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CHAPTER-II Review of Related Literature

This chapter deals with the review of related research studies. Review of literature in one of the most important parts of the research study. The task of the review of literature is highly creative and tedious because researcher has to synthesize the available knowledge of the field in a unique way to provide the rational for study. Here the item literature refers to the knowledge of a particular area of investigation of any discipline which includes theoretical, practical and its research studies. The reviews of related studies from different sources are known as "REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE". It means the similar studies made by previous research works in the same field. Review of related literature provides the researcher the necessary knowledge and insight on what to start, where to start and how to start. It may help to make situation of new ones. So, in every research work, review of related literature is quite inevitable. Accordingly to John W. Best practically all human knowledge can be found in books and libraries. Unlike other animals that must start a new with each generation, man builds upon the accumulated and recorded knowledge of the past. The constant adding to the vast store of knowledge makes it possible to progress in all areas of human endeavour". The researcher pondered over and analyzed the research works already undertaken and published in the area from different sources like educational magazines, books, newspaper, journals, internet, etc. In the present study, the researcher deals with research studies on awareness of stakeholders towards RTE Act, 2009. World Conference on Education for All (1990). „Education for All‟ movement was launched at Jomtien, Thailand in 1990. Representative of World Committee agreed to universalize the primary education ten year later again in 2000 in Dakar Seneqal and affirmed their commitment to achieving


education for all by 2015. They identified six goals which aim to meet the learning need of all choice. Goal-1 Goal-2 Goal-3 Goal-4 Goal-5 Goal-6 Expansion of early childhood care and education. Provision of free and compulsory primary education for all. Promotion learning and life skill for young people and adults. Increasing of adult literacy by 50 percent. Achievement of gender parity by 2005. Improvement of the quality of education. This Act includes the

No Child Left Behind Act of USA (2001). following provisions:

No child left behind Act was presented in 2001 by the president of USA George W. Bush. It was President Bush's idea for reforming elementary and secondary education and increasing accountability for states, school districts and schools, to give greater choices for parent and student. features include:      Greater accountability for student performance. States must adopt challenging academic standards that apply all children. Schools were required to adequate yearly progress or AYP, in order to receive additional government funding as reward. Standardized testing has taken on increasing importance in the evaluation of students, teachers and schools. Parents to have a choice in their children education. If a parent felts that the child was attending a low performing school, they had the right to get variance to send him another school. This gives all children an equal chance at a good education.   Teachers of core academic subjects earn state certification or achieve the qualifying score on the appropriate content test. Families must be given more information about the achievement of children and performance of school. 20 Important

Families have the right to demand information about the credential of teachers. Raina, V. (2008) a columnist put his thought on RTE Act that free and

compulsory education has been implemented in Britain since 1870 where as India only implemented it after seventy one years Mahatma Gandhi give the call for universal education in 1937 and six year after 86 th constitutional amendment was passed in parliament in 2002.As per his views free education means nonpayment of fees only. But this constitutes only one component of educational expenditure since the landless poor and socially deprived cannot meet other expenses such as school dress, books etc. This results in the non–participation of their children. Also an increasing number of parents both urban and rural despite of great financial difficulties attracted to the option of purchasing education from private profile making schools that seem to have external frills of quality and regular presence of teachers. As the access to each is determined according to the social and class background thus segregating them further. He found out that appointment of teachers on the basis of national norms to be done a national agency within five years is most difficult. Kaushal, S. & Patra, S.S. (2009) studied the elementary education system from DISE data. The major findings include since independence the Central and State Government have been expanding the provision of elementary education to realize the goal of Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE). A number of initiatives have been made in the past in order to achieve UEE. Some of the major interventions are Non Formal Education (NFE) , Operation Back Board(OBB), Bihar Education Project (BEP), Uttar Pradesh Basic Education Project (UPBEP), Lok Jumbish, Shiksha Karmi Project (SKP), Janshala, Mahila Samakhya, District Primary Education Programme and ongoing Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). The objective of SSA was to achieve goal of Universalisation primary education by 2007 and Universal of elementary education by SSA has mode


attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities to the par children, through community owned quality education in a mission mode. Although the educational scenario consideration changes there are significant disparities in attaining UEE among states of India. There is a significant progress in enrollment in the elementary as well as primary schools due to different innovative strategies adopted under SSA. The special enrollment drives in the beginning of each academic year attracts the children to register at schools. Incentive like free text books, uniform, stationeries and free mid-day meal drams more new entrants. But still the dropout rate still remains a concern. So there is a necessity of compulsory education supported with provision of law which came to reality by implementing RTE Act 2009. Kausik, A. (2009) highlights the basic behind the RTE Act The major findings and suggestions are:  The present bill is longer than the brief Chinese law and much shorter than the comprehensive British one. As a result, it does not provide enough flexibility to states which is essential in our federal structure.  The issue like learning outcomes certification and importance of early childhood care and education has not been addressed. Basic principle of RTE should include:  Equity-There should be equity in state expenditure on each child, regardless of whether that child is in a government or private school. Appropriate norms should be workout for transfer of fund to state govt.  Access-In order to ensure that all children have access to schools it is necessary to establish enough school to accommodate them. All barriers for participation is to be removed. Army Institute of Education (2010). In a seminar held in this institute on RTE Act, 2009 the important areas of discussion were issues on Quality of RTE and Community Participation, RTE Strength, and challenges. Major recommendation of the seminar was a child should be given enough 22

opportunity to explore and enjoy nature thus giving important to equitable quality, aesthetic development of the child. (Prof. Bandhopadhyaya).    There is a need to bridge the urban rural imbalance in quality of education and teacher student ratio. The challenges of elementary education are to find a way to deal with the elusive triangle of access, equity and quality. There is a need to reorient the teachers/workers/parents/social members and older sibling those are forefront of the future citizen of the nation.   Active involvement of community through constant and consistent and awareness of people can increase literacy and quality of education. 10% surplus teachers to overcome the burden and to tackle the situation of leaves and in service programmes of teachers. Awais, A. (2010) analysed the provision of RTE Act and made a comparison of it with Global Perspective. The major findings are: the Right to Education has been universally recognized since the universal declaration of human right in 1948 (though referred to by ILO as early as the 1920s and has since been enshrined in various international conventions, national

constitution and development plan. However while the vast majority of countries have signed up to, and ratified international conventions such as unconventional on the Rights of Child). Fewer have integrated these rights in to their national constitution or provided the legislature and administrative frame works to ensure that these rights are realized in practice. Everyone has right to education despite of notable efforts by countries around the globe to ensure the right to education for all, the following realities persist: Handoo, A. (2010) in his article “Education as a Fundamental Right in India” finds that RTE Act, paved the way for building a strong, literate and empowered youth of this country. The Act envisages providing quality and compulsory education to all children and equips them with knowledge, skill, values to make them enlighten citizen of India:


Today there are crore of children across the country out of schools. The task of realization of goal is large, so a united effort by all the stake holders, the parent, the teacher and the school, the NGOs, the society at large the state Government's and the Central government is necessary.

Issues like parents with low income group send their children to work, for adding to the family income, issues like early marriage and migration of people for sustenance also need to be addressed for successful implementation.

Deprived section of the society like davits, minorities and wise students should be focus of the effort to provide education for all. Kasturi, C.S. ( 2010) highlights the financial implication of RTE Act and

major findings are that the center has agreed to pay almost 70 percent of the finances required to implement the Right to Education (RTE) Act, ending months of bickering with state governments crying over inadequate funds Top of Form. The finance ministry's expenditure finance committee (EFC) approved a massive hike in central funding for the law, which promises schooling to every child between 6 and 14 years of age. Presently the center and states share funding of the Sarva Shikshya Abhiyan, the principal vehicle for RTE, in a 55-45 ratio. The HRD ministry has projected Rs.2,31,233 crore as the total cost over five years of implementing the law. The 13 th finance commission has already set aside Rs 24,068 crore of additional funds to help the states implement the law. Malik, F. (2010). In an analysis of implementation of the Act finds the following hurdles in the way of this noble target        High growth of population Illiteracy of parent Lack of awareness Educational deprivation Lack of resources Lack of financial assistance Physical infrastructure 24

Major suggestions made for successful implementation of RTE were:   The state shall endeavour to provide early childhood education in the age group 0-6 Only qualified persons should be appointed for teaching in every part of the country. A performance based evaluation of teachers should be done and efficient and innovative teachers should be rewarded   Technology and teaching aids should be provided for different laboratories, libraries and workshop Provision of financial assistance to local authorities for implementation of this Act in accordance with formula regarding sharing to be developed  For equitable quality education minimum infrastructure, administrative faculties, financial curricular, pedagogic, linguistic and socio-cultural norm should be full filled.   Special assistance such as ramps, Braille readers etc. for learning disabled students should be provided. Parents especially mother should be educated about need of education. Mishra, B.P. (2010). An educationist and social worker evaluated the provisions of RTE Act and presented the following findings in a State level seminar:  Door to educational opportunity has opened grave issues like want of trained teachers', books and building and environment need concerted and collective offer to tackle parents and PRI's need to be involved with problem of grass root level.  There is a long gap between expression of good intention and record of delivery particularly when the RTE does not forbid child from missing the class, working back in the firm during harvesting season or migrating with starved parents, it seems unworkable.  Bench marks on stress free learning and quality teaching are to be fixed.


Without investing in early school education mere starting. The entry in to schools at six years of age may be a little late for the child in comparison of his/her peers from more elitist backgrounds.

Provision of reservation of 25 percent of seats for poor children is also a great challenge. There is a variety of private schools like public school, international schools, schools run by religions and charitable trusts, private English medium schools alternative schools and innovative schools by NGOs and school based on holistic educational philosophy where the RTE implementation is a top task as plan, policy and administration is not same for all. The real implementation of RTE is possible if all the stake holder are

willing to work together through collective action. RTE goals can be achieved through a multi sectoral approach and coordinated mechanism through adequate resource support from all Govt. departments related to infrastructure development, education and science technology, panchayat raj, Child and Women Welfare. The age bracket of 6 to 14 is a very critical period for the children. During this period child‟s physical and intellectual capabilities grow faster. The child is exposed to no. of learning environment such as home, community and teacher. Providing quality basic education at this stage is equivalent to learning foundation for higher education. So quality of education at this stage is important. National Seminar (2010). In this seminar the resource persons suggested the following recommendations that the major thrust areas should be universal access, enrollment, retention of children. recommendations are:   Collaborative role of Government, NGOs, School administration, teachers and parents (G. Ponmei Lecturer, DDE,) Provision of neighbourhood schools is the responsibility of state govt. and in case of non-availability of such schools, free transportation from the residence of child and state should ensure that economic , social , 26 The major

cultural linguistic, gender or other barrier do not prevent children from getting education (Dr. Rakesh Sandhu).  Proper infrastructure, equitable education school based teacher training, regular training programmes, value oriented workshops and additional schools should be established to make RTE functional (Dr. Vandana Malik). Singh, V. P. (2010) a research scholar reviewed the Act and put his views that education is the most potent mechanism for the advancement of human beings. It enlarges, enriches and improves the individuals‟ image of the future. A man without education is more than and animal. However, the constitution of India and supreme court have declared that the education is now a fundamental right of the people of India, but it does not speak about millions of children who are in the age group of 0-5 years. It is needed that the constitution should again be amended and the children of age group of 0-5 years should be included; as by the time the child reaches the age of 6 years gets into the child labour due to the poverty. Moreover the constitution only ensures that the state shall provide primary education to the children up to the age of 14 years, and the secondary and higher education is contingent and conditional upon the economic capacity of the state. According to him the right to education will be meaningful only and only if all the levels of education reaches to all the sections of the people otherwise it will fail to achieve the target set out by our Founder Father to make Indian society and egalitarian society. Sinha, S. (2010), chairperson of the National Commission for Protection of Child Right (NCPCR) and the monitoring head of implementation of RTE Act, suggested the following points:   Children's right to education is a fundamental right and is not negotiable. Action should be taken to ensure that every child is in school enjoying his/her right without any disruption.


There is a need to amend child labour (prohibition and regulation Act 1986 to abolish all forms of child labour enabling children to enjoy their right to education.

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The function of the local authority as envisaged in the Act has to be facilitated. RTE Act is a step forward building our society with emphasis on equity and justice. The growing gap and disparities between social classes can be addressed only when a world of opportunities and choices available to children through education.

The role of NCPCR has been defined as examining and reviewing the safe guards for right provided under this Act and recommend measures for their effective implementation.

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Enquiring in to complaints relating the child right to free and compulsory education. Monitoring of policies related to RTE should be done effectively. State People Convention on the Right of Children for Free and

Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2010.

In the seminar the resource

persons suggested the following duties and responsibilities of voluntary organization for successful implementation of RTE Act:      Initiation of discourse on the pros and cons of the Act. Analysis of every aspect to match the ground realities and asses challenges and opportunities. Creation of an interface among the Stakeholders of RTE Government, solicitors, parents, guardian, the direct beneficiaries. Initiation of RTE campaign and spreading it to every nook and corner of the state. Preparation of draft state rule for the RTE Act and feed back to Government with recommendation direct from grass root level. Recommendations of the participant were as follows:  All initiatives taken by the government for implementing RTE Act is bureaucratic true researchers along with elected people representative 28

and experts from different sectors should get involved while preparing action plan for implementation of the Act.        Intellectuals, researchers, academicians should be given statutory responsibilities under this Act. Like the Chief Minister Relief Fund a citizen Education Fund should be created to which every citizen should contribute. Children of 0-6 years should be taken care of so far as their health and nutrition. The Act should provide pre schooling education. The infrastructure of schooling should be uniform in order to justify the common school system. Emphasize should be given on human resources like qualified and trained teachers and quality of teaching. The whole teaching system should be joy full learning rather than a burden. Challenges of Implementation:       Identification of children of 6-14 age those are outside of the school. Enrolling children who have been factually bread earner for their family. Financial burden for implementation of this Act. Setting up new school for accommodate child to neighbour hood schools. Recruitment of teacher and providing training to untrained teachers is a huge time consuming process. Provision of additional resource for the purpose.