Apparatus protection

Presented in AGNI College of Technology.

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Generator components
• Stator
– – – – – – – – Stator frame Stator core Stator winding Hydrogen coolers Rotor shaft Rotor winding Rotor retaining rings Field connections

• Rotor

• Bearings • Shaft seals
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Additional auxiliary
• Oil System • Gas System • Excitation System

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Present configuration
• Synchronous Generator – – Generates a.c. three phase powers. It may be a turbo alternator run by steam turbine at a very high speed or be a low speed a.c. generator run by water-turbine. – The terminal voltage of the generator is maintained constant during is varying load conditions with the help of excitation system. • Exciter – – – Supplies field current tot the rotor field of the synchronous generator. It may be an a.c generator driven by either the steam turbine or an induction motor. But in the modern systems of excitation, the exciters are solid state systems consisting of some form of rectifier or thyristor system from the a.c bus. • Voltage Regulator – Voltage regulator working in conjunction with the exciter tries to maintain terminal voltage of alternator constant. –
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In several aspects the voltage regulator is the heart of the excitation system.
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Need for generator protection
• The generating units, especially the larger ones, are relatively few in number and higher in individual cost than most other equipments. • Therefore, it is desirable and necessary to provide protection to cover the wide range of faults that occur in modern generating plant.

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Protection – basics
• AC power system is covered by several protection zones. • Each protective zone protects one or two components of the system. • The neighbor protective zones over lap so that no part of the system is left unprotected. • Each component of the power system is protected by a protective system consisting of protective transformers, protective relays, all or nothing rays, auxiliaries, trip circuit, trip coil, etc. • During fault conditions the protective relaying senses the fault and closes the trip circuit of the circuit breaker open and the faulty part of the system is disconnected from the remaining part of the system.
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Protection – generator basics
• The protection of generator is most complex and elaborate. • Generator is large machine and is connected to bus bars. • Unit auxiliary transformers, excitation system, prime over, voltage regulator, cooling systems etc, accompany it. So it is not single equipment. • The protection of generator should be coordinated with associated equipment. • Generator should not be shunt off as far as possible since that would result in power shortage and emergency.
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Generator protection – types
• The generator should be protected against several faults like : – Differential – Restricted earth fault time over current – Negative sequence, bearing temperature – Bearing insulation, rotor earth fault, back up over current etc. • Several other abnormal conditions give an alarm and indicate on static protection schemes have been developed for generator protection.
While selecting the scheme for generator protection, the protection of the complete unit should be ensured. In addition stability of the system should not be affected due to disturbance in generator in addition to protection of generator itself.
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Generator faults
Generator faults can be classified into • Stator faults • Rotor faults • Miscellaneous faults or abnormal operating conditions

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Stator faults
• The stator faults include
– Phase to earth faults – Phase to phase faults – Inter turn faults

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Stator faults – Effects
• Most faults occur in the stator windings, of which majority are earth faults. • Phase faults & inter faults are less common, these usually will be developed into earth faults. The effect of earth in the stator is twofold:
– Arcing to core which welds laminations together causing eddy current hot spots. On subsequent occurrence, repairs to this condition involve considerable expenditure of time and money. – Severe heating in the conductors damaging them & the insulation, with possible fire risks.
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Rotor faults - Effects
• Loss of excitation • Unbalanced three – phase faults

An unbalance in the air gap fluxes, leads to severe vibration of the rotor

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Protection of Turbo Alternator
• The generators being the most important and costliest equipment of a power system it is provided with a vast range of protection schemes as categorized below: • Unit protection can be classified into following three categories
– Class-A – Class-B – Class-C
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Class – A protection
• Turbine and Generator tripped simultaneously due to severity of the fault. • It covers all types of major electrical faults in the Generator, GT and UATs. • It causes over speed of the TG set. • Over speed is tolerated in view of the severity of the fault. • It is known as simultaneous trip
Turbine Trip Class-A Protection Generator Trip
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Faults : Class – A protection
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
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Negative Phase sequence relay (46 GB) RARIB Loss of excitation relay (40 G) RAGPC Generator stator earth fault relay RAGE A (64 GA) Generator stand by earth fault relay (64 GC) Low forward power relay (37 G) Reverse Power relay (32G) RXPE Generator differential relay (87G) GT restricted earth fault relay (87 NT) UAT – A differential relay (87 UAT-A) UAT – A differential relay (87 UAT-B) Overall differential relay (87-O) RADSB Back up impedance relay (21GB) Over flux relay, stage – II (99 GT) Pole slip relay, stage – II (98 G) Over current in UAT – A (51 UAT – A) Over current in UAT – B (51 UAT – B) Rotor Earth fault relay (7UR 22)
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Class – B protection
• • • • • • • No immediate danger or damage Turbine trips instantaneously Then the generator trips on low forward power relay interlock Back up is the reverse power relay Faults in UAT & GT which are not severe covered by this protection. No over speed in the TG set. It is also known as sequential trip.
Class-B Protection Turbine Trip Low Forward Power Relay Reverse Power Relay
2 sec

2 sec

Generator Trip

Reverse Power Relay
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20 sec
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Faults: Class – B protection
• • • • • • • • • • GT winding temperature high ( 49 GT-W-T) GT oil temperature high (49 GT – O-T) GT OLTC buchholz relay (63 GT) UAT- A winding temperature high (49 UAT A –W-T) UAT- B winding temperature high (49 UAT B –W-T) UAT-A oil temperature high (49 UAT- A– O-T) UAT-A oil temperature high (49 UAT –B- O-T) GT oil level low trip UAT - A oil level low trip UAT - B oil level low trip
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Class – C protection
• • • • Faults in the grid. Only 220 kV circuit breaker will be opened. TG set maintains house load operation Unit can be reconnected to the grid after isolating the fault.

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Faults: Class – C protection
• Negative phase sequence relay ( 46 A) • Back up impedance relay (21 GA) • GT over current relay ( 51 GT)

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Differential protection
• CTs are provided at each end of the generator winding which is to be protected.(as shown in fig.) • When there is no fault the differential current (I1-I2) through the relay is zero. So the relay will not operate. • When the fault occurs the balance is disturbed and differential current (I1-I2) flows through the operating coil of the relay causing relay operation and the trip circuit of the circuit breaker is closed.
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IMPORTANT FAULTS - ALTERNATOR
 Failure of prime mover(inverted running, reverse power relays)  Failure of field (field-failure relay)  Over current  Over speed  Over voltage  Over voltage  Unbalanced loading (due to phase & earth faults external to the alternator)  Stator winding faults
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Stator protection
Stator faults include the following: • Phase-to-earth faults • Phase-to-phase faults • Inter-turn faults From these phase faults and inter turn faults are less common , these usually develop into an earth faults. This causes • Arcing to core • Damage of conductor and insulation

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Differential protection of generator
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Biased differential protection
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Modified differential protection
• Generally protection is made for 80 to 85% of the winding. • If any fault occurs near the neutral point then the fault current is very small and relay does not operate. • Modified differential protection scheme is used to over come this. • Two phase elements (PC and PA) and balancing resistor(BR) is connected in star and the earth relay(ER) is connected between the star point and neutral pilot wire.
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Modified differential protection
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Restricted or balanced earth fault protection
• In case of small size generators star point is not available because it is made inside the generator and grounded through some low resistance then percentage differential relay for ground fault is provided and is known as restricted earth fault protection. • This scheme can be used only for ground faults but not for phase faults.
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Restricted or Balanced earth fault protection
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Stator inter-turn fault protection
• Inter-turn fault on the same phase of the stator winding cannot be detected by transverse differential protection as it does not disturb the balance between the currents in neutral and high voltage CTs. • For protection against inter-turn faults the following protection schemes are used.
– Cross differential protection. – Residual voltage protection.
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Cross differential protection
• Used in case of hydro-electric generator having double winding armature. • As shown in figure relay Rc provides protection against phase to ground and phase to phase fault. • The relay R1 provides protection against inter-turn faults.

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Rotor faults
• Faults in the rotor circuit may be either earth faults or between the turns of the field winding . • Field circuits are normally operated un-earthed. So a single earth fault will not affect its operation. • But when a second fault arises then field winding is short circuited and produce unsymmetrical field system which leads to unbalanced forces on rotor and results in excess pressure and bearing and shaft distortion.
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Rotor earth fault protection
• The rotor earth fault protection is done by “dc injection method or ac injection method”. • The dc or ac voltage is impressed between the field circuit and ground through a sensitive overvoltage relay and current limiting resistor or capacitor(in case of ac). • But dc source is generally used as over-current relay in case of dc is more sensitive than ac. • A single earth fault in rotor circuit will complete the path and the fault is sensed by the relay.
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Rotor earth fault protection
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Rotor temperature alarm
• It is provided in large generators. • It indicates the level of temperature but not the actual hot spot temperature. • The relay measures the temperature by measuring the resistance .(as shown in fig)
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Loss of excitation protection
When the excitation of generator is lost it operate as a Induction generator. It derives excitation from the system and supply power at leading power factor. Which may cause A fall in voltage & so loss of synchronism & system instability.  Over heating of rotor due to induction current on it. A protection having MHO characteristic is used to detect loss of field.

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Over voltage protection
• Overvoltage protection is required in case of hydro-electric or gas turbine generators but not in case of turbo generators. • Over voltage may be caused due to transient over voltage in the transmission line caused by lightning. • Defective operation of the voltage regulator. • Sudden loss of load due to line tripping.
The protection is provided with an over voltage relay. It is usually of induction pattern with an IDMT Characteristic
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Overload protection
• Overloading of the machine causes overheating in the stator winding. • This can be prevented by using over-current relay with time delay adjustment. • Overheating not only depends on over-current but also the failure of the cooling system in the generator. • So temperature detector coils such as thermistors or thermocouples are used at various points in stator winding for indication of the temperature.
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Reverse power protection
• When prime-mover fails machine starts motoring and draws electrical power from the system and this is known as inverted operation . • The generator can be protected from inverted operation by using single-element directional power relay(reverse power relay) which senses the direction of power flow.
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Negative phase sequence protection
• Unbalance may cause due to single phase fault or unbalanced loading and it gives rise to negative sequence current . • This current in rotor causes rotor overheating and damage to the rotor. • This can be protected by negative sequence current filter with over current relay.

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Negative phase sequence protection
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Negative Phase Sequence Relay

Current Through relay= Phasor sum of I1,I3 and Iy . I1 leads IR by 30° and I2lags IR by 30°. I4 leads IB by 30° and I3lags IB by 30°.

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PHASOR DIAGRAM– Positive Sequence

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PHASOR DIAGRAM– negative Sequence

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Automatic field suppression and use of neutral circuit breaker
• In case of a fault in the generator and though the circuit breaker is tripped, the fault continues to fed as long as excitation will exist because emf is induced in the generator itself. • Hence all protection system not only trip the generator circuit breaker but also trip the automatic field discharge switch.

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Automatic field suppression and use of natural circuit breaker
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A star-connected, 3-phase, 10-MVA, 6.6 kV alternator has a per phase reactance of 10%. It is protected by Merz-Price circulating-current principle which is set to operate for fault currents not less than 175 A. Calculate the value of earthing resistance to be provided in order to ensure that only 10% of the alternator winding remains unprotected. Solution: Let r be the earthing resistance in ohms that is required to leave 10% of the winding unprotected.
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6.6 ×103 Voltage per phase, V ph = = 3810 V 3
10 ×106 Full − load current, I = = 875 A 3 3 × 6.6 ×10
Let the reactance per phase be x ohms.

10 =

3 × x × 875 ×100 6600

or x = 0.436Ω
Reactance of 10% of winding

= 0.436 × 0.1 = 0.0436 Ω

E.M.F. induced in 10% winding =Vph X 0.1 = 3810 X 0.1 =381 V

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Impedance offered to fault by 10% winding is

Z f = (0.0436) 2 + r 2
Earth-fault current due to 10% winding

381 381 = = Zf (0.0436) 2 + r 2
Relay trips when fault current is 175 A Therefore 175

=

381 381 = Zf (0.0436) 2 + r 2

r = 2.171 Ω
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WHAT IS TRANSFORMER ?
The transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through the magnetic field without change of frequency.

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TYPES OF TRANSFORMER
• Based on service  Power transformer  Distribution transformer

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TYPES OF TRANSFORMER
• Based on application  Step up transformer.  Step down transformer. • Based on no. of phase  Single phase.  Three phase.

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TYPES OF TRANSFORMER
• Based on construction  Core type transformer  Shell type transformer

3 phase transformer

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Common transformer faults
 Open circuiting fault.  Over heating or overloading fault.  Winding short circuiting fault. (Earth faults, phase-to-phase faults & inter-turn faults)  Faults due to lightning.

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EFFECTS OF SEVERE FAULTS ON TRANSFORMERS
Among the various faults occurring in a transformer, winding insulation failure or short circuit & faults due to lightning are the most severe one. Because when this kind of faults occur great amount of heat gets generated in a very short time of interval. This may even burn out the insulating oil creating hazardous fire.

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TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
 Buchholz Relay – Protection against incipient faults. (Winding insulation failure, core heating, fall of oil level due to leaky joints etc.,)  Earth fault Relay – Protection exclusively for earth faults.  Over current Relay – Protection against phase-to-phase faults and overloading.  Differential Relay – Protection against winding short circuit faults.
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BUCHHOLZ RELAY
It is a gas-actuated relay installed in oil immersed transformer. It is usually installed in a pipe connecting the conservator to the main tank.

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CONSTRUCTION
The devices has 2 elements. The upper element contains a mercuric type switch attached to a float & closing an alarm circuit during an incipient fault. The lower element also consists a mercuric type switch mounted on a hinge type flap and operates the trip circuit during severe fault.
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Buchholz Relay
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Construction – External view

Buchholz Relay

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Construction – Internal view

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Merits and demerits
• It is the simplest form of transformer protection. • It detects the incipient faults at a stage much earlier than is possible with other forms of protection. • It can only be used with oil immersed transformers equipped with conservator tanks. • The device can detect only faults below oil level in the transformer. Therefore, separate protection is needed for connecting cables.
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EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
• An earth fault usually involves a partial breakdown of winding insulation to earth. • Under this circumstance it is profitable to employ an earth fault relay. • One method of protections is core balance protection.

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Core Leakage Protection

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COMBINED LEAKGE & OVERLOAD PROTECTION
 The core balance protection suffers from the drawback that it can not provide protection against overload. If a leakage occurs between phases the core balance relay will not operate. It is usual practice to provide combined leakage &overload protection.  The earth fault relay has low current setting & operates under earth fault only. The overload relay has higher current setting & operates under fault between the phases.
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SCHEMETIC ARRENGMENT

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DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
Merz Price circulating current principle is commonly used for protection of power transformers against earth and phase faults. The system as applied to transformers is fundamentally the same as that of generators but with certain complicating features.

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Complications ‒ transformer differential protection
• In a power transformer, the currents in primary and secondary are to be compared. • As these two currents are usually different, the use of identical transformers will give differential current and operate the relay even under no load conditions. • The difference in magnitude of currents in primary and secondary of power transformers is compensated by different turns ratios of C.T.s. • If T is the turn’s ratio of power transformer, then the turns ration of C.T.s on lv side is made T times the turn’s ration of the C.T.s on hv side. • When this condition is fulfilled the secondaries of the two C.T.s will carry same current under normal conditions. And thus no current will flow through the relay and it remains inoperative.

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Complications ‒ transformer differential protection
• There is usually a phase difference between the primary and secondary currents of a 3-phase power transformer. • Even if C.T.s of proper transformation ratios are used, a differential current will flow through the relay under normal condition and cause relay operation. • The correction for phase difference is effected by appropriate connections of C.T.s. The C.T.s on one side of the power transformer are connected in such a way that the resultant current fed into the pilot wires are displaced in phase from the individual phase currents in the same direction as, and by an angle equal to, the phase shift between the power transformers primary and secondary currents

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Contd.
S.No. Power transformer Connections Primary 1 2 3 4 Secondary Current transformer Connections Primary Delta Star Secondary Star Star Delta Delta

Star with Delta neutral earthed Delta Star Delta Delta

Star with Delta neutral earthed Star with Star neutral earthed

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Complications ‒ transformer differential protection
• Most of the transformers have means for tap changing. • This will cause differential current to flow through the relay even under normal operating conditions.
This difficulty is overcome by adjusting the turn-ratio of CTs on the side of the power transformers provided with taps.
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Complications ‒ transformer differential protection
• Another complicating factor in transformer protection is the magnetizing in-rush current. • Under normal operating load conditions, the magnetizing current is very small. • However, when a transformer is energized after it has been taken out of service, the magnetizing current can be extremely high for short period. • Since magnetizing current represents a current going into the transformer without a corresponding current leaving, it appears as a fault current to differential relay and may cause relay operation.
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SCHEMATIC ARRENGEMENT

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HARMONIC RESTRAINT RELAY

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LIGHTNING EFFECT ON TRANSFORMER
Direct or indirect lightning stroke on a transmission line produces steeped fronted voltage wave on the line which is in magnitude up to 2000 kV, which may shatter the insulators & inducing excessive pressure may even breakdown the transformer winding. In most severe case it may burn the transformer.

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PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTENING
It is necessary to provide protection for transformer against transient & surges. The most commonly used devices for protection against lightning surges are: – Earthing screen – Overhead ground wires – Lightning arrestor

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BUSBAR
• It is a conductor or an assembly

of conductors for collecting electric currents and distributing them to outgoing feeders. •Bus bars are typically either flat strips or hollow tubes as these shapes allow heat to dissipate more efficiently due to their high surface area to crosssectional area ratio.

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Types of protection
• The occurrence of bus bar faults is very rare due to high standard of construction. • However, the extent of damage is high even for a rare fault. • Hence more attention is given for this form of protection.

The two most commonly used form of bus bar protection are: –Differential protection. –Fault bus protection.

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Differential Protection

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FEEDER PROTECTION
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What is a Feeder?
• Overhead lines or cables which are used to distribute
the load to the customers. They interconnect the distribution substations.

• This is an electrical supply line, either overhead or underground, which runs from the substation, through various paths, ending with the transformers.

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Types of feeders
• Radial feeder • Parallel feeder • Ring main feeder

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Types of protection
• Time-graded over current protection. • Differential protection.  Voltage differential.  Translay Scheme. • Distance protection.  3-Zone protection.  Carrier current protection.
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REQUIREMENTS OF LINE PROTECTION 1. In the event of short circuit, the circuit breaker nearest to fault should open and all other circuit breakers remain in closed position. 1. If the circuit breaker near to fault fails to trip, back up protection should be provided by the adjacent circuit breaker. 2. The relay operating time should be the smallest possible in order to preserve system stability without unnecessary tripping of circuits.
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Time-Graded Over Current protection(Definite-Time)

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Time-Graded Over Current protection(Inverse-Time)

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Parallel Feeder

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Ring Main Feeder

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TRANSMISSSION LINE PROTECTION

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Differential Pilot Wire protection

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Translay Scheme – Summation Transformer

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Translay Scheme

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DISTANCE PROTECTION

BASIC PRINCIPLE OPERATION OF IMPEDANCE RELAY
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Three stepped distance protection
• Zone 1
First step of distance protection is set to reach up to 80 to 90% of the length of the line section. This is instantaneous protection i.e. there is no intentional time delay.

• Zone 2
Second zone is required in order to provide primary protection to the remaining 10 to 20% of the line and a cover up to 50% of the next line section. The operating time of this zone is delayed so as to be selective with zone 1.

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Three stepped distance protection
• Zone 3
The third zone is provided with an intention to give full back up to adjoining line section. It covers the line of the section, 100% of the next line section and reaches farther into the system. The motivation behind the extended reach of this step is to provide full back up to the next line section. Its operating time is slightly more than that of zone 2.

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Three stepped distance protection

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Carrier Current Protection

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THANK YOU

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