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# DISCUSSION In the project 2, I have to determine the temperature distribution of a pipe radially from the center of the metal

pipe, where the hot fluid is flowing in it. Based on the differential equation of the temperature distribution of the metal wall, i used the finite different method to find the solution. I had divided into 2 sets of the node which the r was 0.5cm and 0.2cm. From the finite differences method, I gain the equations of the temperature distribution and then I solved it by using the Gauss-Seidel method. I used the Gauss-Seidel method because it is easy way to solve the equation. Furthermore, the method has better accuracy compare to the other method. For the r is 0.5cm, I got nine nodes in between radius of 5cm to 10cm. The table 1 shows that the iterations of the solutions. After 130 th iterations, I got the result of the temperature and put it in the table 2 and the graph of temperature versus radius has been plotted in graph 1. From the graph, the highest temperature is at the 1 st node that is 434.02 C. This is because it is close to the hot fluid. The lowest is at 9 th node which is 55.53C. This is because it is furthest of the hot fluid. The graph 1 showed second order polynomial relationship, with negative gradient. That showed that the temperature is decrease as the distance increase. In order to find the true value of the temperature distribution, I also solve the differential equation mathematically. Then I find the total error for each node. The total errors of the values are approximately small because the Gauss-Seidel method has high accuracy. The highest error is 0.0015% and the smallest is 0.00%. The same step also applied for the r is 0.2cm. I got 24 nodes in between 5 cm to 10 cm. by using the finite differences method, I got 24 equations then solved by using the Gauss-Seidel method. The table 3 show the iteration of the solutions. After 453th iterations, I got the temperature at each node and tabled in table 4. The graph of the temperature versus radius was plotted in graph 2. From the graph, it shows that the relationship temperature distribution is a second order polynomial with negative gradient. That shows the temperature decrease as the distance is increase. The highest temperature is at 1 st node, which is 472.84C and the smallest value is at 24th node that is 33.99C. The true

values are determined mathematically and the total error is small. From the table 4, the highest error is 0.018% and the smallest error is 0.001%. I also compare the result that obtained for r=0.5cm and r=0.2cm. I had picked the result that has same distance from the center and there are 4 nodes that have the same radius. The result is in the table 5 below:

## Table 5:comparation of result for same radius

Radius,(cm) 6 7 8 9

r=0.5cm Temperature,(C) Total error (%) 373.77 0.008 267.03 0.013 174.55 0.015 92.98 0.014

r=0.2cm Temperature(C) Total error (%) 373.73 0.001 267.00 0.011 174.50 0.016 92.95 0.018

From the table 5, the error of the situation where r is 0.2cm is smaller than the data for r is 0.5cm. Actually, the value r is the step size of the finite difference equations. As we know the finite differences method is come from the Taylor series of expansion. In the Taylor series, the value of error can be reduced if the step size used is small. The solution that I got is come from the Gauss-Seidel method. The Gauss-Seidel method is not good for big matrices because it need more time and iteration to converge to the true value. So the error can be decrease by using more iteration for the Gauss-Seidel method. CONCLUSION There are several conclusions that I got for the project. Firstly, the finite difference method is a high accuracy method to solve the differential equation. The method is not only for the heat transfer investigation but also acceptable in other engineering problem. Secondly, the error of the finite differences method can be reducing by reducing the step size. Lastly, the Gauss-Seidel method can become more accurate if the iteration is increase.