources. As they continue to progress, their water demands will continue to increase, even as water supply issues become more complex. So we need to manage our water supply more effectively and innovatively.

CONCLUSION As a conclusion, I’m very glad that we’re having this trip because for me, it is very knowledgeable and I got many input from the seniors in industry. In other aspect, I’m now very consume the usage of water and very appreciate even a drop of water. Because I realize that we can easily waste our water but to produce or process is not simple as we waste it. The objective of this trip is successfully achieved

REFERENCES 1) Peavy, Howard S.; Rowe, Donald R.; and Tchobanoglous, George. (1985). Environmental Engineering. McGraw-Hill Series in Water Resources and Environmental Engineering. San Francisco: McGraw-Hill. 2) American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. (1998). Water Treatment Plant Design, 3rd edition. San Francisco: McGraw-Hill 3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_purification 4) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_treatment 5) http://www.h2ou.com/h2trtmntstages.htm 9

APPENDICES WASTE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS-INDAH WATER KONSORTIUM BERHAD.

FIGURE 1 : PRELIMINARY TREATMENT-IN COMING WASTE WATER

FIGURE 2: SCREENING

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FIGURE 3 : PRIMARY TREATMENT

FIGURE 4 : PRE LIMP TANK

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FIGURE 5 : GRIT TANK

FIGURE 6 : SECONDARY TREATMENT-AERATION TANK-BIOGRADRABLE PROCESS OCCUR

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TRIP KE PERBADANAN BEKALAN AIR PULAU PINANG(PBAPP).

FIGURE 1: TYPE OF WATER BEFORE AND AFTER TREATMENT AT PBAPP

FIGURE 2 : COAGULATION LIQUID WAS ADDED IN RAW WATER 13

FIGURE 3: MIXING PROCESS AND FLOCCULATION WAS ADDED

FIGURE 4: SENDIMENTATION TANK- CLARIFICATION PROCESS OCCUR.

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FIGURE 5 : STORAGE TANK

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