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EUROPEAN UNION

M. Aamir Sultan

The European Union (EU) is a union of twenty-seven independent states based on the different European countries. It is a geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. It is located primarily in Europe. It was founded to enhance political, economic and social co-operation between numerous European nations. It was formerly known as the European Community (EC) and European Economic Community, and was formed in the 1950s. On 1 November 1993 the European Union was formed under this name, with its pillar system including foreign and home affairs alongside the European Community.

EUs share of Gross world product


With over 500 million citizens the EU combined generates an estimated 30% share (US$ 18.4 trillion in 2008) of the nominal gross world product. It has about an estimated 22% share (US$15.2 trillion in 2008) of the PPP gross world product.

European Union History


The EU is founded upon numerous treaties and has undergone expansions that have taken it from 6 member states to 27.The founding members of the Community were Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The European Union was formed to boost the relations between the governments of the European countries and strengthen the trade and commerce ties between the countries of Europe. French President Jacques stated about European Union: This will provide an engine, an example that will allow Europe to go faster, further and better.

A peaceful Europe The beginnings of cooperation (1945-1957)


A Governing body was needed that would encourage cooperation on all levels and have the power to set economic policy for the entire region. The European Union is set up with the aim of ending the frequent and bloody wars between neighbors, which culminated in the Second World War. In 1950 the European Coal and Steel Community begins to unite European countries economically and politically (ECSC) in order to secure lasting peace. In 1957 the Treaty of Rome creates the European Economic Community (EEC), or Common Market.

A growing Community The first Enlargement (1970-1979)


On 1st January 1973 Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom join the European Union. The EU regional policy starts to transfer huge sums to create jobs and infrastructure in poorer areas. The European Parliament increased its influence in European Unions affairs. In 1979, the first direct, democratic elections to the European Parliament were held.

The changing face of Europe - the fall of the Berlin Wall (1980-1989)
Greece joined in 1981, and Spain with Portugal in 1986. In 1985, the Schengen Agreement led the way toward the creation of open borders without passport controls between most member states and some non-member states. In 1986, the European flag began to be used by the Community and the Single European Act was signed. The Berlin Wall was officially referred to as the "Anti-Fascist Protection Wall" by the communist GDR authorities. In year 1989 the collapse of communism across central and Eastern Europe, which began in Poland and Hungary, is symbolized by the fall of the Berlin Wall. Faced by a mass exodus of its citizens to West, the East German government throws open the gates. The fall of the Berlin Wall paved the way for German reunification and was formally concluded on October 3, 1990.

SINGLE EUROPEAN ACT


This treaty provided the basis for a vast six-year programme aimed at sorting out the problems with the free-flow of trade across EU borders and created the Single Market.

A Europe without frontiers (1990-1999)


With the collapse of communism across central and Eastern Europe, Europeans become closer neighbors. In 1993 the Single Market is completed with the 'four freedoms' of: a. Movement of goods c. People b. Services d. Money

The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force on 1 November 1993, and in 1995 Austria, Sweden, and Finland joined the newly established EU. In 1995 the EU gains three more new members, Austria, Finland and Sweden. Millions of young people studied in other countries with EU support.

European Union 2000- 2010


The introduction of the euro in 2002 replaced several national currencies. Euro notes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the member states. Since then, the Euro zone has increased to encompass sixteen countries. In 2004, the EU saw its biggest enlargement to date when Malta, Cyprus, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary joined the Union. On 1 January 2007, Romania and Bulgaria became the EU's newest members. In the same year Slovenia adopted the euro, followed in 2008 by Cyprus and Malta, and by Slovakia in 2009. In June 2009, the 2009 Parliament elections were held leading to a renewal of Barroso's Commission Presidency, and in July 2009 Iceland formally applied for EU membership. On 1 December 2009, the Lisbon Treaty entered into force and reformed many aspects of the EU. In particular it changed the legal structure of the European Union, merging the EU three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with legal personality, and it created a permanent President of the European Council, the first of which is Herman Van Rompuy, and a strengthened High Representative, Catherine Ashton.

CONSTITUTION FOR EU
26 February 2001- The Nice Treaty was signed and came into force on 1 February 2003 while the European Convention began drafting the European Constitution.

European Councils
The European Council an institution of the EU comprising heads of state or government of EU member states. In 1961 the first Councils were held in February and July, in Paris and Bonn respectively. In 1969 the first influential summit was held and the Hague summit of 1969 reached an agreement on the admittance of the United Kingdom into the Community.

CURRENT EU COUNCIL PRESIDENT 2010


Herman Van Rompuy became the current president of the European council on 11th February 2010.

European Parliament
The European Parliament (Europarl or EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU). The Parliament and Council form the highest legislative body within the Union. The Parliament is composed of 736 MEPs (Member of the European Parliament), who serve the second largest democratic electorate in the world.

Geography
The territory of the EU consists of the combined territories of its 27 member states with some exceptions, outlined below. The territory of the EU is not the same as that of Europe, as parts of the continent are outside the EU. Some parts of member states are not part of the EU, despite forming part of the European continent (for example the Isle of Man and Channel Islands (three Crown Dependencies), and the Faroe Islands (a territory of Denmark)). The island country of Cyprus, a member of the EU, is closer to Turkey than to continental Europe and is often considered part of Asia. Several territories associated with member states that are outside geographic Europe are also not part of the EU (such as Greenland and Aruba). Some overseas territories are part of the EU even though geographically not part of Europe, such as the Azores, The EU's climate is influenced by its 65,993 km (41,006 mi) coastline. (Crete)The EU's member states cover an area of 4,422,773 square kilometers (1,707,642 sq mi). The EU is larger in area than all but six countries, and its highest peak is Mont Blanc in the Graian Alps, 4,810.45 meters (15,782 ft) above sea level. The lowest point in the EU is Zuidplaspolder in the Netherlands, at 7 m (23 ft) below sea level. The EU has the world's second-longest coastline, after Canada. The combined member states share land borders with 19 non-member states for a total of 12,441 kilometers (7,730 mi), the fifthlongest border in the world. The EU's population is highly urbanized, with some 75% of inhabitants (and growing, projected to be 90% in 7 states by 2020) living in urban areas.

European Union and Pakistan


Pakistan and the EU are committed to strengthening their relationship under a Cooperation Agreement on Partnership and Development, which entered into force in 2004. 1976- Since the start of its cooperation with Pakistan, the Commission has committed more than 500 million to projects and programs. The Country Strategy Paper 2007-2013 focuses on the following: 1. Poverty reduction 2. Notably through assistance in rural development 3. Natural resources management 4. Education and human resources development 5. Notably in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. The financial allocation for the 2007-2010 periods is 200 million. CONCLUSION The European Union is overall beneficent association for its member states and it has achieved a lot of goals since its emergence. The European Union has proved that:

Dreams Come True.


European Union has done a great job in Agriculture, Power, Energy, Technology and overall economy improvement. Therefore it is right to say that European Union is beneficent association from every perspective.