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# Adjustable Frequency Drives Input Harmonic Mitigation

Matrix Filters
and

IEEE – 519
120 V - 69,000 V

Wayne Walcott March 5, 2009

Matrix Filters

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Harmonic Current Formula

Σ
THID = I1 Where:

8

(Ih)2 h x 100%

h=2

• Ih = magnitude of individual harmonic content (RMS amps) • h = harmonic order • I1 = fundamental current (RMS amps)
Matrix Filters

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What are Harmonics

Matrix Filters

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Harmonic voltage distortion from nonlinear Harmonic current loads

Matrix Filters

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Results of Harmonic currents Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 5 .

Where do harmonics come from Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 6 .

3 phase six pulse bridge bus supply Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 7 .

Why does a 6 pulse bridge produce odd harmonics? Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 8 .

Displacement power factor: Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 9 .

True power factor watts Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 10 .

THID: Total Harmonic (I) current Distortion Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 11 .

THVD: Total Harmonic Voltage Distortion Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 12 .

Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 13 .

TDD: Total Demand Distortion (IEEE-519:1992) Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 14 .

3 under “Recommended Practices for Individual Consumers”) ISC/IL <20 20<50 50<100 100<1000 >1000 <11 4.6 1.5 35≤h 0.5 0.0 5.5 4. or 30 min.0 10.0 20.5 2.0 17≤h<23 1.0 3.0 6.0 1.0 15.5 2.0 11≤h<17 2.0 7.0 12.0 * TDD = THID for more than 15 min.0 1.IEEE-519 Current Distortion (THID) limits for General Distribution Systems 120 V – 6900 V (Table 10.0 2.7 1. I = maximum short circuit current at PCC SC L I = maximum fundamental load current at PCC * Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation Limit for all power generation equipment 15 .4 TDD 5.0 23≤h<35 0.5 5.5 7.0 15.0 8.3 0.0 12.5 4.

IEEE-519 • PCC – At point of metering – Point where nonlinear load meets linear loads • TDD – THID for 15 or 30 minutes • THD – Instantaneous value of harmonic distortion – THVD Instantaneous value of harmonic Voltage distortion – THID Instantaneous value of harmonic current distortion Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 16 .

Techniques to reduce VFD Harmonics Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 17 .

Matrix Harmonic Filters TM The High Performance Low Cost Alternative to 12-pulse and 18pulse Drives Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 18 .

G5/4. EN 61000-3-4 Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 19 .519. AS2279 – EN 61000-3-2.Matrix Harmonic Filters • A Matrix Harmonic Filter feeding a 6-pulse drive provides better performance than 12-pulse and 18pulse drives – Lower cost – Smaller size • Help VFDs meet international power quality standards for harmonic distortion – IEEE.

Matrix Filters Offer … • Guaranteed THID levels of 5% • High Efficiency • Superior harmonic mitigation performance – Better than 12-pulse drives – Better than 18–pulse drives – Better than tuned harmonic trap filters • No power system resonance problems • No extensive harmonic studies • IEEE – 519 compliance Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 20 .

Matrix Filter Suitability • Diode or SCR front end – Including phase control – Including SCR pre-charge circuits • AC or DC drives • VFD w/ DC link choke or AC line reactor • Constant or Variable Torque Application Notes available for special applications Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 21 .

025 0.045 0.04 Output 33. 12% M atrix Filter at Rated Output Current 350 300 250 200 Magnitude [Amperes] 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 -250 -300 -350 0 0.86% THiD 0.05 Time [seconds] With Matrix Filter Standard 6-pulse Without Matrix Filter VFD Matrix – They’re LOW PASS harmonic filters so they filter all harmonic frequencies Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 22 .015 0.03 0.005 0.Matrix Filters Achieve the Cleanest Input Power 150HP.01 0.02 0.035 0.

Matrix Filter Circuit Configuration Input Power 6-pulse VFD < 8% THID @ FULL LOAD Standard Matrix Filter Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 23 .

5% Matrix Filters reduce input current Harmonic Distortion even better than 18-pulse drives Input current Standard 6-pulse VFD 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 5 7 11 13 17 19 Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 24 .

5 0. % 2.5 2.0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Harmonic orde r Typical Worst Case Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 25 .0 0.Harmonic Current Spectrum 5% Matrix Filter 5% Matrix Filter Harmonic Spectrum 100% Load 3.5 3.0 1.0 Harmonic Current.5 1.

6 0.7 0.5 0. 5% THVD Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 1740 660 780 26 .1 0 300 420 1020 1140 1380 1500 Worst Case Typical IEEE-519 limits are 3% Individual.4 0.5% Matrix Filter Typical Harmonic Voltage Distortion 6% Source Impedance Source Impedance 6% THVD=0.3 0.85% (worst case) THVD=0.2 0.59% (typical) Full Load 0.

5% THVD=0. 5% THVD Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 1740 27 .5% Matrix Filter Typical Harmonic Voltage Distortion 1.7 0.1 0 300 420 660 780 1020 1140 1380 1500 Worst Case Typical IEEE-519 limits are 3% Individual.5 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.5% Source Impedance Source Impedance 1.61% (worst case) THVD=0.17% (typical) Full Load 0.

519 Voltage Distortion Limits – (Table 10.800 Dedicated System† 50% 10% 36500 NOTE: The Value AN for other than 480 V systems should be multiplied by V/480 * Special applications include hospitals and airports.2 under “Recommended Practices for Individual Consumers/Limits on Commutation Notches”) Low-Voltage System Classification and Distortion Limits Special Applications* Notch Depth THD (Voltage) Notch Area (AN)‡ 10% 3% 16400 General System 20% 5% 22. ‡In volt-microseconds at rated voltage and current. †A dedicated system is exclusively dedicated to converter load. Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 28 .IEEE .

001 kV through 161 kV 161.IEEE .5 1.5 NOTE: High-voltage systems can have up to 2. Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 29 .519 Voltage Distortion Limits – (Table 11.0% THD where the cause is an HVDC terminal that will be attenuated by the time it is tapped for a user.2 under “Recommended Practices for Utilities”) Voltage Distortion Limits Bus Voltage at PCC 69kV and below 69.0 Total Voltage Distortion THD (%) 5.0 1.001 kV and above Individual Voltage Distortion % 3.0 2.5 1.

Harmonic Voltage Distortion Σ THVD = V1 Where: 8 (Vh)2 h •100% h=2 • Vh = magnitude of individual harmonic content (RMS volts) • h = harmonic order • V1 = fundamental Voltage (RMS ) Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 30 .

and Ohm’s Law works Σ THVD = V1 Where: 8 (hX1Ih)2 h • 100% h=2 • Ih = magnitude of individual harmonic content (RMS amps) • h = harmonic order • X1 = fundamental reactance • V1 = fundamental voltage (RMS) Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 31 .

Which can be reduced to: Σ THVD = Isc Where: 8 (hIh)2 h • 100% h=2 • Ih = magnitude of individual harmonic content (RMS amps) • h = harmonic order • V1 = fundamental current (RMS amps) Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 32 .

ANSI Standard C84. Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 33 .Voltage Unbalance….3% • 66% of power systems are within 0 .1% – 34% of systems are 1% to 3% unbalanced • Load unbalance within the building power distribution system adds to the utility unbalance at the point of utilization.1-1989 Reports that at the PCC: • 98% of power systems are within 0 ..

6-pulse VFD with Matrix Filter 100 90 Total Harmonic Current Distortion THID. % 80 18-Pulse Drive 3% Line Unbalance 70 60 2% Line Unbalance 1% Line Unbalance 50 40 Balanced Lines 30 Matrix Filter 3% Unbalance 2% Unbalance 1% Unbalance Balanced Line 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Load. % Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 34 .6-pulse VFD with 5% Matrix Filter performs better than 18-pulse drive under normal operating conditions (0% to 100% load. with voltage unbalance) 18 Pulse Drive vs.

% Matrix (from previous chart) Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 35 . % 80 90 18-Pulse Drive 18-Pulse Drive 80 3% Line Unbalance 70 70 18-Pulse Drive with 5% Line Reactors for Each Rectifier 60 60 2% Line Unbalance 1% Line Unbalance 50 50 40 30 Balanced Lines 40 20 30 10 8% Matrix Filter 20 3% Unbalance 0 0 2% Unbalance 1% Unbalance Balanced Line 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Load. THID. % 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Load.5% Matrix Filters are even better than 18-pulse VFD with additional reactors 100 18-Pulse Drives 3% Line Voltage Unbalance 100 90 Total Harmonic Current Distortion THID. % Total Harm onic Current Distortion.

IEEE – 519 Solutions Desired % THID at PCC (IEEE-519) 3% Line Reactor 5% line Reactor 5% Line + 3% DC Reactors 8% Matrix Filter (M8) 5% Matrix Filter (M5) % Maximum AFD Load if all AFDs use same Harmonic Mitigation Method 5 8 12 15 20 11 18 27 34 45 14 23 34 43 57 18 29 43 54 71 62 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 36 .

54% Matrix Filter 20 0 20 40 60 80 00 20 0 0 005 0 01 0 015 0 02 0 025 0 03 0 035 0 04 0 045 0 05 18-pulse 00 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 00 12-Pulse Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 37 .Matrix Filters produce cleaner input current waveforms than multipulse drives 20 00 80 60 40 THiD = 7.

00 -50.00 0 Input Current THID: 24.35% -25.I = f(.5m Load: 100% Input Voltage: balanced Line Impedance: 0..5m 425.5th Harmonic Trap Input Current 50.0m 450.00 L5.0m 492..25% Input Reactor: 5% Output Reactor: None Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 38 .00 379. 25.

.5% Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 39 .0m 466.07% 422.00 L5.25% Input Reactor: 5% Output Reactor: 1.I.7m 500..5m 450.00 0 Input Current THID: 23. 25.Input Current – Enhanced 5th Harmonic Trap (w/AFD input reactor) 50.0m Load: 100% Input Voltage: balanced Line Impedance: 0.

Matrix Filters are better than other Low Pass Filters • Guaranteed performance levels • Better current waveform to the drive • Use with or without SCRs. input reactors & bus chokes Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 40 .

Matrix Filters deliver better VFD input current waveform than Competitor’s Low Pass Filter VFD input current waveforms Matrix Filter Competitor Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 41 .

Matrix Harmonic Filters 6 – 1200 Amps Standard 208 – 690 VAC. 50/60 Hz Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 42 .

Enclosure Options for Outdoor and Marine Environments Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 43 .

any Frequency. Any package thru 1800 Amps Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 44 .Custom Engineered Matrix Harmonic Filters Any Voltage.

com and try “CLICK find” for product selections and data Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 45 .Visit MTE online www.mtecorp.

price.Use“CLICK find” for Matrix Filters selection. CAD. user manuals and brochures Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 46 .

Matrix Filters © 2009 MTE Corporation 47 .