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Chapter 1 Bank A bank is a financial institution and a financial intermediary that accepts deposits and channels those deposits

into lending activities, either directly or through capital markets. A bank connects customers that have capital deficits to customers with capital surpluses. Due to their critical status within the financial system and the economy generally, banks are highly regulated in most countries. Most banks operate under a system known as fractional reserve banking where they hold only a small reserve of the funds deposited and lend out the rest for profit. They are generally subject to minimum capital requirements which are based on an international set of capital standards, known as the Basel Accords. The oldest bank still in existence is Monte dei Paschi di Siena, headquartered in Siena, Italy, which has been operating continuously since 1472. It is followed by Berenberg Bank of Hamburg (1590) and Sveriges Riksbank of Sweden (1668). Origin of the word The word bank was borrowed in Middle English from Middle French banque, from Old Italian banca, from Old High German banc, bank "bench, counter

Banking in India Banking in India originated in the last decades of the 18th century. The first banks were The General Bank of India, which started in 1786, and Bank of Hindustan, which started in 1770; both are now defunct. The oldest bank in existence in India is the State Bank of India, which originated in the Bank of Calcutta in June 1806, which almost immediately became the Bank of Bengal. This was one of the three presidency banks, the other two being the Bank of Bombay and the Bank of Madras, all three of which were established under charters from the British East India Company. For many years the Presidency banks acted as quasi-central banks, as did their successors. The three banks merged in 1921 to form the Imperial Bank of India, which, upon India's independence, became the State Bank of India in 1955.

History

Merchants in Calcutta established the Union Bank in 1839, but it failed in 1848 as a consequence of the economic crisis of 1848-49. The Allahabad Bank, established in 1865 and still functioning today, is the oldest Joint Stock bank in India.(Joint Stock Bank: A company that issues stock and requires shareholders to be held liable for the company's debt) It was not the first though. That honor belongs to the Bank of Upper India, which was established in 1863, and which survived until 1913, when it failed, with some of its assets and liabilities being transferred to the Alliance Bank of Simla. Foreign banks too started to app, particularly in Calcutta, in the 1860s. The Comptoire d'Escompte de Paris opened a branch in Calcutta in 1860, and another in Bombay in 1862; branches in Madras and Pondicherry, then a French colony, followed. HSBCestablished itself in Bengal in 1869. Calcutta was the most active trading port in India, mainly due to the trade of the British Empire, and so became a banking center. The first entirely Indian joint stock bank was the Oudh Commercial Bank, established in 1881 in Faizabad. It failed in 1958. The next was the Punjab National Bank, established in Lahore in 1895, which has survived to the present and is now one of the largest banks in India. Around the turn of the 20th Century, the Indian economy was passing through a relative period of stability. Around five decades had elapsed since the Indian Mutiny, and the social, industrial and other infrastructure had improved. Indians had established small banks, most of which served particular ethnic and religious communities. The presidency banks dominated banking in India but there were also some exchange banks and a number of Indian joint stock banks. All these banks operated in different segments of the economy. The exchange banks, mostly owned by Europeans, concentrated on financing foreign trade. Indian joint stock banks were generally under capitalized and lacked the experience and maturity to compete with the presidency and exchange banks. This segmentation let Lord Curzon to observe, "In respect of banking it seems we are behind the times. We are like some old fashioned sailing ship, divided by solid wooden bulkheads into separate and cumbersome compartments."

The period between 1906 and 1911, saw the establishment of banks inspired by the Swadeshi movement. The Swadeshi movement inspired local businessmen and political figures to found banks of and for the Indian community. A number of banks established then have survived to the present such as Bank of India, Corporation Bank, Indian Bank, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank and Central Bank of India. The fervour of Swadeshi movement lead to establishing of many private banks in Dakshina Kannada and Udupi district which were unified earlier and known by the name South Canara ( South Kanara ) district. Four nationalised banks started in this district and also a leading private sector bank. Hence undivided Dakshina Kannada district is known as "Cradle of Indian Banking". During the First World War (19141918) through the end of the Second World War (19391945), and two years thereafter until theindependence of India were challenging for Indian banking. The years of the First World War were turbulent, and it took its toll with banks simply collapsing despite the Indian economy gaining indirect boost due to war-related economic activities. At least 94 banks in India failed between 1913 and 1918 as indicated in the following table: Years Number of banks Authorised capital Paid-up Capital that failed (Rs. Lakhs) (Rs. Lakhs) 274 710 56 231 76 209 35 109 5 4 25 1

1913 12 1914 42 1915 11 1916 13 1917 9 1918 7

Post-Independence The partition of India in 1947 adversely impacted the economies of Punjab and West Bengal, paralyzing banking activities for months. India's independence marked the end of a regime of the Laissez-faire for the Indian banking. The Government of India initiated measures to play an active role in the economic life of the nation, and the Industrial Policy Resolution adopted by the government in 1948 envisaged a mixed economy. This resulted into greater involvement of the state in different segments of the economy including banking and finance. The major steps to regulate banking included:

The Reserve Bank of India, India's central banking authority, was established in April 1934, but was nationalized on January 1, 1949 under the terms of the Reserve Bank of India (Transfer to Public Ownership) Act, 1948 (RBI, 2005b).[1] In 1949, the Banking Regulation Act was enacted which empowered the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) "to regulate, control, and inspect the banks in India". The Banking Regulation Act also provided that no new bank or branch of an existing bank could be opened without a license from the RBI, and no two banks could have common directors.

Nationalisation

Banks Nationalisation in India: Newspaper Clipping, Times of India, July 20, 1969 Despite the provisions, control and regulations of Reserve Bank of India, banks in India except the State Bank of India or SBI, continued to be owned and operated by private persons. By the 1960s, the Indian banking industry had become an

important tool to facilitate the development of the Indian economy. At the same time, it had emerged as a large employer, and a debate had ensued about the nationalization of the banking industry. Indira Gandhi, then Prime Minister of India, expressed the intention of the Government of India in the annual conference of the All India Congress Meeting in a paper entitled "Stray thoughts on Bank Nationalisation." The meeting received the paper with enthusiasm. Thereafter, her move was swift and sudden. The Government of India issued an ordinance ('Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Ordinance, 1969')) andnationalised the 14 largest commercial banks with effect from the midnight of July 19, 1969. These banks contained 85 percent of bank deposits in the country. Jayaprakash Narayan, a national leader of India, described the step as a "masterstroke of political sagacity." Within two weeks of the issue of the ordinance, theParliament passed the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertaking) Bill, and it received the presidential approval on 9 August 1969. A second dose of nationalization of 6 more commercial banks followed in 1980. The stated reason for the nationalization was to give the government more control of credit delivery. With the second dose of nationalization, the Government of India controlled around 91% of the banking business of India. Later on, in the year 1993, the government merged New Bank of India with Punjab National Bank. It was the only merger between nationalized banks and resulted in the reduction of the number of nationalised banks from 20 to 19. After this, until the 1990s, the nationalised banks grew at a pace of around 4%, closer to the average growth rate of the Indian economy. Liberalisation In the early 1990s, the then Narasimha Rao government embarked on a policy of liberalization, licensing a small number of private banks. These came to be known as New Generation tech-savvy banks, and included Global Trust Bank (the first of such new generation banks to be set up), which later amalgamated with Oriental Bank of Commerce, UTI Bank (since renamed Axis Bank), ICICI Bank and HDFC Bank. This move, along with the rapid growth in the economy of India, revitalized the banking sector in India, which has seen rapid growth with strong contribution from all the three sectors of banks, namely, government banks, private banks and foreign banks. The next stage for the Indian banking has been set up with the proposed relaxation in the norms for Foreign Direct Investment, where all Foreign Investors in banks may be given voting rights which could exceed the present cap of 10%,at present it has gone up to 74% with some restrictions.

The new policy shook the Banking sector in India completely. Bankers, till this time, were used to the 4-6-4 method (Borrow at 4%;Lend at 6%;Go home at 4) of functioning. The new wave ushered in a modern outlook and tech-savvy methods of working for traditional banks.All this led to the retail boom in India. People not just demanded more from their banks but also received more. Currently (2010), banking in India is generally fairly mature in terms of supply, product range and reach-even though reach in rural India still remains a challenge for the private sector and foreign banks. In terms of quality of assets and capital adequacy, Indian banks are considered to have clean, strong and transparent balance sheets relative to other banks in comparable economies in its region. The Reserve Bank of India is an autonomous body, with minimal pressure from the government. The stated policy of the Bank on the Indian Rupee is to manage volatility but without any fixed exchange rate-and this has mostly been true. With the growth in the Indian economy expected to be strong for quite some timeespecially in its services sector-the demand for banking services, especially retail banking, mortgages and investment services are expected to be strong. One may also expect M&A , takeovers, and asset sales. In March 2006, the Reserve Bank of India allowed Warburg Pincus to increase its stake in Kotak Mahindra Bank (a private sector bank) to 10%. This is the first time an investor has been allowed to hold more than 5% in a private sector bank since the RBI announced norms in 2005 that any stake exceeding 5% in the private sector banks would need to be vetted by them. In recent years critics have charged that the non-government owned banks are too aggressive in their loan recovery efforts in connection with housing, vehicle and personal loans. There are press reports that the banks' loan recovery efforts have driven defaulting borrowers to suicide

Chapter 2 banking in india A bank is a financial institution and a financial intermediary that accepts deposits and channels those deposits into lending activities, either directly or through capital markets. A bank connects customers that have capital deficits to customers with capital surpluses

Due to their critical status within the financial system and the economy generally, banks are highly regulated in most countries. Most banks operate under a system known as fractional reserve banking where they hold only a small reserve of the funds deposited and lend out the rest for profit. They are generally subject to minimum capital requirements which are based on an international set of capital standards, known as the Basel Accords. Standard activities Banks act as payment agents by conducting checking or current accounts for customers, paying checks drawn by customers on the bank, and collecting checks deposited to customers' current accounts. Banks also enable customer payments via other payment methods such as Automated Clearing House (ACH), Wire transfers ortelegraphic transfer, EFTPOS, and automated teller machine (ATM). Banks borrow money by accepting funds deposited on current accounts, by acceptingterm deposits, and by issuing debt securities such as banknotes and bonds. Banks lend money by making advances to customers on current accounts, by makinginstallment loans, and by investing in marketable debt securities and other forms of money lending. Banks provide different payment services, and a bank account is considered indispensable by most businesses and individuals. Non-banks that provide payment services such as remittance companies are normally not considered as an adequate substitute for a bank account. Channels Banks offer many different channels to access their banking and other services:

Automated Teller Machines A branch is a retail location Call center Mail: most banks accept cheque deposits via mail and use mail to communicate to their customers, e.g. by sending out statements Mobile banking is a method of using one's mobile phone to conduct banking transactions

Online banking is a term used for performing transactions, payments etc. over the Internet Relationship Managers, mostly for private banking or business banking, often visiting customers at their homes or businesses Telephone banking is a service which allows its customers to perform transactions over the telephone with automated attendant or when requested with telephone operator Video banking is a term used for performing banking transactions or professional banking consultations via a remote video and audio connection. Video banking can be performed via purpose built banking transaction machines (similar to an Automated teller machine), or via a video conference enabled bank branch clarification

Business model A bank can generate revenue in a variety of different ways including interest, transaction fees and financial advice. The main method is via charging interest on the capital it lends out to customers. The bank profits from the difference between the level of interest it pays for deposits and other sources of funds, and the level of interest it charges in its lending activities. This difference is referred to as the spread between the cost of funds and the loan interest rate. Historically, profitability from lending activities has been cyclical and dependent on the needs and strengths of loan customers and the stage of the economic cycle. Fees and financial advice constitute a more stable revenue stream and banks have therefore placed more emphasis on these revenue lines to smooth their financial performance. In the past 20 years American banks have taken many measures to ensure that they remain profitable while responding to increasingly changing market conditions. First, this includes the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, which allows banks again to merge with investment and insurance houses. Merging banking, investment, and insurance functions allows traditional banks to respond to increasing consumer demands for "one-stop shopping" by enabling cross-selling of products (which, the banks hope, will also increase profitability). Second, they have expanded the use of risk-based pricing from business lending to consumer lending, which means charging higher interest rates to those customers that are considered to be a higher credit risk and thus increased chance of default on loans. This helps to offset the losses from bad loans, lowers the price of loans to those who have better credit histories, and offers credit products to high risk customers who would otherwise be denied credit.

Third, they have sought to increase the methods of payment processing available to the general public and business clients. These products include debit cards, prepaid cards, smart cards, and credit cards. They make it easier for consumers to conveniently make transactions and smooth their consumption over time (in some countries with underdeveloped financial systems, it is still common to deal strictly in cash, including carrying suitcases filled with cash to purchase a home). However, with convenience of easy credit, there is also increased risk that consumers will mismanage their financial resources and accumulate excessive debt. Banks make money from card products through interest payments and fees charged to consumers andtransaction fees to companies that accept the credit- debit - cards. This helps in making profit and facilitates economic development as a whole. Products Retail banking

Checking account Savings account Money market account Certificate of deposit (CD) Individual retirement account (IRA) Credit card Debit card Mortgage Home equity loan Mutual fund Personal loan Time deposits ATM card

Business (or commercial/investment) banking


Business loan Capital raising (Equity / Debt / Hybrids) Mezzanine finance Project finance Revolving credit

Risk management (FX, interest rates, commodities, derivatives) Term loan Cash Management Services (Lock box, Remote Deposit Capture, Merchant Processing)

Risk and capital Banks face a number of risks in order to conduct their business, and how well these risks are managed and understood is a key driver behind profitability, and how much capital a bank is required to hold. Some of the main risks faced by banks include: Credit risk: risk of loss arising from a borrower who does not make payments as promised. Liquidity risk: risk that a given security or asset cannot be traded quickly enough in the market to prevent a loss (or make the required profit). Market risk: risk that the value of a portfolio, either an investment portfolio or a trading portfolio, will decrease due to the change in value of the market risk factors. Operational risk: risk arising from execution of a company's business functions. Reputational risk: a type of risk related to the trustworthiness of business. Macroeconomic risk: risks related to the aggregate economy the bank is operating in. The capital requirement is a bank regulation, which sets a framework on how banks and depository institutions must handle their capital. The categorization of assets and capital is highly standardized so that it can be risk weighted (see riskweighted asset).

Economic functions The economic functions of banks include: 1. Issue of money, in the form of banknotes and current accounts subject to check or payment at the customer's order. These claims on banks can act as money because they are negotiable or repayable on demand, and hence valued at par. They are effectively transferable by mere delivery, in the case of banknotes, or by drawing a check that the payee may bank or cash. 2. Netting and settlement of payments banks act as both collection and paying agents for customers, participating in interbank clearing and

3. 4.

5.

6.

settlement systems to collect, present, be presented with, and pay payment instruments. This enables banks to economize on reserves held for settlement of payments, since inward and outward payments offset each other. It also enables the offsetting of payment flows between geographical areas, reducing the cost of settlement between them. Credit intermediation banks borrow and lend back-to-back on their own account as middle men. Credit quality improvement banks lend money to ordinary commercial and personal borrowers (ordinary credit quality), but are high quality borrowers. The improvement comes from diversification of the bank's assets and capital which provides a buffer to absorb losses without defaulting on its obligations. However, banknotes and deposits are generally unsecured; if the bank gets into difficulty and pledges assets as security, to raise the funding it needs to continue to operate, this puts the note holders and depositors in an economically subordinated position. Maturity transformation banks borrow more on demand debt and short term debt, but provide more long term loans. In other words, they borrow short and lend long. With a stronger credit quality than most other borrowers, banks can do this by aggregating issues (e.g. accepting deposits and issuing banknotes) and redemptions (e.g. withdrawals and redemption of banknotes), maintaining reserves of cash, investing in marketable securities that can be readily converted to cash if needed, and raising replacement funding as needed from various sources (e.g. wholesale cash markets and securities markets). Money creation whenever a bank gives out a loan in a fractional-reserve banking system, a new sum of virtual money is created.

Types of banks
Banks' activities can be divided into retail banking, dealing directly with individuals and small businesses; business banking, providing services to midmarket business; corporate banking, directed at large business entities; private banking, providing wealth management services to high net worth individuals and families; and investment banking, relating to activities on the financial markets. Most banks are profit-making, private enterprises. However, some are owned by government, or are non-profit organizations.

Types of retail banks

Commercial bank: the term used for a normal bank to distinguish it from an investment bank. After the Great Depression, the U.S. Congress required that banks only engage in banking activities, whereas investment banks were limited to capital market activities. Since the two no longer have to be under separate ownership, some use the term "commercial bank" to refer to a bank or a division of a bank that mostly deals with deposits and loans from corporations or large businesses. Community banks: locally operated financial institutions that empower employees to make local decisions to serve their customers and the partners. Community development banks: regulated banks that provide financial services and credit to under-served markets or populations. Credit unions: not-for-profit cooperatives owned by the depositors and often offering rates more favorable than for-profit banks. Typically, membership is restricted to employees of a particular company, residents of a defined neighborhood, members of a certain labor union or religious organizations, and their immediate families. Postal savings banks: savings banks associated with national postal systems. Private banks: banks that manage the assets of high net worth individuals. Historically a minimum of USD 1 million was required to open an account, however, over the last years many private banks have lowered their entry hurdles to USD 250,000 for private investors. Offshore banks: banks located in jurisdictions with low taxation and regulation. Many offshore banks are essentially private banks. Savings bank: in Europe, savings banks took their roots in the 19th or sometimes even in the 18th century. Their original objective was to provide easily accessible savings products to all strata of the population. In some countries, savings banks were created on public initiative; in others, socially committed individuals created foundations to put in place the necessary infrastructure. Nowadays, European savings banks have kept their focus on retail banking: payments, savings products, credits and insurances for individuals or small and medium-sized enterprises. Apart from this retail focus, they also differ from commercial banks by their broadly decentralized distribution network, providing local and regional outreachand by their socially responsible approach to business and society. Building societies and Landesbanks: institutions that conduct retail banking. Ethical banks: banks that prioritize the transparency of all operations and make only what they consider to be socially-responsible investments.

A Direct or Internet-Only bank is a banking operation without any physical bank branches, conceived and implemented wholly with networked computers. Types of investment banks

Investment banks "underwrite" (guarantee the sale of) stock and bond issues, trade for their own accounts, make markets, and advise corporations on capital market activities such as mergers and acquisitions. Merchant banks were traditionally banks which engaged in trade finance. The modern definition, however, refers to banks which provide capital to firms in the form of shares rather than loans. Unlike venture capital firms, they tend not to invest in new companies. Both combined

Universal banks, more commonly known as financial services companies, engage in several of these activities. These big banks are very diversified groups that, among other services, also distribute insurance hence the term bancassurance, a portmanteau wordcombining "banque or bank" and "assurance", signifying that both banking and insurance are provided by the same corporate entity. Other types of banks

Central banks are normally government-owned and charged with quasiregulatory responsibilities, such as supervising commercial banks, or controlling the cash interest rate. They generally provide liquidity to the banking system and act as the lender of last resort in event of a crisis. Islamic banks adhere to the concepts of Islamic law. This form of banking revolves around several well-established principles based on Islamic canons. All banking activities must avoid interest, a concept that is forbidden in Islam. Instead, the bank earns profit (markup) and fees on the financing facilities that it extends to customers.

Chapter 3 commercial bank A commercial bank (or business bank) is a type of financial institution and intermediary. It is abank that lends money and provides transactional, savings, and money market accounts and that accepts time deposits. Origin of the word The name bank derives from the Italian word banco "desk/bench", used during the Renaissanceera by Florentine bankers, who used to make their transactions above a desk covered by a green tablecloth. However, traces of banking activity can be found even in ancient times. In fact, the word traces its origins back to the Ancient Roman Empire, where moneylenders would set up their stalls in the middle of enclosed courtyards called macella on a long bench called abancu, from which the words banco and bank are derived. As a moneychanger, the merchant at the bancu did not so much invest money as merely convert the foreign currency into the only legal tender in Rome that of the Imperial Mint. The role of commercial banks Commercial banks engage in the following activities:

processing of payments by way of telegraphic transfer, EFTPOS, internet banking, or other means issuing bank drafts and bank cheques accepting money on term deposit lending money by overdraft, installment loan, or other means providing documentary and standby letter of credit, guarantees, performance bonds, securities underwriting commitments and other forms of off balance sheet exposures safekeeping of documents and other items in safe deposit boxes sales, distribution or brokerage, with or without advice, of: insurance, unit trusts and similar financial products as a financial supermarket cash management and treasury merchant banking and private equity financing traditionally, large commercial banks also underwrite bonds, and make markets in currency, interest rates, and credit-related securities, but today large commercial banks usually have an investment bank arm that is involved in the mentioned activities

Types of loans granted by commercial banks Secured loan A secured loan is a loan in which the borrower pledges some asset (e.g. a car or property) as collateral for the loan, which then becomes a secured debt owed to the creditor who gives the loan. The debt is thus secured against the collateral in the event that the borrower defaults, the creditor takes possession of the asset used as collateral and may sell it to regain some or all of the amount originally lent to the borrower, for example, foreclosure of a home. From the creditor's perspective this is a category of debt in which a lender has been granted a portion of the bundle of rights to specified property. If the sale of the collateral does not raise enough money to pay off the debt, the creditor can often obtain a deficiency judgment against the borrower for the remaining amount. The opposite of secured debt/loan is unsecured debt, which is not connected to any specific piece of property and instead the creditor may only satisfy the debt against the borrower rather than the borrower's collateral and the borrower. A mortgage loan is a very common type of debt instrument, used to purchase real estate. Under this arrangement, the money is used to purchase the property. Commercial banks, however, are given security - a lien on the title to the house until the mortgage is paid off in full. If the borrower defaults on the loan, the bank would have the legal right to repossess the house and sell it, to recover sums owing to it. In the past, commercial banks have not been greatly interested in real estate loans and have placed only a relatively small percentage of assets in mortgages. As their name implies, such financial institutions secured their earning primarily from commercial and consumer loans and left the major task of home financing to others. However, due to changes in banking laws and policies, commercial banks are increasingly active in home financing. Changes in banking laws now allow commercial banks to make home mortgage loans on a more liberal basis than ever before. In acquiring mortgages on real estate, these institutions follow two main practices. First, some of the banks maintain active and well-organized departments whose primary function is to compete actively for real estate loans. In areas lacking specialized real estate financial institutions, these banks become the source for residential and farm mortgage loans. Second, the banks acquire mortgages by simply purchasing them from mortgage bankers or dealers. In addition, dealer service companies, which were originally used to obtain car loans for permanent lenders such as commercial banks, wanted to broaden their

activity beyond their local area. In recent years, however, such companies have concentrated on acquiring mobile home loans in volume for both commercial banks and savings and loan associations. Service companies obtain these loans from retail dealers, usually on a nonrecourse basis. Almost all bank/service company agreements contain a credit insurance policy that protects the lender if the consumer defaults. Unsecured loan Unsecured loans are monetary loans that are not secured against the borrower's assets (i.e., no collateral is involved). There are small businesss unsecured loans such as credit cards and credit lines to large corporate credit lines. These may be available from financial institutions under many different guises or marketing packages: bank overdrafts An overdraft occurs when money is withdrawn from a bank account and the available balance goes below zero. In this situation the account is said to be "overdrawn". If there is a prior agreement with the account provider for an overdraft, and the amount overdrawn is within the authorized overdraft limit, then interest is normally charged at the agreed rate. If the POSITIVE balance exceeds the agreed terms, then additional fees may be charged and higher interest rates may apply.

corporate bonds credit card debt credit facilities or lines of credit personal loans What makes a bank limited liability company

A corporate bond is a bond issued by a corporation. It is a bond that a corporation issues to raise money in order to expand its business. The term is usually applied to longer-term debt instruments, generally with a maturity date falling at least a year after their issue date. (The term "commercial paper" is sometimes used for instruments with a shorter maturity.) Sometimes, the term "corporate bonds" is used to include all bonds except those issued by governments in their own currencies. Strictly speaking, however, it only applies to those issued by corporations. The bonds of local authorities and supranational organizations do not fit in either category.[clarification needed] Corporate bonds are often listed on major exchanges (bonds there are called "listed" bonds) and ECNs like Bonds.com and Market Axess, and the coupon (i.e. interest payment) is usually taxable.

Sometimes this coupon can be zero with a high redemption value. However, despite being listed on exchanges, the vast majority of trading volume in corporate bonds in most developed markets takes place in decentralized, dealer-based, overthe-counter markets. Some corporate bonds have an embedded call option that allows the issuer to redeem the debt before its maturity date. Other bonds, known as convertible bonds, allow investors to convert the bond into equity. Corporate Credit spreads may alternatively be earned in exchange for default risk through the mechanism of Credit Default Swaps which give an unfunded synthetic exposure to similar risks on the same 'Reference Entities'. However, owing to quite volatile CDS 'basis' the spreads on CDS and the credit spreads on corporate bonds can be significantly different.

Assets and Liabilities of Commercial Banks in the United States Glass-Steagall Act Mortgage constant

Chapter 4 RBI Reserve Bank of India The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee. It was established on 1 April 1935 during the British Raj in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. The share capital was divided into shares of 100 each fully paid which was entirely owned by private shareholders in the beginning Following India's independence in 1947, the RBI was nationalised in the year 1949. The RBI plays an important part in the development strategy of theGovernment of India. It is a member bank of the Asian Clearing Union. The general superintendence and direction of the RBI is entrusted with the 20-member-strong Central Board of Directorsthe Governor (currently Duvvuri Subbarao), four Deputy Governors, one Finance Ministry representative, ten Governmentnominated Directors to represent important elements from India's economy, and four Directors to represent Local Boards headquartered at Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and New Delhi. Each of these Local Boards consist of five members who represent regional interests, as well as the interests of co-operative and indigenous banks.

Reserve Bank of India

RBI seal Headquarters Established Governor Currency ISO 4217 Code Reserves

RBI headquarters in Mumbai Mumbai, Maharashtra 1 April 1935 Duvvuri Subbarao Indian rupee INR

US$30,210 crore(US$302.1 billion)[1][Note 1] 8.00%

Base borrowing rate Base deposit rate Website

6.00%

http://www.rbi.org.in

History 19351960

The old RBI Building in Mumbai The Reserve Bank of India was founded on 1 April 1935 to respond to economic troubles after the First World War. It came into picture according to the guidelines laid down by Dr. Ambedkar. RBI was conceptualized as per the guidelines, working style and outlook presented by Dr Ambedkar in front of the Hilton Young Commission. When this commission came to India under the name of Royal Commission on Indian Currency & Finance, each and every member of this commission were holding Dr Ambedkars book named The Problem of the Rupee Its origin and its solution.[ The Bank was set up based on the recommendations of the 1926 Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance, also known as the HiltonYoung Commission. The original choice for the seal of RBI was The East India Company Double Mohur, with the sketch of the Lion and Palm Tree. However it was decided to replace the lion with the tiger, the national animal of India. The Preamble of the RBI describes its basic functions to regulate the issue of bank notes, keep reserves to secure monetary stability in India, and generally to operate the currency and credit system in the best interests of the country. The Central Office of the RBI was initially established in Calcutta (now Kolkata), but was permanently moved to Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1937. The RBI also acted as Burma's central bank, except during the years of the Japanese occupation of Burma (194245), until April 1947, even though Burma seceded from the Indian Union in 1937. After the Partition of India in 1947, the Bank served as the central bank for Pakistan until June 1948 when the State Bank of Pakistan commenced operations. Though originally set up as a shareholders bank, the RBI has been fully owned by the Government of India since its nationalization in 1949.

19501960 In the 1950s, the Indian government, under its first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, developed a centrally planned economic policy that focused on the agricultural sector. The administration nationalized commercial banks and established, based on the Banking Companies Act of 1949 (later called the Banking Regulation Act), a central bank regulation as part of the RBI. Furthermore, the central bank was ordered to support the economic plan with loans. 19601969 As a result of bank crashes, the RBI was requested to establish and monitor a deposit insurance system. It should restore the trust in the national bank system and was initialized on 7 December 1961. The Indian government founded funds to promote the economy and used the slogan Developing Banking. The Government of India restructured the national bank market and nationalized a lot of institutes. As a result, the RBI had to play the central part of control and support of this public banking sector. 19691985 In 1969, the Indira Gandhi-headed government nationalized 14 major commercial banks. Upon Gandhi's return to power in 1980, a further six banks were nationalized. The regulation of the economy and especially the financial sector was reinforced by the Government of India in the 1970s and 1980s. The central bank became the central player and increased its policies for a lot of tasks like interests, reserve ratio and visible deposits. These measures aimed at better economic development and had a huge effect on the company policy of the institutes. The banks lent money in selected sectors, like agri-business and small trade companies. The branch was forced to establish two new offices in the country for every newly established office in a town. The oil crises in 1973 resulted in increasing inflation, and the RBI restricted monetary policy to reduce the effects. 19851991 A lot of committees analysed the Indian economy between 1985 and 1991. Their results had an effect on the RBI. The Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction, the Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research and the Security & Exchange Board of India investigated the national economy as a whole, and the security and exchange board proposed better methods for more effective markets and the protection of investor interests. The Indian financial market was a leading example for so-called "financial repression" (Mackinnon and Shaw). The Discount and Finance House of India began its operations on the

monetary market in April 1988; theNational Housing Bank, founded in July 1988, was forced to invest in the property market and a new financial law improved the versatility of direct deposit by more security measures and liberalisation. 19912000 The national economy came down in July 1991 and the Indian rupee was devalued. The currency lost 18% relative to the US dollar, and the Narsimahmam Committee advised restructuring the financial sector by a temporal reduced reserve ratio as well as the statutory liquidity ratio. New guidelines were published in 1993 to establish a private banking sector. This turning point should reinforce the market and was often called neo-liberal. The central bank deregulated bank interests and some sectors of the financial market like the trust and property markets. This first phase was a success and the central government forced a diversity liberalisation to diversify owner structures in 1998. The National Stock Exchange of India took the trade on in June 1994 and the RBI allowed nationalized banks in July to interact with the capital market to reinforce their capital base. The central bank founded a subsidiary companythe Bharatiya Reserve Bank Note Mudran Limitedin February 1995 to produce banknotes. Since 2000 The Foreign Exchange Management Act from 1999 came into force in June 2000. It should improve the foreign exchange market, international investments in India and transactions. The RBI promoted the development of the financial market in the last years, allowedonline banking in 2001 and established a new payment system in 20042005 (National Electronic Fund Transfer). The Security Printing & Minting Corporation of India Ltd., a merger of nine institutions, was founded in 2006 and produces banknotes and coins. The national economy's growth rate came down to 5.8% in the last quarter of 20082009 and the central bank promotes the economic development. Structure

Central Board of Directors The Central Board of Directors is the main committee of the central bank. The Government of India appoints the directors for a four-year term. The Board consists of a governor, four deputy governors, fifteen directors to represent the

regional boards, one from the Ministry of Finance and ten other directors from various fields. The Government nominated Arvind Mayaram, as a director on the Central Board of Directors with effect from August 7, 2012 and vice R Gopalan, RBI said in a statement on August 8,2012. Governors The current Governor of RBI is Duvvuri Subbarao. The RBI extended the period of the present governor up to 2013. There are ten deputy governors,.Deputy Governor K C Chakrabarty's term has been exteded further by 2 years. Supportive bodies The Reserve Bank of India has ten regional representations: North in New Delhi, South in Chennai, East in Kolkata and West in Mumbai. The representations are formed by five members, appointed for four years by the central government and servebeside the advice of the Central Board of Directorsas a forum for regional banks and to deal with delegated tasks from the central board. The institution has 22 regional offices. The Board of Financial Supervision (BFS), formed in November 1994, serves as a CCBD committee to control the financial institutions. It has four members, appointed for two years, and takes measures to strength the role of statutory auditors in the financial sector, external monitoring and internal controlling systems. The Tarapore committee was set up by the Reserve Bank of India under the chairmanship of former RBI deputy governor S. S. Tarapore to "lay the road map" to capital account convertibility. The five-member committee recommended a three-year time frame for complete convertibility by 19992000. On 1 July 2007, in an attempt to enhance the quality of customer service and strengthen the grievance redressal mechanism, the Reserve Bank of India created a new customer service department. Offices and branches The Reserve Bank of India has 4 zonal offices. It has 19 regional offices at most state capitals and at a few major cities in India. Few of them are located in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Chandigarh, Chennai, Delhi, Gu wahati, Hyderabad, Jaipur,Jammu, Kanpur, Kolkata, Lucknow, Mumbai, Nagpur, Patna, and Thiruvananthapuram. Besides it has 09 sub-offices at Agartala,Dehradun, Gangtok, Kochi, Panaji, Raipur, Ranchi, Shimla & Srinagar.

The bank has also two training colleges for its officers, viz. Reserve Bank Staff College at Chennai and College of Agricultural Banking at Pune. There are also four Zonal Training Centres at Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and New Delhi. Main functions

The regional offices of GPO (in white) and RBI (in sandstone) at Dalhousie Square, Kolkata. Bank of Issue Under Section 22 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, the Bank has the sole right to issue bank notes of all denominations. The distribution of one rupee notes and coins and small coins all over the country is undertaken by the Reserve Bank as agent of the Government. The Reserve Bank has a separate Issue Department which is entrusted with the issue of currency notes. The assets and liabilities of the Issue Department are kept separate from those of the Banking Department. Originally, the assets of the Issue Department were to consist of not less than twofifths of gold coin, gold bullion or sterling securities provided the amount of gold was not less than 40 crore(400 million) in value. The remaining three-fifths of the assets might be held in rupee coins, Government of India rupee securities, eligible bills of exchange and promissory notes payable in India. Due to the exigencies of the Second World War and the post-war period, these provisions were considerably modified. Since 1957, the Reserve Bank of India is required to maintain gold and foreign exchange reserves of 200 crore, of which at least 115 crore (1.15 billion) should be in gold and 85 crore( 850 million) in the form of Government Securities.The system as it exists today is known as the minimum reserve system.

Monetary authority The Reserve Bank of India is the main monetary authority of the country and beside that the central bank acts as the bank of the national and state governments. It formulates, implements and monitors the monetary policy as well as it has to ensure an adequate flow of credit to productive sectors. Objectives are maintaining price stability and ensuring adequate flow of credit to productive sectors. The national economy depends on the public sector and the central bank promotes an expansive monetary policy to push the private sector since the financial market reforms of the 1990s. The institution is also the regulator and supervisor of the financial system and prescribes broad parameters of banking operations within which the country's banking and financial system functions.Its objectives are to maintain public confidence in the system, protect depositors' interest and provide cost-effective banking services to the public. The Banking Ombudsman Scheme has been formulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for effective addressing of complaints by bank customers. The RBI controls the monetary supply, monitors economic indicators like the gross domestic productand has to decide the design of the rupee banknotes as well as coins. Managerial of exchange control The central bank manages to reach the goals of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999. Objective: to facilitate external trade and payment and promote orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India. Issuer of currency The bank issues and exchanges or destroys currency notes and coins that are not fit for circulation. The objectives are giving the public adequate supply of currency of good quality and to provide loans to commercial banks to maintain or improve the GDP. The basic objectives of RBI are to issue bank notes, to maintain the currency and credit system of the country to utilize it in its best advantage, and to maintain the reserves. RBI maintains the economic structure of the country so that it can achieve the objective of price stability as well as economic development, because both objectives are diverse in themselves. Banker of Banks RBI also works as a normal bank where account holders can deposit money. Since RBI does not deal with retail banking minimum balance for opening account with RBI is very high. RBI issues cheque books to its account holders and clears payment for them when produced.

Detection Of Fake currency In order to curb the fake currency menace, RBI has launched a website to raise awareness among masses about fake notes in the market.www.paisaboltahai.rbi.org.in provides information about identifying fake currency. Developmental role The central bank has to perform a wide range of promotional functions to support national objectives and industries. The RBI faces a lot of inter-sectoral and local inflation-related problems. Some of this problems are results of the dominant part of the public sector. Related functions The RBI is also a banker to the government and performs merchant banking function for the central and the state governments. It also acts as their banker. The National Housing Bank (NHB) was established in 1988 to promote private real estate acquisition. The institution maintains banking accounts of all scheduled banks, too. RBI on 7 August 2012 said that Indian banking system is resilient enough to face the stress caused by the drought like situation because of poor monsoon this year.

Policy rates and reserve ratios Policy rates, Reserve ratios, lending, and deposit rates as of 18 June, 2012 Bank Rate Repo Rate Reverse Repo Rate Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) Base Rate Reserve Bank Rate Deposit Rate 9.00% 8.00% 7.00% 4.75% 23.0% 10.00%10.50% 4% 8.00%9.25%

Bank Rate RBI lends to the commercial banks through its discount window to help the banks meet depositors demands and reserve requirements. The interest rate the RBI charges the banks for this purpose is called bank rate. If the RBI wants to increase the liquidity and money supply in the market, it will decrease the bank rate and if it wants to reduce the liquidity and money supply in the system, it will increase the bank rate. As of 25 June, 2012 the bank rate was 9.0%.

Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) Every commercial bank has to keep certain minimum cash reserves with RBI. Consequent upon amendment to sub-Section 42(1), the Reserve Bank, having regard to the needs of securing the monetary stability in the country, RBI can prescribe Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) for scheduled banks without any floor rate or ceiling rate ( [Before the enactment of this amendment, in terms of Section 42(1) of the RBI Act, the Reserve Bank could prescribe CRR for scheduled banks between 3% and 20% of total of their demand and time liabilities]. RBI uses this tool to increase or decrease the reserve requirement depending on whether it wants to effect a decrease or an increase in the money supply. An increase in Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) will make it mandatory on the part of the banks to hold a large proportion of their deposits in the form of deposits with the RBI. This will reduce the size of their deposits and they will lend less. This will in turn decrease the money supply. The current rate is 4.75%. ( As on Date- 25 June, 2012). Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) Apart from the CRR, banks are required to maintain liquid assets in the form of gold, cash and approved securities. Higher liquidity ratio forces commercial banks to maintain a larger proportion of their resources in liquid form and thus reduces their capacity to grant loans and advances, thus it is an anti-inflationary impact. A higher liquidity ratio diverts the bank funds from loans and advances to investment in government and approved securities. In well-developed economies, central banks use open market operationsbuying and selling of eligible securities by central bank in the money marketto influence the volume of cash reserves with commercial banks and thus influence the volume of loans and advances they can make to the commercial and industrial sectors. In the open money market, government securities are traded at market related rates of interest. The RBI is resorting more to open market operations in the more recent years. Generally RBI uses three kinds of selective credit controls: 1. Minimum margins for lending against specific securities. 2. Ceiling on the amounts of credit for certain purposes. 3. Discriminatory rate of interest charged on certain types of advances. Direct credit controls in India are of three types: 1. Part of the interest rate structure i.e. on small savings and provident funds, are administratively set.

2. Banks are mandatory required to keep 23% of their deposits in the form of government securities. 3. Banks are required to lend to the priority sectors to the extent of 40% of their advances.

Chapter 5 recent develop in bank Devolpement in banking

Recently, the RBI took a few important steps to make the Indian Banking industry more robust and healthy. This includes de-regulation of savings rate, guidelines for new banking licenses and implementation of Basel Norm III. Since March 2002, Bankex (Index tracking the performance of leading banking sector stocks) has grown at a compounded annual rate of about 31%. After a very successful decade, a new era seems to have started for the Indian Banking Industry. According to a Mckinsey report, the Indian banking sector is heading towards being a highperforming sector

According to an IBA-FICCI-BCG report titled Being five star in productivity road map for excellence in Indian banking, Indias gross domestic product (GDP) growth will make the Indian banking industry the third largest in the world by 2025. According to the report, the domestic banking industry is set for an exponential growth in coming years with its assets size poised to touch USD 28,500 billion by the turn of the 2025 from the current asset size of USD 1,350 billion (2010). So, before going in its future, lets have a glance at its historical performance.

If we look at 5 years historical performance of different types of players in the banking industry, public sector bank has grown its deposits, advances and business per employee by the highest rate 21.7%, 23% and 21.1% respectively. As far as net interest income is concerned, private banks are ahead in the race by reporting 24.2% growth, followed by pubic banks (21.4%) and then by foreign banks (14.8%). Though the growth in the business per employee and profit per employee has been the highest for public sector banks, in absolute terms, foreign banks have the highest business per employee as well as profit per employee. After looking at industry performance, lets see how the different players in the Banking Industry have performed in the last five years

The table above indicates that overall the top private banks have grown faster than that of public banks. Axis Bank, one of the new private sector bank, has shown the highest growth in all parameters i.e. net interest income, deposits, advances, total assets and book value. Among public sector banks, Bank of Baroda has been the outperformer in the last five years. What are the growth drivers of the Indian banking industry

High growth of Indian Economy: The growth of the banking industry is closely linked with the growth of the overall economy. India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world and is set to remain on that path for many years to come. This will be backed by the stellar growth in infrastructure, industry, services and agriculture. This is expected to boost the corporate credit growth in the economy and provide opportunities to banks to lend to fulfil these requirements in the future. Rising per capita income: The rising per capita income will drive the growth of retail credit. Indians have a conservative outlook towards credit except for housing and other necessities. However, with an increase in disposable income and increased exposure to a range of products, consumers have shown a higher

willingness to take credit, particularly, young customers. A study of the customer profiles of different types of banks, reveals that foreign and private banks share of younger customers is over 60% whereas public banks have only 32% customers under the age of 40. Private Banks also have a much higher share of the more profitable mass affluent segment. New channel Mobile banking is expected to become the second largest channel for banking after ATMs: New channels used to offer banking services will drive the growth of banking industry exponentially in the future by increasing productivity and acquiring new customers. During the last decade, banking through ATMs and internet has shown a tremendous growth, which is still in the growth phase. After ATMs, mobile banking is expected to give another push to this industry growth in a big way, with the help of new 3G and smart phone technology (mobile usage has grown tremendously over the years). This can be looked at as branchless banking and so will also reduce costs as there is no need for physical infrastructure and human resources. This will help in acquiring new customers, mainly who live in rural areas (though this will take time due to technology and infrastructure issues). The IBA-FICCI-BCG report predicts that mobile banking would become the second largest channel of banking after ATMs. Financial Inclusion Program: Currently, in India, 41% of the adult population dont have bank accounts, which indicates a large untapped market for banking players. Under the Financial Inclusion Program, RBI is trying to tap this untapped market and the growth potential in rural markets by volume growth for banks. Financial inclusion is the delivery of banking services at an affordable cost to the vast sections of disadvantaged and low income groups. The RBI has also taken many initiatives such as Financial Literacy Program, promoting effective use of development communication and using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to spread general banking concepts to people in the underbanked areas. All these initiatives of promoting rural banking are taken with the help of mobile banking, self help groups, microfinance institutions, etc. Financial Inclusion, on the one side, helps corporate in fulfilling their social responsibilities and on the other side it is fueling growth in other industries and so as a whole economy.

What is the future outlook for this industry Currently, there are many challenges before Indian Banks such as improving capital adequacy requirement, managing non-performing assets, enhancing branch sales & services, improving organisation design; using innovative technology through new channels and working on lean operations. Apart from this, frequent changes in policy rates to maintain economic stability, various regulatory requirements, etc. are additional key concerns. Despite these concerns, we expect that the Indian banking industry will grow through leaps and bounds looking at the huge growth potential of Indian economy. High population base of India, mobile

banking offering banking operations through mobile phones, financial inclusion, rising disposable income, etc. will drive the growth Indian banking industry in the long-term. The Indian economy will require additional banks and expansion of existing banks to meet its credit needs. Given below is the MoneyWorks4me assessment for few banks: At MoneyWorks4me we have assigned colour codes to the 10 YEAR XRAY and Future Prospects of the companies, as Green (Very Good), Orange (Somewhat Good) and Red (Not Good). *The 10 YEAR X-RAY facilitates analysis of the financial performance of the bank considering the seven most important parameters. A 10 Year period will normally encompass an entire business cycle. Analyzing the performance over this time frame is essential to understand how a company has fared during the good as well as bad times. The seven most important parameters that one needs to look at are Net Interest Income Growth Rate, Total Income Growth Rate, EPS Growth Rate, Book Value per Share (BVPS) Growth Rate, Return on Assets (ROA), Net NPA to Net Advances Ratio and Capital Adequacy Ratio.

While investing, one must always invest in the stocks of a company that operates in an industry with bright long-term prospects. Further, the companys 10 YEAR X-RAY and future prospects should also be Green. The table given above gives you a list of few companies from the Banking Industry that you could consider investing in. But, you need to invest in these stocks at the right price (i.e. when the market offers an attractive discount). To find out the right price to invest in these companies, become a member of MoneyWorks4me.com.

Chapter 6 Directory of Banks in India

Directory of Banks in India Most comprehensive listing of banks in India

The commercial banking structure in India consists of: Scheduled Commercial Banks and Unscheduled Banks. Scheduled commercial Banks constitute those banks which have been included in the Second Schedule of Reserve Bank of India(RBI) Act, 1934. RBI in turn includes only those banks in this schedule which satisfy the criteria laid down vide section 42 (6) (a) of the Act. For the purpose of assessment of performance of banks, the Reserve Bank of India categorise them as public sector banks, old private sector banks, new private sector banks and foreign banks.

1) Public Sector Banks 1. Allahabad Bank 2. Andhra Bank 3. Bank of Baroda 4. Bank of India 5. Bank of Maharashtra 6. Canara Bank 7. Central Bank of India 8. Corporation Bank 9. Dena Bank

10. Indian Bank 11. Indian Overseas Bank 12. Oriental Bank of Commerce 13. Punjab and Sind Bank 14. Punjab National Bank 15. Syndicate Bank 16. UCO Bank 17. Union Bank of India 18. United Bank of India 19. Vijaya Bank

2) State Bank Group1. State Bank of India 2. State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur 3. State Bank of Hyderabad 4. State Bank of Indore 5. State Bank of Mysore 6. State Bank of Patiala 7. State Bank of Saurashtra 8. State Bank of Travancore

3) Other Public sector BankIndustrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) Ltd

4) Old Private Banks1. Bank of Rajasthan Ltd. 2. Catholic Syrian Bank Ltd. 3. City Union Bank Ltd. 4. Dhanalakshmi Bank Ltd. 5 Federal Bank Ltd 6. ING Vysya Bank Ltd. 7. Jammu and Kashmir Bank Ltd 8 Karnataka Bank Ltd. 9. Karur Vysya Bank Ltd. 10. Lakshmi Vilas Bank Ltd. 11. Nainital Bank Ltd. 12. Ratnakar Bank Ltd 13. SBI Commercial and International Bank Ltd. 14. South Indian Bank Ltd. 15. Tamilnad Mercantile Bank Ltd.

16. United Western Bank Ltd.

5) New Private Banks1. Bank of Punjab Ltd. (since merged with Centurian Bank) 2. Centurian Bank of Punjab (since merged with HDFC Bank) 3. Development Credit Bank Ltd 4. HDFC Bank Ltd. 5. ICICI Bank Ltd. 6. IndusInd Bank Ltd 7. Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd. 8. Axis Bank (earlier UTI Bank) 9. Yes Bank Ltd

6) Foreign Banks 1 ABN-AMRO Bank N.V 2 Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank Ltd 3 American Express Bank Ltd 4 Barclays Bank PLC 5 BNP Paribas 6 Citibank N.A

7 DBS Bank Ltd 8 Deutsche Bank AG 9 HSBC Ltd 10 Standard Chartered Bank 11 State Bank of Mauritius Ltd

7) All India Financial Institutions 1 Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) 2 Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI) 3 Export - Import Bank of India (Exim Bank) 4 Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India (IRBI) now (Industrial Investment Bank of India) 5 National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) 6 Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) 7 National Housing Bank (NHB) 8 Unit Trust of India (UTI) 9 Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) 10 General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC) 11 Risk Capital and Technology Finance Corporation Ltd. (RCTC) 12 Technology Development and Information Company of India Ltd.(TDICI) 13 Tourism Finance Corporation of India Ltd. (TFCI)

14 Shipping Credit and Investment Company of India Ltd. (SCICI) 15 Discount and Finance House of India Ltd. (DFHI) 16 Securities Trading Corporation of India Ltd. (STCI) 17 Power Finance Corporation Ltd. 18 Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd. 19 Indian Railways Finance Corporation Ltd. 20 Infrastructure Development Finance Co. Ltd. 21 Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd. (HUDCO) 22 Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd. (IREDA)

8) Nominated Banks authorized to import Gold/Silver 1. Allahabad Bank 2. Bank of Nova Scotia 3. Bank of India 4. Canara Bank 5. Corporation Bank 6. Dena Bank 7. HDFC Bank Ltd. 8. ICICI Bank Ltd.

9. Indian Overseas Bank 10 IndusInd Bank Ltd. 11 Oriental Bank of Commerce 12 Punjab National Bank 13 State Bank of India 14 Union Bank of India 15 UTI Bank Ltd. 16 Indian Bank 17 Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd. 18 Syndicate Bank 19 Federal Bank Ltd.