Youth Connection

September 2012

Table of Contents

Executive Editor AG Chohan

Editor’s Note-----------------------------------------------------3 Quranic Wisdom------------------------------------------------4 Maulana Rumi---------------------------------------------------5 An Explanation of Islam and Sufism---------------------------6 Poor Cholistani Woman-----------------------------------------8 Seven Habits of Highly Effective Families----------------------9 Energy Crisis----------------------------------------------------10 Balochistan Issue----------------------------------------------14 Sehraon ki Beti-Urdu Poem------------------------------------17 Judicial Crisis---------------------------------------------------18 Words of Peace------------------------------------------------21

Editorial Team Rizwan Sadiq Naima Khan Waqas Hassan Mumtaz Hussain

For Contributions & Feedback, contact us at: magazine@goher.org

GOHER Foundation 30 B.K -Satellite Town, Bahawalpur. Pakistan

Disclaimer Views expressed by the writers and authors are their own. GOHER and Youth Connection are not responsible for any kind of views expressed by the authors and the writers.

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Editor’s Note
Dear Young leaders ! Asslamoo Alaikum Wr, Congratulations for having your own voice through this journal. “The Youth Connection” is being launched to enable you to play your pivotal role in the sublime cause of nation building. As you know, our country is facing a number of grave challenges, which can be averted through collective efforts if we wish to stand in the comity of nations with dignity and honour. This newsletter is a platform for you to contribute to the goal of averting crisis and conflict through research, analysis, brainstorming and advocacy. Whatever you do and wherever you live, come forward and put your share in this intellectual jihad (sincere & utmost effort) to make Pakistan a nice place to live and thrive. The effort has been made to present the original thoughts of young leaders with minimal editorial interference. You will also find here some exciting articles on leadership development, Sufism and peace wisdom. A lot can be further explored with help of your insightful suggestions. This journal will also specifically help the potential civil servants to understand, analyse and make their opinion on important national and international issues which will benefit them throughout their career. I dedicate this humble presentation to you – the youth, the present and the future of Pakistan. Just be creative, be connected and be counted. I request you to feel free to provide your valuable feedback, suggestions and ideas to make this journal more productive and beneficial for youth of backward regions. Wish you best of luck in your youthful endeavours for the progress of nation.

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Quranic Wisdom

"But if the enemy inclines towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards peace, and trust in God: for He is One that heareth and knoweth (all things). (The Noble Quran, 8:61)" "If thou dost stretch thy hand against me, to slay me, it is not for me to stretch my hand against thee to slay thee: for I do fear God, the cherisher of the worlds. (The Noble Quran, 5:28)" By the blessing of God, the Prophet succeeded in establishing unity among people by acting with compassion and mercy. If he had treated the people around him severely and rudely, they would have left him and their unity would have collapsed (Qur'an, 3:159).

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Maulana Rumi
and transposed into various formats. In 2007, he was described as the most popular poet in America. He died in 1273 A.D in Konya and his shrine became the place of pilgrimage.

Passion makes the old medicine new: Passion lops off the bough of weariness. Passion is the elixir that renews:

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how can there be weariness when passion is present? Oh, don't sigh heavily from fatigue: seek passion, seek passion, seek passion! ____________________________________ Love is the Water of Life Everything other than love for the most beautiful God though it be sugar- eating. What is agony of the spirit? To advance toward death without seizing hold of the Water of Life. _____________________________________

alāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī is one of the greatest name in the Sufism. He is popularly known as Mevlana and in English speaking world he is famous as Rumi. The name Rumi is a descriptive name meaning “Roman” as he lived most of his life in an area called Rum under the Seljuk dynasty He was born in Balkh province (present day Afghanistan) in 1207.A.D. He was not only Persian Muslim poet, jurist, theologian but also a Sufi mystic.his major works include Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi, Diwan-eKabir,Fihi-ma-Fihi. The Masnavi weaves fables, scenes from everyday life, Qur'anic revelations and exegesis, and metaphysics into a vast and intricate tapestry. In the East, it is said of him that he was "not a prophet but surely, he has brought a scripture. His work is written in new persian languge and translated into many other languages across the world. Rumi belived in music and dance as a path for reaching God. His poetry has influenced Persian literature as well as Urdu, Punjabi and other Pakistani languages like Pashto and Sindhi. His poems have been widely translated into many of the world's languages Youth Leadership & Empowerment Center GOHER

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Islam and Sufism
4. All the prophets that were sent as mercy to mankind What does Islam mean? Islam means submitting to God's Will and accepting that there is no God but one God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God, peace and blessings upon him, as are Jesus, Moses, Abraham, Noah and Adam, peace be upon them all. What is faith according to Islam? Faith is believing in: 1. One God 2. In the existence of spiritual beings known as angels 3. In the revelations of God (the Testaments), the Psalms revealed to David, the Torah sent down to Moses, the New Testament brought to Jesus and the Last Testament, Qur'an brought to Muhammad (peace be upon them all) 5. The Judgement Day and Resurrection 6. The Divine Decree (destiny) What is Sufism? Sufism is the way of purifying the heart from bad manners and characteristics How is Sufism related to Islam? It is the path of spirituality that exists in Islam. Its meaning is: 1. Seeking the pleasure of God 2. Love and peace with one's self 3. Harmony with all creations (mankind, animals, and nature) 4. To be dressed with the beautiful attributes of Prophets and Saints How does Islam view other religions?

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1. All are vehicles and a path to God's Divine Presence; 2. According to Islam, all religions are originally from God the Exalted. With time and man's weakness, most religions were distorted from their original truth and adopted practicing of idol-worship or other wrong beliefs, which turned people believing in Muhammad (peace and blessings upon him) as the last of the Prophets that the Lord has sent throughout history.

2. Performing dhikr, the remembrance of your Lord through reciting his Holy Names and Attributes, glorifying Him and praising the Creator of all. 3. Attending the advice and dhikr gatherings held in the presence of the Shaykh or his representative; sitting together, praying together, welcoming all that come to praise their Lord.

What is a Shaykh? A Shaykh is someone who has inherited what the prophets brought and who is authorized to convey these teachings and secrets to those who take his hand as teacher. A true Shaykh is the one that has mastered his lower self's bad characteristics through devotion and sincerity towards His Lord. For that reason he is able to guide his students to mastery of their own lower selves, opening the way to reach unlimited potential of their spiritual realities. It is that spiritual reality which allows one to attain 6 powers: 1. The power of attraction 2. The power of concentration on the heart 3. The power of guidance 4. The power to convey other people's burdens and requests to God 5. The power to convey blessings How does one reach spiritual levels in Sufism? The main methods of attaining spiritual progress in Sufism are: 1. Following the guidance and instructions of an authorized Shaykh or guide.

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Seven Habits of Highly Effective People
According to Stephen R. Covey, author of famous book: “Seven habits of Highly Effective People”, the recommendations for being effective are: 1. Be Proactive "Taking initiative does not mean being pushy, obnoxious, or aggressive. It does mean recognizing our responsibility to make things happen." 2. Begin with the End in Mind "(This habit)...is based on imagination-- the ability to envision, to see the potential, to create with our minds what we cannot at present see with our eyes..." 3. Put First Things First "Create a clear, mutual understanding of what needs to be accomplished, focusing on what, not how; results not methods. Spend time. Be patient. Visualize the desired result." 4. Think Win-Win "Win-Win is a frame of mind that constantly seeks mutual benefit in all human interactions. Win-Win means that agreements or solutions are mutually beneficial and satisfying." 5. Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood Youth Leadership & Empowerment Center GOHER "'Seek First to Understand' involves a very deep shift in paradigm. We typically seek first to be understood. Most people do not listen with the intent to understand; they listen with the intent to reply. They're either speaking or preparing to speak. They're filtering everything through their own paradigms, reading their autobiography into other people's lives." 6. Synergize "Synergy works; it's a correct principle. It is the crowning achievement of all the previous habits. It is effectiveness in an interdependent reality-- it is teamwork, team building, and the development of unity and creativity with other human beings." 7. Sharpening the Saw "This is the habit of renewal...It circles and embodies all the other habits. It is the habit of continuous improvement...that lifts you to new levels of understanding and living each of the habits."

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Energy Crisis
Rizwan Sadiq

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governments were not in accordance with the growing needs of energy. The most glaring reasons for the current crisis of energy is the 1994 energy policy which resulted in over-reliance on costly fuel-mix. Reverting to thermal power from hydro power started this problem. When this policy was put forward, Pakistan‟s power generation was relied on 70:30 ratios in favour of hydro versus thermal. This policy changed the ratio to 30:70. The faulty fuel mix and inappropriate polices in the past, gradually made the crisis worst. No mega projects were started to curb this menace and the Kala Bagh Dam, debated for last 40 years, has ultimately become prey to political deadlock. The energy demands are rapidly increasing but the resources to meet the demands are not increasing. It is strange enough that a country with world‟s second largest coal reserves, abundant gas and water reservoirs is trapped in a vicious cycle of energy crisis. Hours-long blackouts and outages have become norms of the day. No serious effort on the part of government can be seen except lip servicing on the issue.

one are the days when the nation had not to witness load shedding or to queue up in long lines near gas and patrol pumps. Call it political insanity, leadership failure or collapse of governance, the resource rich country has, intentionally been pushed into quagmire of crises. Economy of a country depends upon energy supply, and if it lacks energy planning structure, it would collapse. Role of energy has gained immense importance since the Industrial Revolution. As the population increased, so did their needs. The industry, transportation and the domestic consumers required adequate energy supply for their working. From transportation to industry, mills to domestic purpose, energy is playing vital role in our lives. A shortage of which can cause horrendous impact on day to day dealings and workings. Pakistan has been facing power crisis over the last two decades. However, the situation deteriorated rapidly since 2007. With the expansion of industry, the needs of energy increased but no steps have so far been taken seriously to rectify the situation. The policies, put forward and framed by the past

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Pakistan‟s installed capacity of power generation stands around 21,000 Mega Watts, while the peak demand of electricity is 17,000 MW. The production fluctuates between 9,000-11,000 MW. The shortage touched the figure of 8500 MW in this year which ignited the people and massive protests were held throughout the country. Industry is being shut down, economy has collapsed, production has decreased due to power crisis and the exports are witnessing loss worth of billions of dollars per annum. Unemployment further aggravated the situation. The government has failed to take urgent measures for bringing generation capacity on stream on a sustained basis. About 50% of our power generation is dependent on furnace oil, the prices of which increased from Rs. 2000/ton in nineties to Rs. 70,000/ton now days. Government is unable to provide this much costly oil on regular basis. The prices of electricity increased 300 times during last 4 years of present government. Instead of cheap and easily available renewable resources, our electricity production is mainly dependent on costly non-renewable resources the share of gas in power sector is 50.4%, oil 29%, and hydro power 11%. In electricity generation the share of oil is 38%, Gas 29%, hydro power 29% and coal 0.2%. China and India fulfill their energy needs through coal 70% and 64% respectively. According to National Power System Expansion Plan 2010-30, WAPDA generated electricity at Rs. 1.03/kWh, while thermal Youth Leadership & Empowerment Center GOHER

power plants provided the same for Rs 9.58/kWh. The average blended cost of generation was Rs 6.6/kWh in 2010 which increased to Rs 9.81/kWh for consumer due to line losses and theft in transmission. Currently the cost of per unit electricity generated by Independent Power Producers (IPPs) is 20-24 rupees, while the price would be Rs 4/unit for the electricity generated by Coal Gasification. One might think why we should ever experience such type of recurring energy crisis, when we already have installed capacity of 21,000 MW. Following are some major causes of energy crisis; The supply of furnace oil to the IPPs and Rental power projects is the responsibility of government. Government is unable to pay the fuel cost to generating companies (GENCOs), which in turn are shutting down or running at low capacity. GENCOs are unable to pay to oil companies and circular debt thus created, is around Rs 400 billion at present. According to Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO) report, the total receivables shot up to Rs 375.87 billion towards government and domestic consumers. Ratio of nonpayment of bills is highest in FATA. The poor infrastructure and substandard transmission lines cause valuable line losses. Power theft is another serious problem in Pakistan, especially in Sindh, Baluchistan, Tribal areas and KPK.

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Private investment in energy sector must be appreciated. They are not provided with basic facilities and favorable environment. Corruption is the main hurdle in foreign and domestic investment in Pakistan. The wrong policy choices made in nineties are still continued and have shifted Pakistan away from self-reliance in energy generation and left us the mercy of daily fluctuations of international oil/gas markets. Pakistan, according to C.I.A World Fact Book, has 185 billion tons of coal. One hears a lot about Thar coal since last eight years, but zero coal has been obtained from there. It is very cheap alternative fuel. Pakistan, according to Alternative Energy Development Board, has potential to produce 50,000 MW of wind energy, however not a single commercial wind farm has been commissioned so far. Government of Sindh has allowed an IPP to construct 50 MW solar power generations at Dhabeji. 150 acre land was allotted and it was scheduled to generate power by December 2011. But no construction activity has been undertaken so far. Pakistan has potential to generate 40,00045,000 MW electricity from hydropower, but only 6555 MW is being produced. Government did not make any serious effort to end this problem. Two Energy Conferences have been held to find out the solution of the problem, only lip service was paid and no concrete decisions were taken. Severe shortage of gas supply to the Independent Power Producers caused shut Youth Leadership & Empowerment Center GOHER

down of power plants and reduced their production capacity. This is because of outdated gas transmission lines and not exploring new gas wells. In Pakistan more than 3 million vehicles are running on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). Due to silting every year the capacity of dams to store water is reducing due to accumulation of soil in the dams. The reduced capacity results in less production. About 30-35 million acre feet of water are lost to sea and are not made use of. Following measures should be taken by the government on war-footing to overcome this problem; Extensive exploration should be made by inviting international and national firms. Bottlenecks in the system need to be removed and proper management of natural resources is needed. According to C.I.A World Fact Book, Pakistan has resource potential of 27 billion barrels of oil yet to be explored. Our current oil production is 65997 barrels per day. Pakistan has 31.3 trillion cubic feet proven and 282 trillion cubic feet unexplored gas resources but current gas production is 4 billion cubic feet per day. We have world‟s second largest coal reserves which are 185 billion ton. This coal can help generating 50,000 MW of electricity daily. Government should start mega projects as they took long time to start yielding. In the meanwhile small dams, wind, solar, and tidal power projects should be started. Import of electricity is not the solution of this problem.

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These pipelines should be completed as soon as possible and all the hurdles in this regard should be solved. The receivable amounts to PEPCO and oil companies should be cleared urgently to make possible the maximum electricity production. Government institutions and the domestic users should pay their bills in time. Circular debt issue should be solved soon. While understanding depth of the existing energy crisis, a holistic review of system dynamics should be taken to find out the fault lines in the system. The problem is around three domains; i) strategic decision making level, ii) available institutional structure and iii) political encroachment. Immediate strategic task should be to integrate the working of different energy organizations at one place, or install a specialized coordination agency to achieve national energy target. Only 725 MW of electricity is being generated from Karachi Atomic Nuclear Power Plant and Chashma Atomic Nuclear Power Plant. Their capacity should be increased. Silting problem of dams should be solved and the wastage of water should be checked. Our installed capacity is 21,000 MW which can easily fulfill our energy needs if maximum production is obtained. Planning and vision is needed to explore the proven but unexplored resources. The politicians, policy makers and the stake holders should adopt rational approach. What is needed is the proactive and well integrated policies to pacify the situation. Controversies on management of water must be resolved pragmatically. The problems cannot be wished away, they need to be dealt with. The crisis of energy can be solved if there is proactive approach and integrated policies. Burdening the Youth Leadership & Empowerment Center GOHER

consumers with heavy amounts of taxes in the bills, printing the money and reducing the subsidy would not resolve the issue including circular debt problem. There should be more emphasis on renewable energy resources but the conventional hydro, thermal and coal fired plants should be instated in the short to medium run. By creating consensus on all the issues including Kala Bagh Dam, the government should take initiative in resolving the matters. The more we delay, the more would be difficult to end the crisis. New projects should be started and completed as early as possible. The government should facilitate public-private partnership and should provide best environment to the investors.

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Balochistan Issue
Naima Khan
Peace! Justice! Peace! The voice of every person-living in the province comprising 43% of Pakistan‟s landmass. People of this resource rich province are suffering since ages and waiting for their redeemer to come to pull them out from the quagmire of wretchedness and miseries. Baluchistan is the largest province of Pakistan by the geographical area with the population of 7,914,000. But sadly it is most grief stricken and incapacitated area. Geographically, Baluchistan is very significant as it shares borders with all the rest of three provinces of Pakistan viz KPK, Punjab and Sind. Moreover, it is also connected with Iran and it has border of 1096 km with Afghanistan in North and North West. Ethnically, Baluchistan is very diverse. About 5% of the Pakistanis reside in it, among which there is sizeable Pakhtun population i.e. 35-40% which occupy about one fifth of the area in North and North Eastern parts of the Province. There are also ancient non- Baloch people, Brahui, populated the area i.e. 6.8 million concentrated in Western Central parts of the Province. Balochis are mainly concentrated in Eastern and South Western parts of the Province. Approximately 7% are mostly Hazaras and other settlers. Considerable percentage of other ethnic groups Punjabi, Urdu speaking also dwells in Baluchistan. Youth Leadership & Empowerment Center GOHER Tribal system is ubiquitous in Baluchistan. Three major tribes are Baloch, Pashtoon and Brahvi. These tribes are further divided into sub tribes. The chief of the tribe is called Sardar while the head of sub tribe is called Malik, Takari or Mir. These Sardars and Mirs are member of the Jirga. Among the eighteen tribes of Baluch Bugtti and Marris are principle one. Brahvi tribes include Raisani, Mengal, and Bzenjao etc. in Pashtoon tribe Kakar,Achkzai, Gilzai etc are included. The history of Baluchistan is worth knowing. At the time of inception of Pakistan the province was divided intotwo parts, the British Baluchistan and the native Baluchistan. It was originally Kalat state including Gawadar andMakran. The Khan of Kalat came into contact with British in 1838 when Indian army passed the Bolan Pass and in a treaty of 1876 foreign affairs and defense was given over to British. As a result of that treaty Sandeman System was introduced in Baluchistan. Sardars were entrusted with more powers and Khan became the spectator in his own so called “free country”. Being autonomous, Sardars were responsible for maintaining the law and order situation in the province. Levies Crops, comprised of tribal personnel under the command of Sardars, and was established. Since then Levies are responsible for maintaining law and order situation in

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Baluchistan. Salaries to these personnel were given through Sardars. The Indian Act of 1935 treated Kalat as any other Indian state with representation in Federal Legislature. In an agreement between Kalat and Pakistan on 4 august 1947 it was to be an independent state and it made declaration of independence on August 15, 1947. But the Baluchistan province known today came into being July 1, 1970 with the abolition of one unit in West Pakistan.

gas producing provinces. The situation becomes more deplorable when this money confined within the hands of Sardars and fails to reach the masses. Fraction of money is given back to Baluchistan by the government what it earns from the resources extracted from the province. Still this small amount is not properly planned and fairly distributed among the people. Furthermore, the fundamental rights of citizens in the Baluchistan are not secured. It has poor transport and communication infrastructure, The history and demographic condition lowest literacy rate in both male and female, depict the tussle of power and grounds of injustice, oppression of women, bad health conflicts. There have been five insurgencies in facilities, the lowest ranking in gender parity Baluchistan since the creation of Pakistan. Index (GPI) and less developed province The last insurgency ended in 2009. The (National Economic Survey (NES). In short, reasons for the conflicts in Baluchistan are every kind of socio-political evil prevails in the manifolds. Baloch Sardars are province. Human rights reluctant to give their control activists are of the view that “Peace cannot be achieved to the government which Baluchistan is on the verge of through violence; it can only they have on the wealth and danger and required be attained through people of the province. The immediate attention. Target understanding.” grievances and the grip of killings, kidnappings, suicide people are related to (Ralph Waldo Emerson) attacks and IDPs have political,economical and become matter of routine. cultural rights. In their own Other grievances of Baloch resource rich province they are deprived of nationalists include the demands of the basic facilities of life. They could not be provincial autonomy as promised in the benefited from their own resources. This has constitution of 1973. Moreover, the presences caused deprivation level in Baluchistan to of army and paramilitary forces, bad law and heighten to the highest percentage among order situation, action of government against the provinces of Pakistan i.e. 88% and the Baloch nationalists and the set up of the people living below the poverty line are 63%. cantonments has increased the resentment The province is endowed with oil, gas, coal, in ordinary Baloch people. The state of gold and copper but these resources turn out deprivation has also given blow to the to bethreat to survival of the people who religious extremism. Shia- Sunni clashes are own them. Gas was discovered in 1952 in intensifying day by day. Baluchistan but it is pitiable to mention that local people of the area could not get the In order to resolve above mentioned advantage from their wealth of natural quandaries many political parties and resources for many decades. They burn student groups like Baluchistan National Party wood for fuel purpose and lived like nomads (BNP), Jamhoori Wattan Party, and Baloch for a long period of time. Irony of the situation student organization are struggling for the is that Baluchistan receives only one fifth as rights, peace and justice. Side by side militant much in royalty payment as the two other groups, Baluchistan Liberation army (BLA), Youth Leadership & Empowerment Center GOHER

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Baluchistan liberation front (BLF) etc are fighting to accomplish their objectives with aggressive attitude. Analysis of the predicaments in Baluchistan by some analysts elucidates that it is not only the victim of internal instabilities but also external conspiracies. There is a great game going on in the issue of Baluchistan. Foreign hands are facilitating the insurgencies to destabilize the Baluchistan and consequently Pakistan. One of the prime objectives of foreign interference is to create the violation for its detachment from Pakistan. These foreign hands have their own axe to grind in the area and they want to extract their own benefits by highlighting the issues and fanning the flames of separatist movement. Recently, against the sovereignty of Pakistan, a bill regarding human rights violation in Baluchistan has been presented in US congress. Strategic importance of the “Gawadar port” has magnetized the focus of foreign powers. Shipping of oil and gas from Turkmenistan to Arabian Sea via Afghanistan towards western shores has chief importance. US sees land route through Baluchistan to Afghanistan. China is interested in gas pipeline from Iran through Pakistan into western China. Hence, foreign hands have to seek their interests. Problems in Baluchistan expound that it is facing crucial situation. Although Separatist movement was faced by Pakistan even on the eve of its inception by the name of Pakhtunistan but now it has caught fire. The sensitivity of matter demands immediate action to curb the activities of insurgencies. There is severe need to gratify the people with the fulfillment of desires and demands to put out the fire of hatred burning inside them. The policies of government of Pakistan since1947 could not reduce the deprivation level rather the situation has worsened with the passage of time. The present Youth Leadership & Empowerment Center GOHER

Government although has taken few steps but they also regarded as the lip service. The package Aghaz-e-Haqooq-e- Baluchistan was announced in 2009. This package includes the five dimensions i.e. Constitutional, administrative, political, economic and monitoring. Aghaz-e-Haqooqe- Baluchistan package ensures the withdrawal of army and replacing it with FC, release of missing persons, settling the issue of royalty, creation of 5000 extra jobs for the Balochistan people and development of Gawadar port. But no considerable practical measures have been taken yet; promises made in this package are still in black and white.it is high time that instead of blaming others for the imbroglio, first Pakistan should look inwards for a resolution of the problem. Government should draw out the clear cut policy giving due shares in natural resources to the province. Revenue generated through development projects should be used on the development of the province. Political and nationalists group must be engaged in mainstream politics by the government to bring the peace in the area. Meaningful dialogue process with the Baloch leadership could prove fruitful in settling the conflicts. Initiatives for better education, health, housing, law and order, security, communication, roads and transport must be taken by the provincial government as the top most priority. Sectarian violence has shaken the roots of Hazara people, full protection must be provided to every citizen by state. Issue of missing persons should be given prime importance to calm down the situation immediately. The voice of Balochis is needed to be listened and due heed is required to be paid towards the solution of their problems to prevent the creation of another Bangladesh. Otherwise loses will be irretrievable.

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Judicial Crisis
Mujahid Latif

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recarious situation of Pakistan‟s criminal justice system has severe upshot over domestic and international security. Rehabilitation of this anarchic system should be on top priority of our political parties. Existing system has five to ten percent conviction rate which is mainly due to poorly trained investigators, lack of access to basic data and modern investigation tools like scientific evidence collection methods. Prosecutors are poorly trained, it is witnessed from their failure to achieve conviction in major cases such as in June 2008, Danish Embassy bombing, September 2008 Marriott Hotel Bombing in Islamabad and March 2009, attack on Police Academy in Lahore. It has weakened State‟s ability to respond terrorism. Higher judiciary through suomoto is trying to yield better results. But suomoto also could not provide fruitful outcomes as the error lies in the system. Pakistan has a meager history of constitution making. Its early constitutions of 1956 and 1962 could not fulfill its demands. Further Youth Leadership & Empowerment Center GOHER

judiciary itself subjugated the law through “the doctrine of state necessity”; like it legalized deposition of Khawaja Nazim-uddin in moulvi Tamiz-ud-Din case in 1955, provided shield to Ayyub‟s Martial Law in Dasso Case in 1958, supported Zia‟s regime in Nusrat Bhutto Case in 1977 and in 2000 in Zafar Ali Shah case, it not only legalized Musharraf‟s invasion but granted him extra constitutionally right to amend the constitution and also granted three grace years to conduct elections. After twenty five years of its independence, Pakistan received first comprehensive constitution in 1973 which was acceptable for all political parties and stakeholders. But hopes generated from this constitution could not last long, as intermittent military regimes introduced different reforms in the form of 8th and 17th Amendments to centralize their powers and strengthen their control over civilians. Zia-ulHaq under the shade of Islamization Introduced different reforms in the constitution of 1973, like Hudood Ordinance,Diyat and Qisas laws and Qanoon-e-Shahdat Act. In these laws, there

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was wrong interpretation of Islam, severe doubled of the capacity and the case of violations of human rights, exploitation of other provinces is not different from Sindh. women rights and strict level of evidences Police stations are equipped with inefficient were demanded especially from women. staff and poor infrastructure. Corruption, Musharraf introduced NAB ordinance 2002, it bribery, intimidation and orthodox system of was promulgated to curtail official corruption investigation are major hurdles in the efficient and held politicians and officials working of the police stations. There came a accountable but it failed because of its line change in the judicial system of the country of action. It streamlined its efforts to end after the desposition of the chief justice of military‟s opposition instead of containing Supreme Court in 2007. There were several institutionalized corruption. In Police Order reasons behind the action of the 2002, the same efforts were made to reform Government. Most important were the police and easy access to justice but it also suomoto proceedings of almost 6000 cases in failed because Police and policy-makers just twenty months, declaring privatization of were deprived of technical, administrative Steel Mills as unconstitutional, summoning of and financial resources. Now Punjab army officials in missing persons‟ case and government has drafted a involvement of ruling party bill with the name Police members in several land Laws are like cobwebs, which Order 2010 but yet to be scams. These all things may catch small flies, but let presented in Punjab invited Government‟s wrath wasps and hornets break Assembly. This is the time, as 2007 was the election through. (Jonathan Swift, “A where Punjab Government year. As the restoration of Critical Essay upon the Faculties should not revise Musharraf chief justice of Pakistan was of the Mind”, 1707) Government‟s mistakes. It due to the immense public should involve central pressure in 2009, therefore political leadership, all provincial peoples established more hopes from the governments, serving and retired civil judiciary. Chief justice started proceedings on officials, criminologists, NGOs and civil society several additional suomoto like NRO, groups. They should properly assess the memogate and presidential indemnity. In present Police Order and should fill in the May 2009, National Judicial Policy making gaps on technical, administrative and Committee (NJPC) headed by Chief justice financial grounds instead of initiating a new Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry produced system. An overburdened infrastructure is also National Judicial policy 2009 to make judicial a serious setback to criminal justice system. In system responsive to present day the beginning of 2010, there were 177000 requirements of society. In this policy judiciary cases pending in the superior courts including is given a specific target to solve the cases Supreme Court, Provincial High Courts and within the due time. But every case has its Federal Shariat Court which exceeded to certain requirements and cannot be a time 20228 till 31 December 2011 and 1.3 million bound. Therefore, the chief justice in „Mahir cases were pending in the lower judiciary. Ali case‟ in 1998 acknowledged “the justice Around 900 magistrates handle 180 million delayed is justice denied and justice rushed is population of the whole country. Prisons are justice crushed”. It means that judiciary is to overcrowded with prisoners on trial maintain balance between these two accounting for more than 80% of prison extremes. In present day, public pressure is population. In Sindh, prisoners are almost mounting over judiciary. Administration is less Youth Leadership & Empowerment Center GOHER

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responsive to public miseries and more hopes from judiciary are genuine. Judiciary is taking all the suomoto and public applications into notice in the name of protection of fundamental human rights and securing public‟ interest. Many times judiciary‟s suomoto were criticized like suomoto on tax, subsidies on oil price and spike in electricity prices. According to legal experts, these are administrative measures and do not come under judiciary‟s intervention. They also argue that judiciary reacts more on public opinion than constitution. Electronic and print media is the major source of the public opinion. Media is dominated by half baked analysis of amateur legal experts. Every anchor of Talk

methods including DNA analysis laboratories and initiating broad dialogues with all stakeholders on assessing the police order 2002. Supreme Court on its part can review judicial policy 2009 and can change its focus from short term and hasty solutions to long term and permanent solution. It should reduce the circle of its suomoto actions and should restrict it to the violation of only fundamental human rights with leaving administrative problems to the parliament. It must understand that if more than 6000 suomoto actions proceedings could not bring change then real problem is in the system than particular official concerned. Further, it should take such steps which could restore public confidence on state. Otherwise shows, politicians, lawyers and retired judges institutions will be clashed. International are expressing their own views community particularly United on legal matters. As law is “The Constitution, on this States and European Union highly technical issue and its hypothesis, is a mere thing of must provide technical and interpretation is best left to wax in the hands of the financial assistance to the lawyers to explain except Judiciary, which they may modernize Pakistan‟s anchors and other fields‟ twist and shape into any form institutions. Another intellectuals. Public issues of they please.” neglected but most energy crisis, high inflation, important remedy to the — Thomas Jefferson stagnant economy, debt system is in the hands of burden, unemployment and youth. Pakistan‟s more than terrorism and militancy have been put aside sixty percent youth accumulates to its total and legal issues have been taken their place population. But this giant like share of youth is on media. Media has misled people; now misled by political parties, ethnic and peoples are highly involved in legal matters religious groups. Youth protect these groups where common sense does not apply. The and parties‟ rights through protest, arson of ultimate solution to this problem is in the public property and forced shut down of introduction of research institutes and businesses. In other countries youth is academics like other social sciences which mobilized to get popular support and could interpret or theorize the law outside of demonstrate unrest among masses. In its narrow vision regarding judgment. Pakistan youth can demonstrate its power to reform the criminal justice system to end crisis The solution to the whole criminal justice in judiciary. But youth should be provided system lies in different actions. Major steps with right guidance and platform through which could be taken by provincial and which solution of different political and sociofederal government may be like repealing economic problems could be provided. the discriminate laws, addressing overcrowding in prisons, modernizing the police force by scientific evidence collection Youth Leadership & Empowerment Center GOHER

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Civil Servants Academy

Youth Connection

September 2012

Words of Peace
“Tolerance is the virtue of the man without convictions.”  G. K. Chesterton Acceptance and tolerance and forgiveness, those are lifealtering lessons. Jessica Lange Anyone who wants to live in peace and freedom will be to live by toil, demonstration of high levels of discipline and tolerance for one another. Yahiya Jammeh The highest result of education is tolerance. Helen Keller Toleration is the best religion. Victor Hugo If we do not know peace, it is because we have forgotten that we belong to each other.‟‟ Mother Teresa Peace cannot be achieved through violence; it can only be attained through understanding. Ralph Waldo Emerson The more we sweat in peace the less we bleed in war.  Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit
Youth Leadership & Empowerment Center GOHER 21 | Civil Servants Academy

Youth Connection

September 2012

Youth Leadership & Empowerment Center GOHER

22 |

Civil Servants Academy

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