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NEURONS The entire neural network of the body relies on the transmission of electrochemical impulses Nervous sytem composed

of two types of cells: neurons and neuroglia Neurons are cells that transmit impulses, commonly identified by the direction the impulse travels Sensory neurons, transmit stimuli to the brain or spinal cord Motor neurons transmit impulses from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands Nerves are composed of afferent and efferent fibers, called mixed nerves Neuralgia are cells that play an important role when the nervous system suffers an injury or infection 3 major structures of the neuron: cell body, the axon, and the dendrites Cell body contains the nucleus of the cell and various organelles Its branching cytoplamic projections are dendrites that carry impulses to the cell body Axons carry impulses from the cell body Dendrites provide additional area for receiving impulses from other neurons Axons, single projections range from few millimeteres to more then a meter in length Axons transmit impulses to muscles , glands, and other dendrites Axons in both peripheral and autonomic nervous system posses a white lipoid covering called a myelin sheath Myelin sheath acts as electrical insulator , reduces possibility of an impulse stimulating adjacent nerves Myelin sheath accelerates impulse transmission through the axon The myelin that covers axons in the brain and spinal cord gives these structures white appearance and makes up the white matter of the central nervous system Unmyelinated fibers, dendrites, and nerve cell bodies make up the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord On peripheral nervesm myelin sheath formed by a neuroglial cell called a schwan cell that wraps tightly around the axon, it forms a think cellular membrane called neurilemma, or neurolemma Space between adjacent Schwann cells is called the node of ranvier This space helps maintain the electrical potentials needed for impulse conduction Neurons are not continuous with one another Synapse,found in small space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of another For impulse to travel from neuron to neuron must cross the synapse Impulse within the neuron causes a chemical substance called a neurotransmitter to be released at the end of the axon Generates next electrical stimulus Impulses travel through neural pathways NEUROLGIA Neuralgia means nerve glue

4 types of neuralgia: Astrocytes- star shaped, mechanical support for neurons and form tight shealths around the capillaries of the brain.sheaths provide an obstruction called the blood-brain barrier,that keeps large molecular substances from entering the tissue of the brain. Oligodendrocytes- also called oligodendrolglia, help on development on myelin on neurons of the central nervous system Microglia-smallest of the neuroglia, posses phagocytic properties and may become very active during times of infection Ependyma-ciliated cells that line fluid filled cavaties of the central nervous system, especially the ventricles of the brain. Assist in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation NERVOUS SYSTEM DIVISIONS Nervous system consists of 2 main divisions, central nervous system(CNS) and the peripheral nervous system(PNS) Cns consists of the brain and spinal cord Pns consists of 12 pairs of crainial nerves, which emerge from base of skull, and 31 pairs of spinal nerves which emerge from the spinal cord CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Consists of brain and spinal cord and enclosed within 3 protective membranes called the meninges BRAIN One of largest organs in the body Integrates almost every physical and mental activity of the body Center for memory, emotion, thought, judgment, reasoning, and consciousness Composed of 4 major structures: Cerebrum Cerebellum Diencephalon Brainstem Cerebrum: largest and uppermost portion of the brain. Consists of 2 hemispheres divided by a deep longitudinal fissure, or grove. Fissure does not completely separate the hemispheres. Corpus callosum joins the hemispheres, permitting communication between the right and left sides of the brain Hemisphere divided into 5 lobes, 4 of these lobes are named for the bones that lie directly above them: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. 5th lobe, insula, vna be seen only upon dissection Cerebral surface consists of numerous folds, called gyri Gyri are separated by furrows or fissures called sulci Thin gray layer called the cerebral cortex covers entire cerebrum am dos composed of millions of cell bodies, which gives gray color Remainder of cerebrum primary composed of white matter (myelinated axons) Major function of cerebrum include sensory perception and interpretation, language, voluntary movement, and the emotional aspects of behavious and memory

Cerebellum:2nd largest part of the brain, occupies porterior side of the brain. all functions involve movement when cerebrum initiates muscular movement, the cerebellum coordinates and refines it aids in maintaining equilibrium and balance diencephalon: composed of smaller structures, 2 of which are, thalamus and the hypothalamus thalamus receives all sensory stimuli except olfactory stimuli and transmits them to the cerebral cortex thalamus receives impulses from the cerebrum and relays them to efferent nerves hypothalamus integrates autonomic nerve impulses, regulates body temperature, controls endocrine functions brainstem:composed of 3 structures: midbrain, separating the cerebrum from the brainstem, the medulla, attaches to the spinal cord, and the pons or bridge connecting midbrain to the medulla brainstem is a pathway for impulse connection between the brain and spinal cord brainstem is orgin of 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and controls respiration, blood pressure and heart rate brainstem in site that controls beginning of life and end of life it is sometimes called the primary brain SPINAL CORD transmits sensory impulses from the body to the brain and motor impulses from the brain to muscles and organs of the body sensory nerve tracts are called ascending tracts because direction of impulse is upward motor nerve tracts are called descending tracts because they carry impulses downward direction to muscles and organs cross section of spinal cord reveals an inner gray area composed of cell bodies and dendrites and a white outer area composed of myelinated tissue of the ascending and descending tracts spinal cord, located within the spinal cavity of the vertebral column, with spinal nerves exiting between the intervertebral spaces throughout almost the entire length of the spinal column spinal nerves are identified by the region of the vertebral column from which they exit MENINGES Brain and spinal cord receive limited protection from 3 coverings called meninges, these coverings include: Dura mater, outermost covering, tough, fibrous, composed primarily of connective tissue. Beneath dura mater is a cavity called the subdural space filled with serous fluid Arachnoid, middle covering, spider web appearance. A subarachnoid space contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that provides additional protection for the brain and spinal cord acting as a shock absorber Pia mater, innermost covering, contains numerous blood vessles and lymphatics that nourish the underlying tissues Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) colorless fluid that contains proteins, glucose, urea, salts, and some white blood cells. Circulates around spinal cord and brain through spaces called ventricles

Any interference with absorption results in collection of fluid in the brain , a condition called hydrocephalus PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Composed of all nervous tissue located outside of the spinal column and skull Includes 12 pairs of cranial nerves that carry impulses to and from the brain and 31 pairs of spinal nerves that carry impulses to and from the spinal cord PNS is divided into 2 specialized systems: the somat nervous system(SNS) and the autonomic nervous system(ANS) Cranial nerves-designated by name or number Contain fibers that may serve a sensory or motor function, or mixtue of both Sensory nerves receive impulses from the sense organsm including the eyes, ears , nose, tongue, skin amd transmit them to the CNS Sensory nerves, conduct impulses toward the CNS , known as afferent nerves Motor nerves, conduct imoulses away from the CNS so they are efferent, conduct impulses to muscles, causing them to contract, or to glands causing them to secrete Nerves composed of both sensory and motor fibers are called mixed nerves Example of mixed nerve is facial nerve, acts in motor capacity by transmitting impulses for smiling or frowning, acts in a sensory capacity by transmitting taste impulses from the tongue to the brain Spinal nerves-all spinal nerves are mixed nerves. Two points of attachment to the spinal cord: anterior root and posterior root.anterior root contains motor fibers and posterior contains sensory fibers. These two roots unite to form spinal nerve Somatic nervous system-the SNS primarily innervates (supplies with nerves) skeletal muscles and is associated with volunatary movement. Examples of voluntary movement include walking and talking Autonomic nervous system-