1.

The Atomic Number (also known as the Proton Number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus. It is conventionally represented by the symbol Z. The atomic number uniquely identifies a chemical element. In an atom of neutral charge, the atomic number is also equal to the number of electrons. 2. The Mass Number (A), also called Nucleon Number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. 3. The Atomic Mass is the total mass of protons, neutrons and electrons in a single atom. The Relative Atomic Mass is defined as the relative average mass of its atom as compared to the 1/12th mass of Carbon (C12 isotope).

Atomic Name of Atomic Name of Sym AM Sym AM number element number element 1 H 24 Cr Hydrogen 1 Chromium 52 2 He 25 Helium 4 Manganese Mn 55 3 Li 26 Fe Lithium 7 Iron 56 4 Be 28 Ni Beryllium 9 Nickel 59 5 B 27 Co Boron 11 Cobalt 59 6 C 29 Cu Carbon 12 Copper 64 7 N 30 Zn Nitrogen 14 Zinc 65 8 O 31 Ga Oxygen 16 Gallium 70 9 F 32 Ge Fluorine 19 Germanium 73 10 Ne 33 As Neon 20 Arsenic 75 11 Na 34 Se Sodium 23 Selenium 79 12 35 Br Magnesium Mg 24 Bromine 80 13 Al 36 Kr Aluminum 27 Krypton 84 14 Si 50 Sn Silicon 28 Tin 119 15 51 Sb Phosphorus P 31 Antimony 122 16 S 53 I Sulfur 32 Iodine 127 17 Cl 54 Xe Chlorine 35 Xenon 131 19 K 55 Cs Potassium 39 Cesium 133 18 Ar 78 Pt Argon 40 Platinum 195 20 Ca 79 Au Calcium 40 Gold 197 21 Sc 80 Hg Scandium 45 Mercury 201 22 Ti 82 Pb Titanium 48 Lead 207 23 V 83 Bi Vanadium 51 Bismuth 209 4. The unit of measurement of atomic mass is a.m.u (atomic mass unit) 1 amu = 1.66056 x 10-24 g 5. Equivalent Mass is defined as the mass of an element/compound/ion which combines or displaces 1 part of hydrogen or 8 parts of oxygen or 35.5 parts of chlorine by mass.

6. STP  273 K, 1 atm NTP 293 K, 1 atm Standard Room temperature 7. The Valency of an element is the measure of electrons it needs or needs to lose to obtain a stable structure (a noble gas structure, such as helium, neon, argon ...) At. Element Valency At. No. Element Valency At. No. Element Valency No.
1 2 3 4 Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium (-1), +1 0 1 2 38 39 40 41 Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium 2 3 (+2), (+3), +4 (+2), +3, (+4), +5 (+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6 6 (+2), +3, +4, (+6), (+7), +8 (+2), (+3), +4, (+6) +2, +4, (+6) +1, (+2), (+3) (+1), +2 (+1), (+2), +3 +2, +4 73 74 Tantalum Tungsten (+3), (+4), +5 (+2), (+3), (+4), (+5), +6 (-1), (+1), +2, (+3), +4, (+5), +6, +7 (+2), +3, +4, +6, +8 (+1), (+2), +3, +4, +6 (+1), +2, (+3), +4, +6 +1, (+2), +3 +1, +2 +1, (+2), +3 +2, +4 (-3), (+2), +3, (+4), (+5)

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum

-3, +3 (+2), +4 -3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5 -2 -1, (+1) 0 1 2 3

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin

75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83

Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium

-4, (+2), +4 -3, +1, +3, +5 -2, +2, +4, +6 -1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7 0 1 2 3 +2, +3, +4 +2, +3, +4, +5 +2, +3, +6 +2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7 +2, +3, (+4), (+6) +2, +3, (+4) (+1), +2, (+3), (+4) +1, +2, (+3) 2 (+2). +3 -4, +2, +4 -3, (+2), +3, +5 -2, (+2), +4, +6 -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5 0 1

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Cesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium

-3, +3, (+4), +5 -2, (+2), +4, +6 -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7 0 1 2 3 +3, +4 3 +3, +4 3 (+2), +3 (+2), +3 3 +3, +4 3 3 3 (+2), +3 (+2), +3 3 4

84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92

Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium

(-2), +2, +4, (+6) ? 0 ? 2 3 4 5 (+2), +3, +4, (+5), +6

Valency can also be defined as the no. of e- lost or gained by an element/group in order to get the nearest inert gas configuration. As we see from the table given above there are many elements that have different valency. So the equivalent mass of an element will vary from compound to compound depending upon their valency. Ex : FeO & Fe2O3 Valency of Fe in FeO 2 Valency of Fe in FeO 3 So, Eq. Wt. of Fe in 56÷2=28 So, Eq. Wt. of Fe in 56÷3=18.67 According to IUPAC : lower value of valency uses –ous suffix, and higher value of valency uses –ic suffix. So FeO  Ferrous Oxide Fe2O3  Ferric Oxide 8. A Radical is an atom, molecule, or ion, that is likely to take part in chemical reactions. There are three types of radicals : +ve  Cations (Li+, Ca+2) -ve  Anions ( Cl-. SO42-) Neutral Radicals (methyl radical)

9. The Percent Composition (percentage composition) of a compound is a relative measure of the mass of each different element present in the compound.

To calculate the percent composition (percentage composition) of a compound:
  

Calculate the relative molecular mass (molecular weight, formula mass, formula weight), Mr, of the compound Calculate the total mass of each element present in the formula of the compound Calculate the percentage composition : % by weight (mass) of element = (total mass of element present ÷ molecular mass) x 100

Example Calculate the percent by mass (weight) of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) in sodium chloride (NaCl) 1. Calculate the relative molecular mass (Mr): Mr = 23 + 35.5 = 58.5 2. Calculate the total mass of Na present: 1 Na is present in the formula, mass = 23 3. Calculate the percent by mass (weight) of Na in NaCl: %Na = (mass Na ÷ Mr) x 100 = (23 ÷ 58.5) x 100 = 39.32% 4. Calculate the total mass of Cl present: 1 Cl is present in the formula, mass = 35.5 5. Calculate the percent by mass (weight) of Cl in NaCl:-p %Cl = (mass Cl ÷ Mr) x 100 = (35.5 ÷ 58.5) x 100 = 60.68%
The answers above are probably correct if %Na + %Cl = 100, that is, 39.32 + 60.68 = 100. 10. Molecular Formula and Empirical Formula     Empirical Formula of a compound shows the ratio of elements present in a compound. Molecular Formula of a compound shows how many atoms of each element are present in a molecule of the compound. The empirical formula mass of a compound refers to the sum of the atomic masses of the elements present in the empirical formula.

The Molecular Mass (formula mass, formula weight or molecular weight) of a compound is a multiple of the empirical formula mass. MM = n x empirical formula mass Empirical Formula can be calculated from the percentage (or percent) composition of a compound.

Examples of Empirical and Molecular Formula

If carbon and hydrogen are present in a compound in a ratio of 1:2, the empirical formula for the compound is CH 2. The empirical formula mass of this compound is: 12.0 + (2 x 1.0) = 14.0 g/mol . If we know the molecular mass of the compound is 28.0 g/mol then we can find the molecular formula for the compound. MM = n x empirical formula mass 28.0 = n x 14.0 n=2 So the molecular formula for the compound is 2 x empirical formula, ie, 2 x (CH 2) which is C2H4

There are many compounds that can have the empirical formula CH2. These include:      11. C2H4 (ethene or ethylene) molecular mass=28.0g/mol and n=2 C3H6 (propene or propylene) molecular mass=42.0g/mol and n=3 C3H6 (cyclopropane) molecular mass=42.0g/mol and n=3 C4H8 (butene or butylene) molecular mass=56.0g/mol and n=4 C4H8 (cyclobutane) molecular mass=56.0g/mol and n=4 Avogadro’s Hypothesis Equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules.

 

So, at constant temperature and pressure, the volume of a sample of gas is proportional to the number of molecules in the gas sample. 23 Since 1 mole = 6.023 x 10 molecules, at constant temperature and pressure, the volume, V, of a sample of gas is proportional to the moles of gas, n, in the sample. V/n = constant V1/n1 = V2/n2

If the quantity of gas increases, then at the same temperature and pressure the volume the gas occupies must also increase.  If the quantity of gas decreases, then at the same temperature and pressure the volume the gas occupies must also decrease. 12. Mole Concept 1 mole of a substance – i. Is equal to the atomic/molecular mass of an element/compound 23 ii. Contains Avogadro’s No. (6.023 X 10 ) of formula units(atoms, compounds, or ions) iii. Of any gas occupies 22.4 L by volume at NTP. 13. Oxidation and Reduction Reactions a. Oxidation: an atom or ion loses electrons b. Reduction: an atom or ion gains electrons c. In an oxidation reaction, the atom or ion becomes more positive due to the loss of electrons. d. In a reduction reaction, the atom or ion becomes more negative due to the gain of electrons.

14. Oxidation State  An Oxidation Number (Oxidation State) is the charge an atom would carry if the molecule or ion were completely ionic.

 

For a neutral molecule or compound, the sum of the oxidation numbers (states) for each element in the molecule equals 0. For a charged molecule (ion), the sum of the oxidation numbers (states) for each element in the ion equals the charge on the ion.

Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers a. Fluorine is assigned an oxidation number of -1 in compounds b. Oxygen is assigned an oxidation number of -2 in compounds Except in o Peroxides o Superoxide o Oxygen fluorides c. Hydrogen is assigned an oxidation of +1 in compounds d. Group 1 elements (Alkali Metals) are assigned an oxidation number of +1 in compounds e. Group 2 elements (Alkaline-earth metals) are assigned an oxidation number of +2 in compounds f. An atom of any element in the free state has an oxidation number of 0 g. Any monatomic ion has an oxidation number equal to its charge h. The sum of the oxidation numbers of all the atoms in formula equals the electrical charge shown with the formula 15. Balancing Chemical Equations The number of atoms of each element on the left hand side of the equation must be the same as the number of atoms of each element on the right hand side of the equation Points to remember:    Reactants are written on the left hand side of the chemical equation. Products are written on right hand side of the chemical equation. You can't change the formula of reactant or product molecules in the chemical equation. You can only change the numbers of reactant or product molecules in the chemical equation.

Example When zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid, hydrogen gas and zinc chloride are produced. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. 1. Identify the reactants and products: reactants : zinc and hydrochloric acid products : 2. Write the word equation: general form of equation: word equation for this reaction: 3. hydrogen and zinc chloride

Reactants

products

zinc + hydrochloric acid → hydrogen + zinc chloride

4.

Write the formula for all reactants and products: Zinc: Zn hydrochloric acid: HCl hydrogen gas: H2 zinc chloride: ZnCl2 Once you have written the formula for each reactant and product you cannot change them during the process of balancing the equation. Write the unbalanced chemical equation by replacing the words in the word equation with the formulae above: word equation: zinc + hydrochloric acid → hydrogen + zinc chloride unbalanced chemical equation: Zn + HCl → H2 + ZnCl2 Balancing the equation:

5.

o

Balance the Zn atoms: Count the number of Zn atoms on the left hand side of the equation = 1 (i.e. 1 Zn atom in Zn) Count the number of Zn atoms on the right hand side of the equation = 1 (i.e., 1 Zn atom in ZnCl2) number of Zn atoms on the left hand side = number of Zn atoms on the right hand side Zn atoms are balanced. Balance the H atoms in the chemical equation: Zn + HCl → H2 + ZnCl2 Count the number of H atoms on the left hand side of the equation = 1 (i.e., 1 H atom in HCl) Count the number of H atoms on the right hand side of the equation = 2 (i.e., 2 H atoms in H2) number of H atoms on the left hand side ≠ number of H atoms on right hand side H atoms are NOT balanced. In order to balance the number of H atoms, we need twice as many H atoms on the left hand side of the equation, but, we cannot change the formula of hydrochloric acid so we must multiply the number of molecules of hydrochloric acid by 2: Zn + 2HCl → H2 + ZnCl2 Check that the number of H atoms on each side of the equation is now the same: Count the number of H atoms on the left hand side of the equation = 2 (i.e., 2 H atoms in 2HCl) Count the number of H atoms on the right hand side of the equation = 2 (i.e., 2 H atoms in H2) Number of H atoms on the left hand side = number of H atoms on right hand side H atoms are balanced. Balance the Cl atoms using the new chemical equation : Zn + 2HCl → H2 + ZnCl2 Count the number of Cl atoms on the left hand side of the equation = 2 (i.e., 2 Cl atoms in 2HCl) Count the number of Cl atoms on the right hand side of the equation = 2 (i.e., 2 Cl atoms in ZnCl2) number of Cl atoms on the left hand side = number of Cl atoms on right hand side Cl atoms are balanced. The chemical equation is balanced when the numbers of atoms of each element on the left hand side of the equation is equal to the number of atoms of each element on the right hand side of the equation: Zn number Zn atoms 1 + 2HCl → = H2 + ZnCl2 1 Zn atoms are balanced

o

o

o

number H atoms number Cl atoms

2 2

= =

2 2

H atoms are balanced Cl atoms are balanced

The number of atoms of each element on the left hand side of the equation is equal to the number of atoms of each element on the right hand side of the equation so the chemical equation is balanced.

16. Molar Mass The Molar Mass of a substance is the mass of 1 mol (the SI unit for the basis SI quantity amount of substance, having the symbol n) of the substance. This has a numerical value which is the average molecular mass of the 23 molecules in the substance multiplied by Avogadro's constant approximately 6.022×10 . The most common units of molar mass are g/mol because in those units the numerical value equals the average molecular mass in units of u. MOLAR MASS IN G/MOL= AVERAGE MOLECULAR MASS IN U

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