You are on page 1of 8

RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

1. Melt Index

Melt Flow Index (MFI)


Melt Flow Rate (MFR)

ASTM D 1238 (Procedure A), D3364


ISO 1133 (Procedure A)

Scope:
Melt Flow Rate measures the rate of extrusion of thermoplastics
through an orifice at a prescribed temperature and load. It provides a
means of measuring flow of a melted material which can be used to
differentiate grades as with polyethylene, or determine the extent of degradation of the plastic as a
result of molding.
Degraded materials would generally flow more as a result of reduced molecular weight, and could
exhibit reduced physical properties. Typically, flow rates for a part and the resin it is molded from
are determined, then a percentage difference can be calculated. Alternatively, comparisons
between "good" parts and "bad" parts may be of value.

Test Procedure:
Approximately 7 grams of the material is loaded into the barrel of the melt flow apparatus, which
has been heated to a temperature specified for the material. A weight specified for the material is
applied to a plunger and the molten material is forced through the die. A timed extrudate is collected
and weighed. Melt flow rate values are calculated in g/10 min.

Test Specimen Size:


At least 14 grams of material is needed.

Data:
Flow rate = ( 600/t x weight of extrudate )
t = time of extrudate in seconds
melt flow rate = g/10 min

2. GE Melt Viscosity

GE Melt Viscosity

Scope:
Melt Viscosity measures the rate of extrusion of thermoplastics through an orifice at a prescribed
temperature and load. It provides a means of measuring flow of a melted material which can be
used to evaluate the consistency of materials, or determine the extent of degradation of the plastic
as a result of molding. Degraded materials would generally flow more as a result of reduced
molecular weight, and could exhibit reduced physical properties. Typically, Melt Viscosities for a
part and the resin it is molded from are determined, then a percentage difference can be calculated.
Alternatively, comparisons between "good" parts and "bad" parts may be of value.

Test Procedure:
Approximately 7 grams of the material is loaded into the barrel of the melt flow apparatus, which
has been heated to a temperature specified for the material. A weight specified for the material is
applied to a plunger and the molten material is forced through the die. The time in seconds for the
plunger to move 1 inch is recorded. Melt viscosity values are calculated in poise.

Test Specimen Size:


At least 14 grams of material is needed.

Data:
Melt Viscosity is calculated from the measured time.
Note - the calculation is resin specific.

melt viscosity (poise) = measured time x correlation factor

3. Intrinsic Viscosity

Dilute Solution Viscosity of Polymers


Inherent Viscosity
Intrinsic Viscosity
Relative Viscosity
ASTM D2857/D 4603/D 2857

Scope:
Dilute Solution Viscosity is used as an indication of the molecular
weight of polymers. The results of the test are expressed in Relative
Viscosity, Inherent Viscosity, or Intrinsic Viscosity. It is used for
polymers that dissolve completely without chemical reaction or
degradation and can provide an excellent determination of lot-to-lot
consistency or be used to compare molded parts to original resin for determinations of degradation
from molding.

Test Procedure:
The polymer is first weighed and then dissolved in an appropriate solvent. The solution and
viscometer are placed in a constant temperature water bath. Thermal equilibrium is obtained within
the solution. The liquid is then brought above the upper graduation mark on the viscometer. The
time for the solution to flow from the upper to lower graduation marks is recorded.

Specimen size:
Commonly, an average of 40-50 mg. of polymer and 10 ml of solvent.
Common solvents include chloroform, cyclohexanone, and phenol/trichloroethylene mixture.
Data:
Relative Viscosity, Inherent Viscosity or Intrinsic Viscosity is calculated.

4. Capillary Rheometry (Shear Sweep)

Capillary Rheometry
Shear Sweep,
Thermal Stability
ASTM D3835, ISO 11443

Scope:
Capillary Rheometry measures apparent viscosity (resistance to
flow) over a broad range of shear rates and at varied
temperatures, which are comparable to the conditions
encountered in molding, calendaring, extrusion, etc. The data is
commonly used to determine processing parameters, for lot-to-lot
quality control, to measure processing degradation, which could
reduce physical properties, and to study thermal stability.

Test Procedure:
According to customer specifications, temperature, shear rate and other parameters are
selected. In a Shear Sweep melted plastic is extruded through a capillary and the force at
varied shear rates is determined. To determine Thermal Stability, melted plastic is extruded
through a capillary after varied periods of residence time in the barrel of the extruder.

Specimen size:
At least 30g of material are required.

Data:
In a Shear Sweep, shear stress and shear rate are calculated and plotted. For Thermal
Stability, apparent melt viscosity is calculated and plotted versus residence time.

Capillary rheometry test result plots shear rate versus shear viscosity.
5. Capillary Rheometry (Thermal Stability)

Capillary Rheometry
Shear Sweep,
Thermal Stability
ASTM D3835, ISO 11443

Scope:
Capillary Rheometry measures apparent viscosity (resistance to flow) over a broad range of shear
rates and at varied temperatures, which are comparable to the conditions encountered in molding,
calendaring, extrusion, etc. The data is commonly used to determine processing parameters, for
lot-to-lot quality control, to measure processing degradation, which could reduce physical
properties, and to study thermal stability.

Test Procedure:
According to customer specifications, temperature, shear rate and other parameters are selected.
In a Shear Sweep melted plastic is extruded through a capillary and the force at varied shear rates
is determined. To determine Thermal Stability, melted plastic is extruded through a capillary after
varied periods of residence time in the barrel of the extruder.

Specimen size:
At least 30g of material are required.

Data:
In a Shear Sweep, shear stress and shear rate are calculated and plotted.
For Thermal Stability, apparent melt viscosity is calculated and plotted versus residence time.
MECHNICAL PROPERTIES
1. Tensile of Plastics

Tensile

ASTM D638, D882, D1708


ISO 527

Scope:
Tensile tests measure the force required to break a specimen and
the extent to which the specimen stretches or elongates to that
breaking point. Tensile tests produce a stress-strain diagram,
which is used to determine tensile modulus. The data is often
used to specify a material, to design parts to withstand
application force and as a quality control check of materials.

Test Procedure:
Specimens are placed in the grips of the Instron at a specified grip separation and pulled until
failure. For ASTM D638 the test speed is determined by the material specification. For ASTM
D882 (Thin Plastic Sheeting), the test speed is based on the elongation to break of the
material. For ISO 527 the test speed is typically 5 or 50mm/min for measuring strength and
elongation and 1mm/min for measuring modulus. An extensometer is attached to test
specimen to determine elongation and tensile modulus.

Specimen Size:
The most common specimen for ASTM D638 is a Type I tensile bar. The most common
specimen for ISO 527 is the ISO 3167 Type 1A multipurpose specimen. ASTM D882 uses
strips cut from thin sheet or film.

Data:
The following calculations can be made from tensile test results:
1. tensile strength (at yield and at break)
2. tensile modulus
3. strain
4. elongation and percent elongation at yield
5. elongation and percent elongation at break
The tensile test result is a load versus deflection or stress versus strain curve. >From this
data, a number of properties can be calculated such as tensile modulus and yield strength.
2. Initial Tear Resistance of Plastic Film and Sheeting

ASTM D1004

Scope:
Tear resistance measures the ultimate force required to tear
film or sheet. It is often used for quality control checks or for
material comparison where tear failures are possible.

Test Procedure:
The average thickness of the specimen is measured. The
specimen is then placed in the grips of the testing machine and
pulled at a rate of 2 in. per minute until rupture.

Specimen Size:
The specimen is die cut to the appropriate shape from a sheet.
The shape of the specimen is designed to create a tear
when the specimen is pulled in tension. Die C specimens
are commonly used.

Data:
The resistance is measured in Newtons.

3. Tensile Impact

ASTM D1822

Scope:
The tensile impact test measures the amount of force needed to
break a specimen under a high speed tensile load introduced
through a swinging pendulum.

Procedure:
The thickness and width of the test specimen is recorded. The
specimen is then clamped to the crosshead and placed into the
pendulum. The pendulum is released and allowed to strike the
anvil breaking the specimen. The tensile impact energy is
recorded and then corrected impact energy is calculated.
Test Specimen:
There are two types of test specimens which can be used, long (L) and short (S). Both are 63.5mm
(2.5") long, but gauge length areas vary. Type L specimens, with a gauge length of 9.53mm (0.375")
provide a greater differentiation between materials. Type S specimens, which have no true gauge
length (see the picture above) provide a greater occurrence of brittle failures.

Data:
Tensile impact energy is recorded from the apparatus. Corrected tensile impact energy is calculated
as scale reading of energy minus a friction correction plus the bounce correction factor. All
measurements are in ft-lbs/in2.