# Homework #1

Chapter 3 1. A TV channel has a bandwidth of 6 MHz. If we send a digital signal using one channel, what are the data rates if we use one harmonic, three harmonic, and five harmonics? Ans BW = 6 MHz 1) BW from 0 Hz to f1st harmonic = 6 MHz; Bit rate = 2* f1st harmonic = 2 * 6 = 12 Mbps 2) BW from 0 Hz to f3rd harmonic = 6 MHz; f3rd harmonic = 3 * f1st harmonic f1st harmonic = 6 MHz / 3 = 2 MHz Bit rate = 2 * f1st harmonic = 2 * 2 = 4 Mbps 3) BW from 0 Hz to f5th harmonic = 6 MHz; f1st harmonic = 6 MHz / 5 = 1.2 MHz Bit rate = 2 * f1st harmonic = 2 * 1.2 = 2.4 Mbps 2. The attenuation of a signal is -10 dB. What is the final signal power if it was originally 5 W? Ans –10 = 10 log10 (P2 / 5) → log10 (P2 / 5) = −1 → (P2 / 5) = 10−1 → P2 = 0.5 W 3. We measure the performance of a telephone line (4KHz of bandwidth). When the signal is 10 V, the noise is 5 mV. What is the maximum data rate supported by this telephone line? Ans 4,000 log2 (1 + 10 / 0.005) = 43,866 bps 4. What is the total delay (latency) for a frame of size 5 million bits that is being sent on a link with 10 routers each having a queuing time of 2 us and a processing time of 1 us. The length of the link is 2000 Km. The speed of light inside the line is 2 x 108 m/s. The link has a bandwidth of 5 Mbps. Which component of the total delay is dominant? Which one is negligible? Ans Propagation time = distance / propagation speed = 2000 Km / 2 x 108 m/s = 10 ms Transmission time = Message size / Bandwidth = 5 x 106 bits/ 5 Mbps = 1 s Queuing time = 10 routers * 2 us = 20 us Processing Delay = 10 routers * 1 us = 10 us Total delay (latency) = 10 ms + 1 s + 20 us + 10 us = 1010.03 ms = 1.01003 s  1 s Chapter 4 1. Assume a data stream is ‘1101000000000010’ s.. Encode this stream, using the following code schemes. How many changes (vertical line) can you find for each scheme? a. Unipolar: 4 changes between bit b. NRZ-L: 4 changes between bit c. NRZ-I: 4 changes between bit d. RZ: 16 changes at the middle of each bit + 15 changes between bit e. Manchester: 16 changes at the middle of each bit + 11 changes between bit f. Diff. Manchester: 16 changes at the middle of each bit + 11 changes between bit

a.g. An analog signal with frequencies from 2000 to 6000 Hz Ans Sampling rate >= 2 x fhighest >= 2 x 6000 = 12. Using the Nyquist theorem. A signal with a vertical line in the time-domain representation Ans Sampling rate >= 2 x fhighest >= 2 x ∞ = ∞ samples /s . i. What is the sampling rate for PCM if the frequency ranges from 1000 to 4000 Hz? Ans Sampling rate >= 2 x fhighest = 2 x 4000 = 8000 samples / s 3.000 samples /s c. AMI: 2B1Q: MLT-3: 6 changes between bit 3 changes between bit 4 changes between bit 2. An analog signal with bandwidth of 2000 Hz Ans Sampling rate >= 2 x fhighest = 2 x (fLowest + BW) >= 2 x (fLowest + 2000) b. h. calculate the sampling rate for the following analog signals. A signal with a horizontal line in the time-domain representation Ans Sampling rate >= 2 x fhighest >= 2 x 0 = 0 samples /s d.

000 bps 5. We have sampled a low-pass signal with a bandwidth of 200 KHz using 1024 levels of quantization. A signal is sampled. Each sample represents one of four levels.000 samples /s Quantization 10 bits/sample. Bit rate = 8000 * 2 = 16. Bit rate = 400. Ans Low pass signal: frequency between 0 – 200 KHz BW = 200 KHz Sampling rate >= 2 x fhighest = 2 x 200 KHz >= 400.4.000 x 10 = 4 Mbps . Calculate the bit rate of the digitized signal. what is the bit rate? Ans Quantization 2 bits/sample. How many bits are needed to represent each sample? If the sampling rate is 8000 samples per second.