Production of Bio-Diesel from Neem oil and its performance and emission Analysis in Diesel Engine.

Guided by Kavitha MS ANUPRASAD S G, VIKAS KUMAR School of Mechanical and Building Science, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamilndu, India. Vikas7511@sify.com ; +91-7418872551 1. Abstract In India Neem tree is a widely grown up termed as a divine tree due to its wide revalance in many areas of study. The present study is intended to consider aspect related to the feasibility of production of Biodiesel from neem oil .This paper deals with Biodiesel production from neem oil, which is mono ester produced using transesterification process. Biodiesel is a safe alternative fuel to replace traditional petroleum diesel. It has high lubricity is a clean burning fuel and can be a fuel component for use in existing unmodified diesel engine. Neem (Azadirachita Indica) is a tree. As we know Neem a nature’s gift it categorized in to non edible oil and mainly used in medicine and cosmetic product. An evergreen tree which is endemic to the Indian Sub-continent and has been introduced to many other areas in tropics. Biodiesel has been gaining increased attention from engine researcher in view of the energy crisis and increasing environmental problem. Neem oil is being considered for biodiesel and more research is being done in this area. Biodiesel designed for complete compatibility with petroleum diesel and can be blended in any ratio from additive levels to 100% Biodiesel. Keywords: Emission Characteristic, Performance, Diesel-Bio Diesel Blend. 2. Intorduction Vegetable Oil have become more attractive in the recent past year owing to Its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources vegetable oils are a renewable and potentially inexhaustible source of energy with the energy content close to diesel fuel. Oil derived from Vegetable and microbial source may in course of time becomes as important as petroleum and the coal tar product of present time
[1]

.Recent increase in petroleum price and due to uncertainties concerning petroleum
[2]

availability there is renewed interest in Vegetable oil fuel for diesel engine

.Neem is tree in the

Mahogany family, Which is grows in Various parts of India. The Neem grows on almost all types of soils including Clayey Saline and alkaline condition .Neem Seeds from this tree are collected depulped sun dried and crushed for oil extraction [4].Neem oil is proved to contain Methyl ester which is consider to be the base of Biodiesel .This Biodiesel contains alkyl ester of the fatty acid which is the product of transesterification process of the neem oil. Extraction of this diesel is complicated but it’s result are more

it is critical for Biodiesel industry to continuously improve that will strengthen the prospect of better market penetration [7].2 Production method Purchase the Neem oil from the Vellore market oil as a raw product. Finally got average reading and added 3. Phospholipids. Methanol. Transesterification is an important process to produce the cleaner and environmentally safe fuel from vegetable oil [6].water.5 gm NAOH as per standard criteria. Pyrolysis. Heat the oil for removing moisture content for five minute at the temperature 100 degree Celsius.The Plant oil usually contain free fatty acid.1: Removed the Moisture Content To remove the moisture content before to use for transesterification heated the oil for five minute at the temperature of 1000C.odorants and other impurities. Because of these the oil cannot be used as directly fuel. 3. Catalyst is dissolved in the alcohol using a standard mixer. Add 20 ml Methanol for 100 ml of oil and stirred for 45 minute and maintained temperature between 45-60 degree. The cooled oil then kept in separating funnel and after 24 hr. 4.brake specific fuel is saved and the reduce the smoke density [5] .2: Catalyst Quantity 1 ml of Oil+10 ml isopropyl alcohol is titrated against 1% of NaOH where Methyl orange is used as a indicator. 4. Glycerin . In order to overcome the adversities of the economic background. Color changed to pink and immediately noted reading and repeated this process three times. To overcome these problem the oil require slight chemical modification mainly transesterification. Material and Method: Chemical: Sodium Hydroxide. 4.efficient like low carbon emission. The catalyst/alcohol mix is then changed into a closed vessel and the neem oil is added. We found 7gm NAOH per kg of oil and as per standard procedure of Bio-Diesel preparation mixed 20ml carbinol per 100 ml of oil. increase the engine performance . Neem Oil all chemical used was from sigma chemicals.While the Biodiesel industry is being established in many countries. The system from here on is totally closed to the atmosphere to prevent the loss of alcohol. thick layer of glycerin was found. Methyl Orange Indicator. Isopropyl alcohol. it has also been hit by the current global economic crisis. Sample Preparation 4.Sterols.

Analysis of Different –Different Oil Properties. Once separated from glycerin.we observed that with increasing the time temperature grown up and after attaining the temp of oil 160oC brought a burning wood in contact of oil.4 Density-To calculate the density first I took empty weight of graduate cylinder (m1) and later took weight of graduate cylinder after filling the water (m2). 5.1 pH: Added few drops of HCL to make oil neutral. 5. Oil collected and stored.1196×10-3 m3=857 kg/m3 5. with increase of time temperature of oil grown up and when reached at 180oC again we brought a burning wood in contact of oil so that we observed a yellow flame which identified as fire point of oil. M1=49. the biodiesel is then purified by washing gently with warm water to remove residual catalyst. For to measure flash point took a sample of oil and placed it in apparatus which was surrounded by heating coil and also put a thermometer to check the temperature .removed by gravity settling by using separating funnel. 4. 5. 5. for distillation purpose heated the oil at the 1250C.5 Viscosity: To measure the Viscosity used redwood viscometer.3 Fire Point-For to check fire point again Used the Penesky Martin apparatus after attaining flash point temperature.5 gm M2=152 gm By using Verniar caliper measured the dimensions of graduate cylinder and found Diameter=46 mm Height=72 mm Volume=π/4 D2 h=0.1196×10-3 m3 Density=Mass/Volume=M2-M1/V= (152-49. 5.3 Distillation of Biodiesel The biodiesel was composed of FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) and methanol. So that observed a blue flame which indentified as flash point of oil. FAME was purified by distillation. First took the sample of oil and placed at the centre of apparatus after reaching the temperature 400C lift the stopper and calculated time to fill .2 Flash Point-To checks the flash point used Penesky Martin apparatus.5)gm/0.

25×37.937 857 Where A=0.the graduate cylinder up to the 50 ml and repeated the procedure till the four interval of reading and note down the time to fill the oil up to the 50 ml and got a graph as shown below. .P:4. Two Strokes Rated Speed: 1500 rpm B. in ºC 70 80 Figure 1: Shows Temp Verses Time From this graph Tavg=37.9 ×10-6 m2/sec=4.937 × mm2/Sec Engine specification Kirlosker Engine Single Cylinder. Performance and Emission Characteristic.9 Sec By applying formula Kinematic Viscosity=At-B/t × 10-6 m2/sec 6: Properties of oil PH Flash Point (in deg) Fire Point (in deg) Kinematic Viscosity (mm2/sec) Density (Kg/m3) 7 160 180 4.4 Kw 6.25 B=172 =0.9-172/37. 50 40 30 c S n e m i T 20 10 0 40 50 60 T emp.

Some reports show that the carbon monoxide emissions emerging from the biodiesel will lower the overall load and speed ranges up to 51. 6. Compared to conventional fuel the NOX emission is increased by 7% with the blend of Neem oil.6% [10].1. the result shows (Fig. The result X shows (Fig.1Carbon monoxide emission With increasing biodiesel percentage CO emission level decreases up to 16%blend the presence of oxygen which helps for the complete combustion. 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 4 8 Loa d 12 16 O C Diesel B10 B20 Fig 1.g 15 20 Diesel B10 B20 Fig 1.1 Carbon monoxide emission The carbon monoxide emissions of the pure diesel and other blends of biodiesel were found.2 NOX emission . 600 500 400 x O N 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 LOADin K .2) the diesel fuel is having lower NOX emission and blended Neem oil is having higher NOX emission.6.1) carbon monoxide emissions are found at the same load for B20 it is least and for B10 it is little more than B20 and for diesel CO emission is highest .2 NO emission The NOX emission characteristics with respect to various blends of Neem oil were found.

2 0. which is consistent with most published results [11]. 6.4 Load Vs BSFC 0. Variations were less than 8%.3 0.The presence of oxygen in biodiesel helps to produce more amount of NOX .The impact of fuel injection also play a role in the higher NOX emissions. For B10 it is increasing and decreasing at some point I found constant and then It is h W / g K i t p s n o C l e u F . 6.3 Hydro carbon emission 400 300 200 100 0 0 4 8 Loa in k d g 12 16 C H Diesel B10 B20 Fig-1.4 Load Vs Break thermal efficiency Calculated load versus Break thermal efficiency of engine and as graph indicating for different-different oil composition.4 0.3 HC Emission As Graph clearly states that at the same load for B20 we got least HC and for B10 little more that B10 but in case of diesel we are getting maximum HC emission and same thing found at different –different load. The NOX.1.1 0 0 4 8 Loa in k d g 12 16 Diesel B10 B20 Fig.6 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.

C. preparation of biodiesel from crude oil of pongamia. Singh. [4]Neem oil-http: //en. [8] Kumar k.wikipedia.Vol.Biodiesel separation and purification: A review.Aroua.R.P(1995). Anju C (2010).15.Chinnusamy. Neem. Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transserification-A review. N and Sharma.S. [6] L. A therapeutic for all seasons.N.pp. Current science. Use of neem oil as a mosquito repellent in tribal village of Mandla district .Murugesan.further increasing For B20 It is increasing and further It is decreasing and in case of diesel first it is increasing and for sometime it is constant and further increment we found Conclusion Study has been made by using Bio-Diesel a novel feedstock of obtaining Bio-Diesel which is renewable in nature. B10.(2009). Bioresource Technology 101 (2010) 639-645. M.A Haseeb and H. .H . Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13 (2010) 201-216.Masjuki (2011) Biodiesel feasibility study: An evaluation of material compatibility. (2010)production and analysis of bio-diesel from non edible oils-A review.N Naik. Fuel 86(2009) 2798-2734.99-103. C. emission and engine durability. B10 . Sustain Energy Reviews.Abdul Aziz.Subramanian.S.M.Krishna .82.Meher. and B20 we found in decreasing state but in case of NOX found increasing for the same load.3. After Preparation of Bio-Diesel we checked the oil properties and all properties stated above now one of the Major Part of analysis is Performance characteristic in case of HC and at the same load for Diesel. V. Vol. Vol. Renew.A Fazal.K. References [1] Ganguli S.Neduzchezhain.D. Fuel 86(2008)2798-2234 [7]M Atadashi.M.T R. (2002).2. performance.A. [3] M.Vidya.org/wiki/Neem_oil (12/03/2012) [5] A. During the experiment we found rate of fuel consumption lower for B20.Umarani. This is major drawback of using Bio-Diesel.Indian J Malariol. A. pp.1304 [2] Mishra A K.Overall to make environment greener we can use Bio-Diesel. 1314-1324.(2008).

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