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A Report Submitted to the MDU University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor in Engineering B.Tech (ME) Semester 5th

Submitted by: Gaurav Tanwar Roll no: 2k10-MRCE-ME-032 Branch: Mechanical

Semester 5th

Year: 3rd

Manav Rachna College of Engineering Faridabad

Index 1. Acknowledgement 2. AUTO IGNITION LTD. AN OVERVIEW a) Corporate Profile b) Research & Development c) Quality Policy d) Company’s Products e) Company’s Customers 3. Alternator a) What is an Alternator (AC Generator)? b) Why is an Alternator Required? c) Charging System Circuit d) Alternator Assembly e) Alternator Subassembly f) Rotor Assembly g) Stator Winding h) Diode Rectifier i) Electronic Regulator j) Voltage Regulation k) Brushes l) Working of Alternator m) Quality Assurance n) Performance Curve 4. Advantages of the alternator over dynamo 5. Packing 6. Dispatch 7. Quality Assurance 8. Conclusion


With profound respect and gratitude. Submitted by:Gaurav Tanwar 2K10-MRCE-ME-032 . I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to the management of AUTO IGNITION LTD. I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of auto ignition for their co-operation and guidance that have helped me a lot during the course of my training. I got an opportunity to learn an experience ethos & environment of AUTO IGNITION LTD. Department for their constant co-operation that has played significant role in the accomplishment of my industrial training.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is a great experience undergoing my six week’s training at AUTO IGNITION LTD. for giving me chance to complete my training here. Last but not the least I would like to thank our training & placement officer of MANAV RACHNA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and all the faculty member of Mechanical Engg.

AUTO-LEK is the largest exporter of high quality auto electric components from India. Uttarakhand. The Company’s strategy is to focus on Tractors. .AUTO IGNITION LTD. It is also the first Indian company in its manufacturing domain to have its R&D centre approved by the Govt. which is likely to increase exponentially over next few years. AUTOLEK has been on a track of fast growth now commanding an annual turnover of over US$ 40 million. An ISO:TS 16949:2002 certified company. off-road vehicles. Stationary Engines. of India – a true mark of its merit. AfterMarket Sales & Service and Exports. stationary engines and 2-3 wheelers.E Manufacturers. – AN OVERVIEW Corporate Profile:- AUTO-LEK . In addition to this. LCVs/HCVs.Recognized world-wide as the brand name of Auto Ignition Ltd is India’s leading manufacturer and exporter of heavy-duty auto electric components for commercial vehicles. Ever since its inception in the year 1971. it also has a contemporary production unit in Rudrapur. tractors. The company is headquartered in Faridabad and employs a team of over 650 people led by a professional management. AUTO-LEK caters to the requirements of Indian O. Today this market leader holds the maximum market share as a supplier to almost all domestic Tractor and Generator Set manufacturing companies. And Mini Diesel Vehicles like three /four wheelers.

  This policy is implemented through: A Quality system conforming to International Standards A total commitment to continue improving productivity and Quality in all areas of Operations and reducing waste   A congenial work environment to promote and inspire innovation A close liaison with the customer and his market place Delighting the Customers:      Quality & Reliability in our Products Unbeatable Prices Excellent after sales service Timely Deliveries Quickest response & resolution of customer needs . lean manufacturing. Quality Policy:It is the policy of the AUTO-LEK to delight its customers by meeting their stated and implied needs and in so doing provide fulfillment and pride to those who contribute towards this achievement.Research & Development:AUTO-LEK adopts various quality and operational management practices and follows 6-sigma. The Business Process Re-engineering is headed by a highly experienced retired senior General Manager level Japanese expert. Kaizen and 5S practices making it a truly global company.

6 litre diesel vehicles. Infrastructure:The company’s infrastructure is spread across a combined area of over 10 acres amongst three state-of-art plants in Faridabad and Rudrapur. Presently the company manufactures more than 600 thousand Starter Motors and 500 thousand Alternators per annum for domestic OEs. LCV. HCV and Intracity 0. All the production units are connected using a SAP ERP system for integrated manufacturing and communications. aftermarket and international market.4/0.  Expanding its base in SUV.S & Europe and setting up manufacturing facilities as required.Future Plans:AUTO-LEK has well laid out plans for growth targeting:  80% share of Indian OE business in Tractors & Stationary engines.  Establishing contact with OE customers in U. .

Ignition Coils Company’s Customers:Tata Motors Ltd.. Battery. Escorts Ltd.Company’s Products:Alternator. Ashok Leyland Ltd. Force Motors Ltd. Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. John Deere Pvt. HMT Tractor Ltd.. Starter Motor.. . Ltd.. Tractor & Farm Equipment Ltd..(TAFE)..(Tractor Division).

. the power requirement has increased enormously that the dynamo (DC Generator) is inadequate for the purpose of charging. the engine is in the idling for most of the times. Why is an Alternator Required? The prime function of a battery in electrical system is to start the engine. power windows and power steering when the engine is running. starter motor. is high. the Alternator plays a very important role in maintaining the charge of battery and to provide electrical current to electrical components under the worse conditions. lightning etc. In the modern vehicular electrical system. coupled with this if the demand due to Air Conditioners. horns. lightning.Alternator What is an Alternator (AC Generator)? An Alternator is a key component of an automobile's charging system. the battery will be discharged soon if the charging system is not adequate. the generating system is supposed to supply all the electrical requirements of the vehicle plus additional charge that was taken away from the battery to start the engine. After the engine is running. It delivers reliable output under severe operating conditions and even while engine is running at ideal speed. ignition systems. In the heavy city traffic driving conditions or ploughing the fields. which provides current to recharge the battery and develops electricity to power all other electrical components like Air Conditioning. Here.

Alternator Circuit Diagram .

Exploded View of Alternator .

• S is used by the regulator to monitor charging voltage at the battery. • B is the alternator output wire that supplies current to the battery. .Charging System Circuit:- • Four wires connect the alternator to the rest of the charging system. • L is the wire the regulator uses to ground the charge warning lamp. • IG is the ignition input that turns on the alternator/regulator assembly.

• A stationary induction winding called the stator.Alternator Assembly:- Alternator Subassembly:The alternator contains: • A rotating field winding called the rotor. • Brush Box to transfer current. • A diode assembly called the rectifier bridge. • Two internal fans to promote air circulation. • A control device called the voltage regulator. .

Stationary brushes connect the alternator to the rotor. and two claw-shaped finger pole pieces. • The rotor assembly is supported by bearings. • Some models include support bearings and one or two internal cooling fans.Rotor Assembly:- • A basic rotor consists of a iron core. • Surrounding the field coil are two claw-type finger poles. • The rotor is driven or rotated inside the alternator by an engine (alternator) drive belt. One on the shaft the other in the drive frame. two slip rings. . • Each end of the rotor field winding is attached to a slipring. • The rotor contains the field winding wound over an iron core which is part of the shaft. coil winding.

• Stator lead ends that output to the diode rectifier bridge. • A laminated iron frame concentrates the magnetic field.Stator Winding:- • The stator is made with three sets of windings. . • Each winding is placed is a different position compared with the others.

The alternating magnetic field from the spinning rotor induces an alternating voltage into the stator winding. .Rotor/Stator Relationship:- • As the rotor assembly rotates within the stator winding. • The strength of the magnetic field and the speed of the rotor affect the amount of voltage induced into the stator.

• Half of these diodes are use on the positive side and the other half are on the negative side. • Six or eight diodes are used to rectify the AC stator voltage to DC voltage.Diode Rectifier:- • The Diode Rectifier Bridge is responsible for for the conversion or rectification of AC voltage to DC voltage. .

• Diodes used in this configuration will redirect both the positive and negative polarity signals of the AC voltage to produce DC voltage. Six or eight diodes are used to rectify the AC stator voltage to DC voltage. .Wave Rectification’. • Two diodes are connected to each stator lead. • Because a single diode will only block half the the AC voltage. This process is called ‘Full . One positive the other negative.Rectifier Operation:- • The Diode Rectifier Bridge is responsible for for the conversion or rectification the AC voltage into DC voltage.

Diodes:- • Diodes are used as one-way electrical check valves. . • Diodes are mounted in a heat sink to dissipate the heat generated by the diodes. Passing current in only one direction. never in reverse. • Diodes redirect the AC voltage into DC voltage so the battery receives the correct polarity.

the regulator will adjust the amount of rotor field current to control alternator output. • When charging system voltage falls below this point. the regulator will decrease field current . • It monitors both battery and stator voltages and depending on the measured voltages. the regulator will increase the field current. and results in a decrease of alternator output. . thus weakening the magnetic field. • When charging system voltage raises above this point.Electronic Regulator:- • The regulator is the brain of the charging system. Voltage Regulation:• The regulator will attempt to maintain a pre-determined charging system voltage level. Current technology uses an internal regulator. • Regulators can be mounted both internal or external. thus strengthening the magnetic field. which results in an increase of alternator output.

• Note this alternator does not have an external fan as part of the pulley assembly.Drive Pulley:- • Alternator drive pulleys either bolt on or are pressed on the rotor shaft. • While many manufacturers do use a external fan for cooling. . This alternator has two internal fans to draw air in for cooling. • Both ‘V’ and Multi-grove types are used.

Bushes are either soldered or bolted. • Two stationary carbon brushes ride on two rotating slip rings. Each end of the rotor field winding is attached to a slip ring. Thereby. • The rotor produces a magnetic field. allowing current to flow through the field winding. Working of Alternator:• The regulator monitors battery voltage and controls current flow to the rotor assembly. .Brushes:- • Two slip rings are located on one end of the rotor assembly. • The rectifier bridge converts AC stator voltage to DC output for use by the vehicle. • Voltage is induced into the stator.

9000/ 11500 rpm 3. Hot Box (110oc) d. Vibration Test. Corrosion Resistance Test/Salt spary Test. Reliability Test a.Quality Assurance:To maintain the quality of product the final assembled product is checked on a various number of test rigs and a number of tests are performed on the product. Rain & dust Endurance Test. Elevated Temp. b. Environment Test a. c. The tests include:1. Performance Test a. e. Normal speed Endurance Test. 500/ 8000 rpm. Stabilized Performance 2. b. . Acceleration & deceleration Test. High Speed endurance Test.

Performance Curve:For an alternator of output of 190 amps and 12 V. .

output can be drawn whereas it is not possible in dynamo. 2. battery life is much better as compared to dynamo. 7. . 4. In the alternator current through the brushes is 2 to 3 amperes.Advantages of the alternator over dynamo:1. With alternator in circuit. In alternator as high as 160 amp. Alternator delivers more output at low speed as compared to dynamo and even charges the battery at ideal speed. Alternator is more compact in size as its weight to output ratio is better than dynamo. Alternator is not affected by water whereas dynamo is. 6. where as in dynamo the entire output current is through brushes thus resulting in increased brush life. Alternator is running on bearing compare to bushes in dynamo on both sides resulting in low maintenance and increased life. 3. 5.

shrink wrapped or strong wooden pallets. An annual report is prepared for the exception i. Iron etc. while assembling and after assembling (section wise) a green slip is credited if output is correct. Auditing of these materials or lab testing is done. Either internal or external transport is used for delivery. Packaging with Antirust paper. DISPATCH All the finished products are dispatched by this section as per instructions by customer support department. 2. 3. After folding and binding and before dispatch. QUALITY ASSURANCE Its function is described in following steps: 1. the report about what was the defects and reason of the rejected samples. again a quality assurance procedure is carried on. 2. 3.e. Inspection of incoming material in the stores like steels. In process inspection . Only quality assurance suited products with green slip shall be received dispatch area. . Compact and study cardboard packing. All boxes cleanly labeled. 4.PACKING 1.

. I am very thankful to all those professionals of Auto Ignition Ltd.CONCLUSION For my growth as a student of BE (Mechanical). I found my project extremely knowledgeable and informative. I have learned and grown a lot during my training as a professional and a human being as well. It made me familiar with present work culture as I learned do’s and don'ts for a professional in Manufacturing. I am grateful to all the faculty members of my institute for making my report a success. This was the first opportunity where I got practical experience. It was a privilege to work in such an efficient field and under the supervision of professionals of AIL. who helped me in my project by giving their precious time to me. it was a milestone to work in the field of production.