You are on page 1of 53

Reportoftheresearchfindings. InternshipVUUniversityAmsterdam/HetScheepvaartmuseum MAComparativeArts&MediaStudies,SpecializationinDesignCultures. December2011February2012 Placementmentors: PlacementStudent: Dr.

JoostSchokkenbroek IreneMaldini
HoofdconservatorWetenschapsprogramma's ManagerAcademicPrograms jschokkenbroek@hetscheepvaartmuseum.nl T+31(0)205232337 M+31(0)683704011 StudentNumber:2205192 DrCHofstededeGrootkade11|9718KA Groningen| iremaldini@hotmail.com|+31065451478|

SarahBosmans
Juniorconservatorkunstnijverheid sbosmans@hetscheepvaartmuseum.nl T+31(0)205232314

PlacementSupervisor(VU): YaraCavalcanti
ProjectManagementandInternships| MasterDesignCultures.VUUniversity Amsterdam|FacultyofArts,Departmentof ArtsandCulture| DeBoelelaan1150|Room9A22|1081HV Amsterdam| www.designcultures.nl|+3162122533

Placementassignment: Studytheteaservicesthatarepartofthemuseumcollectionstoidentifythedifferent typologiesofobjectsassociatedtovariationsinculturalteapractices,theteaand porcelaintrade,themaritimeworld,thedevelopmentoftheconsumercultureand industrializationinEurope.Itisstatedthatthroughtheidentificationoftheseobject typologies,whichareconditionedbythesubjectsalreadymentioned,onecanhavean overviewoftheimportanceofmaritimehistoryandtradereflectedinadailypracticeas teadrinking.

INDEX 1. Introduction..p.1 2. Methodology.p.2 3. Findings 3.1Typology1....p.3 3.1.1IntroductionofteainEurope..p.4 3.1.2Porcelaintrade..p.7 3.1.3Porcelaindisplay..p.11 3.1.4Cupsandsaucersmanipulation..p.13 3.1.5Conclusionsofthistypology..p.14 3.2Typology2.p.15 3.2.1Conspicuousconsumptionandtheindustriousrevolution..p.16 3.2.2Europeanindustry..p.17 3.2.3Etiquetteandmanners.p.19 3.2.4Conclusionsofthistypology.p.21 3.3Typology3....p.22 3.3.1Industrializationanddesign.p.23 3.3.2Searchingforfunctionality..p.24 3.3.3Themaritimepassengertransport..p.26 3.3.4Conclusionsofthistypology....p.29 4.Contextualizingthemuseumpieces....p.30 5.Conclusions.p.33 Appendix1:Relevantcupsandsaucersforthisresearchinthecollectionof HetScheepvaartmuseump.34 Appendix2:Visitsreportp.43 Bibliographyp.49

1.Introduction Theaimofthisreportistodocumentthemainfindingsofaresearchdevelopedduringan internshipinHetScheepvaartmuseum.Thescopeoftheinternshipwastoexploresomeof theobjectsinthemuseumcollectionthroughthepointofviewofDesignHistory. AccordingtoJohnA.Walkerthepurposeof[DesignHistory]istoexplaindesignasa socialandhistoricalphenomenon.1AsadisciplinewhichoriginistobefoundinHistory ofArt,DesignHistorytodayisnolongerprimarilyahistoryofobjectsandtheirdesigners, butisbecomingmoreahistoryofthetranslations,transcriptions,transactions, transpositionsandtransformationsthatconstitutetherelationshipsamongthings,people andideas.2Developingastudyfromthispointofview,theparticularvalueofeveryday utilitarianobjectsisevidentiated.Approachingsomeoftheobjectsinthemuseum collectionthroughDesignHistoryallowsustolinkobjectsandtheirutilitarianvaluewith contemporarysocialdynamicsandprinciples. Theobjectsinthemuseumcollectionthatwereanalyzedthroughthisperspectivearetea cupsandsaucersbelongingtoDutchshipcompaniesdatingfromthesecondhalfofthe 19thandfirsthalfofthe20thcentury.3Thecorporativeceramicsareastartingpointto understandfirstlyhowdifferenttypologiesofteacupswereshapedandestablishedalong Europeanhistoryandsecondlywhichistherelationshipofthesetypologieswiththe maritimeworld.4Thechoiceofthisgroupofobjectshasthereforeadoublemotivation.On onehand,teaservicesareutilitarianobjectsthatembedstrongculturalmeaning.Onthe other,thehistoryofteaandporcelainiscloselylinkedwithMaritimeHistoryand interculturalencounters. Connectingthedrivesalreadymentioned,thisreportwilla)identifythedifferent typologiesofEuropeanteacupsandsaucersalonghistory;b)relatetheirutilitarian requirementstothesocial,culturalandeconomiccontexts;andc)acknowledgethe importanceofmaritimetradeintheirdevelopmentandconsolidation.Asaconsequence, thisstudywillserveasaframeworktocontextualizethecorporativecupsandsaucersin themuseumandrelatethemtoobjectsinothermuseumscollections.

1WalkerandAttfield1989,p.1. 2Fallan2010,p.viii. 3Seeappendix1(RelevantcupsandsaucersforthisresearchinthecollectionofHetScheepvaartmuseum). 4Theobjectsofstudywerechosenwiththeinternshipmentorsatthebeginningofthisinternship.

2.Methodology Ithastobementionedthatthisresearchisdevelopedinthecontextofa128hours internshipduringtwoandahalfmonths.5Therefore,thetimeforresearchhadtobe organizedpursuingeitherwidthordepth.Beingthisanexcellentopportunitytocarryon atrulyinterdisciplinarystudy,andtocoverabroadhistoricalperiodduringwhichclear differentobjecttypologiescouldbeidentified,thefirstoptionwastaken.Asaresult, almostthewholeperiodofteaconsuminginEuropeisconsidered,fromthe17thtothe 20thcentury. Themethodsfordatacollectionhavebeenmainlyliteraturereview,complementedbya fewmuseumvisitsandinterviewstothisandothermuseumcurators.Theliterature reviewincludestextsfromHistoryofArt,MaritimeHistory,SocialHistory,Economic History,ArcheologyandDesignHistory.6Theinputsfromeachoftheseareas,however, areintegratedintheresearchfindings,whichhavebeenorganizedaccordingtothe objectstypologiesandtherequirementsembeddedinthem. Whendefiningthedifferenttypologies,shapehasbeenthemainfocusofthisanalysis, ratherthanmaterials,techniquesordecorations.However,frequentlyobjects characteristicsarerelatedonetoeachotherandthereforetheyareoccasionallyincluded inthisreport.Atthesametime,itisopportunetomentionthatparticularcupsand saucersarehighlightedhereonlyasexamplesofamoregeneralizedargument.Theaimof thisresearchisnottoanalyzespecialobjectsbuttoidentifyhowstereotypeswerecreated andestablished,whichweresomeofthecultural,social,andeconomicelementsthat shapedthem,andhowmaritimetradeinfluencedthewholecontext.7Throughthisnetof relationships,theobjectsbelongingtothemuseumcollectionarecontextualizedandcan beeasilyrelatedtootherobjectsinthecategory. Pursuingpracticalapplicationsoftheresearchfindings,thisreportendswithasuggestion forarelatedexhibition(includingitemsfromthisandothercollections),givingan overviewoftheimportanceofmaritimehistoryandtradereflectedinadailypracticeas teadrinking.

540hoursfortheinternshipreportareaddedtothis128,completinga168hours(6credits)internship. 6Seebibliography. 7Walker&Attfieldmentionamongothercharacteristicsofdesignhistoriansdesignhistoriansare

concernednotsomuchwithsingleobjectsaswithgroupsofobjectsarrangedintypesandseriesandinthe relationsbetweenthoseobjectsandthepeoplewhomake,useandprofitfromthem. Source:Walker&Attfield1989,p.59. Bycategorizingawiderangeofcupsandsaucersintypologies(ortypesofobjects)inordertoidentify commonelementsandrelatethemtotheircontext,thisresearchisfollowingtheauthorsposture.

3.Findings 3.1Typology1 Name:ChinedeCommande Keywords:NoveltyandTrade Icon: Description Cup:Smallwithnohandle,slightlyconical,withringedbase,thinwalls.Proportionsof heightanddiameterarevariable,buttheytendtobeequal.Completely stackable. Saucer:Curveanddeepwithnoreliefinthebottom.Completelystackable. Period:17thand18thcenturies Production:MainlyporcelainmadeinChina,butsometimesinJapanorEurope(using differenttechniques). Comments:Atthebeginningofthisperiodsizesinsidethetypologyarevaried.Laterthey areregulatedandthusmoreuniform.CentralizedtradethroughtheVOCand productioninCantonallowsidentifyingsomeofthepopularsizes.However, whenteacupsandsaucersstartbeingproducedinEuropeproportionsslowly change.

3.1.1

IntroductionofteainEurope

TeawasintroducedinEuropebytheDutchEastIndiaCompany(VOC)inthe17thcentury. Thefirstmerchantshipmentarrivedin1637buttearemainedararegood,togetherwith otherexoticAsianproducts,forseveraldecades. 8Itsdemandgrewsteadilyanditfinally dominatedthewhole18thcenturyoverseastradewithChina.9Atthebeginningofthe18th centuryitwasanaristocraticdrink,andevenwhenitwasnotspreadinthemiddleand lowerclassyet,domesticdemandofteaexceededtheshipmentstotheNetherlandsin 1723.10Consequently,importsfrom1720to1790roseatarateof3.9%peryear.11Tea wasshippedfromChinatotheNetherlandsandthensoldtoseveralEuropeanlocations.

JanJosefHoremandstheElder(16821759). ADutchbourgeoisinteriorwithladiestakingtea. Imagesource:Sheaf&Kilburn1988,pp.111,112

8DeVries2008,p.156. 9Sheaf&Kilburn1988,p.88. 10Parmentier1996,pp.9,11. 11DeVries2008,p.156.

Englandcametobeamajordestinyforthenewdrink.Duringmostofthe18thcentury, whentheEnglishcompanywasnotparticipatingintheAsianteatrade,strongtaxeswere appliedonimportsfromtheNetherlands,butthepopularityofthedrinkwasspreading quicklyandteastartedtobesmuggledfromthecontinent.In1780onlyonethirdofthe teaconsumedinEnglandwasimported.12In1784Englishtaxwaslowedfrom100%to 12.5%andtheEnglishcompanytookthemonopolywhilesmugglingdeclined.13 WhilebothgreenandblackteawherepopularinChina,blackteadominatedthetradeto Europe.Greenteawasmoredifficulttokeepfreshandeasiertoadulterate,soboth companiesandconsumershadapreferenceforthefermentedvariation.14Asweetened versionofthebeveragebecamepopularinEurope,whereitspreadtogetherwithcoffee andchocolate.Thenewhotdrinks,increasinglyconsumedalongthe18thcentury,changed thedailydietinmanycountries.IntheNetherlands,theywerecombinedwithbreadto formaneconomicbreakfastthatreplacedporridge,pancakesandbeerandreorganized thedailymealsystem,fromatwomealtoathreemealregime.15Theyalsobroughtthe habitofeatingsweets.16 Eachofthesethreehotdrinksfollowedadifferentpath,comingfromdifferentcornersof theworld,atthatmomentrecentlyconnected.Chocolatewasthefirstofthethreedrinks tobeintroduced,broughtbytheSpaniardsfromMesoamericaatthebeginningofthe16th century.17Cacaobeanswhereusedthereascurrencyandchocolatewasdrunkcoldorhot, unsweetenedandmixedwithstrongspecies.SephardicJewsdiffusedtheSpanishmethods ofchocolatemakingacrossEurope;theirhabitwastodrinkithot,sweetenedwithsugar caneandvanilla.18TeawasfirstbroughtbytheDutchfromChina,assaidpreviously,in thefirsthalfofthe17thcentury.AtthesametimeVenetianswereintroducingcoffee, originalfromEthiopia,andlatertradedtoEuropefromLevant.19Thecomparative penetrationforthesebeverageswasdifferentineachlocation;therewerevariationsin pricesrelatedtotherelationshipsofeachnationwithitscoloniesandthetaxpolicies associatedtothem.20However,astimepassedandthesecommercialandpoliticallinks changed,sodidtheirpopularization.

12Jrg,1982,p.39. 13Jrg1982,p.40. 14Parmentier1996,p.103;Pettigrew2001,p.47. 15DeVries2008,p.32. 16Laan2003,p.191. 17Ukers1948,p.39. 18ClarenceSmith2000,pp.22,66,94. 19Ellis2004,p.128,Ukers1948,p.39. 20DeVries2008,pp.156160.

JacobSpon,engravingfrom1685treatise onthethreenewbeverages:coffeefrom Turkey,teafromChinaandChocolatefrom America. Imagesource:Ellis2004,p.179.

ThefirstcommercialshipmentofcoffeearrivedtotheNetherlandsfromMochain1640 andthefirstcoffeehouseinAmsterdamopenedin1650.21Coffeehouseswerespacesof masculinebusinessanddebates.22Althoughteawasoftenofferedinthesameplace,it spreadmoresteadilythroughthedomesticsphereasafemininepractice.Itservedasan excusetosocializeandbecameanincreasinglycheapwaytoreceivepeople.23Asaresult, theculturalassociationsofbothremaineddistinct.Thedomesticatmosphereofteaandits successinsubstitutingalcoholicdrinkswassupportedbymedicaladvice,highlightingits benefitstolips,throat,stomachandbrain. 24

21Ukers1948,p.56,Ellis2004,p.76. 22Ellis2004,p30. 23Pettigrew2001,pp.1525. 24Piso&Bontekoe1937.

3.1.2

Porcelaintrade

Teatradefinancialsignificancewasconsiderablybiggerthanitscomplementaryporcelain tradeprofit.However,thelasthasbeendisproportionatelyimportantinthedevelopment ofthecustomsofwesternsociety.25ThepopularizationofthedrinkinEuropecreateda growingdemandfortheobjectsassociatedtoitsconsumptionandpractices,andtheVOC tookadvantageofit.26Porcelainwasbroughtbothasballastandascommercialgoods.27 TheVOCtradedChineseandJapaneseporcelaintoEurope,theMiddleEastandother locationsinAsiaandthusinfluencedthematerialcultureinavariouslocations,but shipmentsfromChinatotheNetherlandswereparticularlyimportant.28Theyhavebeen subjectofcarefulanddeepstudiesandthereforewehavevastdatatounderstandtheir characteristics.29Intheperiodbefore1712Chinawarecouldreach20%ofthetotal shipmentfromChina.30Around42.5millionpieceswerehandledatthecompanysales between1730and1789.31Porcelaintradewascomplementarytoteatrade,notonly becauseoftheirshareddemand,butalsoforconvenientshipmentsettings.32Inthe configurationofthereturnshipments,relativelyheavygoodswithpossibleprofitinthe tradewereneeded.Porcelainwasnotonlyheavybutalsocreatedasolidbasefortea withoutaffectingitssmellorhumidity,contributingtoagoodconservationoftheherb untilarrival.Itofcoursehadthedisadvantageofbeingfragile,andthisfactinfluencedthe kindsofporcelainpiecesthatweretradedandbecameaccessibletotheEuropean consumers.Theporcelaintradewasprimarilydeterminedbyeconomicfactors,ifalost wasmadeonanarticlethenithadtoberemovedfromthetrade.33
StowageListofthe CompanysshipOuder Amstel,1760. Imagesource: Jrg1982,p.52

25Sheaf&Kilburn1988,pp.88. 26Jrg1982,p.77. 27Jrg1986,p.31. 28Jrg1982,p.91.

29ThestudiesofC.J.A.Jrgareremarkableinthissense.
30Jrg1982,p.93. 31Jrg1982,p.149. 32Jrg1982,p.5233. 33Jrg1982,p.101.

ThebasesonwhichtheVOCsupercargoesdidtheirbuyingofporcelainintheChinese factoriesweretheRequirementsfortheReturnShipments,listsoftheporcelaintypes andamountswantedintheNetherlandsbasedontheirsuccessinthepreviousseason. Thedecidingfactorwasthepricesthevarioustypesandmodelscouldreachatthe auctionsthatfollowedtheshipmentarrivals.34Until1735thesupercargoeswentaround theporcelainshopsimmediatelyaftertheirarrivalinChina,inordertoobtainwhatthey needed.Itwasimpossibleforthemtofollowentirelytherequirementsandtheysimply tookwhattheycould.Fromthe1740suntil1795theplacingoforderswasanormalpart ofporcelainbuying.35 Therequirementsweredocumentedbydrawingsandexplicitlistsstatingdimensionsand kindsofdecoration.Someattemptsweremadewiththreedimensionalmodelsorderedto Delftpotters,buttheywerenotcapableofusingsimilartechniquesandthusthemodels wereofreducedefficacy.36ThedocumentsweredevelopedtobehandedintheChinese factories,determiningtheproductionthatwouldbeshippedthefollowingyear.However, oftentheorderswerenotsuccessfullycompleted,andthereforesimplerpieceswere preferred.Themainproblemwasmodelingformsthatthepotterswerenotusedtodo,as decorationwaseasierandfastertoapply.37
Originaldrawingsof theVOCrequirements in1758. Left:Coffee,teaand caudlecupsand saucers. Right:Milkjugsand chocolatecups. Imagesource:Jrg 1982,pp.113,115.

34 35 36

Jrg1982,p.94. Jrg1982,p.113. Jrg1982,p.97.

37Jrg1982,p.98.

Inthiscontext,teaandcoffeecupsandsaucerswereoneofthemostimportanttraded piecesofthecompany;theydidntneedstrictrequirementsandweresoldingreat numbersinEurope.38Fivetosixpercentoftheporcelainarrivedbrokenonaverage.39 Bigporcelainpiecesandobjectswithelaboratedshapeswheredismissedbecauseoftheir fragility.40Coupleware(cheapporcelainthatfittedeasilyinsideoneanother,suchastea andcoffeecupsandsaucers),wasmoreresistantandcouldbearrangedinbigquantities usinglessspace.41Asupercargorecordbookdatingfrom1726registered: They[thesupercargoes]havenotedthatthemajorityconsistsofdinnerplates, bowlsandteasets,largeconsignmentsofwhichhavebeenshippedtoEurope wheretheydidnotmakemuchofaprofit.Theythusconcludedthatitwasbetter tobuyplates,teacupsandsaucers,plusacertainnumberofchocolatecups,as thesearemostindemandinEuropeandsellforthebestprice.42
Teacupsandsaucerscould fitoneinsidetheotherand thereforeweresuitabletobe broughtinlargeamounts. Imagesource:TheHatcher porcelaincargoes,Colin Sheaf&RichardKilburn, 1988,p.103.

38Jrg1982,p.186. 39Jrg1982,p.128. 40Jrg1982,p.130. 41Jrg1982,p.128. 42Parmentier1996,pp.108109.

Theintroductionofcoffeewasnotwiththeirobjectsashappenedwithtea,soteaobjects wereused.43Whileteaandcoffeecupsandsaucersdifferedonlyinsizes,chocolatecups wereorderedusingdifferentiatedshapes,straightsidesandahandle.44Forthese particularcups,considerablyhigherprizeswereasked.Havingfragilehandlesandnot suitableshapesforstackability,chocolatecupsremainedamoreexpensiveitem.A comparativestudyoftheaveragepurchasepricesforporcelaininHollandshowsthat whileblueandwhitedecoratedteacupsandsaucersvariedfrom6to9guildercents, chocolatecupswiththesamedecorationcouldcostfrom13to19alongthe18thcentury.45 Chocolate,incontrasttotheothertwodrinks,hadremainedaproductfortheelite,and thatisareasontobeassociatedtomoresophisticatedandexpensiveobjects.46Coffeeand teacupswithahandlebecamefashionableonlyafter1760,whenthedeveloping EuropeanindustriesandconsumptionculturestartedtopushChineseindustryinsearch ofdifferentiation.47

43Laan2003,p.172. 44Jrg1982,pp.105115. 45Jrg1982,p.121. 46DeVries2008,p.152. 47Jrg1986,p.67,Jrg1982,p.125.

10

3.1.3 Porcelaindisplay ThesuddenlymassiveavailabilityofChineseporcelainanditsuniquematerial characteristicsledtothesocalledChinafeverfromthe17thtothe18thcenturyinNorth WestEurope.Porcelainwascollectednotonlyforitsutilitybutmainlyasanornament. Theownershipoffineporcelainevokedthegloriesofmercantileexpansion, demonstratinghowtheforeignhadbeenbroughtathome,transformed,possessedand thereforeshowedthefamilystatusrelatedtoitsparticipationinthisachievement.48Inthe Netherlands,porcelainwasinitiallysetonafinelycarvedwoodenrackorinasmallglass frontedcupboardonthewall,mentionofwhichisalreadytobefoundinaninventoryof 1615.Thecollectionswerealsoplacedontopofcupboardsorattachedtothewall.Inthe secondhalfofthe17thcentury,theChinaclosetsbecamefashionableaspurelydecorative pieces.49AmongthewealthyEuropeanfamiliesteawarewasseparatedfromtherestof kitchenware,keptanddisplayedwhereitwasconsumed,ofteninaclosetinthedrawing room.Somerichfamilieswouldredesigntheirhouses,settingatearoombetweenthe drawingandthedinningroom(Chinesedecorated)forwomentohaveteafarfrommen drinkingalcoholinthedinningroom50
Anillustrationofadecorativewallwith porcelaininAmsterdam,1712. Imagesource:Schmidbergeretal.1990, p.64.

48KowaleskiWallace1995,p.159. 49Jrg1982,p.148. 50Pettigrew2001,pp.15,50.

11

Thepracticeofporcelaindisplayspreadtoothersectorsofthesociety.Between1738and 1762theamountofpiecesintheservicesincreasedconsiderablyintheNetherlands, althoughmostofthemwereexclusivelydecorative.Archeologicalfindingsshowthatthe averageofcupsandsaucersownershipduringthethirdquarterofthe18thcenturyin Maassluis,nearDelft,was177perhousehold,andamongthemiddleclass100.51Atthe endofthe18thcenturythenumberofcupsandsaucerswentdown.Theconnotationsof theseobjectschangedandtheirappreciationasindividualpieces,withutilitarianvalue, increased.ThisshiftcanbeseenthroughthemotivesofDutchpaintings.Atfirstporcelain wasusedtogiveatouchofluxuryinstilllifecanvases,butattheendofthe18thcenturyit wasmostlydepictedinuse.52

BestKitcheninPetronellaOrtmanDollsHouse,Netherlands,16901710.Rijksmuseum,inv.NoBKNM1010. ImageSource:VanCampen&HartkampJonxis,p.22.

51Laan2003,p.188. 52Parmentier1996,p.123,Jrg1982,p.149.

12

3.1.4 Cupsandsaucersmanipulation
ImageSource: Laan2003,p.117.

Bothcupsandsaucersweredirectlymanipulatedduringteadrinking.53Theabsenceofa handleonthecupmadeitnecessarytocontuniouslyholdthesauceravoidingburning onesfingers.Manipulationwaseasierandsaferduetothesaucersroundedanddeep shape.Saucerswerealsousedindependently,todrinkdirectlyfromthem.Thehabitof drinkingfromthesaucerhadtheobjectiveofacceleratingthedrinkcooling,soteawas servedfromthepottothecup,thenpouredintothesaucerifitwastoohot,andfinally drunkfromthesaucer.54Theytendedtobelargerthantoday,withthecapacitytoholdas muchteaasthecup.55Duringthesecondhalfofthe18thcentury,thehabitofdrinking fromthesaucerbecameaworkingclasspracticethatwasnotapprovedbymoreelegant membersofthesociety,andattheendslowlydisappeared.19thcenturytextsonthe functionofthesaucerinEnglandexpressedthatitsfirstusewasbelievedtobemerelyto coolthetea,andwhenitwasfashionabletodrinkfromthecup,atalatertime,theuseof thesaucerwasunderstoodtobeconfinedtosavingtheslopsandthenceforwardthecup alonewastohavethehonourofbeingraisedtothelips56Asonewassatisfiedwiththe amountofteaalreadydrunkanddidntwanttobeservedagain,thecustomwastoturn

53Laan2003,p.117. 54Akveld&Jacobs2002,p.34. 55Pettigrew2001,p.83. 56Pettigrew2001,p.142,143.

13

thecupoverthesaucertoleaveitcleartothehostess,whowouldberestrainedtoserve it.57 3.1.5Conclusionsofthistypology

Thefirsttypology(ChinedeCommande)wasfirstrestrictedtospaceoptimizinginthe shipmentsfromAsia,lateritsexamplewasfollowedbyEuropeanpotters.Thepracticeof porcelainandceramicsdisplayraisedtheirvalueascollectablepieces,independentlyof theirfunctionalfeaturesandthenatureofeachobject.Thequantityofpiecescollectedwas moreimportantthantheobjectscharacteristics.Consideringthedifferenceofprices derivedfromtheshipmentsrequirements,consumerswouldratherbuytwoorthree handlelesscupsthanahandledone.

57Akveld&Jacobs2002,p.34.

14

3.2 Typology2 Name:European Keywords:DifferentiationandManners Icon: Description Cup:Biggerthantheprevioustypology.Diameterisingeneralbiggerthanheight.Shapes arediverseandsometimescomplex.Asinglehandleisaddedinoneofthe sides,asaresulttheyloosetheirstackability. Saucer:Flatterwithareliefinthebottomtopositionthecup. Period:Mid18thcenturyuntiltoday. Production:Productionisnotcentralizedandthereforeitisnotpossibletoidentify paradigmaticdimensions.Astechniquesdiffer,wallsalsodo,buttheytendto becomewider. Comments:Agreatdiversityofshapesandtechniquesareincludedinthistypology. Indeed,varietyoneofitsmaincharacteristics.

15

3.2.1

Conspicuousconsumptionandtheindustriousrevolution

Thecontinuousexposureof17thand18thcenturyDutchsocietytotheexoticandvaried goodsbroughtbytheirmerchantshipsledtoradicalsocialandproductive transformations,notonlyintheregionbutinWesternEuropeasawhole,fromtheendof the18thcentury.JandeVriesstatesthattheindustriousrevolutionwasahouseholdlevel changewithimportantdemandsidefeaturesthatprecededtheindustrialrevolution,a supplysidephenomenon.58Suchwasthegreatinfluenceofthemaritimetrade;exotic luxuriesfromthefourcornersoftheworldhadtransformedthedomesticspace,givingthe opportunitytoachieveanewformofprivatecomfort.59Theexposuretourbanlifeand accesstoimportedgoodsarousethedesireofhavingandencouragedthedevelopmentof anewconceptofluxury.Ancientluxurywasquitearbitrary,modernluxurywas systematical,onethatcanexistonlyinanorderly,wellgovernedsociety,whereit advanceseconomicprosperity.Theappreciationofconsumptionactivatedthe motivationstoincreaseincomeandthereforetoincreaseproduction.60 Thishouseholdlevelchangeandtheevolutionofthehouseintoahomehaddirect relationshipwiththepopularizationofthehotdrinks.Mealsweretakenintheprivate sphereandhadbecomeelaboratedleisureevents,providingmoreopportunitiesfor domesticgatheringsduringtheday.61Teadrinkingwasemblematicinthistransformation. Teabecameoneofthoseconsumergoodsthatpeopleconnectedwithachangeof lifestyle.Theylinkeditwithamassconsumermarketinnonessentials,withleisure timesociabilityinthehome,andwithwomen.()Perhapsthe18 thartifactsthat revealthemostaboutchangesinthedomesticenvironmentarethoseassociated withteadrinking.62 Inthiscontextporcelainwasofparticularsignificance,havingbeenparadigmaticinthe appropriationoftheexoticitturnednaturallytobeasymbolofnewluxurythrough refinementandfashion.Womenweretryingtoimpresstheinvitedpeoplewiththenewest objectsfortheteaceremony.63Teacupsandsaucers,whichhadexperiencedslight changesduringtheperiodofporcelaincollection,werenowsubjecttounprecedentedand quicktransformationsduetotheconsumersdesires.Shapesanddecorationswhere modifiedwithinshorterperiods,givingthepossibilityofpossessingthenew. Consequently,purchasingasmanypiecesofporcelainaspossiblewasnotanymorethe case;consumerswouldratheracquireparticularpiecesdemonstratingnotonlytheir capabilitytohavebutalsotheircriteriatochoose.Theapplicationofasinglehandleinthe sideofteacupsaddedandelementofvariationanddifferentiationtothebasicobject structure,expandingitspossibilitiestosatisfychangingestheticalpreferences.
58DeVries1994. 59DeVries2008,p.55. 60DeVries2008,pp.65,66. 61Shammas1980,p.13. 62Shammas1980,p.14,15. 63Laan2003,p.191.

16

3.2.2

Europeanindustry

PorcelaintradefromAsiastartedtodeclineinthesecondhalfofthe18thcentury.AVOC generalreportfrom1779acknowledgedthatporcelainfactoriesinCantonweremoreand moredyingout,beingamongthemainreasonstaxes,lackofworkingpeople,woodand clay.TheEuropeandrawingsandtaste,toomuchsubjecttochange,werealsopointedas majorcauses.64ThequalityofChineseporcelainhaddroppedwhiletheEuropean productionroseandtheVOCcurtaileditsassortmentfrom1787. 65 ThetechnologicaldevelopmentsinEuropeanceramicandporcelainindustryhadbeen encouragedbydesireofhavingandsearchforrenewal.Thisdemandsidetransformation wasnaturallyfollowedbymanufacturerseffortstosupplyit.Chinesefactorieshadthe technicalknowledge,butitwasdifficultforthemtofollowEuropeanwhimsduetothe complicatedlogisticsofthetrade.ImitatingthehardpasteofChineseporcelaininEurope requiredyearsofeffort,anditwasfinallyachievedbytheresearchersestablishedinthe MeissenporcelainworkshopsnearDresdenwiththesupportofroyalpatronage.This enterprisewasfollowedbymanyothers,almostallbusinessproducingluxuryproducts.66 Europeanporcelainswerehigherinqualityandprizethantheproductthathadinspired them;theysuppliedonlythehighestsectorsofsociety.Meanwhile,otherinitiativeshad developedwithintheEuropeanceramicsectoraimingatwiderportionsofthepopulation. DelftwarewasasuccessfulresponsetothenewmarketopportunitiessetbyChinese porcelainduringthe17thcentury.WhentheDutchceramicmanufacturerswerereaching theirpeaksofproduction,theEnglishbegandevelopingafineearthenwareindustry exploringalatentdemandforproductswiththerightmixofpriceandqualityjustunder thestandardssetbyChineseporcelain.Thesedevelopmentsledtotheappearanceafter 1730ofcreamware,fineleadglazeearthenwarethatapproximatedtheattractivefeatures ofporcelain.67 AmajoreventinthistransformationwastheestablishmentofJosiahWedgewoodsfactory inEngland.Itstechnicallysuccessfulproductionofcreamware,accompaniedwith innovationsinmarketingandsales,productivelyexploitedthedynamicsofconspicuous consumptiontowardstheindustrialrevolution.Itwasinthepotterieswheretheprocess ofindustrializationbegan.Thisestablishedthetechniques,workingpracticesandthe organizationincertainfirmswhichgraduallysetthepatternfortheindustryasawhole.68
64Jrg1982,p.124. 65Jrg1982,pp.122,125. 66DeVries2008,pp.131,132. 67Ibid.

68Hannah,1986,p.8.

17


PhotographofWedgwoods Etruriamanufactoryasit appearedin1898. Imagesource:Hannah1986,p.8.

Thecreationofmatchingteaandcoffeesetswasalsoasignificantintheceramicmarket. Asaresult,thesearchfornoveltyinvolvednotonlyhavinganewobjectbutawholeset, includingawiderangeofpieces.Europeanpotteriesandporcelainmanufacturesstarted makingthemin1790.69Acompletesetwouldincludecupswithouthandlesforteaand cupswithhandlesforcoffee.70Coffeecupsgainedhandlesslightlybeforeteacups.Handles served,althoughfornotsolongperiod,asasourceofdifferentiation,establishingthe needforaspecialsetintendedforeachbeverage. 71


Porcelaincoffeeandtea servicefromBoijmansVan Beuningenmuseum collection Netherlands,17841814. A3059av

69Pettigrew2001,p.140. 70Pettigrew2001,p.81. 71Duringthisresearchseveralmixedserviceswiththesecharacteristics(teacupsinChinesetypologyand

coffeecupsinEuropeantypology)havebeenobserved.TheporcelainservicefromtheBoijmansVan Beuningencollectionintheimageisanexample.

18

3.2.3 Teaandcoffeesubstitutedtoagreatextendthehabitofdrinkingalcoholandtherefore becameasymboloftemperance,ofcontroloveronesbodyandbehavior.Differentsetsof socialrulesnormalizeddrinkersconductduringteagatheringsinsearchofrefinement andgoodmanners.Practicesofteadrinking,receivingguestsinthedomesticspace,and theuseorporcelainandceramicswereaccompaniedbyatransformationinmealsas socialgatheringsimplications.Theindividualuseofutensilsforeatinganddrinking developedtogetherwiththeaccumulationofceramicsinlargerquantities.72Porcelain tablewareinparticularalloweduserstonegotiatethetensionsbetweenthetwoimpulses todelimitindividualspaceandtointeractsociallywithothers.73 Toagreatextentpolitenesswasachievedthroughcommerce,andachievedbymen andwomenofpropertydirectlyandindirectlyinvolvedwiththeexpansionof foreigntrade.74Acquiringrefinedartifactsrepresentedthematerialsubstanceof politeandcivilizedliving,butthiswasnotconvincingunlessaccompaniedby personalrefinement.Thenewceramicgoodsandthepracticesassociatedwith themencouragedcontrolledanddelicatemanagementofthebody.75 Thehighfragilityandpriceofporcelaindemandedcarefulmanipulation,challengingthe personsskillstomoveandbehave.Tohandleteagatheringswithelegancewasvery importantforsocialstatus.Etiquetterulesallowedunderstandinghowawareandcapable peoplewereinmanagingestablishedmanners.Atthesametimesizesofteapotsandcups startedtogrowinmid18thcenturyasteaprizeswentdownandbecamecommoninwider sectorsofsociety.76Bigutensilsweremoredifficulttouseandthereforesomepractices transformed.Urnsbecamepopularassubstitutesofteapotsafter1770.Theykeptwater hotonornearthetableandwhereeasytomanipulategently.77 Otherpracticesinvolvingfullcontactwithobjectswereslowlytransformedtomoregentle anddelicatehabitsasthe19thcenturycamecloser.Thecustomofturningthecupupside downtoindicatethatthedrinkerdidntwanttobeservedagainwaslatersubstitutedby puttingtheteaspooninsidethecup.78Saucerswerenotmanipulateddirectlyanymore, notonlytheywerenotusedtodrinkfromapproximately1760,theyalsostayedmore Etiquetteandmanners

72

Harvey2008,p.206.

73Harvey2008,p.208. 74Richards1999,p.94. 75Richards1999,p.97. 76Pettigrew2001,p.140,Harvey2008,p.212. 77Pettigrew2001,p.61. 78Pettigrew2001,p.84.

19

oftenonthetableassometimesonlythecupwasraised.79Consequently,saucersbecame flatterwhilecupsgainedasinglehandle,adelicatehandlethatwouldhelptomanipulate biggercupswitheleganceusingonlythepointofthefingers.


Thiscartoon, publishedin1825 depictstheEnglish customofleavingthe spooninsidethecup toshowthatthe drinkerdidnot requirearefill.The unfortunate Frenchman,ignorant ofthis,haddrunktoo muchtea. Imagesource: Pettigrew2001,p. 84.

79Jrg1982,p.186.

20

3.2.4Conclusionsofthistypology

TheEuropeantypologywasdeterminedbythedevelopmentofpolitemannersassociated toteadrinkingandthesearchfornoveltyinconspicuousconsumption.Europeanindustry developedbasedonastrongriseinthedemandofnewobjects,inheritedfromtheexotic goodsbroughtfromthecolonies.Amoreflexibletransportationcoveringshorter distancesallowedcomplexshapesandcupslosttheirstackability.

21

3.3 Typology3 Name:Modernist Keywords:StandardizationandFunction Icon:

Description: Cup:Keepsthehandlebutsuffersradicalshapechangesinsearchofstackability, straighterlinesandgeometricalshapes. Saucer:Becomesevenflatter,sometimeswithseveralreliefstobeusedwithseveralcups. Period:Mid20thcenturyuntiltoday. Production:Resistantcupsandsaucersindustriallyproducedaroundtheworld.Walls becomethicker,objectsbecomeheavier. Comments:Mostoftheservicesinthistypologyaremeanttobeforhotelorrestaurant purposes.Howeverthetypologyexpandedandinfluencedthedomestic atmosphere.

22

3.3.1

Industrializationanddesign

InherbookCeramics,20thcenturydesignFrancesHannahidentifiestwomajor consequencesofpotteryindustrialization:theemergenceofthedesigner(inchargeof creation,butnotinvolveddirectlyintheproduction)andmajorchangesintheceramics shapesduetomechanizationoftheproductiveprocesses. 80Duringthe19thcenturythe alreadymentionedconsumerdemandandtheindustryneedforproductionincreasingto sustainthenewtechnology,ledtodiversification.Factoriesencouragedtheconsumersto acquiredifferentsetsfordifferentoccasionsandaseriesofeclecticstyleswereapplied, representingthestabilityoffamilieswiththeirrootsandthepowerofchoicefromthe differentcolonies.81 Attheendofthe19thcenturyagroupofBritishtheoristreactsagainsttheeclecticismof contemporaryindustrialproductionandcallsfortruthinthecreationofshapesand treatmentofmaterials.Alongthefirstquarterofthe20thcenturythereisanintense searchforthenewform,givingbirthtoArtNouveauandsubsequentlytothecleanlines ofmodernism.ArtNouveauemergedasareactiontohistoricaleclecticism.Nature,asa universalandatemporalaimedtosubstitutethepastandexoticnessasvisualresources.82 However,inspirationfromnaturewasnotalignedwiththeeffectivenessneededformass productionanditwaslaterdismissedbydesignersrejectingsuperficialdecoration. Anew,notonlyformal,butphilosophicalideal spreadinthefirsthalfofthe20thcentury. Standardizationformassproductionanduniversal forms,independentfromtraditionalmodels,arethe principlesofthenewcenturyinthedesignscene. Rationalizationofsizesandshapesandbest workingpracticesaimedtoencouragemass productionwithlargerrunsatacheapercost. 83 Productioneffectivenessledtoareductionoflines andconcentrationonfewershapes.Therewasa beliefthatanoptimal,universalshapethatsatisfied theneedsofindustryandpubliccouldbeachieved throughdesignprocesses.
Imagesource:Hannah1986,p.70.
80Hannah1986,p.12. 81Hannah1986,p.18. 82Hannah1986,p.24. 83Hannah1986,p.38.

23

3.3.2 Searchingforfunctionality Functionwasmeanttosubstitutestyleasasourceofinspirationingivingformtoartifacts. Thepureformwasexpectedtocomenaturallyfromtheobjectutility,insteadofbeing somethingadded.Inhisbook20thcenturyceramicseditedin1936,GordonForsyth highlightsthegrowingimportanceoffunctionindesignusingateacupasanexample.The authordesignsandproducesacupandsaucerspeciallymadetofillallthebadqualities, andacontrastingexampleofawelldesignedcup.Amongthebadqualitiesthecupsis pointedtobedifficultytodrinkoutof,withanedgeeasilychippedandanuncomfortable anddifficulttocleanhandle.Thesaucerhasalsoafragileedgeanddoesntholdthecup properlyinthecentre.Incontrast,thesimplewelldesignedcupfitsinthehand.84The similarityofthisbadcupwithaDutchcreamwarepiece(18591885)fromtheBoijmans vanBeuningencollectiongivesusaninsightonthemajorshiftinshapesappreciation duringthatperiod. Left:DutchcreamwarefromBoijmans 18591885.Inv.Num:V1307f Right(up):Cupandsaucerspecially Right(down):Welldesignedcup. Imagessource:Forsyth,Gordon20th Centuryceramics1936,pp.1011. Modernismwasmoreaprofessionalpositionspreadingamongdesignersthansomething reallyvaluedbyconsumers;theirshiftinthenewformappreciationtooktimeto develop.85Ceramics,andmorespecificallyteaservices,wereobjectsstronglylinkedwith traditionandconsumerculture,styleremainedbeingamajorissue.Evenamong moderniststherewasabeliefthatthenatureofthematerialanditsmethodscouldnotbe entirelybroughtwithinthesphereofindustrialproductionandthereforetheinnovative
buildtofillallthebadqualities. VanBeuningenmuseumcollection.

84Forsyth1936,pp.1011. 85Hannah1986,p.60.

24

designprinciplesreachedthesectorlater.86Thealreadymentionedfactorsledto diversificationofceramics,wherehotelwareproducersstartedrationalizingshapesand diminishingstylevariationwhiledomesticwarescontinuedbeingvariedinstyle.87Hotel warewasarrangedinlargequantitiesanddemandedthestackabilitythattheChinede Commandetypologyhadlost.Searchingforthisfeatureinthecontextoffunctionalitywas oneofthemajortransformationsthatgavebirthtothemodernistteacuptypology. Swedishpotterieswherepioneersinexploringmodernismwithinthesector.In Stockholmlivingspacewasverysmallcomparedwithothercountries.Thedesigningof multipurposeshapesandstackingpiecesatareasonablepricewasasmuchtheresultof commercialsenseasideology.88Fromthe1930sutilitylinesstartedbeingproducedin Sweden,butitwasnotuntilthe1950sand1960sthatthepublicappreciationchangedin NorthAmericaandtherestofEurope.Aparadigmaticexampleofmodernistutility ceramicsisHansRoerichtsTC100hotelwarefrom1959,developedforhisthesisproject attheHfGSchoolofdesigninUlm,Germany.
TC100Hotelware, HansRoericht1959.


86Hannah1986,p.55. 87Hannah1986,p.41. 88Hannah1986,p.59.

25

3.3.3 Themaritimepassengertransport Theindustrialrevolutionimpliedradicalshiftsingoodsmanufacture,butalsoingoods transport.Thedevelopmentofsteampowerhasbeenconsideredasymbolofindustry mechanization,butitsconsequencesinmaritimetransportwereassignificantasitsinland counterparts. Aftercenturiesofslowchangeinshiptechnology,theshiftfromwindto steampowerduringthe19thcenturywasoneofthegreatestrevolutionsin thestoryofshipping()[It]wasfollowedbyalmostacenturyofgradual changesincargoshippropulsion,instrumentationandcargohandling equipment;andbyincrementalincreasesinthespeedandsizeofships.89 Thesetechnologicalchangesencouragedthedevelopmentofanewmaritimetradein EuropeandtheNetherlandsduringthesecondhalfofthe19thcentury,theopeningofthe SuezCanalin1869madethealreadyfastermerchanttripseasierandseveralDutchship companiesstartedtoestablish.Anoverviewofthedifferentorganizationsoperatingfrom thatperiodshowstheimportanceofthosemajoreventsinthedevelopmentof intercontinentalmaritimetrade: 1) NederlandscheAmerikaanscheStoomvaartMaatschappij(NASM).Holland AmerikaLijn(HAL):Operatingfrom1873to1980. 2) KoninklijkeNederlandseStoombootMaatschappij(KNSM).KoninklijkeWest IndischeMaildienst(KWIM):Operatingfrom1856to1981. 3) KoninklijkeHollandscheLloyd(KHL).ZuidAmerikaLijn(ZAL):Operatingfrom 1899to1981. 4) VanNieveltGoudriaan&Co(NIGOCO).RotterdamZuidAmerikaLijn(RZAL): Operatingfrom1905to1991. 5) Oranjelijn(OL).AnthonyVerdern.v.(AV):Operatingfrom1937to1970. 6) StoomvaartMaatschappijNederland(SMN):Operatingfrom1870to1970. 7) (Koninklijke)RotterdamscheLloyd(KRL):Operatingfrom1883to1970. 8) KoninklijkePaketvaartMaatschappij(KPM):Operatingfrom1888to1970. 9) (Koninklijke)JavaChinaPaketvaartLijnen(KJCPL).RoyalInteroceanLines(RIL). JavaChinaJapanLijn(JCPL):Operatingfrom1902to1977. 10) VereenigdeNederlandscheScheepvaartMaatschappij(VNS).HollandWestAfrika Lijn(HWAL).Operatingfrom1920to1970.90 Asitcanbeseeninthecompaniesnames,theirmaindestinieswereAsiaandthe Americas.Ingeneral,theywouldstartworkingwithcargoboatsbuttakingalsosome

89 90

Gardiner1999,p.6. Reuchlin2009,pp.1517.

26

passengers.Thepassengertransportgrewduringthatperiod,andthepurposeoftheir tripsalsochanged. Atthebeginning,inthe19thcentury,passengerswerepeopleworkingforthe governmentandtheirfamilies,goingorcomingbackfromthecolonies,and soldiers.Fromthe1920sthefirsttourists(richpeoplegoingforleisure)started tojointhem.In1930tourismandshippingbecomemoreimportant,thepassenger linersatthatmomentarehuge,wecallthemfloatingcastles,everythingisso immenselyrichandwelldecorated.Duringtheperiodofthewareverything dissolvesinaway,andthenfromthe1950sonwardsthereisanefforttostart again,butthenthereisastrongcompetition:theairplanes.91
Tijnegaraand Tijsadane, belongingto theKJCPL duringthe 1930s. Imagesource: deBoer1994.

91Jacobs2012,seeappendix2,p.47.

27

Infact,allthesecompaniesfellduringarestrictedtimeperiod,evenmorerestrictedthan theiremergence.Thepopularizationofaerialtransportwasamaincausefortheirending between1970and1990.Takingthisinconsideration,itissurprisingthatmostofthetea servicesinbothmaritimemuseums(AmsterdamandRotterdam)collectionshavesucha strongmodernistinfluence.Modernismwasbelatedlyappliedinceramicsasithasbeen saidinthepreviouschapter;however,itseemstohavebeenrapidlyappropriatedbyship companiesafterthat.92Lackofspace,continuousmovement,andbreakingrisksseamto bemajorcausesforthisearlyappropriation.Insomeway,thesamedeterminantssuffered bytheChinedeCommandetypologyduringthe17thand18thcenturies.Modernismasa symbolofprogressandinternationalizationwasalignedwithsomeofthecompanies values.Havingsaidthat,thispointdeservesdeeperstudyconsideringamoreaccurate objectdatingandanalysisoftheceramicmodelsusedinthedifferentpassengerclassesof theDutchcompanies.

InteriorsoftheTijsadane(KJCPL),firstandthirdclass.Imagesource:deBoer1994,p.45.
92Foranindividualanalysisofmodernismappropriationamongthecupsandsaucersinthemuseum

collectionseethenextsection:Contextualizingthemuseumpieces.

28

3.3.4Conclusionsofthistypology

Searchingforfunctionalityandtheuniversalshapesofmodernismtransformedthe Europeantypologyintorectilinearandstrongmodels,absentofsuperfluousdecoration, whichcouldbebetterorganizedinlargenumbers.ThefeaturesofModernismprovided themovingenvironmentwithrestrictedspaceinpassengershipswithappropriateand usefulobjectsembeddingconceptsofspeedandinternationalism.Consequently,thegreat majorityofthemuseumscorporativecupsareincludedinthistypology.

29

4.Contextualizingthemuseumpieces. MostofthecorporativecupsandsaucersinthecollectionofHetScheepvaartmuseum belongtothemodernisttypology.Thisfactissomehowsurprisingconsideringtheactive periodoftheDutchmaritimepassengertransport(frommid19thtomid20thcentury)and thetimeweremodernisttransformationsreachedtheceramicindustryandcreators(mid 20thcentury).Modernismwasappropriatedatdifferentextentsbythevariousshipping companiesandceramicsfactoriesservingthem.Inthefollowingsection,theshapesof severalcupswillbeindividuallyanalyzedtohighlightparticularelementslinkedtothis transformation.93

ThesimilaritybetweenthiscupandGordonForsythswelldesignedcup,whichfitsinthe hand,indicatesthestartingpointoffunctionalism.Althoughtherearenotparticular functionalfeaturesanditslinesarecurve,thecupdismissessuperfluousdecorationand leavesspacetosimplicity.

Inthiscupshandletheornamentalreliefisbasedonafunctionalfeature.Thethumbfinds amorecomfortablebaseinthehandletop.Thecupcurvesbecomesofterthaninthe previousexample.


93Toseealltherelevantobjectsinthemuseumrelevantforthisresearchgotoappendix1.

30

Ahigherhandlewithahorizontalbaseisusedinthiscuptoallowstackability.Autilitarian decisionnotsocompromisingforthetraditionalcurveshapes.

Anabsolutelymodernistcup.Stackabilityisreachedbyaradicaltransformationinshape. Thecylindricalwallsandreliefatthebottomallowputtingonecupovertheothersafely.It isdifficulttodiscernwhethertherectilinearformsareacauseoraconsequencetothis feature:formandfunctionareinterdependent.

31

Thiscupaddsautilitarianelementtothepreviousobservations.Thecurveinthebottom partofthehandleimprovesthecontactofthehandwiththeobject,givingsupporttoa secondfinger. MaritimemuseumRotterdam: ItisrelevanttomentioninterestingcorporativecupsintheMaritimeMuseum Rotterdam.94 ThecupintheleftaimstoconservethetraditionalshapesoftheEuropeantypology, however,asmallinterventioninthebottompartofthehandleallowsstackability.The serviceinthelefttakesstackabilitytothefurthestpoint.Twocylinderscomposetheshape ofeachcup,asaresultcupscanbeputoneinsidetheotherratherthanoneontheother. ThisserviceinparticularlysimilartoHansRoerichtsTC100,introducedintheprevious chapter.

94ToseethecompletereportofthevisittotheMaritimeMuseuminRotterdamgotoappendix2.

32

5.Conclusions EuropeanteacupsandsaucerscanbeseenasmaterialreflectionsoftheDutchtradewith Asiaduringthe17thand18thcenturiesanditsconsequencesalonghistory.Throughthe classificationoftheobjecttypologies,whichareconditionedbythehistoricalcontexts identifiedthroughoutthisstudy,onecanhaveanoverviewoftheimportanceofmaritime historyandtradereflectedinadailypracticeasteadrinking. Fromageneralpointofviewdesignhistory,orspecificallythestoriesbehinddailyobjects, areausefulresourcetocombinetheknowledgeofdifferentdisciplinestoseehistory materializedinthequotidian(anaccessibleandcommunicativeapproachforgeneral public). Suggestionsforarelatedexhibition Thecollectionsofthevisitedmuseumsincludecomplementarypiecessuitablefora diachronicperspectiveofEuropeanconsumedteacupsandsaucersfromtheiremergence untiltoday.Ifweconsiderthatonecanhaveanoverviewoftheimportanceofmaritime historyandtradereflectedinadailypracticeasteadrinking,itmayberelevantto mentionopportunitiesfordevelopingarelatedexhibition. Thesubjectofteacultureallowsthevisitortolinkobjectswiththestoriesbehindthem, andbringstogetherasocializingandhostingenvironment.Beingthesetwoelements evidentlypresentintheactivitiesorganizedbythemuseum,anexhibitionrelatedtotea anditsrelationtothemaritimeworldseemssuitabletobeimplemented. Opportunitiesforcontinuingthislineofresearch Thesynchronicanalysisinpoint4madepossibletoglimpseasomehowearly appropriationonmodernisttypologiesandelementsinthecorporativeservices.Adeeper studyofmodernismestablishmentintheshippingcompanieswouldberelevantto elaboratedeeperontheimportanceofmaritimetradeinobjectsconfiguration,thistime duringamorerecentperiod.Theinvestigationofthefollowinghypothesiscouldbea startingpointofarelatedresearch:Atthebeginningofthe20thcentury,theshipcompanies wereearlyappropriatorsofmodernistideasduetoitsfastandcontemporaryexpansion,lack ofspaceandrelationshipwithanewinternationalism.Shipcompanieshavebeenoften relatedtoconservativeandtraditionalvaluesandthishypothesisexploreadifferent positionfromthepointofviewofdesign.

33

APPENDIX1:Relevantcupsandsaucersforthisresearchinthecollectionof HetScheepvaartmuseum.

Image 14

Inv.Num:

Company:

Date: 1925(md)

Dimensions: Cup8.3cmh5.5cm Saucer16cmh2.3cm

1995.1225 KNSM

34

Image 58
Inv.Num: Company: Date: 196070 (abm) Dimensions: Cup9.3cmh5.5cm Saucer14cmh2.4cm

1995.1926 Vinke&Co.

35

Image 912

Inv.Num:

Company: Date: 1965(md,abm)

Dimensions: Cup9.2cmh5.7cm Saucer13.7cmh2cm

S.6483(2039) KHL. S.6483(2031)

36

Image 1316

Inv.Num:

Company: Date: 1957(md,abm)

Dimensions: Cup8cmh6cm Saucer14cmh2.7cm

S.6483(2041) KHL S.6483(2077)

37

Image 1720

Inv.Num: 2007.0393

Company: Date: KNSM ?

Dimensions: Cup9.7cmh4.5cm Saucer14.5cmh2.2cm

38

Image 2124

Inv.Num: 1992.0277

Company: Date: SMN 1962(abm)

Dimensions: Cup8.5cmh5.5cm Saucer14cmh1.8cm

39

Image 2528

Inv.Num: 1995.5919

Company: Date: SMN

Dimensions:

19371943(abm) Cup8.8cmh5.9cm Saucer13.8cmh1.9cm

40

Image 2932

Inv.Num: 1997.3152

Company: Date: SMN

Dimensions:

19501975(abm) Cup8.2cmh Saucer14.3cmh2.3cm

41

Image 3336

Inv.Num: 1997.3070

Company: Date: HAWL

Dimensions:

19251960(abm) Cup9.5cmh5.3 Saucer15cmh2cm

42

APPENDIX2:Visitsreport 1.1MuseumBoijmansVanBeuningen.Rotterdam. Contactwith:AlexandraVanDongen Functioninthemuseum:Curatorofpreindustrialdesign Date:19thJanuary2012 Somerelevantobjectsinthemuseumcollection

Fig1.Netherlands.Porcelaincoffeeandteaservice. Fig2.Dutchcreamware.18591885.V1307f 17841814.A3059av

Fig3.China.Porcelainteaservice.174045 A4026al

Fig4.Dutchporcelain.17501800. A3039

43

1.2Themuseumcollection
BeingamuseumofAppliedArts,thecollectionoftheBoijmansVanBeuningendiffers considerablyfromtheoneofHetScheepvaartmuseum.Thereisanareaofthemuseumthat hasbeenbuiltexclusivelytohosttheceramiccollectiondonatedbyaprivatecollector.In thatsectiononecanfindearlyceramics,objectsfromagreatvarietyoftechniques,origins andperiods.Otherpottery(Fig.1and3forexample)isdisplayedinotherareasofthe museum,contextualizedwithcontemporaryobjects. Themuseumhasamongitspaintingsandengravingsavarietyofstilllifesanddepictions ofdailyscenesfromdifferentperiods,whatmakestheBoijmansagoodsourceof combineddata.Infact,oneofthemostinterestingfeaturesofthemuseumisthe multimediaresourcealma(alma.boijmans.nl),whichpresentspaintingsandengravings associatedtoobjectsincludedintheirowncollection.Thisresourceprovidesanexample tobefollowed,notonlyasamultimediafeaturebutasawayofdisplay.Thedisplayof objectscontextualizedbysocialpracticesthroughpaintingsandengravingsaddsvalueto bothpiecesandcreatesaparticularlinkwiththepublic. 1.3SummaryoftheinterviewtoAlexandraVanDongen Subject:TheDutchceramicindustryandinfluencefromtheEast. HowtheimportofChineseporcelaininfluencedthelocalindustry? ThefirstintroductionofChineseporcelainhappenedin1602,inthecityofMiddelburg,in Zeeland,whenashipthatwasinvolvedinwarkidnappedakraakshipfromthe Portuguese.TheytookoverthecargoandsolditinMiddelburgandthatwasthefirst momentthatabogassortmentofporcelainenteredtheNetherlands.Fromthereon,the tradeofporcelainwasmademainlybytheVOC.Atfirstthisporcelainenteredintherich peoplehousesasakindofdecoration,especiallyinthebeginning,notforfunctionaluse. Aftersomedecadesthisstartedtochangeandacertainassortmentofespeciallyteacups andlateroncoffeecupsareinuseinthehouseholds.EspeciallyinDelftthisoriental porcelainstartedtoplayaheavycompetitionwiththelocalearthenwareindustry.Inthat momenttherewasanindustryoftinglazedceramicsthatwasstronglyinfluencedby ItalianmajolicaandthatwasalreadyinproductionintheNetherlandsin16thcentury.The NetherlandshadreceivedmanyItalianimmigrants(amongthemcraftsmen)duringthe 15thand16thcenturies,andthistechniquehadspreadhere.Aftertheintroductionofthe orientalporcelain,themajolicaproducersstartedtocopyChinesedecorationsontopof theirowntraditionalforms,butslowlytheystartedimitatingtheChineseforms,especially inthetechnicalsense.Theywantedtoproduceverythinplatesandhighquality decoration.Theoldertraditionofmajolicaslowlydieddownbecauseoftheporcelain production. Besidesthemorerepresentativedinnerwaresyouhadthemorecommonkindsof ceramicsintheNetherlands,whichareearthenwareorslipglazedearthenware.These weretheservicesforthecommonpeople,cheaperproducts,someimportedfrom GermanyandFrance.

44

TheItalianmajolica,theredwareandslipwarewerealsodisplayedinthehouses.Mostly overthefireplace,notsomuchoverthecupboards,thisstartedlaterwiththeporcelain. Inthe18thcenturyafterthediscoveryoftheporcelaininDresden(AugustIIIwasa porcelaincollectorandstimulatedafewinventorsinGermanytofigureouttherecipeof porcelain)manyotherplacesinEurope,includingtheNetherlands,startedtheproduction ofporcelaindinnerware.

45

2.1MaritiemMuseumRotterdam

Contactwith:IreneJacobs Functioninthemuseum:CuratorofMaritimehistory. Date:19thJanuary2012 Somerelevantobjectsinthemuseumcollection

Fig5and6.

KoninklijkeStoomvaartmaatschappijZeeland.Coffeeandteaservice. M4023,M4032,M4033,etc.

Fig7.NASM.Teacupsandsaucer.Fig8.NASM.Teacupandsaucer.M5463,M5456,etc. M2996,M6365. MadeinMaastricht MadeinGermanyandHolland.

46

2.2Themuseumcollection Thevarietyofcorporativeteaservicesinbothmaritimemuseums(Rotterdamand Amsterdam)issimilar.However,eachmuseumhasdifferentpieces,whatmakesboth collectionssomehowcomplementary.AmongthecompaniesrepresentedbyRotterdams serviceswecanfindSmit&Co,NedlloydandtheKoninklijkeStoomvaartmaatschappij Zeeland,thiscollectionisparticularlyvariedinteacupsandsaucersfromtheNASM. Anotherinterestingdetailtoremarkisthatlargeservicesareavailable.Thereareservices formorethantenpeopleinmodernistgeometrictypologiesfromdifferentcompanies, whichallowadesignanalysisintermsofstackability,transportsafetyandefficiencyof spaceused. 2.3SummaryoftheinterviewtoIreneJacobs. Subject:DutchMaritimetradeandtransport. Whicharethefactorsthatmadetheshippingcompaniesstudiedstartoperatingat theendofthe19thcentury? Therearetwobigthingshappeninginthe19thcentury:theinventionofsteamandthe openingoftheSuezCanalin1869.YoucanseeintheDutchhistorythatthefirstcompany wasfoundedin1867,sooneyearafter.Dutchcompanieswerenotveryquick,theEnglish werefasterandmoreprogressive,butfrom1870moreandmorecompanieswere established. Whichweretheirmainroutesandtradedgoods? AsiaandtheAmericas.Allofthemstartedascargoboats,buttakingalsopassengers.The exclusivelypassengerboatsstartedinthebeginningofthe20 thcenturybuteventhen passengerlinerstookgoods. Whichkindofpeoplewastravellinginthatperiod? Atthebeginning,inthe19thcentury,passengerswerepeopleworkingforthegovernment andtheirfamiliesgoingorcomingbackfromthecolonies,andsoldiers.Fromthe1920s thefirsttourists(richpeoplegoingforleisure)startedtojointhem.In1930tourismand shippingbecomemoreimportant,thepassengerlinersatthatmomentarehuge,wecall themfloatingcastles,everythingissoimmenselyrichandwelldecorated.Duringthe periodofthewareverythingdissolvesinaway,andthenfromthe1950sonwardsthereis anefforttostartagain,butthenthereisastrongcompetition:theairplanes. Howlongwheretheirtrips? Attheendofthe19thcenturyatriptoIndonesiawouldtakethreetofourweeks.Lateron, whenitbecameinterestingtotouriststocomeaswell,theystartedmakingstopsin differentharborsandtripsbecamelonger.Itisalotfasterthaninthe17thcentury,whenit tookthemabout9months.

47

HowimportantweretheDutchcompaniesinthisactivity? TheNetherlandswasonemorecountryinthisactivity,Germany,England,France,andthe USalsohadthesekindsofcompanies. Howwaslifeonboardforthedifferentpassengerclasses? BeforetheSecondWorldWartherewasahugedifferencebetweenthefirstandsecond class.Itwasdividedmoreinfirstclassandimmigrants,akindofthirdorforthclass.Only intheforties/fiftiestherearerealfirst,secondandthirdclass.Firstclasswaslikethebest hotelyoucanget,everyclasshadtheirownspacesandareasoftheships,dinningrooms withdifferentdecorationandkindofservice.Inthethirdclasstherewaspeopletryingto gofromoneplacetotheotherinthecheapestpossibleway. WerethereDutchteaclippersinthe19thcentury? Thereweresome,butnotthatmanybecausetheEnglishandAmericanteaclipperswhere controllingtheteamarketduringthe19thcentury,bringingitnotexclusivelyfromChina butfromSriLanka,Ceylon,India.

48

Bibliography Akveld,L.&E.M.Jacobs,ThecolorfulworldoftheVOC,NationalAnniversaryBookVOC 1602/2002,Amsterdam(ThothNetherlandsMaritimeMuseum)2002,192pp. ClarenceSmith,WilliamGervase;Cocoaandchocolate,17651914,London/NewYork (Routledge)2000,319pp. DeBoer,G.J.etal.;KoninklijkeJavaChinaPaketvaartLijnen19471977,Amsterdam1994. DeVries,Jan;Theindustriousrevolution:consumerbehaviorandthehouseholdeconomy, 1650tothepresent,Cambridge(CambridgeUniversityPress)2008,xii+327pp. DeVries,Jan;Theindustrialrevolutionandtheindustriousrevolution,Journalof economichistory,Vol54(1994)N2,pp.249270. Ellis,Markman;Thecoffeehouse,aculturalhistory,London(Weidenfeld&Nicolson)2004, 256pp. Fallan,Kjetil,DesignHistory.UnderstandingTheoryandMethod,Oxford/NewYork(Berg) 2010,209pp. Forsyth,Gordon;20thCenturyceramics:aninternationalsurveyofthebestworkproduced bymoderncraftsmen,artistsandmanufacturers,London/NewYork(StudioLtd)1936, 128pp. Gardiner,Robert;TheShippingRevolution,themodernmerchantship,London(Conway MaritimePress)1992,208pp. Hannah,Frances;Ceramics:twentiethcenturydesign,NewYork(Dutton)1986,112pp. Harvey,Karen;Barbarityinateacup?Punch,DomesticityandGenderintheEighteenth Century,JournalofDesignHistory,Vol.21,Issue3(2008),pp.205221. Jrg,C.J.A;PorcelainandtheChinaDutchtrade,TheHague(MartinusNijhoff)1982,372pp. Jrg,C.J.A.;TheGeldermalsen:historyandporcelain,Groningen(Kemper)1986,124pp. KowaleskiWallace,Beth;Women,China,andConsumerCultureinEighteenthCentury EnglandEighteenthCenturyStudiesVol.29No.2(19951996),pp.153167. Laan,Cora;DrankenDrinkgerei,Amsterdam(DeBataafscheLeeuw)2003,232pp. Parmentier,Jan;TeaTimeinFlanders:TheMaritimeTradebetweentheSouthern NetherlandsandChinaintheEighteenthCentury,Gent(Ludion)1996,158pp.

49

Pettigrew,Jane;Asocialhistoryoftea,London(NationalTrust)2001,192pp. Piso,Willem&CornelisBontekoe;OpusculaselectaNeerlandicorumdeartemedica, Amsterdam(SumptibusSocietatis)1937,465pp. Reuchlin,J.G.;Lijnvaartinherinneringverankerd,Amsterdam(Graveen)2009,176pp. Richards,Sarah;EighteenthCenturyCeramics:ProductsforaCivilizedSociety, Manchester/NewYork(ManchesterUniversityPress)1999,236pp. Schmidberger,Ekkehard,NoravonAchenbach,LisaKlein,CorneliaWeinberger;Porzellan ausChinaundJapan:DiePorzellangaleriederLandgrafenvonHessenKassel,Staatliche KunstsammlungenKassel,Berlin(D.Reimer)1990,588pp. Shammas,Carole;'TheDomesticEnvironmentinEarlyModernEnglandandAmerica', JournalofSocialHistory,Vol.14,No.1(1980),pp.324. Sheaf,Colin&RichardKilburn;TheHatcherporcelaincargoes:thecompleterecord,Oxford (Phaidon)1988,192pp. Ukers,WilliamH.;Theromanceofcoffee:anoutlinehistoryofcoffeeandcoffeedrinking throughathousandyears,NewYork(TeaandCoffeeTradeJournalCo.)1948,xvi+280pp. VanCampen,JanandEbeltjeHartkampJonxis;AsianSplendor.CompanyArtinthe Rijksmuseum,Zutphen(WalburgPers)2011,95pp. Walker,JohnA.&JudyAttfield;Designhistoryandthehistoryofdesign,London (Pluto)1989,243pp.

50