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117, No. 2 (February 2010), pp. 174-175 Published by: Mathematical Association of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.4169/000298910X476086 . Accessed: 27/04/2012 21:47

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G.3652. Various proofs of Darboux’s Theorem are in our references. Tulane University. J. 2. a 5.Pudwell@valpo. Cambridge University Press. 2. 7.e. 8. every number between two values of f is a value of f ). Geom. 1999. 2nd ed. Polynomial coefﬁcient enumeration (to appear). Hence. 1993. New York. Chelsea. Lov´ sz. Doron Zeilberger for encouraging us to simplify. Mohanty. Kreweras. D. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. MacMahon. Amdeberhan and R. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Tewodros Amdeberhan for pointing us to relevant literature. Elsevier. New York. 3. 27 (2002) 603–634.. for example. IN 46383 Lara. Valparaiso. plane trees. The Mean Value Theorem says that C ⊂ D. New Orleans. We offer a simple. LA 70118 erowland@tulane. available at http:// arxiv. Rutgers Experimental Mathematics Seminar. November 15. New York.org/abs/0811. A polytope related to empirical distributions. vol. REFERENCES 1. Stanley. Cahiers du Bureau e e Universitaire de Recherche Op´ rationnelle 6 (1965) 5–105.edu A Proof of Darboux’s Theorem Sam B. Pitman and R. 1916. Enumerative Combinatorics. Then the derivative f has the intermediate value property on I (i. Thus. T. L. it sufﬁces to prove that C is an interval. We thank Dimitrije Kostic for generating our interest in this topic [2]. We let D denote the set of all values of the derivative of f . NJ.. Combinatory Analysis. G. Academic Press. Cambridge. it sufﬁces to prove that any two points of C can be connected by an interval doi:10. and an anonymous referee for a number of helpful suggestions. Combinatorial Problems and Exercises. transparent proof of Darboux’s Theorem that we feel shows systematically and conceptually why the theorem is true. reprint of Cambridge University Press. Valparaiso University. 6. Stanley. Discrete Comput.edu Department of Mathematics. 1960. R. and the deﬁnition of the derivative gives that D ⊂ C (the closure of C). and we let C denote the set of all slopes of chords joining (distinct) points of the graph of f . determine the likelihood that a random tally of votes will satisfy the network’s needs. Proof of Darboux’s Theorem. S. Darboux [2] proved the following theorem: Darboux’s Theorem. Nadler. Lattice Path Counting and Applications. Let I be an interval in R1 . and let f be a differentiable realvalued function on I . P. vol. Kostic. Stanley. and the associahedron. e 4. A. Amsterdam. parking functions. 1979. New Brunswick/Piscataway.4169/000298910X476086 174 c THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA [Monthly 117 . We prove that D is an interval. Jr. 2007.Thus the director of programming may. How to experiment with logjams. 2. Sur une classe de probl` mes li´ s au treillis des partitions d’entiers.

The reference measure on the real line R is the Lebesgue measure. 2002. Sci. f (c)) and (d. Sup. For almost all x ∈ R. M´ moire sur les fonctions discontinues. where a < b and a−b c−d c < d in I . A new proof of Darboux’s theorem. Phys. ﬁx p.2307/ 4145046 University of Toledo. Advanced Calculus. R. this M ONTHLY 111 (2004) 713–715. Bagby. However. ACKNOWLEDGMENT. Peterson. Two-Year College Mathematics Journal 7 (1976) 5–9. also. A note on the intermediate value theorem for derivatives. N. e 3. M. we have the following result. G. 1]) is an interval (obviously in C). Burlington. Ann. NJ. ´ 2. Sci. L. We thank a referee for several of our references. 4 (1875) 57–122. Math. MA. doi:10. Ecole Norm. Olinick and B. R.2307/3027142 6. q ∈ C. doi:10. 5. Let f be an integrable function on the real line R. Toledo. (1) doi:10. Nandakumar. ((1 − t)a + tc) − ((1 − t)b + td) By the Intermediate Value Theorem. g([0. g gives the slopes of the chords one obtains by sliding the points (a. Harcourt/Academic Press. Ohio 43606 sam. 26 (1992) 425–426.in C. f (b)) “linearly” with respect to the x-axis along the graph of f to the points (c. 4. We deﬁne a continuous function g : [0. p = f (a)− f (b) and q = f (c)− f (d) . Theorem 1. we have n→∞ lim f (nx) = 0. f (a)) and (b.edu On the Behavior at Inﬁnity of an Integrable Function Emmanuel Lesigne We denote by x a real variable and by n a positive integer variable. J. Folland. 1] → C. f (d)): g(t) = f ((1 − t)a + tc) − f ((1 − t)b + td) . Upper Saddle River. In this note we will use only basic properties of the Lebesgue measure and integral on R. REFERENCES 1. Prentice Hall. p = g(0) and q = g(1). Introductory Analysis: A Deeper View into Calculus. Olsen.nadler@utoledo. It is well known that the fact that a function tends to zero at inﬁnity is a condition neither necessary nor sufﬁcient for this function to be integrable. G. 2001. Darboux’s theorem and points of inﬂection. To prove this. Darboux.4169/000298910X476095 February 2010] NOTES 175 .

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