Process Safety and Environmental Protection 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 164–179

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Process Safety and Environmental Protection
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/psep

Performance evaluation of biodiesel from used domestic waste oils: A review
Basheer Hasan Diya’uddeen ∗, A.R. Abdul Aziz 1, W.M.A.W. Daud 2, M.H. Chakrabarti 3
Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

a b s t r a c t
Global warming, high-energy demand and availability of new technologies are among the factors catalyzing the search for alternative sources of energy. Currently, there is renewed interest in obtaining energy from wastes hitherto meant for disposal. Increased costs of disposal and their attendant problems of heavy environmental loading are some aspects making the disposal option unattractive. These wastes are sources of energy and among the several sources of generating this energy are the waste-to-energy (WTE) categories with potentials for useable fuel production. The WTE materials are mainly used domestic waste oils (UDWOs), municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural and industrial wastes. However, the latter wastes are not attractive as they consist of innumerable hazardous contaminants. The UDWOs are arguably a safe and cost effective source of useable fuel. Their conversion offers the merits of a reduction in greenhouse gas emission (GHG), enhancing fuel diversification and a qualitatively comparable energy output to fossil diesel fuels. Thus, UDWOs could significantly contribute towards achieving the 2020 and 2030 goals of substituting approximately 20% and 30% of petro-diesel with biofuels in US and EU, respectively. Moreover, attaining the forecasted annual production rate of 227 billion liters of biofuel by most active stakeholders in the biodiesel industry could be easily achieved. This review aims to analyze the performance of biodiesel fuels obtained from UDWO and to demonstrate the suitability of applying these fuels as substitutes to mineral diesel in various industries. Benefits of UDWO as a biodiesel feedstock were as well highlighted. © 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Biodiesel; Biodiesel feedstock; Used domestic waste oil; Waste treatment

1.

Introduction

The generation of waste and their significant environmental consequences has been described to have risen in the past decades due to the rapid industrialization and its associated impact upon the world economy (Tsai and Chou, 2004). The proper management of waste not only contributes significantly to reducing the numerous adverse effects on public health (Fabiyi and Skelton, 1999; Winward et al., 2008) but also has a major impact upon lowering global warming effects (Papageorgiou et al., 2009). The latter problem has been identified as the most critical environmental issue currently (Ahmad

et al., 2011). Among the detrimental effects of global warming are loss of lives, extinction of species and submerging of islands arising from a rise in sea levels (Ahmad et al., 2011). Recently, there has been a lot of clamours regarding the environment and its sustainability (Felizardo et al., 2006; Papageorgiou et al., 2009). Thus UDWO should be considered as a source of fuel for effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as for providing environmental benefits and sustainable development via waste conversion to energy (Papageorgiou et al., 2009). Still on attaining sustainability, and in line with the objective of achieving the 2020 and 2030 goal of substituting approximately 20% and 30% of

Corresponding author. Tel.: +6 012 6327 363/03 796 75206; fax: +6 03 796 75371. E-mail addresses: diyauddeen.bh@gmail.com, diyauddeen73@yahoo.com (B.H. Diya’uddeen), azizraman@um.edu.my (A.R. Abdul Aziz), ashri@um.edu.my (W.M.A.W. Daud), mohammedharun@um.edu.my (M.H. Chakrabarti). Received 7 March 2011; Received in revised form 23 February 2012; Accepted 27 February 2012 1 Tel.: +6 03 79675313; fax: +6 03 79675319. 2 Tel.: +6 03 79675297; fax: +6 03 79675319. 3 Tel.: +6 03 79677655; fax: +6 03 79675319. 0957-5820/$ – see front matter © 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.psep.2012.02.005

indicators show that sources of fossil energy are rapidly depleted. an energy source yet to be fully exploited. 2007). Energy from waste has been described by Papageorgiou et al..2.Process Safety and Environmental Protection 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 164–179 165 petro-diesel with biofuels in US and EU.8 billion liters in 2005) (Ahmad et al. The performance of the biofuel is adjudged to be comparable to fossil fuels (Felizardo et al. The objectives of this review are to give an overview of potential sources of feedstock for biodiesel production. History A succinct history of biodiesel has been provided in a separate review paper (Lin et al. 2011). 2004). respectively (González Gómez et al. 2006) and its use in the compression-ignition (CI) engine requires little or no modification of the engines ¸ themselves (Cetinkaya et al. 2.1. By definition. such as EN 14214 (Europe) and ASTM D 6751 (North America). many socio-economic and environmental issues adversely affect the large scale exploitation of this form of resources for biodiesel production. 2011a). conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using transesterification grew in popularity. 2005. were formulated. Biodiesel production from vegetable oils was first conducted by Duffy and Patrick in 1853.. combustion chamber and valves.. 2002). For feedstock of forestry origin. service outlets started frequenting many parts of Europe and US during the 2000s. the cost of biodiesel fuel has limited its widespread commercialization and various research and development programs are ongoing throughout the globe to bring the cost factor down (Chuepeng and Komintarachat. Australia and New Zealand. a policy of recovering value from waste has been enforced and this includes waste diversion from landfill. Continuous revision and updates of the standards became necessary as automobile manufacturers evolved newer engine designs with the passage of time. 2011). waste and residues from agriculture (vegetable and animal substance). There are many potential sources for biodiesel production from biomass. The interest of the European Union in the utilization and consumption of biodiesel is based on their greater production of biodiesel. Adherence to these standards made it easier for automobile manufacturers to issue engine warranties for the implementation of biodiesel fuel in the engine (Lin et al. Some of these sources would be briefly analyzed in the proceeding sections. availability and government subsidies. For used domestic waste oil (UDWO). 2007) to adverse effects on the environment as a consequence of their utilization (Ahmad et al. the current world annual figure of UDWO generation is estimated at more than 15 million tons (Kalam et al. if effectively treated are a potential source of an ecologically friendly fuel (Cvengros and Cvengrosová. This waste is channeled through the drain with the related implications of energy loss and inhibiting performance of municipal wastewater treatment plants (Felizardo et al. aimed at increasing production. Hence.. i. 2007). . By 1920s. Thus biodiesel could go a long way in attaining the 2020 and 2030 target by several key players in the globe.. These reasons among others results in the prohibition of dumping domestic wastes in municipal waste treatment facilities. the annual biofuel production target is approximately 227 billion liters (Blake et al.... Currently.. (2009) as a waste management option that could significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). The research findings further establish the need to harness UDWO for mass-scale biodiesel production.e. 3. Lin et al. forestry and related industries and the biodegradable components of industrial and municipal waste (Chuepeng and Komintarachat. 2009. For instance. The interest of this study is limited to wastes with potentials of being converted to fuels and specifically to methyl esters (MEs) of long fatty acids (biodiesel). China. these wastes. 2011a). 2011). the US plans to replace the utilization of both diesel and petrol with biofuels by 30% (2030) and similarly EU member countries have planned a 20% substitution of fossil fuel by 2020 in the transportation sector. However. and the environmental incentives for promoting biofuel generation from such sources. 2011). The need to examine and harness potential feedstock for biodiesel production is hinged on the fact that the petro-diesel sources are associated with plenty of problems. The benefit analysis in using UDWO as a fuel source is further discussed. In 1893 vegetable oils were used for the first time in a CI engine by Rudolf Diesel. Thus. identifying cheaper and sustainable sources would always be a welcome progress. Pramanik. 2009). their merits and demerits. 2008). and the future forecast is not encouraging. Potential biodiesel feedstock sources 2. a major problem that arises from the exploration and consumption of the fossil based fuels is the steady decline in underground-based carbon fuel reserves (Melvin Jose et al. Among others are policies involved in primary forest destruction. fossil-based diesel application completely over took the vegetable oils. 2006). Due to problems arising from poor atomization of the fuel that resulted in deposition of residues and coking of the injectors. Being renewable it offers the merit of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions while the UDWO is available everywhere. Moreover.. 2000).. Biodiesel Definition Biodiesel can be defined as a monoalkyl ester of long chain fatty acids derived from a renewable lipid feedstock. 2011a). biomass includes all biodegradable fractions of products. due to the relative cost effectiveness. Sarin et al. However. such as vegetable oil or animal fat. 2007. which is estimated at approximately 85% of the world’s total (3.. 2. The summary of the findings clearly indicates several merits in the generation of biodiesel from UDWO... the European Union. issues with non-governmental organizations (NGO). This necessitates adopting policies by all of the most active players in the industry. 2003) and microemulsification (Srivastava and Prasad. To ensure proper quality control of the fuel various biodiesel standards.. In fact. Biodiesel is also an environmentally friendlier form of fuel. Thus. 2005). problems were observed to persist especially with carbon deposition and contamination (Gerpen. blending (Fontaras et al. As a consequence of strict quality control on biodiesel fuel. They range from possible depletion of the fossil fuel sources (estimated at 41 years) (Agarwal. the vegetable oils needed refining by processes such as pyrolysis (Mahfud et al.

2010). 2011). organic/inorganic sludges. 2010. 2010). Boey et al. 2011). most of these wastes are nonbiodegradable in nature. 2006. A slightly higher conversion of 80% (Table 1) is obtained when solvent and supercritical-fluid (SC-CO2 ) extraction are employed (Loh et al. Again. displacement of natural habitat and conflict with the indigenous population (GFOM. There are several routes for the methyl esters conversion. the percentage yields of residual oils recovered ranges between 20 and 40% of residual oil from SBE (Loh et al.. these methyl esters may be used as a diesel substitute (Huang and Chang. mostly generated from soybean. tobacco seed (Usta et al.. The higher yield may be associated with induced asymmetric cavitational bubbles collapse at the oil/alcohol boundary which enhances the mass transfer between the phases thus accelerating the reaction (Boey et al. Loh et al. 2010). 2008). Reported work in the literature suggests that the utilization of the adsorbed crude vegetable oil on the spent bleaching earth (SBE) is an economical approach. effectively lowers the production cost (Ahmad et al. 2011. 2011). 2005. Equally. with high oil content in the seed and with good productivity per hectare (Zanette et al. The high cost of biodiesel is incurred in the form of feedstock cost.. 3. Thus. issues of sustainability of some of these sources become their bane. the two-step esterification reported by Huang and Chang (2010) gave the highest yield of 85–90%. Boey et al. they lack the potentials for biodiesel production as they fail to meet the “biodiesel from biomass” criteria.. 2011). 2011). On the other hand. the oil extraction becomes a sound alternative to its disposal. A higher conversion of 75. coal ash and others (Tsai. No. In addition the de-oiled bleaching earth can be reused as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment or as a clay substitute in the brick or tile manufacturing process (Boey et al.. However. 2006).2% is reported when the in situ transesterification is supplemented by means of ultrasonification using petroleum ether (PE) as an organic co-solvent (Boey et al. among others. 2011) and low grade oils such as sludge palm oil (Hayyan et al.2–1. the oils extracted exhibit poor qualities in terms of free fatty acids (FFA) content of more than 10% along with high peroxide values (Loh et al. tobacco seed oil (Usta et al.. scrap plastics. Moreover. the sustainability of this form of feedstock is assured. the viscosity of neat vegetable oil (range of 28–40 mm2 /s) is high. 2011). 2011). an average of 1.6 kg of SBE generation per metric ton of edible oil production. coming from a perennial plant. A sustainable source is the use of waste generated from crude vegetable oil discoloration (bleaching). 2010). Lim and Teong. Juan et al. 2009) and pongame (Kumar and Sharma. 2011). 2007). non-food feedstock sources is another viable option that potentially reduces the utilization of edible oils. castor (Chakrabarti and Ahmad. Agricultural Production of biodiesel from agricultural. 2011). They are an unattractive source of generating energy as they are known to contain toxic contaminants in quantities sufficient for adversely affecting the environment and quality of life. jatropha (Jain and Sharma.. As the SBE is directly sourced from edible oil. 2006. These residual oils recovered from the SBE are a potential biodiesel feedstock source. 2011).. The SBE oils. A limit of 75% for the cost of raw materials has also been reported (Ahmad et al. 2011). rapeseed and palm oil refinery facilities have similar composition to vegetable oils (Pizarrro and Park. 2011). This coupled with the high conversion yield of the extracted oil make its utilization attractive.. Chuepeng and Komintarachat. 2010). Pidou et al. 1 – A graphical representation of financial contribution of the major parameters in production of biodiesel (Ahmad et al.. 2011. Such crops that have been reportedly used includes: rubber seed (Melvin Jose et al. as it comprises non-edible oil. as disposal of the SBE poses serious environmental hazards associated with fire and pollution (Huang and Chang. via their utilization. Of interest is Jatropha curcas oil.. mahua (Saravanan et al. 2010). eruca sativa (Chakrabarti and Ahmad. No.1. 2011). In addition.. 1. 3. based on figures reported by Huang and Chang (2010) of 1. Most recent experimental studies on this oil have been conducted by Zanette et al. Of the many conversion approaches. add). In their study new . 1999. rubber seed oil (Melvin Jose et al. 2011). The lowest conversion is obtained in the case of methanolysis. 2010. It could be argued that these sources of biodiesel feedstock have minimal effect on the competition for food and that some species are adaptable to growth on wastelands (Ahmad et al. 2010) and illustrated graphically in Fig. 2011). However. Hence. waste rubber. 2003.. Industrial These categories of waste are known to be the most problematic of all the wastes disposed/generated. However. non-hazardous waste is generated from sources such as food processing waste. 2011. Huang and Chang. Tsai. The quality of biodiesel derived from residual oil of SBE is in reasonable agreement with both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards and have comparable fuel properties as petroleum diesel. This is associated with their great complexity and serious environmental hazards (Fabiyi and Skelton. especially from the palm oil industry.. Among such are palm oil fatty distillates (Hayyan et al. In addition.. waste paper.. Thus. its direct use has led to diesel engine problems such as deposits formation and injector coking arising from poor atomization (Knothe..0 million tons of biodiesel are generated from the edible oil production of 128... 2011). as lipase catalyzed transesterification is expensive compared to other methods. it is not very economical to produce biodiesel using this reaction (Marchetti et al.166 Process Safety and Environmental Protection 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 164–179 Fig.. which ranges from 70 to 95% of total operating costs.. there are industrial discharges of wastes that are non-hazardous in nature and have potentials for biodiesel generation. (2011). 2009.. 2009.2 million metric tons. such as the use of lipase-catalyzed method as reported by Pizarrro and Park (2003) where a conversion of 55% (w/w) is attained. 2006) thus making them suitable for food applications.5–2... This higher production cost necessitates the search for more economically attractive feedstock which.2.

which appears small translates to very large scales in practice. Wu et al. Municipal The production of biodiesel from municipal sources. This is based on the release of massive amounts of carbon dioxide. Accordingly. Soldi et al. Ma et al. Moreover. poultry. Even the previous targeted quota (2010 EU’s target of replacing 5. 2006). In a recent review by Zanette et al. renewable energy source to petroleum fuel. 2003.. 1996). catalyst inactivation during re-use has been found to occur. 2002).. and these include a decrease in the competition with food items.. the fact is that in Europe several calls have been made for banning its use. this feedstock availability is more in Africa and India (Table 2). 2003. However. 2001. The results show that by using KSF clay and Amberlyst 15 as catalysts around 70 wt. Skelton (2007). They contain a high amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) which leads to a difficult esterification process. they are classified into mainly edible and inedible types and are generated by the meat packing. Among the several sources are cottonseed oil. and palm oil (Dorado et al. 2007).. a report raised by Marcel Silvanus (GFOM. A typical example is beef tallow with an average SFA representing approximately 50% of the total FA. especially the EU (González Gómez et al. 2009.. 2011).4 Mt from EU countries while estimated amounts stand at 0.. The detrimental effect in employing UDWO to prepare feeding formulations for domestic animals have resulted in its ban in the EU from 2002 (Cvengros and Cvengrosová.Process Safety and Environmental Protection 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 164–179 167 Table 1 – Reaction time and biodiesel yield from various methods utilizing SBE. and other factors. which includes animal fat and beef tallow.5 Esterification method Two-step esterification Lipase-catalysis methanolysis Solvent and supercritical-fluid (SC-CO2 ) In situ transesterification by the aid of ultrasound and organic co-solvents petroleum ether Reaction time 60 min 96 h 180 min 120 min Table 2 – Global distribution of biodiesel feedstock according to countries (Ahmad et al. has highlighted the scenario involved in attaining the previous 2010 EU’s target of replacing 5. Used domestic waste oils (UDWO) 3. about 60% of Europe’s arable land has to be utilized. The UDWO is a more attractive low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production in comparison to vegetable oils as they are not affected by land policies as witnessed in some countries. (2011). minimum use of fertilizers. Zheng and Hanna. and the oil is far from being carbon-neutral. Reference Huang and Chang (2010) Pizarrro and Park (2003) Loh et al.. Generally. has been well documented in many referenced literature (Liu et al. Technically. For palm oil. Country USA Europe/EU Western Canada Africa India Malaysia/Indonesia Philippines China Spain Greece Feedstock Soybeans Rapeseed. 2011. 2009).. Based on this figure it is clear that the target cannot be met (GFOM. several articles have questioned the credibility of the data generated and subsequent analysis. sunflower oil.. overcoming problems associated with planting and harvesting.0 Mt) (González Gómez et al. 2011). the use of this feedstock as a biodiesel source presents difficulties in terms of production. thus accounting for high melting point and high viscosity of the final biodiesel. 2008.% of FAME yield are obtained at relatively mild conditions and short reaction times. It offers the merit of being a cheap form of alternative Literature is replete with studies on UDWO for biodiesel production. 2007) has shown that as a sustainable source the use of palm oil is unattractive from an environmental perspective. (2011) Methyl ester yield (%) 90 55 80 72. price is half that of vegetable oil and huge amounts are generated (approximately 0. 3. this is unattractive and contributes to the figures reported by Predojevic (2008) in which vegetable oil derived biodiesel costs amount to about 10–50% higher than that of petroleum-based diesel fuel.. on these figures. To attain the biodiesel production target using rapeseed (the main European feedstock). Additionally. 1999. a minimum or negligible land area requirement. 2006. Tashtoush et al. biosafety consideration is another factor limiting the viability of such sources as contaminated animals are not discriminated in the fat application (Ahmad et al.75% of diesel fuel with biofuel). (2006) Boey et al.7–1.3. This provides further justification for the necessity of . Sunflower Canola Oil Jatropha Jatropha Palm Coconut Waste Cooking oil Linseed Cotton Seed Oil yield (l oil/ha/year) 636 1070 974 741 741 5366 – NA – – Land use (m2 year/kg biodiesel) 18 11 12 15 15 2 – 0 – – Biodiesel productivity (kg biodiesel/ha/year) 321 946 809 656 656 4747 – NA – – experimental data and kinetic modeling of transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil are reported using heterogeneous catalysts. for EU’s utilization of Jatropha curcas importation factors comes in.4..75% of diesel fuel with biofuel to include competition with food crops and the destruction of rain forests at the expense of new plantations. (2011) for each of the major producers of biodiesel. Nelson and Schrock. Thus for large-scale production the technical limitations need to be addressed. Still. several advantages of UDWO have been highlighted. A detailed breakdown of feedstock statistics is given by Ahmad et al. Phan and Phan. tobacco seed. which result in the significant decrease in the price of feedstock. From an economic point of view. 2002). 2004). soybean oil. Hamasaki et al. and edible/inedible rendering industries (Nelson and Schrock. Although.

Based on Table 3.07 0. Similar reports are abundant in the literature. Used domestic waste oil (UDWO) Generation These categories of waste oil are mostly generated from edible vegetable matter. Of all the available sources of domestic waste. used domestic waste oils (UDWO) are arguably the most widely generated. Although. The remainder of the fat in the fried oils. As described by Tsai et al... Thamsiriroj and Murphy. biodiesel production with UDWO is more universal as fast food outlets are abundant in most urban places while the use of refined edible/non edible oils are restricted to certain countries and regions. Upham et al. However. A final check of all the mentioned points might indicate the sources as not so attractive. For UDWO with low acid value. 2008. free fatty acids. 2008).5% (Hayyan et al. (2009) have reported the use of UDWO (palm oil) having an acid value of 0..168 Process Safety and Environmental Protection 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 164–179 Table 3 – Used domestic waste oil generation by countries (Kalam et al. on the other hand.. The frying process exposes the oil during cooking and the food preparation step renders the oil detrimental to further human consumption (Kalam et al.58 mg KOH/g for biodiesel production. 2010). iodine value and water content. This parameter decreases as the deterioration in the edible oil quality increases.. Ozbay et al. the GHG emission generated in due course of its production. they faced serious challenges in preparing biodiesel from UDWO without acid esterification when FFA values of the UDWO exceeded 2%. reported use of strong acidic ion exchange resins is effective in the esterification reaction of the FFA in UDWO.3. The same has been highlighted by Knothe and Steidley (2009).. Country China Malaysia United States Taiwan Europe Canada Japan Ireland Quantity (million tons/year) 4. It should be noted that in choosing a particular biomass source for renewable energy production. The process may be summarized as the hydrolytic splitting of triacylglycerols in the presence of water. Here. Watanabe et al... 2011. they have a limitation of high free fatty acid content of 0. the physical and chemical characteristics of UDWO are associated with contaminants such as water..2. Leung and Guo. 2011). 4. The detailed analysis of the transformations steps is reported by Cvengros and Cvengrosová (2004).12 0. 2008. 4..% (Issariyakul et al. Sabudak and Yildiz (2010). in turn degrades the oils through hydrolytic. pretreatment is basically water and gum filtration. the process of frying involves heating of the vegetable oils for varied times in the air at temperatures ranging from 160 to 200 ◦ C (Cvengros and Cvengrosová.. 4. these impurities are subject to the fresh cooking oil and are a cause of concern on the quality of UDWO (Gui et al. Process of frying Basically. 2009). Knothe and Steidley.e. However. manifest negatively on the downstream processing due to the formation of bulk solids in alkali-catalyzed processes.57 0. 2011). (2007). 2009). Thus UDWO feedstock needs to be screened for these three parameters (Math et al.5 0. 2008). Moreover. In the literature. 2006. The variation of treatment conditions and the fact that the oils are sourced from different vegetable oils results in an increased variability in the compositional characteristics of the biodiesel formed from UDWO and accounts for the changes in the chemical and physical properties (Felizardo et al. Jiménez-López et al. lubricants and others (Nelson and Schrock. the transesterification reaction could be performed directly.0 0.. which can be saponified with caustic catalyst to form saponifiable matter. Ozbay et al. oxidation and cracking reactions resulting in increased viscosity and acidity as well as associated unpleasant odor and a darker coloration. 2010). 2001. High water content. a portion of the water evaporates. Effect of UDWO properties on the transesterification reaction Generally. for adequate high-yield conversion to biodiesel (Canakci and Van Gerpen.7–10 0. 2006). an overall assessment of UDWO clearly shows it is not affected by these limitations. 2011. Despite the potential of UDWO in biodiesel production. This is further buttressed by the amount of UDWO generated from some countries (Table 3). followed by hydrogenation and then de-acidification (Kalam et al. Moreover. Canakci et al. constitute the high free fatty acid content that necessities an additional step – acid pre-treatment. 2008). In comparison to beef tallow.5 10. 2004). attempted to analyze the compliance of several purified biodiesel fuels with the EN 14214 standard. For unsaturated fatty acid measurements. others dissolve in the fat and induce the cleavage to give rise to higher FA and glycerol content. the use of waste oils for biodiesel production saves cost significantly as it is almost free or usually priced at a value that is approximately 60% lower than that of conventional vegetable oils (Predojevic. transportation and processing should be factored in. 2004). This could be associated with the recent proliferation of fast food outlets (on a small and industrial scale) due to the affinity of the young generation to fast food (Cvengros and Cvengrosová.1. The transesterification process of UDWO is greatly affected by the following parameters: acid value. This . i.. 2011. Merits of these wastes include less separation and purification steps. it is clearly evident that disposal of these large amounts of UDWO through direct discharges into drains or sewers may lead to significant environmental problems as watercourses and wildlife are directly affected (Kalam et al. loss of the catalytic activity poses a challenge (Lou et al. use in fatty acids and soap manufacture. 2001. This requirement apparently retards the prospects of UDWO as its FFA content is usually more than 2 wt. 2011). 2006). the UDWO applications are limited whereby the inedible form of the former finds usefulness among others as an additive for animal feed. Oxygen dissolves in the fat and initiates the formation of several oxidation products from the reaction of oxygen with unsaturated acylglycerols. the iodine value is used. 2010.153 intensifying UDWO conversion to biodiesel. This was similar to the 4... Singh and Singh. the relevance of the analysis is informed by the fact that the free fatty acids content is reflected by the acid value.. Zhang et al.45–0. 2007. 2003)..

superacids. the latter fuel is associated with low viscosity and lower density in comparison to the former. 2006). 2008). Hayyan et al. Thus.. Based on this. Based on the similarity of the properties. and a slower reaction rate is observed (Ozbay et al. However. Thus. change in the refraction index and increasing tendency of the fat to foam are all associated with the frying process (Cvengros and Cvengrosová. a major issue with the application of biodiesel is its fuel properties. However.9–6. Biodiesel from UDWO sources have been reported to possess properties similar to fossil fuels. the post treatment method becomes vital. 2005). decrease in the iodine number. Felizardo et al. filter plugging.0 mm2 /s (ASTM D6751) is maintained throughout its storage and performance periods. On the high viscosity problem. 2009). 2004. blending about 5% of the UDWO fuel with No. mono-. Ozbay et al.. lubricity. 2008). 2011). Quality of fuel As mentioned by Knothe and Steidley (2009). Kalam et al.0 mm2 /s (Knothe and Steidley. A drawback to the use of UDWO is its color (dark-brown or even red).. resulting from hydrolytic and oxidative reactions have been discussed by several researchers (Cvengros and Cvengrosová. 2004).. as with most diesel-range fuels.. injector coking and excessive engine wear problems (Kalam et al. Use of solid acid catalyst (ionexchange resins. (2011). 2007). a common phenomenon with biodiesel originating from other sources (Bouaid et al. Furthermore. a high FFA conversion is attained. However. However. the acceptable biodiesel viscosity range of 1.%) and observed an increase in FFA conversion with an increase in both catalyst amount and reaction temperature. More recently. This research outcome paved the way of utilizing UDWO composing of more than 2% FFA for biodiesel production. increased amounts of free fatty acids. Biodiesel production from UDWO is a continuous one due to increasing production of the waste oils from household and industrial places (Felizardo et al. seven parameters (see Table 4) have been used as a basis in this review. methanol and salts. 4. An implication of this is that the homogeneous alkaline transesterification reaction is hindered by the saponification reaction leading to soap formation (Jiménez-López et al. 2009). 2009. It is known that the production route as well as the feedstock affects the biodiesel produced from UDWO (Zhang et al. poor atomization of fuel.Process Safety and Environmental Protection 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 164–179 169 conclusion reported by Kalam et al.6% by means of an acid base reaction followed by ion-exchange resin purification met the EN 14214 requirements adequately. 2007). tri-glycerides. etc.. 2 diesel fuel can adequately address carbon deposition.. The problems can be addressed by employing a strong liquid acid catalyst whereby the transesterification process is not significantly affected since the catalyst has reduced sensitivity towards FFA (Kulkarni and Dalai. increased storage time increases the acid and peroxide values.. cetane number (CN).4. others are above 5% (Issariyakul et al. odor (unpleasant). Sendzikiene et al. More recently. Furthermore. Canakci and Van Gerpen (2001) demonstrated the feasibility of reducing the high FFA values of a UDWO to less than 1% in a two-step pretreatment process.. (2004) has achieved nearly ∼50% conversion of UDWO to biodiesel when using 1% homogenous acidic catalyst (H2 SO4 ) at 50 ◦ C. 2006).. UDWO-fuels are thus more attractive sources of biodiesel feedstock. glycerine. Sabudak and Yildiz (2010). Generally. as corrosion is prevented (Viviana Silva and Rodrigues. greater oxidative stability.2% to below 2%. higher viscosity. it must comply with either International Biodiesel Standard for Vehicles (EN 14214) or American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards (ASTM D 6751). Amberlyst16 (A-16) and Dowex HCR-W2) by varying the amount of catalyst used (1–2 wt. a higher temperature is required. and a similar result has been reported for A-15 heterogeneous catalyst (Ozbay et al. Although the FFA content from some sources is less than 2%. (2004) where complete FFA esterification reaction has been attained in 15 min for the homogenous catalyst (H2 SO4 ) as against 100 min for Relite CFS (an acidic ion exchange polymeric resin). 2008). The latter standard stipulates 25 parameters but usually a minimum of seven parameters can be used to assess the quality.) is more attractive. 2003). heat of combustion. reaction duration can be reduced using an acid catalyst than an ion exchange process as demonstrated in the work of Sendzikiene et al. This is expected as the viscosity of the most viscous methyl ester of common fatty acids (stearic acid methyl ester) is slightly below 6. 2007).. higher cetane number as well as higher cloud and pour points than other counterparts (Knothe and Steidley. Table 4 shows that the UDWO-biodiesel adequately meets the quality indices prescribed by the ASTM and EN-14214 for biodiesel quality. and oxidation stability (Saraf and Thomas.. Of the several methods. In addition. In the literature. 2006). Ozbay et al. however. biodiesel combustion efficiency in an engine is subject to fuel parameters that include viscosity. Amberlyst-35 (A-35). These chemical and physical changes. The high viscosity of the UDWO feedstock necessitates post processing as the transesterification reduces the viscosity but does not meet the required standard at times. and a more effective catalyst separation is achieved (Lotero et al. who further reported that for transesterification reaction. 2006). 2011). (2011) used a multi-cylinder diesel engine to compare emission and performance characteristics of palm . The UDWO based fuels have been shown to have a higher degree of saturation. 2006). The biodiesel quality is assessed by various agencies in different countries. (2008) has studied the batch esterification of FFA in UDWO using four different ion-exchange resins (Amberlyst-15 (A-15). di-. which was reported by Tesser et al. which inevitably determines its performance. (2005). reported that the transesterification of a UDWO having a FFA value of 4. cold flow characteristics. Enweremadu and Mbarawa. ion-exchange resins have been shown to be particularly useful for high FFA containing feedstock where satisfactory separation of impurities from biodiesel is attained (Berrios and Skelton. the FFA content of the biodiesel should not exceed 1% (Chakrabarti and Ahmad. The biodiesel produced from UDWO following transesterification reaction may contain impurities such as soap. (2011) reduced the FFA content of a sludge palm oil (SPO) from 23. the latter two properties can adversely affect fuel performance as they can cause poor low-temperature properties. a step can be incorporated to enhance the suitability and viability of these oils. Papageorgiou et al. zeolites.. increased viscosity of the fat and acidity due to degradation (Felizardo et al. It is observed that irrespective of the source and type of the UDWO. 2008. 2008. the acid value and viscosity are consistently observed to increase with time as established by Knothe and Steidley (2009) due to variation in the extent of oils and fats saturation. 2009). such elaborate pretreatment procedures increase the general overhead costs. Clearly from the results of Table 4. On the use of solid acid catalyst.

170 Table 4 – Physical and chemical specifications of No.5 0 −4 10 – – – – −2.8823 0.890 0.318 4.22 4.4 58.7 – – – – 3 – – – – – Kinematic viscosity (at 40 ◦ C.57 9.45 – – – – – 62 – – – – – – 106 106 106 49–50a 49b 54c c c c c 54.5 25 – 3 – – 10.30 30.9200 0. waste oil and UDWO-biodiesel. (2007) Sabudak and Yildiz (2010) Sabudak and Yildiz (2010) Sabudak and Yildiz (2010) a b c Pour point (◦ C) EN ISO 3016 (–) −20 284 262 8 15 14 18.888 0.33 0.5–5) 2. Reference Flash point (◦ C) EN 22719.9 45.42 31.8820 FFA (mg KOH/g) Water content (mg/kg) Iodine value (g iodine/100 g) Cetane number Process Safety and Environmental Protection 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 164–179 (>51) 72 485 469 269 276 243 298 171 156 0 148 130 70.8737 – 0.888–0.8826 0.9200 0. UDWO biodiesel.9240 0.04 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 381 317 372 – 141.88 4.64 0.8870 0.77 4. (≥120) Utlu and Kocak (2008) ¸ Demirbas (2009) Demirbas (2009) Phan and Phan (2008) Phan and Phan (2008) Phan and Phan (2008) Phan and Phan (2008) Enweremadu and Mbarawa (2009) Enweremadu and Mbarawa (2009) Enweremadu and Mbarawa (2009) Enweremadu and Mbarawa (2009) Enweremadu and Mbarawa (2009) Ozsezen and Canakci (2010) Predojevic (2008) Predojevic (2008) Predojevic (2008) Utlu and Kocak (2008) ¸ Tsai et al. 2 diesel fuel.8860 0.23 4.9200 0. Waste oil. .3 58.8 3.6 15 16.5 52.60 36.67 – – – – – 0.8870 0.1 58.8 – – – No. (2007) Tsai et al.8370 0. 2 diesel fuel.15 – – – – – – 0.1 2.8840 0.7568 5.8860 0.46 5.23 – 0.18 4.8880 0.05 33.5 – −2.6 – – – 156 180 173 159 161 151 – 1.0 109 48 47.42 0.32 – – 5.32 0.6 52 45.8970 0.01 4.4 5.88 5. g/ml) EN ISO 3675.5 6 6 – – – Cloud point (◦ C) EN 23015 (–) −15 – – 21.36 1.8872 0.9 60.69 8. (3.47 27.7116 4.5 – 13.401 4. (0.33 0.837) 0.9200 0.2 12.8750 0.63 Density (at 15 ◦ C. mm2 /s) EN ISO 3104.

2007). However. 2011). This stability has been associated with higher saturates ratio in UDWO and also its antioxidants content (Knothe and Steidley.. Engine performance of jatropha oil and its blends Labeckas and Slavinskas (2006) Narayana and Ramesh (2006) Bari et al. 2003) and increases NOx emissions. (2007) Ladommatos et al. biodiesel combustion gases had more H2 O and CO2 compared to diesel. Evaluation of biodiesel behavior during auto-ignition process and its behavior in diesel fuel injection systems Use of exhaust gas recirculation to reduce engine emissions Ramadhas et al. A consequence of this can result in the promotion of oxidative degradation that may decrease the lubricity of biodiesel and contribute to gum formation in the engine (Saraf and Thomas. 7. Larger reduction in NOx emissions could be obtained but this was offset by higher particulate and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. .Process Safety and Environmental Protection 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 164–179 171 Table 5 – Findings on biodiesel and blends on internal combustion engine performance. 10%. 2000). Reference Basha et al. respectively. 5. Biodiesel with high H to C molar ratio gave less CO2 and O2 but higher H2 O in exhaust. than lower ratio fuel. B10 of taramira gave least emissions in comparison to castor and jatropha B10 but engine performance (power and torque) was poor. Use of both neat and blended biodiesel altered fuel injection and ignition processes in engines. 2008. Thermal efficiencies were acceptable for B50. 2003. in comparison with No. (2011) Combustion of different biodiesel fuels and prediction of exhaust mixture composition with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) Chuepeng and Komintarachat (2009) oil and coconut waste cooking oil blends tagged C5 and P5.3% less smoke and a 21% decrease in carbon mono-oxide (CO) content. 2% in comparison to petro-diesel and figures of ca.. 2009. Chakrabarti et al. This is especially true for biodiesel produced using base catalysts in comparison to the employment of acid catalysts or enzymes (Basha et al. 2011). unburned hydrocarbons. to obtain a holistic assessment of the fuels’ suitability. several researchers have investigated the stability of UDWO biodiesel and found it stable (Knothe et al. while increases of 1% and 2% of nitrogen oxides (NOx ) were reported for C5 and P5. are reported to represent reduction in particulate matter. low emission of toxic gases due to lower sulfur and aromatic content (Chakrabarti and Ali. piston ring and plunger injection pump delivery valve wear. Jatropha oil effect on injection timing and rate. 11% and 21%. Biodiesel testing and evaluation in compression-ignition engines As highlighted by Skelton (2007). 2010. Thus. injector opening pressure and engine air swirl.. jatropha and eruca sativa) Chakrabarti et al. carbon monoxide and total hydrocarbons emissions. Investigation Effect of pongamia methyl ester Findings NOx emissions were lower with retardation of injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation Biodiesel was found to decrease CO. higher exhaust emission reduction was attained for unburned hydrocarbon (23% and 17%). respectively (Chakrabarti et al. With EGR. They reported. Saraf and Thomas. respectively. the merits could be enumerated as a higher combustion efficiency and cetane number (Demirbas. 2 diesel. (2002) Pramanik (2003) Performance of different composition of rubber seed oil blends in a 5.. B40. 2009). lowering of brake power of 0. (2009) Emissions of neat and blended rapeseed biodiesel in a diesel engine. Among four blends B20. it is imperative to analyze the performance of the fuel in CI engines. Briefly. Merits of biodiesel fuel relative to petro-diesel drive the search for such renewable alternatives. Generally. Smoke and hydrocarbon emissions can be reduced by increasing both the injection timing and the injector-opening pressure Heavy combustion chamber carbon deposits. 2007. heavy carbon deposits were formed. Knothe and Steidley. 2009).. 2009) and appreciable reduction of most exhaust emissions such as monoxide. It has been found in various research investigations that the average NOx emission for B20 blends increases by ca. 2009).5 kW single cylinder direct injection compression-ignition engine. Engine performance better for blends than neat vegetable oil. the requirements of current diesel engines are strict with respect to fuel quality. respectively. CO2 and H2 O emissions were higher while O2 was lower for biodiesel.7% and 1. B60 and B80. and particulate matter (Chakrabarti and Ali. Biodiesel yields diesel soot that can be oxidized easily. using the blended fuels. This results in lowering the cetane number (Knothe et al. (1998) Effect of different B10 fuels (castor. B20 gave satisfactory thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption. HC and visible emissions while increasing NOx emissions in comparison to diesel fuel. a high biodegradability of 90% within 21 days (Speidel et al. as the extent of fatty acid unsaturation increases in a chain it implies an increase in reactive bonds. 1998).. Specific fuel consumption reduced. Crude palm oil performance and durability tests in diesel engine. (2005) Szybist et al. The role of the degree of unsaturation enhances the reactivity of the fatty acid molecule. Another factor determining the suitability of biodiesel fuel is it is oxidative stability. Uneven spray formation.2% for C5 (blended with 95% diesel) and P5 (blended with 95% diesel). At similar air-to-fuel ratio.

SO2 and CO2 decreased when using biodiesel in comparison to diesel. At a biodiesel: diesel fuel ratio of 1:1. Type of UDWO biodiesel UDWO Tests performed Emission characteristics and performance of indirect and direct injection engine with EGR Highlights of research Lower HC.5%. it was observed that 100 l of biodiesel was consumed for engine performance tests. (2002) Olive oil Combustion efficiency. 2. (2001) UDWO Palm oil Leung (2001) Al-Widyan et al. respectively. Smoke opacity reduced by 83% for biodiesel in comparison to diesel. Acceleration period reduced by 8. However. maximum brake power and maximum thermal efficiency. Decrease in emissions for CO (8. O2 and smoke. biodiesel combustion efficiency was higher than petroleum diesel whereas at high energy rate. NOx increased by 16% at 2500 rpm engine speed. Emissions of CO. diesel fared better.6% for CO2 . The same was true for fuel consumption per kWh for a lorry engine. fuel consumption increased by 4% when diesel was replaced by biodiesel in the engine.1% and 3. 9% less brake power was observed for biodiesel run diesel engine in comparison to diesel run engine. Wheel power and force decreased by 2. Same thermal efficiencies for all three UDWO biodiesel fuels. Combustion efficiency similar for biodiesel and diesel. Smoke opacity also decreased.43% less fuel consumed when biodiesel replaced diesel in engine. CO emissions increased with increasing acid value. Emissions increased for CO2 (2. For both idle and full load. UBHCsa . Maximum engine power decreased in a linear fashion with increase in biodiesel blends in fuel tested in engine. NOx emissions increased by 81%. (2000) Process Safety and Environmental Protection 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 164–179 UDWO Leung (2001) UDWO Emissions and performance testing of single cylinder engine with diesel and 3 UDWO-ME Emissions testing of diesel and B10 Emissions and performance of direct injection engine with B0. NOx higher for biodiesel. (2002) Recycled and grease trap oils Guo et al. Smoke opacity reduced by 7% for B15. Reference Mittelbach and Tritthart (1988) UDWO Emissions and engine performance of a naturally aspirated indirect injection engine Emissions and performance testing of engine using blends Gonzalez-Gomez et al.6%). (2003) Palm oil UDWO Combustion efficiency of furnace Emissions and engine performance Tashtoush et al.172 Table 6 – Summary of results obtained for different tests conducted with UDWO in the internal combustion engine. B50. B50 gave least emissions of CO. B20 gave best engine power output and least BSFC. HC (31%) and PM (63%). PAH and PM for UDWO biodiesel in first engine compared to diesel. B25. engine performance and emissions Dorado et al. For all biodiesel blends tested.8% for 60–100 km/h range. CO2 . Power output was less for biodiesel. Fewer emissions of 59% for CO. B75 and B100 gave least brake specific fuel consumption. For full load.6%) and NOx (5%). 8. Smoke opacity decreased significantly. B75 and B100 Emissions and performance testing of four cylinder engine Hamasaki et al. CO reduced by 1. In second engine biodiesel gave much less smoke in comparison to diesel. CO. Much lower emissions for B20 and B100 with latter fuel giving least smoke production. (2003) Ulusoy and Tekin (2004) UDWO Emissions and performance characteristics Cetinkaya and Karaosmanoglu (2005) . biodiesel fuel consumption rate was slightly higher than diesel. However. CO and HC emissions decreased for biodiesel and NOx increase was marginal. Low engine loads gave low NOx but increased with high loads. PM decreased significantly at high loads. At low energy rate. In addition.5% for NO and 58% for SO2 when using biodiesel. BSFCb increased for biodiesel fuel. 37.5% and HC by 44% when B10 used in place of diesel. NOx and O2 increased.

engine performance and temperature of direct injection compression ignition engine Rao et al. CO2 and NOx were higher.5% higher specific fuel consumption were noted for biodiesel in comparison to diesel fuel. BSFC also increased while engine efficiency remained relatively constant at different modes of operation. Brake thermal efficiency losses of 1–1. B30. PM and smoke opacity). 17% in CO.5. common rail injection using B0. 8% in CO2 and 1. As biodiesel quantity in blends increased.5% in NOx . (2008) UDWO ¸ Utlu and Kocak (2008) UDWO Exhaust emissions and performance using B0. Reference Usta et al. (2008) 173 . Biodiesel gave lower CO and SO2 emissions whereas PM. Biodiesel exhaust gas temperatures less than diesel at all engine speeds tested.5% reduction in smoke intensity. Highest values obtained for B17. For B0. UBHCs and SO4 2− emissions lower for UDWO-ME.5% in exhaust temperature. 6. similar for all 3 fuels. which was in accordance to the differences in calorific values of both fuels. (2007) Palm oil Emissions and performance evaluation on a direct injection engine using fresh and waste oil Sudhir et al.4 kW. whereas NOx higher. Brake power and torque were 3–5% lower for biodiesel in comparison to diesel fuel whereas fuel consumptions were marginally different. (2005) Process Safety and Environmental Protection 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 164–179 UDWO Cetinkaya et al. 25% engine power loss. Biodiesel’s break specific fuel consumption was slightly higher than that for diesel and break thermal efficiency was lower by 2. CO and HC lower for B20 (19%) and B50 (27%) in comparison to B0. minimum BSFC was 230 g/kWh for diesel and 259 g/kWh for biodiesel. UDWO-ME showed 22. three cylinder. (2007) UDWO Lin et al.1% power loss was obtained when using biodiesel in comparison to diesel fuel. (2008) UDWO Heat release. B5 to B25 gave higher brake power and torque than B25-B100. C15 H32 was dominant tail gas species while C30 H50 was dominant for B20.– Table 6 (Continued) Type of UDWO biodiesel Hazelnut soapstock and sunflower oil methyl esters Tests performed Emissions and engine performance Highlights of research CO emissions higher at low speeds and lower at high speeds. Similar NOx emissions of biodiesel to diesel. 7. Similar auto-ignition behavior for both methyl and ethyl esters of UDWO (sharp reduction in HC. maximum power for biodiesel was 72 kW and for diesel it was 72. B50. B20 and B50 Meng et al. marine outboard diesel engine Trace formation from tail gas exhaust of diesel engine Murillo et al. peak pressure and ignition delay of engine using diesel and blends of diesel/biodiesel fuel Exhaust emissions. Also B20 gave 1. lower pressure increase rate and lower heat release in comparison to diesel. Diethyl phthalate and diphenyl sulfone present. Biodiesel and its blends found to give lower ignition delay. COx . (2007) UDWO Performance and emissions of direct.5% for biodiesel. after which. BSFC decreased with engine load increase using B0 showing least fuel consumption per unit energy output. B70 and B100 fuels Lapuerta et al. PM for B20 was 21% lower than B0. Effective pressures of both fuels almost similar to each other and to petroleum diesel.5% loss of rated power whereas B100 resulted in 8% loss. At 4000 rpm. Combustion temperature and pressure higher for diesel than biodiesel. At 1750 rpm.5% for biodiesel. B80 and B100. pressure increase rate. etc. less maximum engine torque and 11. higher peak pressure. Maximum torque of 220 Nm for diesel and 217 Nm for biodiesel at 2200 rpm. Net emissions of NOx . (2005) ¸ UDWO Engine performance of naturally aspirated. (2005) UDWO and blends with glycerol Effective pressure and engine performance of a direct injection diesel engine Exhaust gas temperatures and engine performance Ozkan et al. Higher NOx and CO2 emissions for biodiesel and very low SO2 . higher blends showed declining engine performance. Engine performance similar for biodiesel and diesel at part loads.

rapeseed. Correlation coefficients of 0. BSFC increased with biodiesel while brake thermal efficiencies and brake torque increased for the same fuel (neural network predicted the same results). respectively. B100 and B50 gave 25% and 18% less HC and CO emissions in comparison to No. Although results of power tests for both biodiesel and diesel fuel were almost the same. For engine torque and BSFC.174 – Table 6 (Continued) Type of UDWO biodiesel UDWO Tests performed Emissions and engine performance of diesel engine using B0. dry soot and non soot fraction from exhaust gases in a significant manner than other biodiesel fuels produced from fresh oil. Reference Lapuerta et al. CO. 40% in HC and 23% in smoke opacity for biodiesel in comparison to diesel fuel because of increase in fuel line pressure and decrease in ignition delay and air-fuel equivalence ratio in the biodiesel fuelled engine. respectively. However. Better engine performance for blends of biodiesel in comparison to pure biodiesel. (2009) Palm oil UDWO Engine exhaust emissions of indirect injection engine running on full load and variable speed condition using biodiesel blends Engine performance and emissions evaluation of a direct injection engine using blends of biodiesel Ozsezen and Canakci (2010) Hirkude and Padalkar (2011) UDWO Engine emissions and performance analysis of B0. (2008) Process Safety and Environmental Protection 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 164–179 Recycled cooking fat and UDWO Engine exhaust emissions Roskilly et al. BSFC of B100 increased by 13% whereas that of B50 increased by 5. 2 diesel. HC by 11–36% and CO by 3–13% in comparison to the use of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel on its own. (2008) Palm oil Emissions and engine performance Lertsathapornsuk et al. In Perkins engine. biodiesel fuel reduced CO and NOx emissions. (2009) Palm oil Exhaust emissions and engine performance of diesel engine and its prediction using neural network mathematical models Emissions profile from Cummins ISBe6 Euro III compression ignition engine Canakci et al. R2 were 0. UDWO Biodiesel reduced PM. Models predicted results accurately. B5. Also biodiesel gave higher fuel consumption and similar brake efficiencies to mineral diesel fuel in the diesel engine. B20 and B30 in direct injection.999 were achieved using the ANN model for predicting CO and HC emissions. (2009) Cottonseed. BSFC for biodiesel increased by almost 8%. engine efficiencies dropped by 0.9487 and 0.9–160. respectively. At 50 kW load. 50 kW and 75 kW. B50 gave 6. engine Lin et al. B30. 2% difference in exhaust temperature noted for biodiesel and diesel fuels whereas in Nanni engine. CO and PM reduced within the ranges of 21%–45% and 23–47% for biodiesel blends.26% for B100. Reductions of 57% in CO. SO2 emissions were found to be significantly lower by about 50–100% due to minimal sulfur content of B100 fuel. CO. (2011b) .6% at engine loads of 0. B70 and B100 Highlights of research Sharp decrease in PM and smoke emissions for biodiesel fuels and reduction in mean particle size.5% less brake thermal efficiency and almost 7% higher BSFC in comparison to diesel. NOx and HC emissions were relatively higher for UDWO biodiesel. B100 emitted higher NOx than diesel. (2008) UDWO Exhaust emissions and engine performance Reefat et al. BSFC for biodiesel was higher but volumetric consumption of both fuels was quite similar mainly because biodiesel has lower calorific value and higher density than diesel fuel. B10. soya bean and palm oil Wu et al. (2008) UDWO Exhaust emissions and performance of engine using biodiesel and blends and ANN modeling Ghobadian et al. Blends of biodiesel with diesel gave very good emission profile in comparison to diesel. NOx and CO2 were found to increase. HC and smoke opacity decreased with increasing biodiesel in blends with diesel whereas NOx increased. NO and NO2 emissions decreased with biodiesel but NOx increased slightly in comparison to diesel.929 and 0. biodiesel temperature was higher (almost 12%). 25 kW. PM by 5–8%. At high engine loads. Biodiesel blends decreased PAHsc by 8–38%.999. Cummins B5.

Brake thermal efficiency. CO2 . especially its global Type of UDWO biodiesel – Table 6 (Continued) Palm and coconut Anchovy fish oil UDWO a b c . Table 6 summarizes results of combustion characteristics. most of the sourced UDWO is either disposed or marketed for use as additives in animal feed despite the ban on its utilization in the feed formulation. 2009. 2006). For example. 21%. A very recent investigation comparing the engine performance and emissions of methyl esters of fresh canola oil and waste palm oil showed that both fuels gave almost identical results (Ozsezen and Canakci. Chakrabarti et al. (2011) Generally. literature reports that biodiesel properties are comparable to petro-diesel. average smoke opacity and HC were found to decrease by 4.. UBHCs = Unburned hydrocarbons. Benefits of UDWO utilization Currently. For the latter case. (2011) Behcet (2011) ¸ Shivakumar et al. 4% reduction in engine torque. 2010). NOx and exhaust gas temperature were found to increase by 10%. CO. respectively while O2 . NOx emissions increased by 2% for B5 from palm UDWO whereas the same decreased by 1% for B5 from coconut UDWO when compared with petroleum diesel fuel. In general. 2004).7% and 1. 29% and 7%. This is so provided UDWO is generated in large quantities in the particular region of study. 16% and 33%. 5% decrease in engine power and 5% increase in BSFC. respectively in comparison to diesel fuel. Reference 6. smoke and unburned hydrocarbons of biodiesel fuelled engine lower than diesel. Tests performed Reduction in brake power of 0.2%. PAHs = polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Using biodiesel blends. Blending the fuel have characteristically been associated with reduced ignition delay. engine emissions and engine performance of numerous UDWO biodiesel fuels in the CI engine. Hence the benefits accrued from the use of UDWO as raw material for biodiesel may be limited in some undeveloped countries. 2011). Highlights of research 7. BSFC = brake specific fuel consumption. A similar review that covered the effect of biodiesel in diesel engines confirmed the same (Xue et al. 2009).. single cylinder engine at 1000.. Thus. 2000 and 2500 rpm (full load) Engine performance and emissions of B5 from palm and coconut UDWO and diesel using four stroke diesel engine Emissions and performance of engine at different injection timings.Process Safety and Environmental Protection 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 164–179 175 Kalam et al. respectively for biodiesel blends in comparison to diesel fuel alone. an overall scenario throughout the globe seems to indicate quite a large production of UDWO and hence its conversion to biodiesel can definitely benefit many economies if harnessed at a large scale in the near future. B50 and B75 in direct injection. Engine performance and emissions of B0. B25. whereas NOx were higher. Biodiesel from UDWO in engines: performance analysis Enweremadu and Rutto (2010) showed in their review that biodiesel produced from UDWO had similar fuel properties to biodiesel from refined oils or fats. Emissions analysis of a direct injection CI engine using biodiesel from sunflower oil and UDWO gave almost identical results in terms of a significant decline in smoke opacity (Armas et al. 2011). This gives an added advantage to UDWO methyl/ethyl esters due to economic considerations as mentioned in earlier sections. The same was also deduced by Canakci and Van Gerpen (2003) by evaluating engine performance (in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency) and emissions (especially particulate matter) using biodiesel from yellow grease oil in comparison to biodiesel from refined soya bean oil. CO emissions of 7. They also concluded that the performance of biodiesel from both UDWO as well as refined oil was closely related (Enweremadu and Rutto.3% and 21% and HC emissions of 23% and 17% observed for B5 from coconut UDWO and palm UDWO. increased ignition temperature and raised ignition pressure and peak heat release (Basha et al. However. reducing or eliminating the use of waste oil domestically negates the worrisome scenario of returning the harmful constituents of the UDWO back to the food chain by means of animal feed additives (Cvengros and Cvengrosová. producing biodiesel from UDWO can be an effective and economical approach to managing this energy source as it provides a dual benefit of generating fuel and also protecting the environment. it appears that biodiesel produced from both fresh oil and UDWO produce similar results in the CI engine. One of the main merits of utilizing UDWO as a feedstock for biodiesel is not only limited to fuel diversification but also in mitigating the environmental pollution.6%. Other related findings are given in Table 5. 2010.. 1500. 2011). waste grease in Pakistan is used for production of soap and hence is not always available for biodiesel production (Khan and Dessouky.

Thus the search for more alternative feedstock that minimizes the production cost.K. respectively. 33. The biodiesel from this feedstock is environmentally accepted due to lower emissions of harmful air pollutants as compared to petro-diesel fuel (Ozsezen et al. Derek. Conclusions Environmental concerns. sunflower oil. respectively. 2010). palm oil. Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines.. they can be strategically used in biodiesel production thus positively affecting trade balance by eliminating or reducing the need for fossil fuel imports. Reduction of diesel smoke opacity from vegetable oil methyl esters during transient operation. potentials for enhancing fuel diversification and a qualitatively comparable energy output to fossil diesel fuels. Sci. Fuel Process. 76. biodiesel usage is less affected by most of these factors as it is renewable. Moreover. Scavarda.J.. The engine performance of UDWO biodiesel was similar to that for fresh vegetable oil methyl esters. 2010.d. 2002. Al-Widyan. emissions of NOx and CO2 were found to increase within the ranges of 5–81% and 3%. 584–593. N.. engine parameters such as brake power. In general. 4415–4422. G. 101..H.. the urgency to replace 20% and 30% of petro-diesel with biofuels in the US and EU by 2020 and 2030. Thus.C. Energy Rev. O. Yasin.F. most authors that compared the emission performance of engines for both fresh vegetable oil and UDWO methyl esters commented that the results were almost the same or marginally different.K.. 23–63%. Thus. Despite the ban imposed on the use of UDWO as animal feedstock. Ahmad. An interesting feedstock for biodiesel production is used domestic waste oil (UDWO). canola oil. Abu-Qudais. As a readily available. particulate matter. As further research.J. it thus serves as a medium for contributing significantly to sourcing the target fuel from cheaper feedstock sources. it is not self-sufficient to meet its biodiesel target. Technol. 2009). By providing adequate incentives. unburned hydrocarbons. various approaches have sufficiently addressed the problem and an optimum yield of 99. the feedstock represents 70–90% of total production cost. the generation of biodiesel from UDWO as a form of oxygenated fuel is found to be technically feasible. environmentally friendly and can be produced from a variety of feedstocks in respective regions. J. Sustain. S.D. . exploring other relatively cheaper feedstock sources may significantly contribute towards augmenting future demand and this issue has become of paramount importance. biodiesel blended with petroleum diesel was more polluting than pure biodiesel tested on its own in the CI engine (this factor also played a significant part in giving wide pollutant ranges mentioned above)..M. M. For proper utilization of UDWO a ban on its utilization for animal feed supplements is not sufficient. thereby effectively achieving its removal from the system. The fact that current biodiesel requirements cannot be fully met from traditional feedstock... Lim.W.. These would go a long way in minimizing importation of biomass in several countries. However. 2010). associated hazards and sustainability issues have plagued fossil fuel utilization. Hamacher. trap grease oil and waste anchovy oil. torque.. certain drawbacks such as the high free fatty acid limit its transesterification reaction. the UDWO can potentially replace diesel fuel in the short term and on the long run reduce the dependency on petroleum based fuel (Issariyakul et al. respectively. it may be useful to evaluate methods of improving combustion efficiency as well as the calorific value of UDWO in order to match or excel the combustion characteristics of its fossil counterpart in the CI engine.. the most notable ones that subsequently underwent engine testing included olive oil.. Among the various feedstocks considered for UDWO methyl esters. Energy Combust. the amount of UDWO generated is significant on a continuous basis. coconut oil. 8–40% and 16–83%. 233–271. C.. 2011. the engine performance of biodiesel was slightly lower than petrodiesel due to having a lower calorific value. Hernández. 7% and 1–7%. 2427–2438. Renew. 50–100%. sulfur dioxide. Bioresour. However. frying procedure and frying time. Fuel 85. However. Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils. Utilization of ethyl ester of waste vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines.. Technol. Armas. Microalgae as a sustainable energy source for biodiesel production: a review. Its utilization for fuel generation serves as a window for job creation as the process is relatively labor-intensive. M. For instance.. thus in developing and the rural economies it would translate to a positive impact. its potential application in biodiesel production further serves to discourage its use for the former. Araujo. Tashtoush. 2006.K. Prog. 91–103. 21–45%. 3–5%. brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were found to decrease within ranges of 1–25%. production cost. wastes hitherto meant for disposal. cost effective biodiesel feedstock. In addition. However. Depending on the source of the UDWO and its respective calorific value. the interest of attaining the annual targeted production rate of 227 billion liters calls for increased production of biodiesel. engine exhaust temperature was found to increase with biodiesel by approximately 10%. carbon monoxide. Cárdenas. M.. A holistic look at the use of UDWO in generating biodiesel transcends beyond addressing waste disposal management through healthier approach but also serves as a window for poverty reduction and meeting the US and EU targets.I. Similarly. L. 8. 15. This does not affect the food chain as UDWOs are not part of the food chain in the first place (Araujo et al. A. can be justified. respectively. their conversion offers the merits of greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction. Although. The fact that UDWO is abundant in large quantities globally. 2007. References Agarwal. biodiesel from UDWO was observed to decrease engine emissions of priority pollutants by significant amounts in comparison to the implementation of petro-diesel fuel. 2007).S. V.176 Process Safety and Environmental Protection 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 164–179 warming consequences as the waste is no longer dumped into the sewage network (Tsai. However. is a continual one. Differences in the range were due to factors such as the source of oil for producing UDWO. It is recommended that governments should support the initiative with incentives. A. 70% of the used cooking oil could be recovered from restaurants and other sources thus resulting in waste to energy for various economies throughout the world.L. J.3% has been recorded. As established in Section 3. for biodiesel in comparison to diesel fuel in the CI engine. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and smoke were found to reduce within ranges of 15–60%. This goes in addition to the fact that UDWO results in significant environmental loading if it is disposed in the normal sewage network. Despite the efforts being made by the EU.

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