# 9/16/2012

Overview
Analog and Digital Communication
BE-VII Fall 2012 LECTURE 4

Baseband Communication and Carrier Communication Modulation and its types Amplitude Modulation
The AM Waveform Percent of Modulation Sidebands Bandwidth

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Modulation Types
Base band Communication (non need of modulation) No need to shift frequencies Baseband signal have sizeable power at low frequencies. No need to transmit over wireless link Suitable for wired transmission e.g. Local telephone Communication Communication between two exchanges Carrier Communication To use available BW efficiently. Transmission of signals at low frequencies is difficult e.g. Communication over radio link
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Modulation: Signal is transferred to high frequency for efficient transmission. e=A sin(ɷt +ɸ) e= instant value A= maximum amplitude ɷ=angular velocity=2*pi*f t=time ɸ= phase angle Three types of Modulation AM FM PM (FM+PM)= Angle Modulation Note: Two basic types of Modulation i.e. Amplitude and Angle. If modulating signal is sine or cos wave, the modulation is also

Modulation

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5 of its original level.9/16/2012 Amplitude Modulation What is AM? How AM wave can be generated? Simple AM circuit. the modulation causes the signal to increase by a factor of 0. As with other modulation indices. These signal formats are typically generated by removing or suppressing the carrier. AM. 1. and then utilizing the sidebands. In other words it can be expressed as: M = (RMS value of modulating signal) / (RMS value of unmodulated signal ) From this it can be seen that for an AM modulation index of 0. or SSB-AM) SSB with carrier (SSB-WC) SSB suppressed carrier modulation (SSB-SC) Vestigial sideband modulation (VSB. AM. modulation index can be defined as the measure of extent of amplitude variation about an un-modulated carrier. In this way the overall amplitude or envelope of the carrier is modulated to carry the audio signal. which is approximately constant envelope Frequency modulation (FM) (here the frequency of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal) Phase modulation (PM) (here the phase shift of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal) 1. When expressed as a percentage it is the same as the depth of modulation. Common analog modulation techniques are: 2. or VSB-AM) Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) 10 Amplitude modulation related signals Amplitude modulation forms the basis of a number of forms of signal apart from the basic mode.5. 11 12 2 . Amplitude modulation (AM) (here the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal) Double-sideband modulation (DSB) Double-sideband modulation with carrier (DSB-WC) (used on the AM radio broadcasting band) Double-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission (DSBSC) Double-sideband reduced carrier transmission (DSB-RC) Single-sideband modulation (SSB.5 and decrease to 0. Angle modulation Angle modulation. The AM Waveform When an amplitude modulated signal is created. AM modulation index basics Modulation indices are described for various forms of modulation. The amplitude modulation. the amplitude of the signal is varied in line with the variations in intensity of the sound wave. the modulation index for amplitude modulation. indicates the amount by which the modulated carrier varies around its static un-modulated level. Analog Modulation In analog modulation. the modulation is applied continuously in response to the analog information signal. Here the envelope of the carrier can be seen to change in line with the modulating signal.

it is typically the modulation index expressed as a percentage. the carrier level falls to zero and rise to twice its non-modulated level. i. If over-modulation occurs. The transmitters incorporate limiters to prevent more than 100% modulation. However often the two terms and figures are used interchangeably. 17 18 3 . The carrier experiences 180° phase reversals where the carrier level would try to go below the zero point. 13 14 Over modulation When the modulation index reaches 1. At this point the carrier breaks up and intermodulation distortion occurs leading to large levels of unwanted noise spreading out either side of the carrier and beyond the normal bandwidth. the carrier becomes phase inverted and this leads to sidebands spreading out either side of the carrier. 100% modulation depth causes overmodulation.this is a conditions that occurs when the modulation exceeds 100%. However some static values enable the various levels to visualized more easily. etc. in theory to infinity. 15 16 Effect of over-modulation on AM bandwidth Broadcast stations in particular take measures to ensure that the carries of their transmissions never become over modulated. Known as the modulation depth. a modulation depth of 100%.0. Any increase of the modulation index above 1. To ensure that an amplitude modulated signal does not create spurious emissions outside the normal bandwidth it is necessary to ensure that the signal does not become overmodulated . Modulation index / modulation depth examples Typically the modulation index of a signal will vary as the modulating signal intensity varies. This can cause serious interference to other users if not filtered. This can cause interference to other users.e.e.9/16/2012 Amplitude modulation depth A complementary figure to modulation index is also used for amplitude modulation signals. These phase reversals give rise to additional sidebands resulting from the phase reversals (phase modulation) that extend out. i.5 would be expressed as a modulation depth of 50%. Thus a modulation index of 0.0. However they also normally incorporate automatic audio gain controls to keep the audio levels such that near 100% modulation levels are achieved for most of the time.

HMF: 15kHz BW: ? In order to determine the bandwidth of an amplitude modulated signal it is necessary to understand the make-up of the signal The amplitude modulated signal consists of a carrier with two sidebands that extend out from the main carrier. Percent of Modulation % of Modulation= (Vmax-Vmin/Vmax+Vmin)*100 Vmax is the maximum voltage of the AM signal. In AM system. two sidebands each 1 kHz away from the carrier will appear. both carrier and the side band must be transmitted. e.g. Therefore. It is found that if the carrier is modulated with a 1 kHz tone. The sidebands produced by the modulation of a carrier by a typical audio signal will extend out from the carrier as shown . the BW is always twice the highest modulating frequency. The carrier contain no information. for example. Sidebands Upper sideband: fc+fm Lower side band: fc-fm fc= carrier frequency fm=modulating frequency 4. The bandwidth of an AM signal extends from the lowest sideband frequency to the highest sideband frequency. 3. Bandwidth of an AM signal The transmitted signal is actually a band of frequencies rather just a carrier. A 5 kHz tone would produce sidebands 5 kHz away from the carrier. Vmin is the minimum voltage of the AM signal.the highest audio frequencies in the audio bandwidth will be furthest away from the carrier. Accordingly the bandwidth of the signal can be seen to be twice that of the highest audio transmitted: Signal bandwidth B = 2 . 23 24 4 .9/16/2012 2. Audio bandwidth As a result the audio bandwidth of many amplitude modulation transmissions is limited. This results from the modulation process.

9/16/2012 Amplitude Modulation Double Sideband(DSB) 25 26 The BW of the modulated signal is 2B. which is twice the BW of the modulating signal m(t) 27 28 AM Generation DSB-SC 29 30 5 .

Then the modulated signal is: 31 32 Demodulation 33 34 Proof 35 36 6 .9/16/2012 DSB-SC Example If m(t)= cos wmt.