Canada in the 1920s and 1930s


Agnes Macphail

-Elected into the Canadian House of Commons, she became Canada’s first woman MP in 1919 (first election woman had the vote) -Successfully fought for old-age pensions, prison reform, and farmers’ co-operatives -Became first Canadian woman to be sent as a delegate to the League of Nations in Geneva -Proposed (Ontario Legislature in 1951) legislation that mandated equal pay for equal work for Canadian women -Founded Elizabeth Fry Society of Canada, which helped women deal with the justice system

Historical Significance
-As a woman who showed this much success, Agnes would have been a great influence on the women who heard of her -Since she was the first female Canadian MP, this would have paved the road for the Canadian women who want to be in politics -Lead to huge INDEPENDENCE of Canadian women; as the first woman to do all this, she is the one who set the pace for the other Canadian women to do something about the inequality they faced -Farmers’ co-operatives would have lead to better farming industry and better crops= more food for Canadians, better economy -Huge steps into Canadian women equality to men; though still not equal -It is because of his inventions that we have cell phones and radios today- which are used every day all around the world for emergencies and entertainment -By successfully inventing all of these inventions, this would have inspired many Canadians to invent things -The economy in Canada would have soared with the invention of the alternating current radio tube as families could then listen to their radio all the time without having to charge the battery. This would have promoted better social lives amongst everyone as well -Canadians would feel PRIDE at having a Canadian invent something that changes the world, such as the all-electric radio -These snowmobiles would have kept the economy booming in the winter, as people could now get to work when the roads were covered in snow -The snowmobiles would have saved many lives as doctors could use them to deliver patients to hospitals in the winter -Wartime vehicles would have given an edge to Canadians in the war= more efficient soldiers and tactics= helped win the war -Today, many transportation systems are created by the Bombardier company. This means that Bombardier is one of the reasons we are able to travel today (better economy, etc.) -Their paintings gave Canadians a sense of IDENTITY and NATIONALISM as they depicted the Canadian landscapes- which made Canadians feel as though Canada is a beautiful, famous country -Since many were war artists, their paintings that showed the horrors of the war would definitely show people how terrible war is and would increase war efforts at home -These paintings would also be good

Ted Rogers Sr.

-First Canadian amateur to send a transatlantic radio signal -Invented world’s first successful alternating current radio tube, which operated on household electricity -Invented world’s first successful all-electric radio in the world -Created the world’s first all-electric broadcasting station

Armand Bombardier

-Invented world’s first snowmobile (sevenpassenger vehicles which used toothed wheels to turn a rubber track that propelled the skis at the front) and produced them to the public from a small factory -Built a larger factory to mass produce snowmobiles to the public -Produced wartime vehicles during World War Two

Group of Seven

-Comprised of J.E.H. MacDonald, Lawren Harris, Franklin Carmichael, Arthur Lismer, F.H. Varley, A.Y. Jackson, and Franz Johnston -Group of painters, mostly from Ontario and Quebec, who formed a “friendly alliance for defence” against negative responses to their work (from art critics, other artists, and Canadian public) -Many of the members of the Group of Seven fought in the war or served as war artists

Statute of Westminster

-In 1926, leaders of the self-governing dominions of the British Empire attended the Imperial Conference in London. The conference introduced the Balfour Report, which recognized the autonomy of Britain’s colonies and said that Britain should not control their decisions; also changed rules of governor general in the dominions -In 1931, the propositions of the Balfour Report became law when the Statute of Westminster- which recognized the equality of Britain and the dominions- was introduced to the dominions

Historical Significance


Social Credit

-The Statute of Westminster was an extraordinary source of INDEPENDENCE in Canada. Now, the Canadian government could choose to do what it wanted and not be told what to do by Britain. Also, independence was gained because of the rules of the governor general being changed. Canada could now have a Canadian governor general- not a British one- to do what’s best for Canada- not what’s best for Britain -Canadians would gain an immense amount of pride at being considered Britain’s equal, since Britain is a powerful force compared to Canada -Since Canada was now a truly independent country, Canada didn’t have to do what Britain wanted- such as going to war (less death) -The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation -The fact that their policies had a positive was formed in 1932 and lead by J.S. outcome would have increased Canadian Woodsworth independence; they saw that their actions can -Roots in Western labour and farmers’ groups make a difference -Wanted to replace the free enterprise -The farmers and workers in the west would economic system with socialism- government have gained a bit of hope since their perspective control of economy was being spoken; they would be more -Wanted democratic self-government based on determined due to the hope that things might economic equality change for them (this would be a positive effect -Policies (over time) influenced introduction of on the economy as more work would be done) reforms, such as employment insurance, from -The basic outline of the CCF has provided an federal government evolution into the New Democratic Party of today. Without the principals of the CCF, the New Democratic Party would not be formed -Lead by William “Bible Bill” Aberhart -The “social credit” given to every Albertan -Wanted Alberta government to pay $25 would not be a good thing for the economy. In monthly to every Albertan (a.k.a. “social fact, this would have cause inflation- making the credit”) because they believed the Depression Canadian dollar worth less than it was already would end if people had more money to spend and making items cost more. This would have -In 1935 federal election, they won most of the weakened the economy (make Depression last seats in Alberta; continued to be represented at longer) the House of Commons over the following -Since they won the federal election in 1935, just decades when the economy was getting better, Albertans may have thought that they were a huge cause of the ending of the Depression. This would have increased the INDEPENDENCE of the

Persons Case

Union Nationale

Albertans, as they would think that it was because of their provincial actions -A legal action that took twelve years to -The determination and success of the “Famous resolve; started when Borden refused to Five” who took the case to the privy councillors consider Emily Murphy as a candidate for the in Britain greatly increased the Senate because, as a woman, she was not a INDEPENDENCE of women in Canada. This “qualified person” would have shown that women were capable of -Resolved when Emily Murphy, Henrietta holding the same responsibilities as men. Muir Edwards, Nellie McClung, Louise -To Canadians (though mostly Canadian women) McKinney, and Irene Parlby took the case to it would have increased their NATIONALISM, the Privy Council in Britain- which ruled that as they had done something to change the way women are persons the British North America Act stated women. Since they changed how the act- written by Britain- deemed women, they did something that changed Britain- the Empire!- as well. By effecting the Empire, the nationalism of Canadians would have increased -Founded by Maurice Duplessis in 1935 due to -The actions taken to preserve the francophone concerns about maintaining the francophone culture are probably the reason we still consider culture in Quebec French a second language of Canada- also a -Reform agenda attracted voters due to things good reason for the existence of important like higher minimum wages and a provincially cultural days in Quebec today (Bonhomme owned hydroelectric system Festival, etc) -Formed the government in Quebec in 1936; -The farm credit programs would have helped Duplessis became Premiere farmers who were suffering due to the effects of -Introduced farm credit programs to help the Depression. This would ensure that these struggling farmers farmers were still able to produce goods at the -Provided funds to the Catholic Church to run end of the Depression (beneficial to economy) education, health care, and social services in -Support with the Catholic Church would have the province been great promotion of Catholicism (reason -Opposed organized labour; passed laws that why Catholicism is so popular in Canada today). obstructed unions. Used provincial police to Also, the education would preserve the French break up picket lines during strikes culture. The health care would have been -In 1937, passed the “Padlock Law”, which beneficial for those suffering from the effects of gave police the right to seize anything- used by the Depression (more affordable). The social people that the government considered a services would have allowed many to return to threat- for up to a year. The law also allowed jobs (benefit economy) the government to jail anyone found guilty of -The strong opposition of organized labour suspected “communist” actions would have made sure no communism would -Didn’t allow women to vote in provincial spread to Canada, but it mostly decreased the elections independence of Canadians (basically saying their opinions don’t matter). However, it would have kept people in work (less time striking= more work= better economy= Depression over sooner) -The Padlock law would have decreased the

Bennett’s New Deal

-Proposed by Prime Minister Bennett in 1935 before the federal election- in hopes that it would win him the election. When King won the election, he continued with the New Deal -Promised a more progressive taxation system, a maximum hour work week, a minimum wage, closer regulation of working conditions, unemployment insurance, health and accident insurance, a revised old-age pension, and agricultural support programs

“Black Tuesday”

-On of the most immediate causes of the Great Depression (the match that lit the fuse) -The day preceding the date that the value of shares on the Toronto stock exchange fell by $1 per minute -Started when shareholders panicked- at a sudden increase in stocks being sold- and sold all of their stocks- which they bought on margin (couldn’t afford)- as quickly as possible

independence of the Quebec citizens as it violated their rights. Also, “communists actions” would have been lessened due to fear so more work would be done (less time striking and more time working= better economy= Depression over sooner) -Since women were not allowed to vote in Quebec, this would have decreased their independence significantly: the rest of the Canadian women could vote -Though many of these ideas didn’t completely get followed through, they did present a bunch of future things that could make Canada better. Later on, they were all followed through- which we see in Canada today. -The result of many of these propositions would have benefited the economy (better working conditions= more employees= more money for the economy= Depression over sooner) -By not following through with all of these propositions, the government would have lost trust of Canadians- which would result in Canadians not submitting to other proposals in the future to improve the economy (make depression last longer) - One of the main reasons the Great Depression was so economically weak. Since the stock market crashed, the economy would have fallen and everyone would be subject to the hard times (loss of money and property= loss of money and jobs= loss of purchasing power=Great Depression to last so long) -Because of this event, we know the dangers of the stock market crashing and buying on margin. Since we know how the stock market crashed, we are more able to contain the problem todaywe learned from this mistake and so the economy today is stronger and less prone to a disastrous loss today

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