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HYDROMAGNETIC UNSTEADY FLOW AND HEAT

TRANSFER IN AN ELASTICO-VISCOUS LIQUID OVER AN
OSCILLATING PLATE IN A ROTATING FRAME.
S. Biswal
1
, M. Goswami
2
and M. Jena
3
1. Department of Physics, SERC, Bhubaneswar
2. Department of Physics, RIE, Bhubaneswar
3. Research Scholar, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar
Abstract
Hydromagnetic unsteady flow and heat transfer in an elastico-viscous liquid
induced by an oscillating flat plate in a rotating frame have been analysed. It is observed
that the non-Newtonian parameter (R
c
) greatly influences the flow field. The problem of
heat transfer from the plate, taking viscous dissipation into account has also been
considered when the temperature of the plate oscillates with the same frequency as that
of the plate.
Key words : MHD flow, non-Newtonian fluid, rotating frame, heat transfer.
1. Introduction
The study of rotational flow of visco-elastic fluids has attracted the attention of
many researchers because of its applications in technology. The unsteady flow of a
visco-elastic fluid of s Walter ′
B′ model[1] over a plate has been studied by Gulati[2]
Soundalgekar and Puri[3]. Puri[4] alone has analysed the flow induced by oscillations of
a plate in a rotating frame of reference. The rotational flow of an elastico-viscous liquid
due to the time-dependent rotation of a circular cylinder has been studied by Mukherjee
and Mukherjee[5]. Datta and Jana[6] have analysed the flow and heat transfer in an
elastico-visous liquid over an oscillating plate in a rotating frame. In all these problems,
the effects of external transverse magnetic field have not been accounted for, though the
unsteady flow can be controlled by the influence of the imposed magnetic field
perpendicular to the direction of flow. Recently Biswal, Ray and Mishra[7] have studied
theoretically the magnetohydrodynamic flow of a rotating visco-elastic fluid past an
isothermal vertical porous plate.
In the present paper, our aim is to analyse the hydromagnetic unsteady flow and
1
heat transfer in an elastico-visous fluid over an oscillating plate in a rotating frame of
reference.
2. Formulation of the problem:
The mathematical model for s Walter ′
B′ liquid is given by
ik ik ik
P Pg P ′ + − ·
, (2.1)
and
( )
( )
t d e
x
x
x
x
t t P
mr
r
k
m
i t
ik

′ ∂

′ ∂

′ − · ′

∞ −
1
. 2 ψ , (2.2)
where P
ik
is the stress tensor,
P an arbitrary isotropic pressure,
g
ik
the metric tensor,
e
(1)ik
the rate of strain tensor and
( ) τ
τ
τ
ψ
τ
d e
N
t t
t t ) (
0
) (
′ − −


· ′ −
, (2.3)
Where N(τ) is the distribution function of relaxation times. For liquids with short
memories (i.e. short relaxation times), the above equations give
( ) ( )
, 2 2
1
0
1 ik ik ik
e
t
K e P
δ
δ
η − · (2.4)
where
( ) τ τ η d N


·
0
is the limiting viscosity at small rates of shear.
( )


·
0
0
τ τN K
dτ and
t δ
δ
denotes the convected differentiation of a tensor.
In a rotating frame of reference, the equation of continuity and the equation of
motion are
0 ·


i
i
x
u
, (2.5)
*
2
k j ijk
j
i
j
i
V
x
u
u
t
u
Ω ∈ +


+


,
=
i
k
ik
i
u
P
B
x
P
P x
P
P
2
0
*
1 1 σ


′ ∂
+


− , (2.6)
Where u
i
is the velocity vector,
*
k
Ω the angular velocity vector and P
*
is the
modified fluid pressure which includes the centrifugal force.
2
Consider the flow of an viscoelastic liquid occupying the space z>0 induced by
simple harmonic oscillations U
0
Cos w
*
t in the x-direction of an infinite plate z = 0 in a
rotating frame of reference. The plate is rotating in unison with an angular velocity Ω
*
about
the z-axis. Since the plate is infinite, all physical quantities will be functions of z and t only.
The equation of continuity together with the no-slip condition at the plate then shows that the
z-component of the velocity vanishes everywhere.
As the plate temperature oscillates with the same frequency as that of the oscillating
plate, the energy equation becomes
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸


+
,
_

¸
¸


+


·


2
2
2
* 2
*
*
z
u
z
u
C z
T
t
T
y
x
p
ν
α
(2.7)
Where α
*
is the thermal diffusivity, ν the kinetic co-efficient of viscosity, C
p
the specific
heat at constant pressure and T
*
the temperature of the fluid. In writing equation (2.7), we
have neglected elastic dissipation of the fluid.
Introducing the non-dimensional parameters
0
1
2
0 0
, ,
U
u
u
t U
T
Z U
x
· · ·
ν ν
ξ
,
2
2
0
*
2
0
*
0
2
, ,
ν
ν U K
R
U U
u
u
c
y
·

· Ω ·
, (2.8)
( )
∞ ∞


· ·


·
T T C
U
E P
T T
T T
w p
r
w
2
0
* *
, ,
ν
α
θ
,
where
ρ
η
ν
0
· and
ρ
0
* K
K · , u
x
, u
y
denote the velocity components along x
and y-directions, the momentum equation (2.6) with the help of equations (2.1) and
(2.4) takes the form
0 2
2
2
2
1
2
3
2
1
2
· + Ω +



∂ ∂




u M u
T
u
T
R
u
c
ξ ξ
, (2.9)
0 2
1
2
1
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
· + Ω +



∂ ∂




u M u
T
u
T
u
R
u
c
ξ ξ
(2.10)
and the energy equation (2.7) becomes
P
r

E P
T
r
+


·


2
2
ξ
θ θ
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸


+

,
_

¸
¸


2
2
2
1
ξ ξ
u u
(2.11)
With the boundary conditions
3
u
1
= e
iwt
, u
2
= 0 at ξ = 0
u
1
→0, u
2
→0 at ξ →∞
T
*
−T

= (T
w
- T

) Cos w
*
t at z = 0 (2.12)
T
*
→T

as z →∞
Or, θ = Cos wt at ξ = 0
And θ = 0 as ξ →∞
3. Solution of the equations:
Assuming
u
1
= f
1
e
iwt
and u
2
= f
2
e
iwt
, (3.1)
equations (2.9) and (2.10) become
(1−iR
c
w)
0 ) 2 (
2
2
1
2
1
2
· + Ω + − f M iwf
d
f d
ξ
(3.2)
and (1−iR
c
w)
0 ) 2 (
1
2
2
2
2
2
· − Ω − − f M iwf
d
f d
ξ
(3.3)
The modified boundary conditions for velocity become
f
1
= 1 and f
2
= 0 at ξ = 0
and f
1
= 0 and f
2
= 0 at ξ →∞ (3.4)
Eliminating f
2
from equations (3.2) and (3.3), we have
(1−iR
c
w)
2

2
1
2
4
1
4
) 1 ( 2
ξ ξ d
f d
w iR iw
d
f d
c
− −
−(w
2
−4Ω
2
−M
4
)f
1
= 0 (3.5)
Solving equation (3.5), we obtain f
1
. Having found f
1
, we can find f
2
from equn.
(3.2). Obtaning f
1
and f
2
, we can find expressions for u
1
and u
2
. These expressions are
u
1
=
2
1
[e
{-A
ξ
+i(wT-B
ξ
)}
+
{ } ) (
1 1
ξ ξ B wT i A
e
− + −
] for w > 2Ω (3.6)
u
2
= −
2
i
[e
{-A
ξ
+i(wT-B
ξ
)}

{ } ) (
1 1
ξ ξ B wT i A
e
− + −
] (3.7)
and
u
1
=
2
1
[e
{-A
ξ
+i(wT-B
ξ
)}
+
{ } ) (
1 2
ξ ξ B wT i A
e
+ + −
] for w < 2Ω (3.8)
u
2
= −
2
i
[e
{-A
ξ
+i(wT-B
ξ
)}

{ } ) (
2 2
ξ ξ B wT i A
e
− + −
] (3.9)
where
4
A =
( ) β α −

,
_

¸
¸
+
+ Ω +
2 2
2
1
2
2
1
w R
M w
c
B = ( ) β α +

,
_

¸
¸
+
+ Ω +
2
1
2 2
2
1
2
2
1
w R
M w
c
A
1
= ( ) β α −

,
_

¸
¸
+
− Ω −
2
1
2 2
2
1
2
2
1
w R
M w
c
B
1
= ( ) β α +

,
_

¸
¸
+
− Ω −
2
1
2 2
2
1
2
2
1
w R
M w
c
α = ( ) { }
2
1
2
1
2 2
1 1
2
1
+ + w R
c
β = ( ) { }
2
1
2
1
2 2
1 1
2
1
− + w R
c
A
2
= ( ) { }
2
1
2
1
2 2
2
1
2 2
2
1
1
2
2
1
w R w R
w R
w M
c c
c
+ +

,
_

¸
¸
+
− + Ω
B
2
= ( ) { }
2
1
2
1
2 2
2
1
2 2
2
1
1
2
2
1
w R w R
w R
w M
c c
c
− +

,
_

¸
¸
+
− + Ω
In the absence of rotation (Ω = 0), u
2
= 0 and u
1
is given by
u
1
=
{ } ) (
* *
ξ ξ B wT i A
e
− + −
, (3.10)
where A
*
and B
*
are obtained from the above constants by putting Ω = 0. It is observed
from (3.10) that the two layers merge into one, which oscillates with amplitude
ξ
*
0
A
e U


and a phase lag B
*
ξ.
Components of shear stress at the plate (ξ = 0):
τ
zx
=
0
1
1
·
1
]
1

¸


,
_

¸
¸



ξ
ξ
u
T
R
c , (3.11)
and
τ
zy
=
0
2
1
·
1
]
1

¸


,
_

¸
¸



ξ
ξ
u
T
R
c , (3.12)
Using equations (3.6) – (3.9) in equations (3.11) and (3.12), we have
τ
zx
= −
2
1
R
1

) (
1
θ + wT i
e , (3.13)
5
and
τ
zy
= −
2
1
R
2

) (
2
θ − wT i
e , (3.14)
where
R
1
=
( ) ( ) { }
2
1
2
1
4 2 2
2
1
2 2
4 1 2
1
]
1

¸

− Ω − + + M w w w R
c
,
R
2
=
( ) ( ) { }
2
1
2
1
4 2 2
2
1
2 2
4 1 2
1
]
1

¸

− Ω − − + M w w w R
c
,
Tan θ
1
=
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) β α β α
β α β α
+ + −
− − +
w R
w R
c
c
, w > 2
Tan θ
2
=
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) β α β α
β α β α
− − +
+ + −
w R
w R
c
c
,
And
R
1
=
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2 2
1 B B A A w R
c
− + + +
R
2
=
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2 2
1 B B A A w R
c
+ + − +
Tan θ
1
=
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
B B w R A A
A A w R B B
c
c
− + +
+ − −
w < 2
Tan θ
2
=
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
A A w R B B
B B w R A A
c
c
− − +
+ + −
Heat transfer:
Assuming
θ (ξ, T) = θ
1
(ξ) e
iwt
+ θ
2
(ξ) e
2iwt
, (3.15)
and using the equations (3.6) – (3.9), equation (2.11) has been integrated under the
boundary conditions (2.12) to give
θ = exp
( ) ) (
2
) 1 (
1 1
2
1
in m E P e
w
P i
r
iwt
r
− +
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
+ − ξ
( ) { } ( ) [ ] { } [ ] ξ ξ ) ( exp ) 1 ( exp
1 1
2
1
B B i A A w P i
r
+ + + − − + −
e
2iwt
for w > 2 Ω, (3.16)
and
6
θ = exp
( ) ) (
2
) 1 (
4 4
2
1
in m PE e
w
P i
iwt
r
+ +
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
+ − ξ
( ) { } ( ) [ ] { } [ ] ξ ξ ) ( exp ) 1 ( exp
2 1
2
1
B B i A A w P i
r
− + + − − + −
e
2iwt
for w > 2 Ω, (3.17)
where
m
1
=
( ) ( ) { } R w P w M w
r
2 / 4 ) 1 ( 4 4
2
1
2 2
2
1
4 2 2
Ω − + − − Ω −
,
n
1
=
( ) R w R P M w
c r
2 4 4
2
2
1
4 2 2
− Ω −
,
R =
( ) { }
4 2 2
2
2
1
4 2 2
4 4 ) 1 ( w R P M w w P
c r r
+ − Ω − + −
m
2
= AA
2
−BB
2
, n
2
= AB
2
−BA
2
,
m
3
= m
2
(1+ R
c
2
w
2
) −R
c
w
2
,
n
3
= (n
2
+ P
r
w) (1+R
c
2
w
2
) −w,
m
4
= (m
2
m
3
+ n
2
n
3
)/2 (m
3
2
+ n
3
2
),
n
4
= (m
2
n
3
−n
2
m
3
)/2 (m
3
2
+ n
3
2
),
The rate of heat transfer at the plate (ξ = 0) is
Nu
1
=
0 ·

,
_

¸
¸
ξ
ξ
θ
d
d
= −
( ) [
2
1
2 / w P
r
(Cos wT −Sin wT)
+ P
r
E {(m
1
m
5
+ n
1
n
5
) Cos 2wT,
−(m
1
n
5
−n
1
m
5
) Sin 2wT}]; (3.18)
for w > 2Ω
and
Nu
2
=
0 ·

,
_

¸
¸
ξ
ξ
θ
d
d
= −
( ) [
2
1
2 / w P
r
(Cos wT −Sin wT)
+ P
r
E {(m
4
m
6
−n
4
n
6
) Cos 2wT,
−(m
4
n
6
+ n
4
m
6
) Sin 2wT}]; (3.19)
for w < 2Ω
where
m
5
= ( )
2
1
w P
r
−(A+A
1
), n
5
= ( )
2
1
w P
r
−(B+B
1
)
n
6
= ( )
2
1
w P
r
−(A+A
1
), n
6
= ( )
2
1
w P
r
−(B−B
1
)
4. Results and discussions:
7
The effects of the fluid parameter like the elastic or non-Newtonian parameter
R
c
, rotation parameter Ω, Magnetic parameter M, Eckert number E and Prandtl number
P
r
on the velocity, temperature, skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer can be
explained from the expressions of u
1
, u
2
, θ, τ
zx
, τ
zy
, Nu
1
and Nu
2
respectively.
Velocity of the fluid:
It is observed that the velocity consists of damped harmonic oscillations with
amplitudes U
0
e
-A
ξ
and U
0
ξ
1
A
e


for w > 2Ω and having phase lags Bξ and B
1
ξ
respectively relative to the wall. The depths of penetration or wave lengths of the two
layers are respectively
B U
0
2πν
and
1 0
2
B U
πν
. Because of the presence of elasticity
of the fluid, A and B decrease while A and A
1
increase for w < R
c
w ≤ 0.58. This
implies that the depths of penetration
B U
0
2πν
and
1 0
2
B U
πν
decrease for 0<R
c
w ≤
0.58 and increase for 0.59 ≤ R
c
w.
For w < 2Ω, the velocity consists of two damped oscillations of which one is the
same as that for the case w > 2Ω while the second one has an amplitude U
0
ξ
2
A
e


and has
a phase advance B
2
ξ with respect to the plate. The depth of penetration of the second
layer is
2 0
2
B U
πν
which decreases with R
c
w.
For w = 2Ω, we have the phenomenon of resonance similar to the result
obtained by Thornley[8] in her study of non-torsional oscillations of an infinite non-
porous plate rotating in accord with a viscous fluid. This resonance implies that the
whole liquid is affected by the motion of the plate and the oscillation is not confined to
a well-defined Ekman layer near the plate. For low magnetic field strength, the result
obtained here tallies well with those of Datta and Jana[6]. However, the external
transverse magnetic field decelerates the flow.
Amplitude of the Shear stress:
The amplitudes of shear stresses τ
zx
and τ
zy
are given by the values of R
1
and R
2
.
The phases are represented by tan θ
1
and tan θ
2
as mentioned earlier. For w>2Ω, both
R
1
and R
2
increase with increase in R
c
and w and are fixed while for fixed R
c
and Ω, R
1
8
increase and R
2
decreases with increase in w. For w<2Ω, the values of R
1
and R
2
are
given in Tables 1 and 2 respectively.
Table : 1
Values of R
1
for Ω = 5.0, M = 0.1
c
R
w 0.0 0.05 0.10
1.0 4.4720350 4.4739285 4.4813534
2.0 4.4720350 4.4828172 4.5052012
3.0 4.4720350 4.4961705 4.5484215
4.0 4.4720350 4.5051123 4.6223899
Table : 2
Values of R
2
for Ω = 5.0, M = 0.1
c
R
w 0.0 0.05 0.10
1.0 4.4721357 4.4638161 4.4743623
2.0 4.4721357 4.4721618 4.5051228
3.0 4.4721357 4.4861703 4.5584109
4.0 4.4721357 4.4952919 4.5522815
From the numerical values of R
1
and R
2
entered in the above tables, it is noticed
that both R
1
and R
2
increase with increase in R
c
(non−Newtonian flow). When R
c
=0
(Newnotian flow), the frequency parameter w does not produce any effect on the
amplitude of the shear stresses τ
zx
and τ
zy
under the action of low magnetic field
strength.
The phases of the skin-friction tan θ
1
and tan θ
2
for both w > 2Ω and w < 2Ω
have been plotted against R
c
taking different values of w and Ω (Fig.4). It is observed
that keeping w fixed, tan θ
1
decreases with increase in R
c
, whereas tan θ
2
increases with
increase in either R
c
or w for both cases w>2Ω and w ∠ 2Ω.
For the Newtonian fluid (R
c
=0), both tan θ
1
and tan θ
2
are independent of
frequency w when w > 2Ω. In the presence of elasticity of the fluid (R
c
≠ 0), the
frequency w influences the values of tan θ
1
and tan θ
2
. However, for large rotation
(w<2Ω), the effect of w on tan θ
1
and tan θ
2
is prominent even in the case of Newtonian
fluid (R
c
=0) and for weak magnetic field.
Rate of heat transfer:
The values of the rate of heat transfer for wT=
2
π
, E=0.02 and P
r
=0.71, Ω=2, 5
9
and for different values of w and R
c
are entered in Table 3 below.
Table : 3
Rate of heat transfer for wT =
2
π
, E = 0.02 and P
r
= 0.71 and M = 0.1
w
c
R
Ω 0.0 0.05 0.10
1.0 5.0 0.528717 0.526528 0.525215
2.0 0.793105 0.792834 0.790254
3.0 0.986762 0.984624 0.982561
5.0 2.0 1.287056 1.243435 1.222374
10.0 1.856986 1.8266724 1.809346
15.0 2.321056 2.205641 2.198762
The numerical values of the rate of heat transfer presented in Table-3 explain
that for fixed w, the rate of heat transfer decreases with increase in R
c
while for fixed
R
c
, the rate of heat transfer increases with increase in w. It is also marked that the rate
of heat transfer is less in the case of visco-elastic fluid (R
c
≠ 0) than those of Newtonian
fluid (R
c
=0). Similar results were obtained by Datta and Jana[6] without the imposition
of an external transverse magnetic field. The only difference is observed that the
external transverse magnetic field reduces the velocity of flow which, in turn, results in
the production of less friction between the fluid layers and thereby transmission of low
thermal energy.
Conclusion:
Following conclusions are gleaned from the results obtained from our
investigation.
i) Exact solutions of the constitutive equations are arrived at.
ii) The velocity of flow has been reduced due to the action of the external
transverse magnetic field.
iii) The amplitudes of the shear stresses τ
zx
and τ
zy
increase with increase in R
c
.
iv) The phase (tan θ
1
) of the skin-friction τ
zx
decreases with increase in R
c
and
the phase (tan θ
2
) of the skin-friction τ
zy
increases with increase in R
c
.
v) The rate of heat transfer decreases with increase in R
c
while for fixed R
c
, the
Nusselt number increases with increase in w.
vi) The rate of heat transfer is less in case of non-Newtonian fluid (R
c
≠ 0) than
10
those of Newtonian fluid (R
c
=0).
References:
1. Walters’ K., J. Mech., 1, 474 (1962)
2. Gulati, S.P., J. Mech., 5, 250 (1967)
3. Soundalgekar, V.M. and Puri, P., J. Fluid Mech., 35, 561 (1969)
4. Puri, P., Appl. Sci. Res., 28, 111 (1973)
5. Mukherjee, S. and Mukherjee, Srikumar, Indian J. Pure Appl., Math.,
14(12), 1534-1541 (1983)
6. Datta, N. and Jana, R.N., Istanbul Univ. Fen Fak. Mec. Seri A, 43, 121
(178).
7. Biswal, S., Ray, G.S. and Mishra, S.S., communicated to Acta Ciencia
Indica, (2009).
8. Thornby, C., Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math., 21, 451 (1968).
11
Fig. 1 :Effects of Hartman number on f
1
when R
c
= 0.05, E = 0.02, Ω = 5.0
12
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
ξ
f
1
Curve-I Curve-II Curve-III
Curve
I − M = 0.1
II − M = 0.2
III − M = 0.3
I
II
III
Fig. 2 :Effects of Hartman number on f
2
when R
c
= 0.05, E = 0.02, Ω = 5.0
13
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
ξ
f
2
Curve-I Curve-II Curve-III
Curve M
I − 0.1
II − 0.2
III − 0.3
III
II
I
Fig. 3 :Effects P
r
and w on the temperature when R
c
= 0.05, M = 0.1, E = 0.02,
Ω = 5.0
14
Curve-I
Curve-II
Curve-III
Curve-IV
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 0.2 0.4 6 0.8 1
ξ
θ
Curve-I Curve-II Curve-III Curve-IV
Curve P r w
I − 0.71 5.0
II − 0.0 5.0
III − 7.0 5.0
IV − 7.0 10.0
Fig. 4 : Graphs of tan θ
1
and tan θ
2
against R
c

15