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DID Model 1. Know The Learners In order for teachers to be able to communicate the lesson content effectively by means of the appropriate teaching and learning strategies, it is important for them to know the characteristics of whom the lessons are created for. Based on observations and inquiries, the class I am teaching is consists of 30 students, made up of 50% those from Dusun ethnic, 40% Murut and the 10% remains is those from other ethnic groups apart from the above-mentioned. To overcome the issue regarding the medium of instruction in the classroom, I used the combination of both English language and Bahasa Malaysia to balance out between students with good and poor English command. This way, students with poor English command can still follow the lesson but at the same time they will still be encouraged to improve that area of competency. As for the Socio-economic Status (SES), most of the students come from the middle-class family, whom parents work as a public servant, plantation workers or self-employed. In spite of the rather widerange SES among the students, the difference is not affecting students’ learning. Basically, all the students have adequate basic necessities such as stationeries and clothing. As a result from the difference in term of ethnicity and belief, each of the students has their own culture and this somehow caused them to tend to work with their own clique though would still cooperate when assigned to work in another group. The developmental stage of students which related to content is in a good state because most students still remember the previous lesson which is prerequisites to Trigonometry topic. Moreover, Trigonometry is the last chapter of Mathematics Form 3 syllabus and by the time we reach the topic, the revision period for the upcoming examination is already started thus students are all geared up. All types of learners, auditory, kinesthetic and visual can be identified in this class for it is apparent in the way they prefer to learn. One way to cater the needs of these learners is by integrating the elements of sounds and images in the slideshow presentation and also arranged for an in-class activity which is related to the topic that would also act as reinforcers. The strategies applied will meet all the students’ learning modality preferences. Students’ intelligence is strongly related to the way they learn. More than 10 students in the class possess a logical intelligence. However, I believe that for this particular topic, students with a strong visual intelligence will have an upper hand because by being able to visualize object and create a mental images, they will be faster in understanding thus solving the problem given. All the students have a good verbal intelligence which enables them to communicate and work together in a good form. So as to master this topic, it is quite a challenge for some students because they have to recall back more than one previous topic to solve any of the problems given, especially for questions derived from the higher level of Bloom Taxonomy.

2. Articulate Objectives/State Learning Outcome The second step in this model is for me to state the learning outcome which I expect my students to be able to perform by the end of the lesson. So I will share with my students of what are the expected standards, that I expect able to be performed by them after the lesson ended. These expectations are derived from the appropriate level of the Bloom Taxonomy. For example; empezar_dc@ymail.com

**Technology and Mathematics Education – DID Model
**

i. Level 1: Knowledge Student should be able to name, identify, label… ii. Level 2: Understanding/Comprehension Student should be able to explain, give examples… iii. Level 3: Application Student should be able to calculate, solve, measure… Students’ performance in class can be assessed through the class exercises or by giving a question to be solved randomly by students. Besides, additional exercises will be given as well as monthly quizzes to ensure they understand the lesson contents well. For Trigonometry topic, one of the necessary criteria to ensure mastery is to be able to identify which side of the triangle is Hypotenuse, the Adjacent side and the Opposite side and also the Angle1 and Angle2.

3. Establishing Learning Environment The next step in DID model is to establish the learning environment which will accommodate the teaching and learning process to occur. Therefore, there are some necessary changes which I have to do in order to create conducive learning environment. For the classroom space, the arrangement of tables and chairs will be as pictured below;

Such an arrangement is important to provide an ample or sufficient space for teacher and students to move around comfortably. Students’ tables will be placed in a group of 5 to easily divide the students into groups thus enable them to work conveniently among themselves. To produce a positive interaction within group, I have to make sure so every group consists of students with different pace of learning. So there will be no group with all of those of fast learner or otherwise. This is to decrease the competitiveness and therefore encourage a constructive discussion. I also divided the lesson into smaller empezar_dc@ymail.com

**Technology and Mathematics Education – DID Model
**

parts which can be delivered one by one with a brief break in between to give the students opportunity to ask should they have anything to inquire. The screen is placed next to the whiteboard at the front to give a better view for the whole class. Lighting intensities must be carefully set because too dim or too bright lighting both likely to cause an eye strain. The overhead projector and screen to visualize the images is necessary so everyone can view the slideshow presentation clearly. There are also speakers that connected to the computer to amplify the sounds.

4. Identify Teaching and Learning Strategies To accomplish the lesson objectives that were specified prior to the lesson, I use the pedagogical cycle of teaching and learning strategies to be implemented. i. Provide preorganizer As for a preorganizer, I will write several words on the whiteboard and ask the students still remember what these terms are about and in what chapter they have came across the terms before. The words are; right-angled triangle, angle, acute angle, length, altitude base and hypotenuse. ii. Use motivator to engage students In learning

This isWill.

He went to shop A to buy an ice cream then to shop B to buy a candy How do , . we find the distance if he g directly from his oes place to shop B?

Shop B

200m

ᶿ

300m

ShopA

Trig onometry!

Then I will start my slideshow presentation by which I convey the lesson contents. Motivator that I presented to the students is something that closely related to their daily life as to show that mathematics is not a distinct entity but a branch of knowledge that exists in various applications of human’s life. This is important to attract students’ attention and engage them in learning. iii. Build bridge to prior knowledge

empezar_dc@ymail.com

**Technology and Mathematics Education – DID Model
**

In this step, I will ask the students whether they still remember the topic from Mathematics Form 2 which is the Pythagoras Theorem. In fact, all the terms which I wrote on the whiteboard as a preorganizer is actually derived from that particular topic.

iv.

Share objectives As stated earlier, I will share with my students what are the expectations that I looking forward to by the end of the lesson. For this topic, there are basically four learning outcomes; 1. Identify the (a) hypotenuse and (b) the opposite side and (c) the adjacent side with respect to one of the acute angles. 2. Determine the tangent, sine and cosine of an angle. 3. Calculate the tangent, sine and cosine of an angle given the lengths of sides of the triangle. 4. Calculate the lengths of sides of a triangle given the value of tangent/sine/cosine and the length of another side.

v.

Introduce new knowledge By using the slideshow presentation and applying an appropriate method, I will introduce the new knowledge that consists of terminologies, concept and formula (Soh, cah, Toa).

vi.

Reinforce knowledge After I have finished delivering the content, I need to reinforce that new knowledge by giving my students more examples regarding the trigonometry problem. I will also ask students randomly and students are allowed to discuss within their group.

vii.

Provide practical experience To consolidate the knowledge they have learn, I will carry out activities related to the content if there is still sufficient time left. Activity 1: I have provided a number of questions written on a flash card with a money value printed on its back. After I read the question, students will try to find the answer by discussing it within their group. Group with the correct answer will get the card. I use the

empezar_dc@ymail.com

**Technology and Mathematics Education – DID Model
**

same activity throughout the syllabus and by the end of the year, group with the highest cumulative money value will get a reward.

Activity 2: Distributing the worksheet to students that contains 15 questions on trigonometry. Different set of questions probably given to each of the group to prevent cheating as well as to increase the challenge. If the class is running out of time, I will allow students to take the worksheet home and do it as an exercise. viii. Review lesson contents Before the class ended, I will go through the lesson again and give emphasis on any important elements. These elements might be those that usually come out in their examination. 5. Identify and Select Support Technologies There are several technologies that I used inside the class as to aid me in delivering the lesson content. i. ii. iii. iv. v. Whiteboard – used to write onto Marker - tool to write on the whiteboard Paper sheet – printed material for the students activities Laptop – used to store all the data and file Software Worksheet Maker 1.0 – to produce lesson’s worksheet

empezar_dc@ymail.com

Technology and Mathematics Education – DID Model

vi. vii. viii. ix.

Speaker – to amplify the sounds for a clearer hearing Overhead projector & Screen – to visualize the image for a better view Printer – used to print all the printed materials used in the class Calculator scientific – to aid the students in their calculation

6. Evaluate and Revise The Design The last step in this model is for me to evaluate the design whether it is effectively assists me in delivering the lesson content or not. Necessary changes for improvement might be done after the conclusion on the effectiveness of the design obtained. There are few ways to evaluate the effectiveness of the design; i. Distributing questionnaires among the students This questionnaire contains a statements or questions regarding the design and how it affects students understanding of the lesson delivered. Students’ satisfaction can also be assessed through this method. ii. Teacher’s self-evaluation This can be done by observing how the class progress and what are the students’ apparent behaviors that might show what they actually experienced throughout the lesson. For example, a blank look on students’ face probably because teacher moving through the lesson too fast and students simply lost track of the lesson altogether. iii. Quizzes, tests or exercises for student

This is the ultimate way of determining whether the design works as it should or not. Students will be given a quizzes, tests or exercises and by looking at their performance, conclusion can be easily made. empezar_dc@ymail.com

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