RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

1. Melt Melt ASTM ISO Scope: Melt Flow Rate measures the rate of extrusion of thermoplastics through an orifice at a prescribed temperature and load. It provides a means of measuring flow of a melted material which can be used to differentiate grades as with polyethylene, or determine the extent of degradation of the plastic as a result of molding. Degraded materials would generally flow more as a result of reduced molecular weight, and could exhibit reduced physical properties. Typically, flow rates for a part and the resin it is molded from are determined, then a percentage difference can be calculated. Alternatively, comparisons between Test "good" parts and "bad" parts may be of value. Procedure: D Flow Flow 1238 1133 (Procedure (Procedure Melt Index Rate A), D3364 A) (MFI) (MFR) Index

Approximately 7 grams of the material is loaded into the barrel of the melt flow apparatus, which has been heated to a temperature specified for the material. A weight specified for the material is applied to a plunger and the molten material is forced through the die. A timed extrudate is collected and Test At Data: Flow t rate = = time ( of 600/t x extrudate weight in of extrudate seconds ) least 14 grams weighed. Melt flow rate values Specimen of material is needed. are calculated in g/10 min. Size:

melt flow rate = g/10 min 2. GE Scope: Melt Viscosity measures the rate of extrusion of thermoplastics through an orifice at a prescribed temperature and load. It provides a means of measuring flow of a melted material which can be used to evaluate the consistency of materials, or determine the extent of degradation of the plastic as a result of molding. Degraded materials would generally flow more as a result of reduced molecular weight, and could exhibit reduced physical properties. Typically, Melt Viscosities for a GE Melt Melt Viscosity Viscosity

part and the resin it is molded from are determined, then a percentage difference can be calculated. Alternatively, Test comparisons between "good" parts and "bad" parts may be of value.

Procedure:

Approximately 7 grams of the material is loaded into the barrel of the melt flow apparatus, which has been heated to a temperature specified for the material. A weight specified for the material is applied to a plunger and the molten material is forced through the die. The time in seconds for the plunger to move 1 inch is recorded. Melt viscosity values are calculated in poise. Test At Data: Melt Note Viscosity is the calculated calculation from is the measured resin time. specific. least 14 Specimen grams of material Size: is needed.

melt viscosity (poise) = measured time x correlation factor 3. Dilute Inherent Intrinsic Relative ASTM Scope: Dilute Solution Viscosity is used as an indication of the molecular weight of polymers. The results of the test are expressed in Relative Viscosity, Inherent Viscosity, or Intrinsic Viscosity. It is used for polymers that dissolve completely without chemical reaction or degradation and can provide an excellent determination of lot-to-lot consistency or be used to compare molded parts to original resin for determinations of degradation from Test molding. Procedure: D2857/D Solution Intrinsic Viscosity Viscosity Viscosity Viscosity 4603/D 2857 of Viscosity Polymers

The polymer is first weighed and then dissolved in an appropriate solvent. The solution and viscometer are placed in a constant temperature water bath. Thermal equilibrium is obtained within the solution. The liquid is then brought above the upper graduation mark on the viscometer. The time for the solution to flow from the upper to lower graduation marks is recorded. Specimen Commonly, an average of 40-50 mg. size: of polymer and 10 ml of solvent.

Common solvents include chloroform, cyclohexanone, and phenol/trichloroethylene mixture.

Data: Relative Viscosity, Inherent Viscosity or Intrinsic Viscosity is calculated. 4. Capillary Shear Thermal ASTM Scope: Capillary Rheometry measures apparent viscosity (resistance to flow) over a broad range of shear rates and at varied temperatures, which are comparable to the conditions encountered in molding, calendaring, extrusion, etc. The data is commonly used to determine processing parameters, for lot-to-lot quality control, to measure processing degradation, which could reduce physical properties, and to study thermal stability. Test Procedure: D3835, Capillary Rheometry Rheometry Sweep, Stability ISO 11443 (Shear Sweep)

According to customer specifications, temperature, shear rate and other parameters are selected. In a Shear Sweep melted plastic is extruded through a capillary and the force at varied shear rates is determined. To determine Thermal Stability, melted plastic is extruded through a capillary after varied periods of residence time in the barrel of the extruder. Specimen At Data: In a Shear Sweep, shear stress and shear rate are calculated and plotted. For Thermal Stability, apparent melt viscosity is calculated and plotted versus residence time. Capillary rheometry test result plots shear rate versus shear viscosity. least 30g of size: material are required.

5. Capillary Shear Thermal ASTM Scope:

Capillary

Rheometry

(Thermal Rheometry Sweep, Stability

Stability)

D3835,

ISO

11443

Capillary Rheometry measures apparent viscosity (resistance to flow) over a broad range of shear rates and at varied temperatures, which are comparable to the conditions encountered in molding, calendaring, extrusion, etc. The data is commonly used to determine processing parameters, for lot-to-lot quality control, to measure processing degradation, which could reduce physical properties, Test and to study Procedure: thermal stability.

According to customer specifications, temperature, shear rate and other parameters are selected. In a Shear Sweep melted plastic is extruded through a capillary and the force at varied shear rates is determined. To determine Thermal Stability, melted plastic is extruded through a capillary after varied periods of residence time in the size: least 30g of material are required. barrel of the extruder.

Specimen At Data: In a Shear Sweep, shear stress and

shear

rate

are

calculated

and

plotted.

For Thermal Stability, apparent melt viscosity is calculated and plotted versus residence time.

MECHNICAL PROPERTIES 1. Tensile ASTM ISO Scope: Tensile tests measure the force required to break a specimen and the extent to which the specimen stretches or elongates to that breaking point. Tensile tests produce a stress-strain diagram, which is used to determine tensile modulus. The data is often used to specify a material, to design parts to withstand application force and as a quality control check of materials. Test Procedure: D638, D882, 527 D1708 Tensile of Plastics

Specimens are placed in the grips of the Instron at a specified grip separation and pulled until failure. For ASTM D638 the test speed is determined by the material specification. For ASTM D882 (Thin Plastic Sheeting), the test speed is based on the elongation to break of the material. For ISO 527 the test speed is typically 5 or 50mm/min for measuring strength and elongation and 1mm/min for measuring modulus. An extensometer is attached to test specimen Specimen to determine elongation Size: and tensile modulus.

The most common specimen for ASTM D638 is a Type I tensile bar. The most common specimen for ISO 527 is the ISO 3167 Type 1A multipurpose specimen. ASTM D882 uses strips Data: The 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. elongation elongation and and following tensile calculations strength tensile strain percent percent elongation elongation at at yield break can (at be made yield from and modulus tensile at test results: break) cut from thin sheet or film.

The tensile test result is a load versus deflection or stress versus strain curve. >From this data, a number of properties can be calculated such as tensile modulus and yield strength.

2. ASTM

Initial

Tear

Resistance

of

Plastic D1004

Film

and

Sheeting

Scope: Tear resistance measures the ultimate force required to tear film or sheet. It is often used for quality control checks or for material comparison where tear failures are possible. Test Procedure:

The average thickness of the specimen is measured. The specimen is then placed in the grips of the testing machine and pulled at a rate of 2 in. per minute until rupture. Specimen Size:

The specimen is die cut to the appropriate shape from a sheet. The shape of the specimen is designed to create a tear when the specimen is pulled in tension. Die C specimens are Data: The resistance is measured in Newtons. commonly used.

3. ASTM Scope:

Tensile D1822

Impact

The tensile impact test measures the amount of force needed to break a specimen under a high speed tensile load introduced through Procedure: The thickness and width of the test specimen is recorded. The specimen is then clamped to the crosshead and placed into the pendulum. The pendulum is released and allowed to strike the anvil breaking the specimen. The tensile impact energy is recorded and then corrected impact energy is calculated. a swinging pendulum.

Test

Specimen:

There are two types of test specimens which can be used, long (L) and short (S). Both are 63.5mm (2.5") long, but gauge length areas vary. Type L specimens, with a gauge length of 9.53mm (0.375") provide a greater differentiation between materials. Type S specimens, which have no true gauge length Data: Tensile impact energy is recorded from the apparatus. Corrected tensile impact energy is calculated as scale reading of energy minus a friction correction plus the bounce correction factor. All measurements are in ft-lbs/in2. (see the picture above) provide a greater occurrence of brittle failures.