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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS....................................................................................1 AKNOWLEDGMENTS......................................................................................3 ACRONYMS......................................................................................................4 1. LITERATURE REVIEW.................................................................................8 1.1. Genocide and its psychosocial consequences .................................8 1.2. Counselling.........................................................................................9 1.3. Conflict management......................................................................10 1.3.1. Cause of the conflict ............................................................................10 1.3.2. Intensity of the conflict ........................................................................11 1.3.3. Strategy for resolving the conflict ......................................................11 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY...................................................................13 2.1. Research objectives.........................................................................13 2.2. Sampling methods...........................................................................13 2.2. Data collection techniques..............................................................14 2.3. Methods of data analysis.................................................................15 3. DATA ANALYSIS and INTERPRETATION.................................................15 3.1. Respondent’s identification............................................................15 3.1.1. According to sex....................................................................................15 3.1.2. According to marital status.................................................................16 3.1.3. According to profession.......................................................................16 3.1.4. According to age bracket.....................................................................17 3.2. Trauma counselling.........................................................................17 3.2.1. Finding out who need counselling.......................................................17 3.2.2. Requested counselling per month ......................................................18 3.2.3. Counselling impact in terms of trauma healing ...............................19 3.2.3.1. Positive perception of future ...........................................................19 3.2.3.2. Coping up with the horrific events flash-back...............................19 3.2.3.3. Social Self-fulfilment ........................................................................20 3.2.4. Difference between groups..................................................................20 3.2.5. Obstacles encountered during the counselling process.....................23

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3.2.5.1. Insufficient training..........................................................................23 3.2.5.2. Lack of appropriate place for counselling......................................23 3.2.5.3. Shortage of essential materials for counselling...............................23 3.2.5.4. Lack of follow-up activities..............................................................24 3.2.5.5. Lack of time for local administrative and Confessional representatives to spend on counselling...........................................24 3.3. Conflict management process.........................................................24 3.3.1. Conflict management indicators.........................................................24 3.3.1.1. Supporting each other during daily life..........................................24 3.3.1.2. Forgiveness gained by offenders......................................................25 3.3.1.3. Showing new socially positive behaviour........................................25 3.3.2. Resolved conflict per month................................................................27 3.3.3. The difference between groups ..........................................................27 3.3.3. Obstacles observed during the conflict management ......................28 3.3.3.1. Poverty ..............................................................................................28 3.3.3.2. Insufficient training.........................................................................28 3.3.3.3. Insufficient numbers of conflicts trained people ...........................29 3.3.3.4. Lack of capacity building means.....................................................29 3.3.3.4. Lack of didactic materials................................................................29 4. GAPS ACCOUNTERED BY THE PROGRAMME......................................29 4.1. Lack of effective mechanisms for follow-up activities..................29 4.2. The small operational area in the district.....................................30 4.3. Luck of enough staff at district level ............................................30 5. RECOMMENDATIONS ..............................................................................31 6. CONCLUSION.............................................................................................33 7. REFERENCES............................................................................................34 APPENDICES.....................................................................................................i

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AKNOWLEDGMENTS
There were many individuals who made this work successful. Therefore, I ‘m thankful to the many individuals who gave their time, energy and insights, and have immeasurably added to the quality of this work. In the first place, let me extend my heartfelt thanks to the Project Officer and the entire Eastern province LWF Project Staff for their assistance during the research process. My thanks go to the Community Development Facilitators for their contribution at the data collection phase, the trained people and the beneficiaries of counselling and conflict management for the accurate information they gave us. I’m also thankful to data field assistants for their hard working and care expressed to the respondents.

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ACRONYMS
AVEGA : Association des Veuves du Génocide d’Avril 1994 D.R. Congo: Democratic Republic of Congo LWF: Lutheran World Federation M.D.: Mean Difference MINISANTE: Ministère de la Santé P: Probability PTSD: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder SPSS: Statistical Package for Social Science

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LIST OF TABLES & FIGURES a. List of Tables
Table 1: Requested counselling sessions per month......................................18 Table 2: Difference between districts in terms of counselling requesting........21 Table 3: deference in term of trauma healing indicators.................................21 Table 4: Esteemed number of resolved conflicts per month...........................27 Table 5: Difference between districts in term of conflict management............27

b. List of Figures Figure 1: Indicators of trauma healing.............................................................19 Figure 2: Indicators of social fulfilment............................................................20 Figure 3: Conflict management indicators.......................................................26

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LIST OF APPENDICES
1. Questionnaire for trained people (Community mediators and Community based counsellors) 2. Ibibazo bigenewe abahuguriwe gukemura amakimbira no gutanga ubujyanama ku ihungabana 3. Questionnaire for counselling and conflict management beneficiaries 4. Ibibazo bigenewe abahawe ubujyanama n’abakemuriwe amakimbirane 5. Questionnaire for community development facilitators 6. Ibibazo bigenewe uhagarariye LWF mu karere 7. Interviews guideline for community based counsellors, local administrators, LWF partners and local conflict mediators. 8. Ingingo nkuru z’ikiganiro kigenewe abahuguriwe ubujyanama mu gufasha abafite ihungabana n’ihahamuka, mugukemura amakimbirane no kuyakumira babifashijwemo na LWF ndetse n’abafashijwe muri izo nzego.

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INTRODUCTION
The conflict among Rwandan started openly in 1959 when a party of Rwandan citizens was forced to immigrate to neighbouring countries such as Congo (then Zaire), Tanzania, and Uganda. As well, a number threatened people who stayed in the country were the objects of physical and psychological torture. The conflict was heightened and made worse by the media, political speeches and deprivation of the basic human rights. The lead up genocide was took place in 1973 and 1990 and ended with the events of 1994. During approximately 100 days, about a million Tutsi’s were killed and the survivors lived in terrible conditions. Especially hard hit were orphans, widowers, aged people and women. Some citizens fled towards D.R.Congo, Tanzania and Burundi. The highest number of them were in D.R. Congo under hostile conditions so that it was difficult to survive. Others were confined to jail behind bars. Even when the war was over, the conflict continued. Therefore, the emergency intervention was much needed in order to contribute to the conflict management and trauma healing. A programme related to conflict management and peace building was started and implemented in order to rehabilitate the social solidarity and cohesion of a society extremely torn by the war and genocide of 1994. Therefore LWF launched their activities in conflict management and trauma counselling. Nowadays, the project is operational in the following districts of Eastern Province: Bugesera, Kayonza, Kirehe and Nyagatare. Presently, the LWF needs to evaluate their achievement in order to improve their activities. This report is a summary of the psychosocial component achievements, the gaps and the way to address the activities in the future.

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1. LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1. Genocide and its psychosocial consequences
After the 1994 genocide of Tutsis and moderate Hutus, every body in Rwanda was psychologically unsafe and relationships between citizens were deteriorating. Consequently, a gap between victims and perpetrators involved in the genocide increased. This social dynamic could make a further genocide or a new civil war possible. According to Staub, E. (1999), the word genocide was coined in 1944 by a PolishJewish lawyer Raphael Lemkin. He formed it by combining geno-, from the Greek word for race or tribe, with -cide, from the Latin word for killing. Furthermore, genocide was clearly defined by the United Nations convention on December 9, 1948 quoted by Staub, E. (2000) in the following words. Genocide “means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d)Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.” So, Genocide can be defined as a coordinated and a systematic plan of various actions aimed at the destruction and extermination of essential foundations of the life of national, social or another kind of group with the similar characteristics. Genocide results in social and psychological damage of survivors. Survivors are traumatised at different levels and mental disorders occur as long as adequate interventions are not found. An appropriate intervention is the psychotherapeutic

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approach which is community based. The importance of this approach is that it focuses on the real needs and problems of the beneficiaries. Roxane, L. (2000) said that, to the social dynamic, if not addressed, becomes worse and worse so that it can sometimes lead to open violence or mass killing. Roxane revealed that solving the problem at its root is resolution to peace full coexistence. So, counselling, conflict management and education for peace must be adressed.

1.2. Counselling
According to Tourette-Turgis (1996), counselling is the process by which a professional counsellor gives advice or assistance to a person with problems or concerns. She indicates also that counselling can be specific for mental or emotional distress of a patient or relative of a patient, for patients being treated for cancer or other health conditions, for persons concerned about the genetic risk of disease, or for grief of individuals suffering from feelings of sorrow after a loss, such as the death of a loved one. In Rwanda, counselling was necessary because of psychosocial damage of genocide survivors and other victims of war. A number of Rwandan are suffering from PTSD because they witnessed terrible and inhuman kind acts. In addition of this, the heart of Rwandese society was destroyed. Wounds sometimes reopened by different situations notably the new killing of genocide survivors and the testimonies delivered during Gacaca (traditional court). MINISANTE (2004) and Uwanyirigira, E. (1999) The devastating impact of genocide was seen at different levels of the society. That’s why personal counselling without counselling community based could be significantly irrelevant. Schellenberg, J.A. (1996) mentions that approach is related to how people help each other to deal with psychosocial problems and challenges of everyday life. It also promotes contact of the groups involved in conflict.

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1.3. Conflict management
Prior to talking about conflict management. Conflict should be defined according to Mayer, B. (2000) as an adversarial relationship or a disagreement between two or more persons, between groups, regions or even nations emanating from different perceptions and interests. Such conflict may be intra-personal as result of internal disagreement within a person. Also Lumusden, M. (1973: 73) noted that conflict occurs when two or more people or organizations disagree because their needs, wants, goals, or values are different. Hurt feelings, anger, bruised egos, and poor communication are all the precursors to conflict.

Mayer, B (2000) indicates that a conflict contains three elements, all of which must be present in order for a conflict to exist. Firstly, there is a specific perception on part of one or more of the people involved in the conflict. The perception may or may not be accurate, but it is held by the conflicting parties. Secondly, the perception is generally negative. One party believes the other party is going to do something that will have a negative impact in some direct or indirect way. Finally, the issue surrounding the conflict must be something that both parties care about. If one person does something that the other person doesn't care about, then a conflict does not exist. However, the conflict does not have to continue.. Tools have been developed that help recognize conflict and deal with it so that a group or team can move on, stronger than before. Cohen, H. (1980) Cohen goes on to say that to manage conflict, there are three steps one should take to initiate an effective conflict resolution process.

1.3.1. Cause of the conflict
The first and most important step in the conflict resolution process is to clearly understand the specific cause of the conflict.

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Generally speaking, the cause of any conflict will fall under one or more of the following categories: Information: people have the same data or facts about the conflict from different points of view. Process: people agree or disagree on how something should be done to solve the conflict. Values: people differ in their basic beliefs, views; and styles; people differ in their personality, communication or work styles. We have to keep in mind that the biggest reason for unsuccessful conflict resolution is failure to accurately identify the true cause of the conflict.

1.3.2. Intensity of the conflict
Once one has a good idea of the main cause of the conflict's main because, one needs to understand its level of intensity. Specifically, one must answer two questions. First, how interested is each party in resolving the conflict? The resolution process will only work if both participants are willing to address the conflict. Second, how firm or flexible will each party be during the conflict resolution process? The more flexible each person is, the greater the likelihood of achieving a "win-win" outcome where a mutually satisfying resolution can be found.

1.3.3. Strategy for resolving the conflict
There are four basic conflict resolution strategies, each leading to a specific outcome. Collaboration is designed to help the conflicting parties work together to find mutually advantageous solutions to problems so that each person is satisfied with the outcome. Domination is a strategy in which one of the conflicting parties tries to "win" the conflict by forcing his or her solution on the other. In this case, one party gets what they want (and wins) while the other party does not (and loses). Accommodation is just the opposite. Here, one of the conflicting parties is willing to sacrifice their desired outcome and give in to the other disputant. It is more important to them to maintain harmony and keep relationships intact. Avoidance, the final

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conflict resolution strategy, focuses on avoiding the conflict altogether. The parties do not do anything to resolve the conflict and therefore neither person is likely to get the outcome they desire (so both lose). Collaboration is by far the most desirable strategy because it not only requires the conflicting parties to work together to find a mutually satisfying solution, but it tends to facilitate outcomes which benefit the organization as well. In post-conflict situations, every body (especially those struggled for peace) is called upon to make a contribution through reconstruction, rehabilitation, demobilisation and reintegration programmes. In this context, conflict management means both working through or healing the wounds of the past, and seeking a common, and sustainable future. Traumatised individuals need therapy; justice demands that war crimes be investigated, and even that the perpetrators be brought before a court of law and punished; a government of “national reconciliation” can only be achieved with this focus. Sometimes, it is difficult for conflicted parties to be in contact. Until then, the conflict resolution may not achieved. Bertrand Russell (1916: 37) suggests that “But war will only end after a great labour has been performed in altering men’s moral ideals, directing them to the good of all mankind and not only of the separate nations into which men happen to have been born.”1 Then, one of the successful resolutions is communication for behavioural change through peace education. Thanks to, for example mass media. In the case of Rwanda, most citizens can be reached by debate on local or national radio stations. The dissemination of information via media is crucial for influencing communities. Media with low dissemination are significantly restricted from communicating to the wider public and, in that regard, affecting public opinion.

1

Hill, R. (1995). Overview of dispute resolution. Available from http://www.oikoumen.com/ arbover.html accessed on December 28th, 2007

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2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is the way in which the findings of this survey are reached. For this study, I used both quantitative and qualitative methods. I used the first one to assess the magnitude the LWF activity at the field. Then I completed this one by the particularly case through the second one.

2.1. Research objectives
1. a. Identifying the community based counselling impact in terms of reduction of trauma within project communities. b. Identifying the community based people impacted in terms of conflict management. 2. Determining the positive change in terms of good communication and community interaction. 3. Showing what LWF should do to improve conflict management and trauma healing programme.

2.2. Sampling methods
In terms of sampling I used random sampling to choose community beneficiaries. This means that every beneficiary had the same chance to be selected. Furthermore, the sampling from the expert’s helped to select among ecumenical confessions partners, local administrators, local conflict mediators, conflict managers, community based counsellors, counselling beneficiaries, and the people who were helped. This kind of sampling means that the researcher chooses a panel of individuals known to be expert in a field. Expertise is any special knowledge, not necessarily formal training. According to Javeau C. (1971) the sample number must be at least 20%. I used this formula to identify the sample. The questionnaire and the interview protocol (to facilitate the focus group) were the first instruments of collecting data and were translated into Kinyarwanda in order to

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make the respondents’ task easier. Before, we administrate the questionnaire, I carried out a pre-test. This was important because it helped to prepare the questionnaire according to the field reality. To be selected as respondent, we required a personal agreement, as expected by research ethics. The research sites were the Districts where LWF is operational in Eastern province: Bugesera, Kayonza, Ngoma, Kirehe and Nyagatare.

2.2. Data collection techniques
The techniques that were applied in this research study included mostly mainly interviews and questionnaires and focus group discussion. Before making a final survey, I carried out a pre-test on a limited number of research participants in order to improve the questionnaire according to field reality. I conduct this pre-test in Ngoma District. The questionnaire was administrated to the community based counsellors, conflict mediators, the beneficiaries of the programme and the Community Development Facilitators. The respondents were asked to answer by the answer of his/her choice. The descriptors are listed below: 1: always 2: occasionally 3: rarely 4: never The counsellors, ecumenical partners and local leaders were asked their point of view through interviews in order to explain the programme’s impact and what improvement was required so that the objectives could be reached. We used a focus group discussion, and included various respondent categories better understand the conflict resolution process and the impact of counselling.

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2.3. Methods of data analysis
The statistical package used was SPSS software. Statistical analysis by frequencies and percentages for qualitative data and analysis of variance and, post hoc analysis using Benferoni. Then, the comparison method was importance at the interpretation of results stage.

3. DATA ANALYSIS and INTERPRETATION
Before the data analysis, I presented the respondents identification. We worked with the people I involved in community counselling and conflict management training, the beneficiaries of trauma counselling and conflict management and Community Development Facilitator. Apart from the Community Development Facilitator, I classify the respondents according to sex, profession and marital status.

3.1. Respondent’s identification 3.1.1. According to sex
Among respondents, there are 15 males (68%) or about two thirds and the 7 females (32%) or about one third. These figures show that males are more likely to access the LWF conflict management and trauma counselling program.
sexe
f emale

male

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3.1.2. According to marital status
In terms of marital status, married respondent are over half,the simple 14 (64%). Others are respectively single 3 (14%), widow 4 (18%) and separated 1 (4%). In terms of profession, farmers are 15 (68%), they total two thirds against one thirds of others.

marital status
married single widow separated

3.1.3. According to profession

profession

farmers workers private Others

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The profession categories are administrative workers, 1 (4%); private, 2 (9%) and others, 4 (18%). Others include small sellers, pastors, carpentry joiners and builders.

3.1.4. According to age bracket
In terms of age bracket, there are six people (27%) between 31 and 35; 5 (23%) between 36 and 40; 4 (18%) between 41 and 45; 3 (14%) between 46 and 50 then 4 (18%) are 51 and above year old. This figure shows that there is not any teenager in the LWF conflict management and counselling program. According to age bracket

31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51 and above

3.2. Trauma counselling
To show indicate trauma healing after counselling, I found different data than from questionnaire counselling beneficiaries, trained counsellors and LWF Community Development Facilitators in the five districts of Eastern Province where the project is operational. This information was gethered by the Focus Group Discussion.

3.2.1. Finding out who need counselling
According to counsellors, they find people in need through four main ways: Requests by persons in need, identifying persons in need, from a person caring for someone who is in need and during the commemoration of the 1994 genocide.

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A short period after training counsellors, counsellors found the people in need of counselling came to request because counsellors were trustworthy in the society. For instance, pastors, evangelists and righteous people were trained counsellors. By the time the needy come from counselling they knew the counsellors. 81 % of counselling beneficiaries assert that they had requested it before it happened. Also, people in need of counsellors got information about where to get counselling by counsellors by being made aware of it. 92 % of people were informed by counsellors, 7 % by friends and relatives. This means that they got the information directly or indirectly through sensitization. “It was after ‘umuganda’ when I heard the pastor of the Restoration Church speaks on trauma and how to help traumatized people. Then, I was excited and went to contact the pastor in order to get an appointment. Now, it is popular that the pastor is counsellor” Said a young woman from Ngoma District. Counsellors can identify somebody in need by symptoms which they studied and witnessed during the commemoration of the 1994 genocide. The first situations rarely occurs and the second case is obviously periodic. The community based counsellor of Kirehe District said: “We almost never identify people in need but we prefer sensitization so that they become aware of trauma, then they can come towards us and they came because of sensitization or we were seen caring for traumatised people during the commemoration of 1994 period and the information is spreading.”

3.2.2. Requested counselling per month
Table 1: Requested counselling sessions per month

District Ngoma Kirehe Kayonza Nyagatare Bugesera

Mean of requested counselling per month Between 5 and 10 Between 5 and 10 Between 0 and 5 Between 0 and 5 Between 5 and 10

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3.2.3. Counselling impact in terms of trauma healing
Indicators of trauma reduction

Positive image for tomorrow Coping up with the horrible image Social self fulfilment

Figure 1: Indicators of trauma healing

The achievement of counselling based on community is particularly noticeable through the following indicators: Positive image of tomorrow, coping up with the horrific events flash-back and social self-fulfilment

3.2.3.1. Positive perception of future
Among three core indicators mentioned by community based counselling beneficiaries, the first one is the restoration of positive image of the future. This is acknowledged by 42%. This is a significant percentage and the following words show how ambition was restored. “Before counselling, my life was meaningless that is why it was difficult for me to undertake the income generating project of my life and my family. But, now, my life is tending to improvement. And I am proud of “said a widow from Bugesera. During focus group discussion, the trained counsellors confirm that everyday, people who experience counselling come to thank them for what they have done. Those people prove that the main importance of counselling for them is based on the fact that, they now have a positive perception of life.

3.2.3.2. Coping up with the horrific events flash-back
The beneficiaries of counselling said that flash-backs to genocide no longer occur in their mind unexpectedly. It is shown that 38 % of the informants coped with or they are about to cope up with the horrific events flash-backs. “I react with avoidance of

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any place or in front whatever reminds me the genocide atrocities, but now it is no longer the case”. Said a widow from Rukira sector in Ngoma District. Moreover, the secondary school teacher who was trained in community counselling revealed that a student who experienced counselling is now performing well at school because the horrific events flash-backs had disappeared.

3.2.3.3. Social Self-fulfilment
Trained counsellors identify other indicators differently than counselling beneficiaries. They mention other outwardly observed behaviour. Among them, they find ‘struggling positively for development’, participating in collective activities and renewed relationships.. According to trained counsellors, 53% assert that their clients were working toward positive for its development after counselling sessions. 34 % indicate that people who were counselled more easily renew relationships. As well, 13% noted that their clients had increasingly participated in collective activities. I assume that these findings are not different from those revealed by the counselling beneficiaries. This means even if counselling beneficiaries do not express their feelings this ways for accurately external observers (who provide them counselling) state what they have seen. According to the information gained in focus group discussion, the first achievement (revealed by counselling beneficiaries) is the basis of what is visible (revealed by trained people on counselling). This is not contradiction but scientifically they complete each other.
Social self fulfilment

Struggling postiv ely for its dev eloppement Renewing relationship Participation in collectiv e activ iv ities

Figure 2: Indicators of social fulfilment

3.2.4. Difference between groups

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The results come of questionnaires administrated to trained people show that there is a difference between districts in terms of requested counselling.
Table 2: Difference between districts in terms of counselling requesting

Dependent variables Number of counselling per month

Districts Ngoma & Kirehe Ngoma & Kayonza Ngoma & Nyagatare Ngoma & Bugesera Kirehe & Kayonza Kirehe & Nyagatare Kirehe & Bugesera Kayonza & Nyagatare Kayonza & Bugesera Nyagatare & Bugesera

Mean Difference .71 1.21 1.93 2.43 .55 1.26 1.71 .67 .50 1.17

Significance .331 .017 .472 .008 .118 .105 .53 .400 .571 .192

The table indicates that there is statistically a high significant difference between Ngoma and Bugesera (M.D. = 2.43; P= .008). In addition, the statistically significant difference is noted between Ngoma and Kayonza (M.D. = 1.21; P=.017). The difference in terms of counselling requesting can be related to the time that LWF has been operational in the named districts. During the focus group discussion, the participants note that the activity related to community counselling is still in the start up stage. Therefore there have not been enough sensitization sessions so that the population can be aware of the trauma and know how and where to receive psychological care. This may be the result of shortage of trained counsellors. The focus-group discussion at Ngoma noticed that the LWF is popular all over the District. Before I was reticent about the counselling but improvement in the lives of people who gained trauma counselling spurred me on to confide in the pastor of my church who had been trained in trauma counselling. The difference between Ngoma and Kayonza is not mentioned during the focus-group discussion. It can stated that there is no accurate significance between the last listed districts.
Table 3: deference in term of trauma healing indicators

Dependent

Districts

Mean Difference

Significance

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variable Trauma healing indicators Ngoma & Kirehe Ngoma & Kayonza Ngoma & Nyagatare Ngoma & Bugesera Kirehe & Kayonza Kirehe & Nyagatare Kirehe & Bugesera Kayonza & Nyagatare Kayonza & Bugesera Nyagatare & Bugesera .43 .83 .17 1.50 .40 .60 1.70 1.00 .67 1.67 .695 .466 .884 .248 .722 .602 .406 .400 .614 .214

The table shows that there is no statistically significant difference between those districts concerning trauma healing indicators. This means that in the district which noted low levels of requested counselling, the counsellors have judiciously used their training on. That is why one can assume that to increase the number of trained counsellor in the community can improve the trauma healing within the society.

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3.2.5. Obstacles encountered during the counselling process
The following obstacles were encountered by the community based on counsellors: insufficient training, lack of appropriate places for counselling, lack of follow-up activities, shortage of essential materials for counselling and particularly the local administrative and confessional representatives have no time to spend on counselling.

3.2.5.1. Insufficient training
The research show that 89% of community based counselling has been trained. It means that there can be counsellors who were trained only one time. They admit that they have a deep need in terms of counselling skills. 11% are located in Ngoma District where LWF has been operational for long time. Counsellors obviously need training in order to improve their skills.

3.2.5.2. Lack of appropriate place for counselling
The trained people reveal that they mainly provide counselling at home and church. 84% provide counselling at clients’ homes or their own home. At this point, the counsellor of Rukira sector said the following words: “I meet mostly people needing counselling at my home. But, the place is not appropriate because of some bias like the noise, no private space and other elements which disturbance.” It is also shown that in 13% of the cases, counselling is provided at church and 3% in the office or at other place. These places are not suitable for counselling because of two reasons: they are not prepared for counselling and there are repeated disturbances. For instance, at the office, the local administrative can not get more time for more counselling.

3.2.5.3. Shortage of essential materials for counselling
This problem is observed in trauma crisis case. During this time, they miss where the mattress on which to lay the then people suffering from trauma crisis. Moreover when they are at home or at church, it is difficult to find a calm place.

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3.2.5.4. Lack of follow-up activities
Training and field visits are at a low level (16%), and there are no other activities in order to improve counselling. The trained people use the limited skills gained during the training. “I can really tell that the training is not yet sufficient and there is no other strengthening mechanism setting by LWF to enhance our capacities. Then we tend to forget what we had been trained on. This is a big challenge of our counselling.” Said a community based counsellor of Kirehe District.

3.2.5.5. Lack of time for local administrative and Confessional representatives to spend on counselling
The local administrative said that it is difficult and even impossible to provide counselling because they are always busy in their administrative responsibilities. It is confirmed by the social affairs coordinator who said that: “Always my agenda is so full that I can not find the time for counselling even if the people in need are so many. It would better to train another person to replace me.” Clearly, the counselling fails in that situation.

3.3. Conflict management process
3.3.1. Conflict management indicators
The positive impact of conflict management is observed through these principal indicators: supporting each other during major sorrow or happiness events, showing new socially positive behaviour, forgiveness of by offenders.

3.3.1.1. Supporting each other during daily life
Relationships are getting better and better. This is shown through the support provided by the parts which were before in conflicts. 51% the people who were helped to resolve their conflicts assert that the major achievement is how they now share during periods of sorrow or of happiness. For instance they are supporting each other in mourning and wedding ceremonies. The people trained in conflict management are pleased about how the people are now in good relationship after the conflict

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management process. “I have no money to support financially my country but it is my duty to contribute where I can by improving the good relationship between the Rwandan citizens. I successfully help people to live peacefully together. It notices by the sharing during different ceremonies.” Said a trained person situated at Ngoma District. This idea echoed by a widower of Bugesera in these words: “In the meeting with released people, I thought that it is not true. However, I was astonished to see firstly a released person when I shouted out for rescue while robbers were surrounding my house. It comforts me and encourages me to forgive them.”

3.3.1.2. Forgiveness gained by offenders
In conflict management, trained people organise a safe meeting between genocide survivors and released prisoners. The meetings facilitate testimonies so that the survivors know the reality around the death of their relatives. These are occasions for offenders to beg pardon and to ask for forgiveness by survivors. 37 % of people helped to manage their conflict were amazed the forgiveness gained by offenders in their communities. A mother in Bugesera said the following significant words: “Before the conflict management programme launched recently by LWF here in Bugesera District. It psychologically hurt me to hear the person who cut my arm during the 1994 genocide. However, the process was long but finally we are together safely in “UKURI KUGANZE” cooperative. I am so very proud of conflict management achievement.” In Ngoma District, they focus on forgiveness. This coalition helped them to launch income generating activities. The local administration said this: “For us, the forgiveness between the parts involved in the conflict is about to be over. Now, we are pleased because this is the basis of the income generating activities which are the next focus/ step”

3.3.1.3. Showing new socially positive behaviour
Relationships were torn by the 1994 war and genocide. After those atrocities, social interaction was getting worse and worse. The conflict management process is helping

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people to change their behaviour in terms of positive behaviour. It promotes peacebuilding, a culture of forgiveness, and eradication of impunity, togetherness and psychosocial well being. 12 % of people helped in conflict management process assert that they have observed new socially positive behaviour. For example in Bugesera District they have founded UKURI NI KUGANZE cooperative and everybody is welcome. In Ngoma District, there is DUTABARANE. These associations were the first ones to initiate the conflict management process because it was an opportunity for contact of two people involved in the some conflict. Those associations were initiated after the training on conflict management organised by LWF. The illustration indicates the conflict management indicators and their respective percentage. Indicators of conflict management
12%

37%

51%

Supporting each other during the sorrow or happiness events Forgiveness gained by offenders Showing new socially positive behavior

Figure 3: Conflict management indicators

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3.3.2. Resolved conflict per month
Table 4: Esteemed number of resolved conflicts per month

District Ngoma Kirehe Kayonza Nyagatare Bugesera

Mean of resolved conflict Between 0 and 5 Between 0 and 5 Between 0 and 5 Between 0 and 5 Between 0 and 5

In terms of the conflict cases resolved per month, the mean (0-5) are resolved by people trained in conflict management. Others are sent to local authorities. This number is significant in terms of good relationships among the population. These words of the executive sector justify the role of trained people on conflicts management: “the number of conflict is significantly reduced at the level of cell and extremely reduced at the level of sector. In this conflict management process, the big role is played by trained people on conflict management by LWF”

3.3.3. The difference between groups
Table 5: Difference between districts in term of conflict management

Dependent variables Number of conflict per month Number of resolved conflict Conflict management Indicators

F .984 .436 1.987

P .443 .781 .142

The table above shows that there is no statistically significant deference among within districts, considering the number of conflict per month between the districts of Eastern province where LWF is operational (F=.984; P=. 443). It shows also that there is no statistically significant difference among districts concerning the number of resolved conflict (F=.436; P=.781) Moreover, there is no statistically significant difference about how the conflict was managed (F=1.987; P=.142)

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3.3.3. Obstacles observed during the conflict management
People trained in conflict management encounter five the following major obstacles: Poverty, insufficient training, insufficient trained in conflict management, the lack of capacity building means, and lack of didactic materials.

3.3.3.1. Poverty
Poverty has been encountered by 98% of the conflicts management trainers. It interrupts the conflict management process mainly in case of people who need to pay for what they damaged during the genocide. Therefore, offenders cannot ask for the pardon without paying what they have destroyed or robbed. This makes it difficult for victims to forgive. “I know the case where the people involved in the conflict do not accept to be helped in the conflict management process because offender is not able to pay for the house damaged during the 1994 genocide. “ Reported the trained people from Kirehe District. In addition, released prisoners revealed that they have no house and no mean to build it. Then, it is difficult for them to be sensitised about conflict management. “For instance, I was innocent despite eight year of detention. That time spent in the prison causes me to be economically dependent. And we need to manage the conflict and tend to reconciliation.” Said a released prisoner.

3.3.3.2. Insufficient training
The trained people (72%) claim that they do not have sufficient training. Sometimes, they confront a case which is very complicated and beyond skills their conflict management. “To lead a dialogue between two parts in conflict is not easy; it requires scientific means which can be gained in the training. But we have no sufficient training on conflict management” Said a retired person, trained in conflict management.

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3.3.3.3. Insufficient numbers of conflicts trained people
69 % of respondents reveal that they have too little training to respond appropriately to cases of conflict management which are applying. During the focus group discussion, they express that trained people often spend their time working on economical development. This can be the origin of burn-out and conflict complication. “We need other trained people to help us in the process of conflict management because we are few in our cell. “

3.3.3.4. Lack of capacity building means
Many assert except for a few field visits, there are no other means of reinforcement of the conflict management process. For instance they need to share experiences in order to help each other towards improvement. “As AVEGA does, we need meeting for sharing experiences. That is very important because we can apply how the others have solved conflicts”

3.3.3.4. Lack of didactic materials
They (53%) need some booklets related to counselling and conflict management. “After training, we forget what we have trained on. However, the booklets can help us to refresh our mind and to sensitize others easily” Said a woman from Kayonza.

4. GAPS ACCOUNTERED BY THE PROGRAMME 4.1. Lack of effective mechanisms for follow-up activities
The trained people (16%) recognised that they were visited by community development facilitators in the field nevertheless at a low level. However others report not being visited so their activities are unknown and they cannot be helped in case of failure. They indicate that this can be better in terms of improvement of their activities considering that they did not receive enough training. In addition they revealed that the LWF did not set the mechanisms of follow-up such as systematic field visits, experience sharing, actualising mechanism (training, booklets for what they were trained on), and supervision from the experts.

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One of the community counsellors of Kirehe district said “it would be better to consolidate our capacities so that we can not only perform well in our current activities but also this will still run efficiently after the end of the programme.”

4.2. The small operational area in the district
Respondents said that the conflict and the 1994 genocide repercussion will never be over. Therefore, the conflict management needs to be in continued operation. Problems are that some local authorities are not trained (their sectors are not included in the project operational area).. This affects progress of conflict management despite of the energies spent. Regarding this point, the trained people propose that LWF choose a target area work in the whole district but not pick only a few sectors scattered all over the district.

4.3. Luck of enough staff at district level
It was found that one Community Development Facilitator is not yet enough to fulfil what they are supposed to do. They are not able to carry out efficiently both administrative and field activities. One of the Community Development Facilitators said that they are always overworked so that they are about to suffer from burn-out. Moreover, when they are sick or absent, the office is closed. For instance, the Bugesera Community Development facilitator spends two days at one meeting at the regional office, so he is unavailable in case of a problem. In addition to that facilitators must participate in other LWF activities in the area.

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5. RECOMMENDATIONS
Based as the feedback of participants, the following recommendations are offered to LWF in order to improve their activities related to conflict management and community based on counselling. LWF should: Provide didactic materials like books on counselling and conflict management. The participants indicated that sometimes they forget what they have learnt during workshop but the books can help them to refresh and improve their knowledge. Work in the whole district not only some sectors because the need is systemic. Participants revealed that the conflict management has no boundaries; therefore some sectors lack information about the programme. It would be better to train whole district. Increase the number of LWF employees at the district level. The CDF’s noted that they were too few to fulfil their task; therefore they need others to support them in their activities. Have a secluded office (Bugesera in particular). For sessions the participants characterised the LWF office as shop. For instance, this office is not comfortable for a meeting. Help trained people in the income generating activities. Respondent said that, they are volunteers so that they do not get any salary even if they spend a lot of time in conflict management and counselling. Creating the income generating activities can help them to improve their socio-economic status. Provide some tools like bicycles. These materials are needed for facilitating transport of trained people. It can be very important to rescue victims at times.

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Help trained people by creating an association. This forum can help them supporting each other. Enhance activities by field visits, follow-ups, share experience at least once every three months, organise other training. Train woman in order to promote peace culture in early childhood. Women live with their children; once trained, they can teach their children to avoid conflict. This is important preventive measures. Financial assistance to the orphans, some survivors and released prisoners in need. It is very difficult for trained people to give counselling to vulnerable people whose the physiological needs are not met. This is very important because a person must be treated as a whole complex entity.

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6. CONCLUSION
In short, LWF is conflict management and community based counselling programme shows different achievements. The main are the trauma healing (This is observed through the following indicators: Positive image of tomorrow, coping up with the horrific events flash-backs and social Self-fulfilment), peaceful coexistence (behaviour change by those indicators: supporting each other during the sorrow or happiness events, showing new socially positive behaviour, forgiveness gained by offenders.). LWF helps people create associations and cooperatives which are for them the opportunities for economical development and confronting their psychosocial problems which should be the conflict’s origin. It facilitates released prisoners to be integrated into society. However their counsellors encounter some obstacles like insufficient training, lack of appropriate places for counselling, lack of follow-up activities, shortage of essential materials for counselling and particularly the local administrative and confessional representatives have no time to spend on counselling. Poverty; insufficient; counsellors; training; insufficient conflict management, training; lack of capacity building means; and lack of didactic materials, are the main obstacles. The difference observed is from the project time. Besides the trained people show performance and better results. The gaps sterns from the fact that after initial trainings, there is no follow-up.

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7. REFERENCES
1. Cohen, H. (1980). You can negotiate anything. New York.
2.

Hill,

R.

(1995).

Overview

of

dispute

resolution.

Available

from

http://www.oikoumen.com/ arbover.html accessed on December 28th, 2007 3. Javeau, C. (1971): L’enquête par questionnaire. Bruxelles : Editions de l’ULB 4. Lumusden, M. (1973). The cyprus conflict as a prisoners dilemma game.Journal of Conflict Resolution (7-9) 5. Mayer, B. (2000). The dynamic of conflict resolution: A practitioner’s guide. San Francisco : John Wiley & sons. 6. MINISANTE (2004). Guide en santé mentale dans le contexte des juridictions GACACA. Kigali. 7. Roxane, L. (2000). Conflict: From theory to action. Allyn and Bacon, Toronto. 8. Schellenberg, J.A. (1996). Conflict resolution: Theory, research and practice. Albany, N.Y. State University of New York. 9. Staub, E. (1999). The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press 10. Uwanyirigira, E. (1999). La souffrance psychologique des rwandais survivant du génocide et des massacres. Mémoire de DEA. Université de Paris VIII.

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APPENDICES

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Appendix 1: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TRAINED PEOPLE (Community mediators and community Based counsellors) Supervisor code: Field assistant code: Field code: Questionnaire number: Date……………………………….. I. Instructions

Before starting the conversation, you have to introduce yourself to the respondent and you say, my name is …………………………….. I am the employee of LWF/DWS/IDE Eastern Province This is aimed at improvement of LWF community based counselling on and conflict management programme. The information that is provided will be used only for that issue. The identity of the respondent will be confidential. After reading these instructions, you agree to answering the following questions. Ethics: You signed this questionnaire after you totally agree with the above. Signature…………………………….. Date………………………..

Thanks.
II. 1. Age : 2. Sex : a. Male b. Female 3. Marital status : a. Married b. Single c. Widow d. Divorced & separated
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Identification

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4. Profession :

a. Farmer b. Student c. Worker d. Private (Self Employed) e. Seller f. Other ………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………

1. Training attained: 1. Conflict management 2. Community based counselling 3. other ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………. III. Questions

Section 1: For community mediators 1. Focus of training 1. Conflict in general 2. Conflict and Genocide in Rwanda 3. Techniques of conflict prevention and management 4. Reconciliation 5. Gacaca and conflict management 6. Other ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… 2. The capacity building was done through: 1. The follow-up 2. Experience sharing 3. Actualising mechanism 4. Field visits 5. Other ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… 6. None

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3. The number of cases of conflict encountered this month 1. Twenty and above 2. Between fifteen and twenty 3. Between ten and fifteen 4. Between five and five 5. Five and below 4. The number of cases of conflict resolution 1. Twenty and above 2. Between fifteen and twenty 3. Between ten and fifteen 4. Between five and five 5. Five and below 5. The indicators of successful conflict resolution in your community 1. Have a positive image of each other 2. Greet each other 3. Share during sorrow or pleasure period 4. Meet and collaborate in different collective activities 5. Offenders are forgiven 6. Know clearly the origin of conflict 7. Know how to avoid conflict escalation 8. Show new socially positive behaviour 9. Other ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 6. Suggested focus in order to enhance the conflict management process 1. The follow-up 2. Workshops 3. Experience sharing 4. Actualising mechanism 5. Field visiting 6. Other ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 7. The way you contribute to the conflict management in your community 1. Education for behavioural change through sensitisation 2. Explain the conflict origin, conflict escalation factors and how to avoid conflict by sensitization 3. Build and maintain effective partnerships among society 4. Widen and deepen dialogue between two parties involved in conflict 5. Organise meeting between two parties involved in conflict 6. Promotion of the groups involved in conflict association for economical development 7. Promotion of the cultural solidarity among society 8. Strengthening the culture of forgiveness
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9. Other ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Section II: Question for community based counsellors 1. By which means did you get people who needed counselling: 1. By request from person in need 2. By identifying person in need 3. By a person caring for one who is in need 4. Other means ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………… 1. The number of counselling requesting per month: 1. Twenty and above 2. Between fifteen and twenty 3. Between ten and fifteen 4. Between five and ten 5. Under five 2. The number of trauma healing 1. Twenty and above 2. Between fifteen and twenty 3. Between ten and fifteen 4. Between five and ten 5. Under five 3. The behaviour change attesting the success of the counselling process 1. Struggling positively for its development 2. Having positive image of tomorrow 3. Participating in collective activities 4. Coping up with horrible images night-time 5. Coping up with irritability without cause 6. Renewing relationships 7. Creating new friends 8. Other ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4. The place where you practice your counselling 1. 2. 3. 4. At home At the church Elsewhere Other
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………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 5. Obstacles encountered ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 6. What can LWF do to improve your activities? 1. Follow-up 2. Workshops 3. Experience sharing 4. Actualising mechanism 5. Field visits 6. Other ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………

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Appendix

2:

IBIBAZO BIGENEWE ABAHUGURIWE GUKEMURA AMAKIMBIRA NO GUTANGA UBUJYANAMA KU IHUNGABANA

Supervisor code: Field assistant code: Field code: Questionnaire number: Date……………………………….. I. Amabwiriza

Mbere yo gutangira banza wibwire uwo mugiye kugirana ikiganiro uti nitwa:……… …………………………. Ndi umukozi wa LWF/DWS/IDE Eastern Province Ubu bushakashatsi bugamije gusuzuma imikorere y’umushinga wa LWF w’ubujyanama ku ihungabana n’ihahamuka no gukemura amakimbirane, ukorera mu Intara y’Iburasirazuba mu turere twa Ngoma, Kirehe, Kayonza, Nyagatare na Bugesera. Amakuru muri butange azakoreshwa gusa muri iki gikorwa. Umwirondoro wawe uzabikwa mu ibanga rikomeye. Nyuma yo gusoma aya mabwiriza, muremera cyangwa ntimwemera gusubiza ibi bibazo. Umukono……………………….. Kuwa………/01/2008

Murakoze !

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II.Umwirondoro 1. Imyaka : 2. Igitsina : a. gabo b. gore 3. Irangamimerere : a. arubatse b. Ingaragu c. Umupfakazi d. Uwatandukanye n’uwo bashakanye 4. Icyo akora : a. Umuhinzi b. Umunyeshuri c. Umukozi wa leta d. Uwikorera ku giti cye e. Umucuruzi f. Ibindi ………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. Mwabonye amahugurwa ku : 1. Gukemura amakimbirane 2. Ubujyanama ku ihungabana n’ihahamuka 3. ibindi (bivuge)…………………………………………………………. III.Ibibazo nyirizina Igice 1: Abakemura amakimbirane 1. Ingingo nkuru zitaweho mu mahugurwa 2. Amakimbirane muri rusange 3. Amakimbirane na jenoside mu Rwanda 4. Uburyo bwo gukumira no gukemura amakimbirane 5. Ubwiyunge 6. Gacaca no gukemura amakimbirane 7. Ibindi ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Kongererwa ingufu mu kazi bikorwa mu buryo bukurikira:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Gukurikirana aho ibikorwa bigeze Kuganira kubyo bahurana na byo mu kazi Gukorerwa amahugurwa Gusurwa aho bakorera Ibindi(bivuge) Ntabyo

3. Amakimbirane yabonetse muri uku kwezi 1. Makumyabiri no kujyana hejuru 6. Hagati ya cumi na tanu na myakumyabiri 7. Hagati y’icumi na cumi na tanu 8. Hagati ya tanu n’icumi 9. Atanu kujyana hasi 4. Umubare w’amakimbirane yakemutse 1. Makumyabiri no kujyana hejuru 2. Hagati ya cumi na tanu na myakumyabiri 3. Hagati y’icumi na cumi na tanu 4. Hagati ya tanu n’icumi 5. Atanu kujyana hasi 5. Ibigaragaza ko amakimbirane yakemutse aho mutuye 1. Guhindura ishusho mbi bari bafite kuri bagenzi babo 2. Gusuhuzanya 3. Kwifatanya mu bihe by’ibyishimo n’akababaro 4. Guhura no gufatanya mu mirimo rusanye 5. Abakoze ibyaha barababariwe 6. Kumenya bitamuye intandaro y’amakimbirane 7. Kumenya uburyo bwo kwirinda uko amakimbirane yatutumba 8. Kwerekana imigenzo myiza ituma habaho imibanire myiza 9. Ibindi ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 10. Ibyo wakwibandaho mu gushimangira uburyo bwo gukemura amakimbirane 1. Mu gukurikirana ibikorwa aho bigeze 2. Amahugurwa 3. Gusangira ibyo bahura nabyo mu kazi 4. Kujyanisha abantu n’ibihe 5. Gusurwa aho bakorera 6. Ibindi (bivuge) 11. Inzira ukoresha mu gutanga umusanzu mu gukemura amakimbirane aho mutuye 1. Gukangurira abantu guhindura imyitwarire 2. Gusobanura intandaro y’amakimbirane, Ibitiza umurindi amakimbirane n’uko twabyirinda 3. Kubaka no gushimangira imibanire myiza muri rubanda
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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Gukaza ibiganiro bihuza impande ebyiri zifite amakimbirane Guhuza impande ebyiri zishyamiranye. Gushyira imbere imishinga ibyara inyungu ihuza impande zishyamiranye. Gushyira imbere umuco wo gufatanya mu baturage Gushimangira umuco wo kubabarira Ibindi(bivuge) ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………

Igice cya II: Ibibazo bigenewe abahuguriwe gutanga ubujyanama 1. Nubuhe buryo bwakoreshejwe ngo mubone abakeneye ubufasha m’ubujyanama: 1. 2. 3. 4. Bisabwe n’umuntu ukeneye ubufasha Kwibonera umuntu ukeneye ubufasha Umuntu wita ku muntu ukeneye ubufasha Ubundi buryo(buvuge)

1. Gereranya umubare w’amahugurwa k’ubujyanama mwahawe: 1. Makumyabiri kujyana hejuru 2. Hagati ya cumi na tanu na myakumyabiri 3. Hagati y’icumi na cumi na tanu 4. Hagati ya tanu n’icumi 5. Atanu kujyana hasi 2. Gereranya umubare w’abantu basaba ubujyanama mukwezi 1. Makumyabiri kujyana hejuru 2. Hagati ya cumi na batanu na myakumyabiri 3. Hagati y’icumi na cumi na batanu 4. Hagati ya batanu n’icumi 5. Batanu kujyana hasi 3. Ni iyihe myitwarire igaragaza ibyagezweho n’ubujyanama 10. Guhanga no kwiteza imbere 11. Kubona ejo hazaza ko ari heza 12. Kujya mu mirimo rusange 13. Inzozi mbi nagiraga zarashize 14. Kurakara bidafite impamvu byarashize 15. umutwe udakira warakize 16. Kuvugurura imibanire 17. Gushaka inshuti shya 18. Ibindi(bivuge) 4. Aho utangira ubujyanama 1. 2. 3. 4. Mu rugo Mu rusengero Mu biro Aho ariho hose
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5. Ahandi (havuge) 5. Inzitizi mwahuye nazo ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 6. Ni iki LWF yakora kugira ngo ibikorwa byanyu bitungane kurushaho ? 1. Gukurikirana aho ibikorwa bigeze 2. Kuganira kubyo bahura na byo mu kazi 3. Gukorerwa amahugurwa 4. Gusurwa aho bakorera 5. Ibindi (bivuge) ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………

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Appendix 3: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR COUNSELLING AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT BENEFICIARIES I. Identification

1. Name : 2. Age : 3. Sex : 4. Marital status : 5. Profession : II. Instructions

This is aimed at improving the LWF conflict management programme. The information given will be used only for that issue. The identity of the respondent will be confidential. After reading these instructions you will agree or not to answering the following questions. To answer you need only to draw a circle around the number of the proposed assertion which match with your choice. You also have to fill in the text in the blank place. Ethics: You will respond this questionnaire after you totally agrees with the above instructions. Thanks. Signature………………………………………..Date……………………./01/2008 Training completed: 1. Conflict management 2. Community based counselling Section 1: For community mediators a. Questions 1. Different points focussed on during the training 1. Conflict in general 2. Conflict and Genocide in Rwanda 3. Techniques of conflict prevention and management 4. Reconciliation 5. Gacaca and conflict management
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6. Other ………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………

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2. The capacity building was done through: 1. The follow-up 2. Experience sharing 3. Actualising mechanism 4. Field visits 5. Other ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… 6. None 3. The number of case of conflict encountered this month 1. Twenty and above 2. Between fifteen and twenty 3. Between ten and fifteen 4. Between five and five 5. Five and below 4. The number of cases of conflict resolution 1. Twenty and above 2. Between fifteen and twenty 3. Between ten and fifteen 4. Between five and five 5. Five and below 5. The indicators of conflict resolution in your community 1. Having a positive image of each other 2. Greeting each other 3. Sharing during sorrow or pleasure period 4. Meeting and collaborate in different collective activities 5. Offenders are forgiven 6. Knowing clearly the origin of conflict 7. Knowing how to avoid conflict escalation 8. Showing new socially positive behaviour 9. Other ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 12. Focus in order to enhance the conflict management process 1. The follow-up 2. Workshops 3. Experience sharing 4. Actualising mechanism 5. Field visits 6. Others ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 13. The way you contribute to the conflict management in your community

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1. Education for behavioural change through sensitisation 2. Explaining the conflict origin, conflict escalation factors and how to avoid 3. conflict by sensitization 4. Building and maintaining effective partnerships among society 5. Widen and deepen dialogue between two parties involved in conflict 6. Organising meeting between two parties involved in conflict 7. Promoting two groups involved in conflict association for economical development 8. Promotingsolidarity culture among society 9. Strengthening the cultural forgiveness 10. Other ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Section II: Question for community based counsellors 1. By which means did you connect with people needing counselling: 1. By request from person in need 2. By identifying person in need 3. By a person caring for the one who is in need 4. Other means ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. The number of counselling requesting per month: 1. Twenty and above 2. Between fifteen and twenty 3. Between ten and fifteen 4. Between five and ten 5. Under five 3. The number of trauma healing 1. Twenty and above 2. Between fifteen and twenty 3. Between ten and fifteen 4. Between five and ten 5. Under five 4. The behavioural change attesting the counselling process success 9. Struggling positively for its development 10. Having positive image of tomorrow 11. Participating in collective activities 12. Coping up with the horrible image during night 13. Coping up with irritability without cause 14. Renewing the relationship 15. Creating new friends 16. Other

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……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………

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5. The place where you practice your counselling 1. At home 2. At the church 3. Elsewhere 4. Other ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 6. Obstacles encountered ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 8. What can LWF do to improve your activities? 1. The follow-up 2. Workshops 3. Experience sharing 4. Actualising mechanism 5. Field visits 6. Other ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………

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Appendix

4.

IBIBAZO BIGENEWE ABAHAWE N’ABAKEMURIWE AMAKIMBIRANE

UBUJYANAMA

Supervisor code: Field assistant code: Field code: Questionnaire number: Date………………………………. I. Ubu bushakashatsi Amabwiriza bugamije gusuzuma imikorere y’umushinga wa LWF

w’ubujyanama ku ihungabana n’ihahamuka no gukemura amakimbirane, ukorera mu ntara y’uburasirazuba mu turere twa Ngoma, Kirehe, Kayonza, Nyagatare na Bugesera. Amakuru muri butange azakoreshwa gusa kuri iki gikorwa. Umwirondoro wawe uzabikwa mu ibanga rikomeye. Nyuma yo gusoma aya mabwiriza, muremera cyangwa ntimwemera gusubiza ibi bibazo. 1. Yego 2. Oya II. 2. Imyaka : 3. Igitsina : a. gabo b. gore 4. Irangamimerere : a. arubatse b. Ingaragu c. Umupfakazi d. Uwatandukanye n’uwo bashakanye 5. Icyo akora : a. Umuhinzi b. Umunyeshuri c. Umukozi wa leta d. Uwikorera ku giti cye Umwirondoro

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e. Umucuruzi f. Ibindi (bivuge)

Murakoze !.
III. Ibibazo nyirizina 1. Ni gute wamenye aho gushakira ubujyanama : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Ni incuti Ni abavandimwe Ni Radio Ni umujyanama Uburyo bubiri Uburyo butatu cyangwa bune bwavuzwe haruguru Ubundi (buvuge)

2. Ubujyanama bwamfashije : 1. Guhanga no kwiteza imbere (mubaze ibyerekeye no kwihangira imirimo nyuma y’ubujyanama) 2. Kubona ejo hazaza ko ari heza 3. Kujya mu mirimo rusange 4. Inzozi mbi nagiraga zarashize 5. Kurakara bidafite impamvu byarashize 6. Kuvugurura imibanire 7. Gushaka inshuti shya 8. Ibindi (bivuge) 3. Ni nde ugufasha mu gihe cyo gukemura amakimbirane? 1. Abahuguwe gukemura amakimbirane 2. Abanyamadini 3. Abunzi 4. Abandi (bivuge)……………………………………………………… 4. Nyuma yo gukemura amakimbirane nashoboye: 1. Gusuhuzanya 2. Kwifatanya mu bihe by’ibyishimo n’akababaro (nk’ubukwe, gutanga inka, gusura umuturanyi wanjye yarwaye, gushyingura etc.) 3. Guhura no gufatanya mu mirimo rusanye 4. Abakoze ibyaha barababariwe 5. Kumenya byimazeyo intandaro y’amakimbirane 6. Kumenya uburyo bwo kwirinda uko amakimbirane yatutumba 7. Kwerekana imigenzo myiza ituma habaho imibanire myiza 8. Ibindi (bivuge)……………………………………………………..

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Appendix 5: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FACILITATORS I. Identification

1. Age : 2. Sex : 3. Marital status : 4. Profession : II. Instructions

This is aimed at improving the LWF conflict management programme. The information given will be used only for that issue. The identity of respondent will be confidential. After reading these instructions you will agree or not to answering the following questions. To answer you need only to draw a circle around the number of the proposed assertion matching with your choice for the first category. For the second category, you have to fill in the number in the blank or the relevant text in blank place. Ethics: You will respond this questionnaire after you totally agree with the above instructions. Thanks. Signature………………………….. Section 1: III. Date……………./01/2008 Questions

1. The criteria to choose participants for counselling training 1. Confessional representatives 1. a. Which confession 1. Muslim 2. Catholic 3. Evangelical 4. Seventh Adventist 5. Other Christian ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………

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………………………………………………………………………………………… …. b. What do you do as to be selected in LWF PROGRAM? 1. Pastor, 2. Community opinion leaders 3. Righteous people “ Inyangamugayo” 4. Other ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 2. The number of workshops attended by LWF for local community mediators. 1. 2. 3. 4. Ten and above Between five and ten Five and below None

3. The main focus during the training on counselling 1. Counselling in general 2. Community based counselling 3. Principles of counselling 4. Crisis counselling and trauma intervention 5. Counselling in conflict management 6. Other ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. After the training, LWF organises: 1. The follow-up 2. Experience sharing 3. Actualising mechanism 4. Field visits 5. Other ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… Section II 1. The criteria to choose participants for conflict management training 1. Confessional representatives 1. a. Which confession 1. Muslim 2. Catholic
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3. Evangelical 4. Seventh Adventist 5. Other Christian ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… … 1. Community opinion leaders 2. Righteous people “ Inyangamugayo” 3. Other ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 2. The number of workshops organised by LWF for local community mediators. 1. Ten and above 2. Between five and ten 3. Five and below 4. None 3. The main focus during the conflict management training 1. Conflict in general 2. Conflict and Genocide in Rwanda 3. Techniques of conflict prevention and management 4. Reconciliation 5. Gacaca and conflict management 6. Other ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. After the training, LWF organised: 1. The follow-up 2. Experience sharing 3. Actualising mechanism 4. Field visits 5. Others ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 6. None

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Appendix 6. IBIBAZO BIGENEWE UHAGARARIYE LWF MU KARERE Supervisor code: Field assistant code: Field code: Questionnaire number: Date:……………………………… I. Ubu bushakashatsi bugamije Amabwiriza gusuzuma imikorere y’umushinga wa LWF

w’ubujyanama ku ihungabana n’ihahamuka no gukemura amakimbirane, ukorera mu ntara y’uburasirazuba mu turere twa Ngoma, Kirehe, Kayonza, Nyagatare na Bugesera. Amakuru muri butange azakoreshwa gusa kuri iki gikorwa. Umwirondoro wawe uzabikwa mu ibanga rikomeye. Nyuma yo gusoma aya mabwiriza, muremera cyangwa ntimwemera gusubiza ibi bibazo. Umukono……………………………. Kuwa…………../01/2008

Murakoze !
II. Umwirondoro 1. Imyaka: 2. Igitsina: 3. Irangamimerere : 4. Icyo akora : Igice 1: III.Ibibazo Ni ibiki muheraho muhitamo abazakurikirana amahugurwa ku bujyanama. 1. Abahagarariye amadini 1. a. Idini Ni bangahe?

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1. Isilamu 2. Kiliziya gatorika 3. Amadini y’inkuru nziza 4. Abadivantisti b’umunsi wa karindwi 5. Andi madini ya gikiristo 6. Amadini gakondo (ya gihaanga) ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… … 2. Abavuga rikijyana 3. Inyangamugayo Ni bangahe Ni bangahe

4. Abandi (bavuge)……………………Ni bangahe 2. Amahugurwa yatanzwe na LWF agenewe abakemura amakimbirana 1. Icumi no hejuru 2. Hagati ya tanu n’icumi 3. Atanu no munsi 4. Nta narimwe 3. Imitwe y’ibiganiro byibamzweho mu gihe cy’amahugurwa ku bujyanama 1. Ubujyanama muri rusange 2. Ubujyanama bw’abaturage bukozwe na bagenzi babo 3. Ibyo ubujyanama bushingiyeho 4. Ubujyanama mu gihe k’ihahamuka 5. Ubujyanama mu gihe cyo gukemura amakimbirane 6. Ibindi ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………… 4. Nyuma y’amahugurwa, LWF yateguye : 1. Gukurikirana uko ubujyanama bukorwa 2. Guhura bagasangira ibyo bahuye nabyo mu bujyanama 3. Kongera guhugura abahuguwe 4. Gusura abajyanama aho bakorera 5. Ibindi bikorwa ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… Igice cya II 1. Ni ibiki mwibandaho mutoranya abazakurikirana amahugurwa ku gukemura amakimbirane.
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1. Abahagarariye amadini Ni bangahe? 1. a. Ni irihe dini 3. Islamu 4. Kiliziya gatorika 5. Amatorero y’inkuru nziza 6. Abadivantisti b’umunsi wa karindwi 7. Andi matorero ya gikiristo ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………… 5. Abavuga rikijyana Bangahe 7. Inyangamugayo Bangahe 8. Abandi ………………………………Bangahe 2. Amahugurwa yakozwe na LWF agenewe abakemura amakimbirane mu gace. 1. 2. 3. 4. Icumi no hejuru hagati y’icumi n’atanu Atanu no hasi nta na rimwe

3. Ingingo zibandwaho ku mahugurwa agenewe abakemura amakimbirane mu gace a. Amakimbirane muri rusange b. Amakimbirane na jenoside c. Uburyo bwo kwirinda no gukemura amakimbirane d. Gacaca no gukemura amakimbirane e. Ibindi ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Nyuma y’amahugurwa, LWF itegura iki? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Gukurikirana uko ubujyanama bukorwa Guhura bagasangira ibyo bahuye nabyo mu bujyanama Kongera guhugura abahuguwe Gusura abajyanama aho bakorera Ibindi bikorwa(bivuge)……………………………………………………… Ntabikorwa

Conducted by Mr. RUTAYISIRE KIBAKI Aristide P.O. Box: 4397 Kigali- Rwanda/ E-mail: kibayisire@yahoo.fr Copyright © 2008 LWF/DWS Rwanda Country Program

LWF/ DWS Rwanda Country PROGRAM ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND TRAUMA COUNSELLING EASTERN PROVINCE

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Appendix 7: (Focus group) INTERVIEWS GUIDELINE FOR community based administrative, LWF partners and local conflict mediators. – – – – –

counsellors,

local

The importance of community based counselling gained by people The role of sensitization in terms of changing positive behaviour What can LWF do to emphasise its activities related to conflict management and trauma counselling Activities for LWF to focus on to enhance the conflict management and trauma counselling programme Formulate suggestion for LWF to improve its conflict management and trauma counselling programme.

Conducted by Mr. RUTAYISIRE KIBAKI Aristide P.O. Box: 4397 Kigali- Rwanda/ E-mail: kibayisire@yahoo.fr Copyright © 2008 LWF/DWS Rwanda Country Program

LWF/ DWS Rwanda Country PROGRAM ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND TRAUMA COUNSELLING EASTERN PROVINCE

xxviii

Appendix 8: INGINGO NKURU Z’IKIGANIRO KIGENEWE ABAHUGURIWE UBUJYANAMA MU GUFASHA ABAFITE IHUNGABANA N’IHAHAMUKA, MUGUKEMURA AMAKIMBIRANE NO KUYAKUMIRA BABIFASHIJWEMO NA LWF NDETSE N’ABAFASHIJWE MURI IZO NZEGO. – – – – – – – Icyakozwe ngo amakimbirane agabanuke cg se abonerwe ibisubizo Icyakozwe kugirango habeho ubujyanama Akamaro k’ubujyanama abaturage bahawe Akamaro k’ibiganiro bijyanye no gukemura amakimbirane mu gutunganya imyitwarire y’abantu. Ni ibiki LWF yakwibandaho mu gukemura amakimbirane no kwita kubafite ihungabana n’ihahamuka. Ni ibihe bikorwa byakongererwa ingufu bya gahunda yo gukemura amakimbirane no gufasha abafite ihungabana n’ihahamuka ya LWF Tanga ibyifuzo kuri LWF kugirango gahunda yo gukemura amakimbirane no gufasha abafite ihungabana n’ihahamuka, itungane

Conducted by Mr. RUTAYISIRE KIBAKI Aristide P.O. Box: 4397 Kigali- Rwanda/ E-mail: kibayisire@yahoo.fr Copyright © 2008 LWF/DWS Rwanda Country Program

LWF/ DWS Rwanda Country PROGRAM 29 ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND TRAUMA COUNSELLING EASTERN PROVINCE

7. DATA GATHERING ON FIELD AGENDA

Conducted by Mr. RUTAYISIRE KIBAKI Aristide P.O. Box: 4397 Kigali- Rwanda/ E-mail: kibayisire@yahoo.fr Copyright © 2008 LWF/DWS Rwanda Country Program

LWF/ DWS Rwanda Country PROGRAM ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND TRAUMA COUNSELLING EASTERN PROVINCE

30

Districts 1. Kirehe

Place of Date and meeting time of meeting Nyamug 08/01/08 ari Morning 9 00 am

District representativ e Sam Kalisa

LWF Referenc e person 0842980 2

Populati on 100

Sampl e 20 2 confessional representatives 1 local mediator 2 local leaders 15 trained people and direct beneficiaries 2 confessional representatives 1 local mediator 2 local leaders 15 trained people and direct beneficiaries 2 confessional representatives 1 local mediator 2 local leaders 15 trained people and direct beneficiaries 2 confessional representatives 1 local mediator 2 local leaders 10 trained people and direct beneficiaries 1 confessional representative 1 local mediator 1 local leader 7 trained people and direct beneficiaries

2. Ngoma

Rukira

08/01/08 After-noon 3 00 pm 09/01/08 Morning 9 00 am

Robert

0843457 7

80-100

20

3. Kayonza

Kabaron do

Edith

0861876 7

70-90

20

4. Nyagatare

Karanga zi

09/01/08 After-noon 3 00 pm

Peter

0885037 0

70-80

15

5. Bugesera Nyamata

10/01/08 After-noon 3 00 pm

Fidèle

0863881 0

51

10

Conducted by Mr. RUTAYISIRE KIBAKI Aristide P.O. Box: 4397 Kigali- Rwanda/ E-mail: kibayisire@yahoo.fr Copyright © 2008 LWF/DWS Rwanda Country Program

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