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Effective Energy Management For Boilers & Fired Systems

Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction: ................................................................................................................................................. 4 ANALYSIS OF BOILERS AND FIRED SYSTEMS ................................................................................................. 5 Boiler Energy Consumption ...................................................................................................................... 5 Balance Equations ..................................................................................................................................... 6 Heat Balance ......................................................................................................................................... 6 Mass Balance ........................................................................................................................................ 6 Efficiency ................................................................................................................................................... 7 Energy Conservation Measures ................................................................................................................ 9 KEY ELEMENTS FOR MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY ................................................................................................ 9 Excess Air ................................................................................................................................................ 12 Requirements to Effect Maximum Economy .............................................................................................. 13 Key Elements for Maximum Efficiency ....................................................................................................... 13 Instrumentation used for energy management ......................................................................................... 14 Measure: ................................................................................................................................................. 15 Optimize: ................................................................................................................................................. 15 Prove: ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 Save: ........................................................................................................................................................ 16 Energy saving opportunities in boilers........................................................................................................ 17 CONDENSING BOILERS ............................................................................................................................ 17 BOILER STACK ECONOMIZERS................................................................................................................. 17 FLUE GAS CONDENSERS .......................................................................................................................... 18 TURBULATORS ........................................................................................................................................ 18 BOILER RESET CONTROL ......................................................................................................................... 18 BLOWDOWN CONTROL........................................................................................................................... 19 BLOWDOWN HEAT RECOVERY................................................................................................................ 19 INSTALL INSULATION .............................................................................................................................. 19 CONSIDER MULTIPLE SMALL BOILERS INSTEAD OF ONE LARGE UNIT.................................................... 19 BOILER SEQUENCE CONTROL .................................................................................................................. 19

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EXHAUST DRAFT CONTROL ..................................................................................................................... 19 UPGRADE BOILERS WITH ENERGY EFFICIENT BURNERS ......................................................................... 20 COMBUSTION AIR CONTROL SYSTEM ..................................................................................................... 20 EFFICIENCY TERMINOLOGY ......................................................................................................................... 20 Combustion Efficiency ............................................................................................................................ 21 Thermal Efficiency................................................................................................................................... 21 AFUE or Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency.............................................................................................. 21 Boiler Efficiency....................................................................................................................................... 21 References .................................................................................................................................................. 22

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We dedicate our effort to our teacher (Engr. Saadiq), who guided us and helped us in the preparation of this manual. Because we think that without his guidance it was almost impossible to create this. Secondly we dedicate this effort to our parents as they pray for our success and we did not able to do that without their prayers.

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Introduction:
Boilers and other fired systems are the most significant energy consumers. Almost two-thirds of the fossil-fuel energy consumed in the United States involves the use of a boiler, furnace, or other fired system. Even most electric energy is produced using fuel-fired boilers. Over 68% of the electricity generated in the United States is produced through the combustion of coal, fuel oil, and natural gas. (The remainder is produced through nuclear, 22%; hydroelectric, 10%; and geothermal and others, <1 %.) Unlike many electric systems, boilers and fired systems are not inherently energy efficient. This Report examines how energy is consumed, how energy is wasted, and opportunities for reducing energy consumption and costs in the operation of boiler and steam plants. A list of energy and cost reduction measures is presented, categorized as: load reduction, waste heat recovery, efficiency improvement, fuel cost reduction, and other opportunities. Several of the key opportunities for reducing operating costs are presented ranging from changes in operating procedures to capital improvement opportunities. The topics reflect recurring opportunities identified from numerous in-plant audits. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the methodology for estimating the potential energy savings associated with various opportunities. Many of these examples utilize easy to understand nomographs and charts in the solution techniques. In addition to energy saving opportunities, this report also describes some issues relevant to dayto-day operations, maintenance, and troubleshooting. Considerations relative to fuel comparison and selection are also discussed. Developing technologies relative to alternative fuels and types of combustion equipment are also discussed. Some of the technologies discussed hold the potential for significant cost reductions while alleviating environmental problems. The report concludes with a brief discussion of some of the major regulations impacting the operation of boilers and fired systems. It is important to emphasize the need to carefully assess the potential impact of federal, state, and local regulations.

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ANALYSIS OF BOILERS AND FIRED SYSTEMS
Boiler Energy Consumption
Boiler and other fired systems, such as furnaces and ovens, combust fuel with air for the purpose of releasing the chemical heat energy. The purpose of the heat energy may be to raise the temperature of an industrial product as part of a manufacturing process, it may be to generate high-temperature high-pressure steam in order to power a turbine, or it may simply be to heat a space so the occupants will be comfortable. The energy consumption of boilers, furnaces, and other fire systems can be determined simply as a function of load and efficiency as expressed in the equation:

Similarly, the cost of operating a boiler or fired system can be determined as:

As such, the opportunities for reducing the energy consumption or energy cost of a boiler or fired system can be put into a few categories. In order to reduce boiler energy consumption, one can reduce the load, increase the operating efficiency, reduce the unit fuel energy cost, or combinations thereof. Of course above equations are not always that simple because the variables are not always constant. The load varies as a function of the process being supported. The efficiency varies as a function of the load and other functions, such as time or weather. In addition, the fuel cost may also vary as a function of time (such as in seasonal, time-of-use, or spot market rates) or as a function of load (such as declining block or spot market rates.) Therefore, solving the equation for the energy consumption or energy cost may not always be simplistic.

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Balance Equations
Balance equations are used in an analysis of a process which determines inputs and outputs to a system. There are several types of balance equations which may prove useful in the analysis of a boiler or fired-system. These include a heat balance and mass balance.
Heat Balance

A heat balance is used to determine where all the heat energy enters and leaves a system. Assuming that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, all energy can be accounted for in a system analysis. Energy in equals energy out. Whether through measurement or analysis, all energy entering or leaving a system can be determined. In a simple furnace system, energy enters through the combustion air, fuel, and mixed-air duct. Energy leaves the furnace system through the supply-air duct and the exhaust gases. In a boiler system, the analysis can become more complex. Energy input comes from the following: condensate return, make-up water, combustion air, fuel, and maybe a few others depending on the complexity of the system. Energy output departs as the following: steam, blow down, exhaust gases, shell/surface losses, possibly ash, and other discharges depending on the complexity of the system.
Mass Balance

A mass balance is used to determine where all mass enters and leaves a system. There are several methods in which a mass balance can be performed that can be useful in the analysis of a boiler or other fired system. In the case of a steam boiler, a mass balance can be used in the form of a water balance (steam, condensate return, makeup water, blow down, and feed water.) A mass balance can also be used for water quality or chemical balance (total dissolved solids, or other impurity.) The mass balance can also be used in the form of a combustion analysis (fireside mass balance consisting of air and fuel in and combustion gasses and excess air out.) This type of analysis is the foundation for determining combustion efficiency and determining the optimum air-to-fuel ratio.

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For analyzing complex systems, the mass and energy balance equations may be used simultaneously such as in solving multiple equations with multiple unknowns. This type of analysis is particularly useful in determining blow down losses, waste heat recovery potential, and other interdependent opportunities.

Efficiency
There are several different measures of efficiency used in boilers and fi red systems. While this may lead to some confusion, the different measures are used to convey different information. Therefore, it is important to understand what is being implied by a given efficiency measure. The basis for testing boilers is the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Power Test Code 4.1 (PTC-4.1-1964.) This procedure defines and established two primary methods of determining efficiency: the input-output method and the heat-loss method. Both of these methods result in what is commonly referred to as the gross thermal efficiency. The efficiencies determined by these methods are gross efficiencies as opposed to net efficiencies which would include the additional energy input of auxiliary equipment such as combustion air fans, fuel pumps, stoker drives, etc. For more information on these methods, see the ASME PTC-4.11964 or Taplin 1991. Another efficiency term commonly used for boilers and other fired systems is combustion efficiency. Combustion efficiency is similar to the heat loss method, but only the heat losses due to the exhaust gases are considered. Combustion efficiency can be measured in the field by analyzing the products of combustion the exhaust gases. Typically measuring either carbon dioxide (CO2) or oxygen (O2) in the exhaust gas can be used to determine the combustion efficiency as long as there is excess air. Excess air is defined as air in excess of the amount required for stoichiometric conditions. In other words, excess air is the amount of air above that which is theoretically required for complete combustion. In the real world, however, it is not possible to get perfect mixture of air and fuel to achieve complete combustion without some amount of excess air. As excess air is reduced toward the fuel rich side, incomplete combustion begins to occur resulting in the formation of carbon monoxide, carbon, smoke, and in extreme cases, raw unburned fuel. Incomplete combustion is inefficient, expensive, and frequently unsafe. Therefore, some amount of excess air is required to ensure complete and safe combustion.

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However, excess air is also inefficient as it results in the excess air being heated from ambient air temperatures to exhaust gas temperatures resulting in a form of heat loss. Therefore while some excess air is required it is also desirable to minimize the amount of excess air. As illustrated in Figure below, the amount of carbon dioxide, percent by volume, in the exhaust gas reaches a maximum with no excess air stoichiometric conditions. While carbon dioxide can be used as a measure of complete combustion, it cannot be used to optimally control the air-tofuel ratio in a fired system. A drop in the level of carbon dioxide would not be sufficient to inform the control system if it were operating in a condition of excess air or insufficient air. However, measuring oxygen in the exhaust gases is a direct measure of the amount of excess air. Therefore, measuring oxygen in the exhaust gas is a more common and preferred method of controlling the air-to-fuel ratio in a fired system.

Theoretical flue gas analysis versus air percentage for natural gas

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Energy Conservation Measures
As noted above, energy cost reduction opportunities can generally be placed into one of the following categories: reducing load, increasing efficiency, and reducing unit energy cost. As with most energy conservation and cost reducing measures there are also a few additional opportunities which are not so easily categorized. Table lists several energy conservation measures that have been found to be very cost effective in various boilers and fired-systems.

KEY ELEMENTS FOR MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY


There are several opportunities for maximizing efficiency and reducing operating costs in a boiler or other fired-system as noted earlier in Table below. This section examines in more detail several key opportunities for energy and cost reduction, including excess air, stack temperature, load balancing, boiler blow down, and condensate return.

Table.1 Energy Conservation measures for boilers and fired systems


Load Reduction
Insulation

steam lines and distribution system condensates lines and return system heat exchangers boiler or furnace Repair steam leaks Repair failed steam straps Return condensate to boiler Reduce boiler blow down Improve feed water treatment Improve make-up water treatment Repair condensate leaks Shut off steam tracers during the summer

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Shut off boilers during long periods of no use Eliminate hot standby Reduce flash steam loss Install stack dampers or heat traps in natural draft boilers Replace continuous pilots with electronic ignition pilots
Waste Heat Recovery (a form of load reduction)

Utilize flash steam Preheat feed water with an economizer Preheat make-up water with an economizer Preheat combustion air with a recuperator Recover flue gas heat to supplement other heating system, such as domestic or service hot water, or unit space heater Recover waste heat from some other system to preheat boiler make-up or feed water Install a heat recovery system on incinerator or furnace Install condensation heat recovery system indirect contact heat exchanger direct contact heat exchanger
Efficiency Improvement

Reduce excess air Provide sufficient air for complete combustion Install combustion efficiency control system Constant excess air control Minimum excess air control Optimum excess air and CO control Optimize loading of multiple boilers Shut off unnecessary boilers Install smaller system for part-load operation Install small boiler for summer loads Install satellite boiler for remote loads Install low excess air burners

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Repair or replace faulty burners Replace natural draft burners with forced draft burners Install turbulators in fire tube boilers Install more efficient boiler or furnace system high-efficiency, pulse combustion, or condensing boiler or furnace system Clean heat transfer surfaces to reduce fouling and scale Improve feed water treatment to reduce scaling Improve make-up water treatment to reduce scaling
Fuel Cost Reduction

Switch to alternate utility rate schedule interruptible rate schedule Purchase natural gas from alternate source, self procurement of natural gas Fuel switching switch between alternate fuel sources install multiple fuel burning capability replace electric boiler with a fuel-fired boiler Switch to a heat pump use heat pump for supplemental heat requirements use heat pump for baseline heat requirements Other Opportunities Install variable speed drives on feed water pumps Install variable speed drives on combustion air fan Replace boiler with alternative heating system Replace furnace with alternative heating system Install more efficient combustion air fan Install more efficient combustion air fan motor Install more efficient feed water pump Install more efficient feed water pump motor Install more efficient condensate pump Install more efficient condensate pump motor

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Excess Air
In combustion processes, excess air is generally defined as air introduced above the stoichiometric or theoretical requirements to effect complete and efficient combustion of the fuel. There is an optimum level of excess-air operation for each type of burner or furnace design and fuel type. Only enough air should be supplied to ensure complete combustion of the fuel, since more than this amount increases the heat rejected to the stack, resulting in greater fuel consumption for a given process output. To identify the point of minimum excess-air operation for a particular fired system, curves of combustibles as a function of excess O2 should be constructed similar to that illustrated in Figure 2. In the case of a gas-fueled system, the combustible monitored would be carbon monoxide (CO), whereas, in the case of a liquid- or solid fueled system, the combustible monitored would be the Smoke Spot Number (SSN). The curves should be developed for various firing rates as the minimal excess-air operating point will also vary as a function of the firing rate (percent load). Figure 2 illustrates two potential curves, one for high-fire and the other for low-fire. The optimal excess-air-control set point should be set at some margin (generally 0.5 to 1%) above the minimum O2 point to allow for response and control variances. It is important to note that some burners may exhibit a gradual or steep CO-O2 behavior and this behavior may even change with various firing rates. It is also important to note that some burners may experience potentially unstable operation with small changes in O2 (steep CO-O2 curve behavior).

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Hypothetical CO-O2 characteristic curve for a gas-fired industrial boiler

Requirements to Effect Maximum Economy


To obtain the maximum benefits of an excess-air control program, the following modifications, additions, checks, or procedures should be considered:

Key Elements for Maximum Efficiency


Ensure that the furnace boundary walls and flue work are airtight and not a source of air infiltration or exfiltration. a. Recognized leakage problem areas include Test connection for oxygen analyzer or portable Orsat connection

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Access doors and ash-pit doors Penetration points passing through furnace setting Air seals on soot-blower elements or sight glasses Seals around boiler drums and header expansion joints Cracks or breaks in brick settings or refractory Operation of the furnace at too negative a pressure Burner penetration points Deterioration of air pre-heater radial seals or tube-sheet expansion and cracks on tubular air heater applications. b. Tests to locate leakage problems: Light test whereby a strong spotlight is placed in the furnace and the unit inspected externally The use of a pyrometer to obtain a temperature profile on the outer casing. This test generally indicates points where refractory or insulation has deteriorated A soap-bubble test on suspected penetration points or seal welds A smoke-bomb test and an external examination for traces of smoke Holding a lighted candle along the casing seams has pinpointed leakage problems on induced- or natural-draft units Operating the forced draft fan on high capacity with the fire out, plus use of liquid chemical smoke producers has helped identify seal leaks Use of a thermo-graphic device to locate hot spots which may indicate faulty insulation or flue-gas leakage.

Instrumentation used for energy management


Instrumentation can form a vital front line in the drive to become more energy efficient. When used to its full potential, an instrument can provide you with a full indication of whats happening within your process, enabling you to make more informed decisions about potential improvements. The following are some tips for deploying instruments to help you get the best levels of efficiency from your boiler:

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Measure:
Make sure you are only generating what you need. Measure the demand and compare it with what the boiler is generating. This will ensure youre not wasting steam heating up your factory instead of your process. for example If you measure steam or gas, measure the mass flow, not the volume flow. It takes ten times the energy to create 1m3 of steam at 10 bar than at 1 bar, yet the volume is the same

Optimize:
Optimize the combustion process by monitoring the flue gases. Only careful monitoring allows operators to strike a balance between supplying too much air, which carries heat away up the flue, and insufficient air, resulting in incomplete combustion. Make sure that boiler duty is at optimum efficiency. For example, dont use two boilers at 30% output if you can run one at 60 - 70% output. Check your instrumentation is up to scratch. Modern instruments are typically more robust and more accurate. They are also easier to maintain, and are less prone to problems such as drift

Prove:
The ability to readily access energy consumption data for a given period or piece of equipment is a key first step in helping to create an effective energy management strategy. Video-graphic data recorders offer an ideal tool for collecting and retrieving data as part of an energy management programme. Benefits include: immediacy of data, with operators able to quickly gain access to years of data; the ability to tie in associated data such as the date and time that an event occurred with specific information on that actual event; ease of use, interface and simple scrolling menus; and lower cost of ownership. Data recorders are helping a major food producer to identify areas for potential energy savings at one of its UK sites. Following a site survey, flow meters and data recorders were installed as part of a site energy monitoring and targeting programme.

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The company uses steam at around 6 bar and 120 C to heat hydrostatic cookers, retorts and jacketed pans used in food production. Previously, the company used a series of primary flow meters to measure the sites steam, gas and water consumption. However, it was not possible to easily use the measurement data to pinpoint the amount of energy being consumed by specific parts of the plant. The information from flow meters is fed into video-graphic data recorders, enabling the operator to monitor steam consumption for specific lines, which allows waste to be easily spotted and provides better matching of energy consumption against the steam flow rate. The recorders allow precise variations in process data to be recorded and displayed as required. They also offer a range of possibilities for presentation, including the ability to stipulate data for specific time periods and create and print graphs and reports. Events can be automatically recorded together with the actual time they occurred, unlike paper chart recorders, which rely on additional details being manually added to the chart by the operator. A key requirement set by the customer was the ability to feed the information from the recorders into its energy management and targeting software system. To accommodate this, a driver program to export consumption data and enable the customer to use the data from the instruments as it wished. Now the instruments used throughout the plant are connected via an Ethernet system from the recorders, which then relays the real-time data and trend information to the customers system. Since installing instruments, the customer has already been able to identify ways to better control the steam flow to the cookers. They also saw that general steam demand was higher than expected and are taking steps to reduce this demand and improve efficiency.

Save:
Instrumentation, by itself, will not directly save you energy. What it will do, however, is help you to identify the areas where measures can be taken that will help you to optimize your energy consumption.

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For example, data from a flow meter on a steam or process line can often be used as a prelimary measure when assessing whether to use a variable speed drive, which are proven to drastically reduce energy consumption.

Energy saving opportunities in boilers


CONDENSING BOILERS
When sufficient heat is removed, one of the by-products of combustion is the vapor condensed to a liquid. The typical dew point temperature at which this starts to occur for a natural gas boiler is 130F. In addition to water vapor there are other compounds present in the exhaust stream, which makes the condensate highly corrosive to carbon steel or cast-iron. Modern condensing boilers use high grades of stainless steel or electroplated coatings to eliminate corrosion. Most boilers currently installed have been designed to not produce condensation. Figure illustrates the relationship between the return water temperature to the boiler and the efficiency. The lower the return water temperature, the more efficient the operation of the boiler. In order to take advantage of the potential efficiency of a condensing boiler the return water temperature needs to be approximately 130F or lower, otherwise the condensing boiler operates at efficiency comparable to a conventional boiler. The return water can be cold boiler makeup or other cold water streams that require heating to the 80-120F range. Condensing boilers can achieve thermal efficiencies of 90 95%; recent case study data from several manufacturers indicated that condensing boilers are commonly available and costeffective. This same case study analyzed replacing the conventional boiler with a 93% efficient condensing boiler, resulting in a 13% saving in space heating energy. If the system is not designed to provide inlet temperatures low enough for a condensing boiler to actually condense, the potential efficiencies will not be realized.

BOILER STACK ECONOMIZERS


Boiler stack economizers recover flue gas heat for re-use, such as pre-heating boiler feed water. Stack Economizers should be considered as an efficiency measure for almost all applications, as simple payback is usually 6 months to 2 years. The savings potential is based on the existing stack temperature, the average percent boiler load, and the hours of operation. Economizers are

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available in a wide range of sizes, from small coil-like units to very large waste heat recovery economizers. Larger economizers are often located between the boiler outlets and stack. A generally accepted rule of thumb is that about 5% of boiler energy input can be recovered with a properly sized economizer (relative to 80% economizer).

FLUE GAS CONDENSERS


These condensers are designed to reduce flue gas temperature below the dew point, which results in recovering the sensible heat in the flue gas and also the heat of condensation from the water vapor in the flue gas when it condenses to a liquid. Condensers are worth considering as a measure in cases where large amounts of cold water make-up are needed, or if there is an accompanying need for large quantities of 100120F hot water. The primary differences between flue gas condensers and economizers is that condensers heat large amounts of water to a lower temperature, while economizers are designed to heat smaller volumes of water to a higher temperature. Condensers have the potential for greater efficiency than economizers because of their lower outlet exhaust temperature and potential energy available in the condensed flue gases. Condensers are available as small as 50 hp or a single condenser can be used on multiple boilers.

TURBULATORS
Install turbulators in the boiler tubes of fire tube boilers to increase heat transfer between the combustion gases and the water. The result is relatively modest improved boiler efficiency. Turbulators are an option to a more costly economizer or air-pre-heater, but energy savings are less. They are simple, easy to install, and low cost. Their installed cost is about $10 to $15 per boiler tube.

BOILER RESET CONTROL


For hot water boilers used for space heating, they reduce the water temperature to the lowest temperature that will meet the demand. For example, setting the water temperatures cooler during warmer months and a little hotter during the coldest parts of the winter will provide a better match between boiler output and space heating needs, resulting in improved boiler efficiency and indoor comfort. To avoid unnecessary corrosion of the equipment, care must be taken to avoid a lowered temperature that could cause condensation in a non-condensing boiler.

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BLOWDOWN CONTROL
The right amount of blowdown is critical: too many results in energy loss and excessive chemical treatment cost; too little and excessive concentrations of impurities build up. An automatic Blowdown Control device will measure the buildup of total dissolved solids (TDS) in boiler water, and blowdown only when required to maintain acceptable water quality.

BLOWDOWN HEAT RECOVERY


Blowdown Heat Recovery systems can recover up to 90% of the heat energy losses incurred during blowdown. The recovered heat is use to pre-heat boiler make-up water.

INSTALL INSULATION
All hot surfaces should be insulated for both worker safety and energy efficiency. Insulation must be in good condition to provide any benefits, for instance wet insulation is worse than no insulation. In general, any surface above 120F should be insulated, including boiler surfaces, piping and fittings. Removable insulating jackets are available for many fittings to allow easy access for maintenance.

CONSIDER MULTIPLE SMALL BOILERS INSTEAD OF ONE LARGE UNIT


Installing multiple boilers in hotels and motels, and multi-family facilities provides redundancy and allows staging, which can meet loads more efficiently than a single large boiler. The Department of Energy states that efficiency loss can vary as much as 10% when operations change from the maximum continuous output to a reduced boiler output (30 to 40% of capacity).

BOILER SEQUENCE CONTROL


When multiple boilers are in use, install an automated boiler sequence control to achieve the best combination of boiler run efficiency.

EXHAUST DRAFT CONTROL


It is important to maintain a proper flue draft to optimize combustion: too little draft leads to problems such as CO formation, condensation, soot, and flue gas spillage; on the other hand too much draft leads to inefficient operation of the boiler. Exhaust draft controls can increase energy efficiency; however the systems must be designed with safety features that will deactivate the boiler if the draft falls below a certain set point

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UPGRADE BOILERS WITH ENERGY EFFICIENT BURNERS
According to the Department of Energy, a poorly designed boiler with an efficient burner may perform better than a well designed boiler with a poor burner. Even small improvements in burner efficiency can result in significant energy savings, for example, a boiler that consumes 250,000 MMBTU (2,500,000 therms) of natural gas with a 1% burner combustion efficiency improvement can save 3,120 MMBtu (31,200 therms) annually. Assuming a gas rate of $0.90 per therm, the savings would amount to $28,080 annually.

COMBUSTION AIR CONTROL SYSTEM


To reduce excess air flow through the boiler and boiler room, install a combustion air control system. Operating a boiler with an optimal amount of excess air will improve combustion efficiency, which is a measure of how effectively the heat content of a fuel is transferred into usable heat. The Department of Energy indicates that as a rule of thumb, boiler efficiency can be increased by 1% for each 15% reduction in excess air or 40F reduction in stack gas temperature. For example, for a boiler operating 8,000 hours annually and consuming 500,000 million btu (MMBtu or 5,000,000 therms), reducing the excess air from 44.9% to 9.5% effectively increases the combustion efficiency from 78.3% to 80.9%, resulting in a savings of 16,069 MMBtu (160,689 therms) annually. Assuming a gas rate of $0.90 per therm, the savings would amount to $144,620 annually.

EFFICIENCY TERMINOLOGY
According to the Boiler Burner Consortium, there are many ways of measuring the efficiency of a boiler and it is important to know which type of efficiency is being used when comparing boilers.

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Combustion Efficiency
Combustion Efficiency is a measure of the burner's ability to burn fuel. Efficient burners using gaseous or liquid fuels operate at excess air levels of 15% or less and leave negligible amounts of unburned fuel.

Thermal Efficiency
Thermal Efficiency is an indication of the ability of the boilers heat exchanger to transfer heat from the combustion process to the water or steam in the boiler. Thermal efficiency is exclusively a measurement of the effectiveness of the heat exchanger of the boiler and it does not include radiation and convection losses; therefore thermal efficiency is not a true measure of the boilers fuel usage.

AFUE or Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency


AFUE or Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency measures the amount of fuel converted to space heat in proportion to the amount of fuel entering the boiler. This is commonly expressed as a percentage. For example, an AFUE of 90% indicates that 90% of the energy in the fuel becomes heat and the remaining 10% is lost. AFUE ratings do not include the heat losses of the duct system or piping.

Boiler Efficiency
Boiler Efficiency is a term often used interchangeably with the thermal efficiency.

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References
http://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=effective%20energy%20management%20for%20 boilers&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CD0QFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pge.co m%2Fincludes%2Fdocs%2Fpdfs%2Fmybusiness%2Fenergysavingsrebates%2Fincentivesbyindust ry%2Ffs_boilers.pdf&ei=7adjUMWVDYGg4gSu6oHgCg&usg=AFQjCNEUpmpbNRQjN_xg4gB17u7 hYno7iQ http://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=effective%20energy%20management%20for%20 boilers&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CEgQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cefic.or g%2FDocuments%2FResponsibleCare%2FAwards%25202011%2FRCAwards2011-AllerganEnergy-Reductio-nInitiative-energyManagementSystem.pdf&ei=7adjUMWVDYGg4gSu6oHgCg&usg=AFQjCNFC9M0HGUHfkX2unpY NlbNaS3USIQ https://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/technologies/eep_boilers.html Energy Management Handbook By Wayne C. Turner & Steve Doty

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