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1 What is GPRS ?

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VT ZZA Ed.10

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? Session presentation

Objective: to be able to identify the technical


and commercial benefit of GPRS.

Program:
l 1.1 Definition l 1.2 General architecture l 1.3 MS Class l 1.4 MS Multislot Class l 1.5 GPRS Main Concepts l 1.6 GPRS Benefits l 1.7 EGPRS l 1.8 Quality of Service profile l 1.9 Services
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Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? 1.1 Definition

Definition (3GPP TS 22.060) l GPRS provides data transfer capabilities between a sending entity and one or more receiving entities. l These entities may be an MS or a Terminal Equipment, the latter being attached either to a GPRS network or to an external data network. l The base station provides radio channel access for MSs to the GPRS network.

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PDN (Packet Data Network) l IP networks = Internet (connectionless)

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? 1.2 General architecture

NSS

PSTN

BSS GPRS
Gb Core Network IP Gi

PDN
IP / PPP

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GPRS Core Network The GPRS Core Network is also called GSS (GPRS Sub-System). It is an IP network, and therefore contains routers (machines handling the packet switching function.) Routing Function Data transmission between GPRS Support Node (GSN), may occur across external data networks that provide their own internal routing functions, for example X.25 [34], Frame Relay or ATM networks. IP interworking The GPRS Core Network supports interworking with networks based on the Internet protocol (IP). The GPRS Core Network may provide compression of the TCP/IP header when an IP datagram is used within the context of a TCP connection. X.25 X.25 PDP Type have been removed from the standard since R99.

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? 1.3 MS Class

Class A l Operates GPRS and other GSM services simultaneously. Class B l Monitors control channels for GSM GPRS and other GSM services simultaneously, l but can only operate one set of services at one time. Class C l Exclusively operates GPRS services.

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Classes A and B Require dual scanning by the mobile for both GSM and GPRS service requests. Class A or B mobiles are "attached" simultaneously to both networks. Class B The exchange of packets is suspended to answer to an incoming GSM call (the GPRS subscriber is considered to be in the "busy" or on hold" state). The PDP contexts are still active on the SGSN side until the Purge_Timer elapses. Class C Exclusively operates GPRS services.

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1.1 Service overview 1.4 MS multislot class


Multi-slot class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 to 29 like 10 Type 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 Rx 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 x Tx 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 x Sum 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 6
MS type l Type 1 are simplex MS, i.e. without duplexer: they are not able to transmit and receive at the same time l Type 2 are duplex MS, i.e. with duplexer: they are able to transmit and receive at the same time Rx l Maximum number of received timeslots that the MS can use per TDMA frame. The receive TS shall be allocated within window of size Rx, but they need not be contiguous. For SIMPLEX MS, no transmit TS shall occur between receive TS within a TDMA frame. This does not take into account measurement window (Mx). Tx l Maximum number of transmitted timeslots that the MS can use per TDMA frame. The transmit TS shall be allocated within window of size Tx, but they need not be contiguous. For SIMPLEX MS, no receive TS shall occur between transmit TS within a TDMA frame. SUM l Maximum number of transmit and receive timeslot (without Mx) per TDMA frame Meaning of Ttb, Tra et Trb changes regarding MS types. l For SIMPLEX MS (type 1): Ttb Minimum time (in timeslot) necessary between Rx and Tx windows Tra Minimum time between the last Tx window and the first Rx window of next TDMA in order to be able to open a measurement window Trb same as Tra without opening a measurement window l For DUPLEX MS (type 2): Ttb Minimum time necessary between 2 Tx windows belonging to different frames Tra Minimum time necessary between 2 Rx windows belonging to different frames in order to be able to open a measurement window Trb same as Tra without opening a measurement window

Ttb 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

Tra 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 0

Trb 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? 1.5 GPRS Main Concepts (1/4)

Use of radio resources in case of circuit switching


Radio interface Access node CS <->PS

Radio timeslot

GSM network CS

PDN PS

Fixed bit rate (9.6 kb/s)


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Drawbacks of CS for data services l one radio channel at 9.6 kbit/s per user l fixed bit rate => waste (in the case of discontinuous service) and limitation on bit rate

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? 1.5 GPRS Main Concepts (2/4)

Use of radio resources in case of packet switching


Radio interface

Radio timeslot

GPRS network PS

PDN PS

Variable bit rate


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Benefits of Packet Switching l Variable bit rate becomes possible l One MS uses several RTSs. The maximum number of RTSs is given by the Operator (O&M parameters) and MS capabilities (MS multislot class) l One RTS is shared by several MSs. The maximum number of MSs per RTS is given by the Operator (O&M parameters) and 3GPP specifications (limitation due to addressing availability)

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? 1.5 GPRS Main Concepts (3/4)

Radio resource assigned according to requirement l Radio resource shared between users l Various radio channel coding schemes are specified to allow bit rates from 9 to more than 150 kb/s per user l High bit rates if several channels are assigned to one MS l Low bit rates if one channel is shared by several MSs. Optimized use of the radio resource l Use of the radio resources only when data is transferred l Uplink and downlink resources reserved separately

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Radio resource sharing The radio resources are shared by statistical multiplexing. As in GSM, no subscriber has their own permanent radio resource. Bit rate Maximum instantaneous bit rate provides 171,2 kb/s by the allocation of eight RTSs to one subscriber. The stated maximum bit rates are different, because different coding schemes are used, which impacts the bit rate over a RTS. (see Annex) Up link (UL) and downlink (DL) It is possible to use a different bit rates in each transmission direction, whereas in CS (Circuit Switching) mode, there is a maximum limit of 9.6 kb/s, in both directions and at all times.

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? 1.5 GPRS Main Concepts (4/4)

Dynamic allocation and sharing of radio resources

GPRS network
Radio timeslot Radio Block

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Caution: Animated slide that does not make sense if not in the slide-show mode. Optimized use A radio resource (set of Radio Blocks over one or several RTS) is allocated only when data is being transferred, by establishing and releasing Temporary Block Flow (TBF), that can be presented as micro-connections, each time a data transfer has to be sent over the radio interface. Radio resource sharing One TS can be shared by several MSs, by dynamic time multiplexing under control of the BSS.

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? 1.6 The benefits of GPRS

GPRS benefits l BSS hardware (included OMC-R) is re-used from GSM l Smooth GPRS introduction l Higher data throughput thanks to EGPRS (EDGE) l Data transfers can billed by volume instead of time l An MS can exchange data by GPRS in parallel with a conventional GSM call (if MS Class A)

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BSS is re-used The same Radio Access Network is re-used, and a Packet Control Unit (PCU) function is implemented in the BSS. Compared to the GSM BSS l same frequency bands l same TDMA frame structure l same burst structure l same frequency hopping laws l ...

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? 1.7 EGPRS

EGPRS is an enhancement of GPRS l allows higher bit rates on the radio interface l achieved by using a new modulation (8-PSK) and new coding schemes (MCS-1 to MCS-9) in the MS and the BSS. The same set of services provided by GPRS is available in EGPRS.

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Shared = in other words: "the radio resources are shared by statistical multiplexing". As in GSM, no subscriber has their own permanent radio resource. High or low bit rates = more than one time slot per MS or conversely, more than MS on the same TS (one TDMA frame occupies 4.615 ms and is divided into 8 TS or channels). Maximum instantaneous bit rate provided = 171,2 kbps through the allocation of eight TSs to one subscriber. The stated maximum bit rates are different (according to the BSS release), because different ways of encoding the data, or "coding schemes", are used, which impacts the bit rate over a TS. (cf Annex) Optimized use:refer to Radio resource allocation in the slides to come + radio resource management in the BSS Chapter.The radio resource allocation is suitable for variable, bursty traffic (downloading Web pages). Up link (UL) and downlink (DL): It is possible to use a different bandwidth (bit rate) in each transmission direction, whereas in CS (circuit switching) mode, there is a maximum limit of 9,6 kbps, in both directions and at all times. QoS: Henceforth, QoS parameters are part of subscription data, according to the wide range of services provided to a subscriber.

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? 1.8 Quality of service profile

9 classes 19 classes 5 classes 4 classes 3 classes

Peak throughput Class


the maximum data rate allowed to the user

Mean throughput Class


maximum data rate during a period

Throughput class

Reliability Class
acknowledgement of packets

Delay Class
total delay measured between R or S point and Gi

Precedence Class
relative importance of service under congestion

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Precedence class According to the class, user data packet can be discarded during the transfer due to a congestion state. 3 classes are defined : any, normal, high Delay class The delay class depends on the operator network because a measurement is done between the R or S interface (between the Mobile Terminal and the Terminal Equipment) and the Gi interface. For each operator, delay values are different so delay classes are a reference not a strict value. 4 classes are defined : best effort, 1, 2, 3 Reliability class The reliability means that user data packets are acknwoledged during the transfer. The reliability classes are defined according to the acknowledgement or not of the packet. 5 classes are defined Throughput class The throughput class is defined by the 2 following parameters: l Mean Throughput : 9 classes are defined (from best effort to 111 Kb/s) l Peak Throughput : 19 classes are defined (from 8 Kb/s to 2048 Kb/s)

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? 1.9 Services


Always-on
Directories Mobile Office
Voice (!) E-mail Agenda IntraNet/InterNet Corporate Applications Database Access Yellow/White Pages International Directories Operator Services

Media

Fun

Games (Hangman, Poker, ) Screen Saver Ring Tone Horoscope Biorhythm

Music Transportation
Flight/train Schedule reservation

News (general/specific)

Downloading of music files or video clips

Vertical application
Traffic Management Automation Mobile branches Health

International/National News Local News Sport News Weather Lottery Results Finance News

Location services

Traffic Conditions Itineraries Nearest Restaurant, Cinema, Chemist, Parking;, ATM ...

M-commerce
Non physical
on-line Banking Ticketing Auction Gambling.

Physical

on-line shopping on-line food

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Retrieval services Provide the capability of accessing information stored in data base centers. The information is sent to the user on demand only. An example of one such service in the Internet's World Wide Web (WWW). Messaging services Offer user-to-user communication between individual users via storage units with store-and-forward mailbox, and/or message handling (e.g., information editing, processing and conversion) functions; Conversational services Provide bi-directional communication by means of real-time (no store-and-forward) end-to-end information transfer from user to user. An example of such a service is the Internet's Telnet application; Tele-action services Characterized by low data-volume (short) transactions, for example credit card validations, lottery transactions, utility meter readings and electronic monitoring and surveillance systems. Distribution services Characterized by the unidirectional flow of information from a given point in the network to other (multiple) locations. Examples may include news, weather and traffic reports, as well as product or service advertisements; Dispatching services Characterized by the bi-directional flow of information from a given point in the network (dispatcher) and other (multiple) users. Examples include taxi and public utility fleet services; Conferencing services Provide multi-directional communication by means of real-time (no store-and-forward) information transfer between multiple users.

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? Exercise

True or False ?

variable bit rates With a class B mobile, a web page can be downloaded while speaking Billing by volume allows subscribers to be permanently on line Time allowed : Several channels can be assigned to a MS One channel is shared by several MSs 5 minutes
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GPRS is a circuit switching technology The GSS is an IP network Data transfers are often conducted at

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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1 What is GPRS ? Evaluation

Objective : to be able to identify the technical and commercial benefit of GPRS

Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet

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Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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GPRS Operation

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VT ZZA Ed.10

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Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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2 GPRS Operation Session presentation

Objective: to be able to describe the organization of a


GPRS network architecture, interfaces and protocols.

Program:
l 2.1 Main Entities l 2.2 MS Mobility Management States l 2.3 MS Radio Resource Operating Modes l 2.4 Basic Procedures l 2.5 Charging l 2.6 Security

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Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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2 GPRS Operation 2.1 Main Entities

Overview
BSS with PCU

NSS MSC/VLR PSTN HLR

GPRS Core Network SGSN GPRS IP Backbone GGSN


MS

Internet

DNS DHCP NTP

BG

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PCU functions l LLC PDU segmentation / re-assembly into RLC/MAC PDU l PDCH scheduling (resource multiplexing) l Channel access control (access requests and grants) l ARQ function (RLC block Ack / Nak, buffering and retransmission of RLC blocks) l Radio channel management (power control, congestion control, broadcast control information). DNS (Domain Name Server) and DHCP (Dynamic Host Convergence Protocol) NTP server (Network Time Protocol) for GSN synchronization. In general an NTP application does not run on a dedicated server. The OMC-G can play this role. HLR (Home Location Register) is involved in MS attachment to the GPRS network (authentication + services subscribed to)

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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2 GPRS Operation 2.1 Main Entities

SGSN and GGSN


PLMN GSS IP network 1

SGSN1
BSS1 IP backbone GGSN1

IP network 2

IP network 3 GGSN2 IP network 4

BSS2

SGSN2

IP network 5 GGSN3
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The SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) stores subscriber data: l Subscription information IMSI one or more temporary identities (P-TMSI) zero or more PDP addresses l Location information the cell or the RA where the MS is registered the VLR number of the associated VLR (if the Gs interface is implemented) the GGSN address of each GGSN for which an active PDP context exists It also manages: l the transfer and routing of user data packets from the GSS towards the BSS l the mobility (GPRS attach/detach, data retrieval from the HLR, RA / Cell update) l the authentication and encryption (Access control and security) l the sessions (PDP context activation/deactivation) l The transfer of charging data. The GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) stores subscriber data received from the HLR and the SGSN: l Subscription information IMSI zero or more PDP addresses l Location information the SGSN address of the SGSN where the MS is registered It also manages: l the allocation and use of dynamic @IP for MS, l the tunneling and encryption of user data at Gi interface, l the transfer of user data packets, l the charging data.

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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2 GPRS Operation 2.1 Main Entities

Servers
SGSN

GPRS IP Backbone
GGSN

DNS

Name IP address

DHCP
IP address

NTP

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DNS l l DHCP l Provide dynamically IP addresses l Split Users into pool of IP addresses NTP l Provide one time reference for all the network l Have a very precise time reference l Synchronization from satellite Resolve a name into an IP address Use in Mobility procedure

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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2 GPRS Operation 2.1 Main Entities

Border gateway
SGSN MS BG Inter-PLMN network BG GGSN SGSN HPLMN IP backbone PDN VPLMN IP backbone GGSN

VPLMN

HPLMN
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Border Gateway functions l Inter-PLMN routing and forwarding of user packets (IP router) l Security functions (firewall, access-list filtering)

Connection of two Border Gateways Via a private or public IP network, through the Gp interface. Choice of GGSN If a subscriber wants to access an Intranet (PDN) in his home country, from the visited PLMN, the selected GGSN is the one from the home PLMN For Internet access a GGSN in the visited country could be used.

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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2 GPRS Operation 2.1 Main Entities

Interfaces
Um Mobile GPRS BSS A Gs MSC HLR Gd SMSGMSC

Gb

Gr Gc

SGSN Gn Signaling + data Signaling SGSN GGSN Gi

PDN

GPRS network

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Signaling protocols l MAP/TCAP/SCCP/MTP on Gr, Gd and Gc, l GTP/UDP/IP on Gn, l BSSAP+/SCCP/MTP on Gs, l GMM/SM/LLC on Gb/Um. Gc interface Used for network-requested PDP contexts activation (GGSN asks the HLR for SGSN routing information). Gs interface Defines the Network Mode of Operation I (NMOI). It allows to perform LA + RA combined Location Update, and PS and CS paging coordination (refer to ANNEX). Gr interface Exchange of subscription information at GPRS attachment phase Additional interfaces l Gf (to the EIR) l Gd to deliver the SMS to the mobiles via the GPRS network (SGSN option and subscriber feature)

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2 GPRS Operation 2.2 MS Mobility Management States

MS MM states Stand-by
READY timer expiry

PDU transmission

Ready
GPRS Attach

GPRS Detach

Idle

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IDLE (GPRS) State In GPRS IDLE state, the subscriber is not attached to GPRS mobility management. The MS and SGSN contexts hold no valid location or routeing information for the subscriber. The subscriber-related mobility management procedures are not performed. Data transmission to and from the mobile subscriber and the paging of the subscriber is not possible. The GPRS MS is seen as not reachable in this case. In order to establish MM contexts in the MS and the SGSN, the MS shall perform the GPRS Attach procedure. STANDBY State In STANDBY state, the subscriber is attached to GPRS mobility management. Pages for data or signalling information transfers may be received. It is also possible to receive pages for the CS services via the SGSN. Data reception and transmission are not possible in this state. The MS performs GPRS Routeing Area (RA) and GPRS cell selection and re-selection locally. The MS executes mobility management procedures to inform the SGSN when it has entered a new RA. The MS does not inform the SGSN on a change of cell in the same RA. Therefore, the location information in the SGSN MM context contains only the GPRS RAI for MSs in STANDBY state. The MS may initiate activation or deactivation of PDP contexts while in STANDBY state. A PDP context shall be activated before data can be transmitted or received for this PDP context. READY State In READY state, the SGSN MM context corresponds to the STANDBY MM context extended by location information for the subscriber on the cell level. The MS performs mobility management procedures to provide the network with the actual selected cell. GPRS cell selection and re-selection is done locally by the MS, or may optionally be controlled by the network. An identifier of the cell, the Cell Global Identity including RAC and LAC, is included in the BSSGP header of the data packet from the MS; see GSM 08.18 [21]. The MS may send and receive PDP PDUs in this state. The network initiates no GPRS pages for an MS in READY state. Pages for other services may be done via the SGSN. The SGSN transfers downlink data to the BSS responsible for the subscriber's actual GPRS cell. The MS may activate or deactivate PDP contexts while in READY state.

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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2 GPRS Operation 2.3 MS Radio Resource Operating Modes

MS RR operating modes vs MS MM states

RR MM

Packet transfer mode Ready

Packet idle mode

Packet idle mode Standby

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Packet idle mode In packet idle mode no Temporary Block Flow. Upper layers can require the transfer of a LLC PDU which, implicitly, may trigger the establishment of TBF and transition to packet transfer mode. While operating in packet idle mode, a mobile station belonging to GPRS MS class A may simultaneously enter the different RR service modes. A mobile station belonging to either of GPRS MS class B or C leaves both packet idle mode and packet transfer modes before entering dedicated mode, group receive mode or group transmit mode. Packet transfer mode In packet transfer mode, the mobile station is allocated radio resource providing a Temporary Block Flow on one or more physical channels. Continuous transfer of one or more LLC PDUs is possible. Concurrent TBFs may be established in opposite directions. Transfer of LLC PDUs in RLC acknowledged or RLC unacknowledged mode is provided. When selecting a new cell, mobile station leaves the packet transfer mode, enters the packet idle mode where it switches to the new cell, read the system information and may then resume to packet transfer mode in the new cell. While operating in packet transfer mode, a mobile station belonging to GPRS MS class A may simultaneously enter the different RR service modes. A mobile station belonging to either of GPRS MS class B or C leaves both packet idle mode and packet transfer modes before entering dedicated mode, group receive mode or group transmit mode.

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

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2 GPRS operation 2.4 Basic procedures

IP overview
http ftp smtp wap http ftp smtp wap

gtp
tcp 1

Routers
ip ip ip ip

tcp

ip

SGSN

IP network
GGSN

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2 GPRS Operation 2.4 Basic Procedures

MS high protocol layers


GMM/SM SMS IP
NSAPIi

SNDCP

NSAPI

TLLI

LLC

TLLI

NSAPI

Radio layers

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SNDCP (Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol) Data compression, segmentation of large packets, recognition of PDP-PDU sessions (according to their NSAPI), inclusion of QoS (use of SAPIs on the LLC link). NSAPI (Network Service Access Point Identifier) This is used for a particular MS to distinguish different PDP contexts (= sessions) l by the PDP-type: X.25 or IP, or mainly by l the APN to be reached, or by l the required QoS. LLC (Logical Link Control) Provides a safe link, encrypted and independent of the physical bearer, independent to BSS brand. TLLI (Temporary Logical Link Identity) Identifies a logical link with the MS (one TLLI per MS) GMM/SM (GPRS Mobility Management / Session Management) MS-SGSN signaling protocol for Gprs Mobility Management/ Session Management SMS (Short Message Service)

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2 GPRS Operation 2.4 Basic Procedures

Transmission plane
Application

Application IP IP IP

relay
SNDCP LLC RLC MAC Physical Layer MS RLC MAC
SNDCP

GTP UDP IP L2 Physical Layer

GTP UDP IP L2 Physical Layer Physical Layer L2 (MAC)

relay
(BSSGP) Frame relay

LLC (BSSGP) Frame relay Physical Layer

Physical Physical Layer Layer

Um

BSS (with PCU)

Gb

SGSN

Gn

GGSN

Gi

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GTP (GPRS Tunnelling Protocol) tunnels user data between GPRS Support Nodes in the backbone network. The GPRS Tunnelling Protocol shall encapsulate all PDP PDUs. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) carries GTP PDUs for protocols that do not need a reliable data link (e.g., IP), and provides protection against corrupted GTP PDUs. IP (Internet Protocol) is the backbone network protocol used for routing user data and control signalling. The backbone network may initially be based on the IPv4. Ultimately, IPv6 shall be used. SNDCP (SubNetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol ) maps network-level characteristics onto the characteristics of the underlying network. LLC (Logical Link Control) provides a highly reliable ciphered logical link. LLC shall be independent of the underlying radio interface protocols in order to allow introduction of alternative GPRS radio solutions with minimum changes to the NSS. Relay. In the BSS, this function relays LLC PDUs between the Um and Gb interfaces. In the SGSN, this function relays PDP PDUs between the Gb and Gn interfaces. BSSGP (Base Station System GPRS Protocol) conveys routing and QoS-related information between the BSS and the SGSN. BSSGP does not perform error correction. (NS) Network Service transports BSSGP PDUs. NS is based on the Frame Relay connection between the BSS and the SGSN, and may - multi-hop and traverse a network of Frame Relay switching nodes. RLC/MAC (Radio Link Control / Medium Access Control). The Radio Link Control function provides a radio-solutiondependent reliable link. The Medium Access Control function controls the access signalling (request and grant) procedures for the radio channel, and the mapping of LLC frames onto the GSM physical channel.

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2 GPRS Operation 2.4 Basic Procedures

HLR GPRS data


For each MS NMC-NSS IMSI MSISDN network access mode : GPRS | NSS
| both

subscribed PDP contexts (maximum of n) : MS

HLR
n times

PDP type : IP | PPP [PDP address (IP@) ] Access point name (APN) or * (= wild card) APN accessible through FPLMN-GGSN ? QoS profile

HPLMN

etc ...

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PDP address Almost always empty. The network then dynamically assigns (using a DHCP server) an IP address to the subscriber when he activates his PDP context (seen later). PDP contexts Each PDP context can be considered as a BS (basic service = telephony, fax, etc). A PDP context is a dialog session with an external IP network, identified with an APN. It is not always mandatory to subscribe (in the HLR) to PDP contexts, access to some networks is free. For a user, the traffic of his different sessions will be recognized in the messages by the use of different NSAPIs. A user can declare one of his PDP contexts as the default. APN (Access Point Name) The APN represents an IP network. An APN has two parts: the APN-Network Id (example: wanadoo.fr) and the APN-oper Id (example: mnc...gprs) l Examples of APN: wanadoo.fr.mnc001.mcc208.gprs, l APN = * (wildcard) potentially authorizes the MS to activate any APN. Valid APN Boolean, if YES, indicates that this APN can be reached through the GGSN of the visited FPLMN.

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2 GPRS Operation 2.4 Basic Procedures

GPRS attachment
Authent_info_respq) Authent_info_req() Attach-Request (IMSI) MS_authentication_procedure Attach_resp (P_TMSI) Attach_complete ()
BSS

HLR

Update_loc_ack()

Insert_subs_data() Update_loc_req()

SS7 network

PLMN

SGSN

GPRS IP backbone

GGSN

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Attach Request. l The attach_request message is placed in an LLC frame. l The MS sends its IMSI. Authentication The SGSN gets the authentication triplets from the HLR: l triplets request message l triplets response message The SGSN performs the authentication procedure with the MS: l triplets request message l triplets response message Location Update The SGSN performs the location_update procedure with the HLR: l location_update request message l the HLR transfers the MS_subscription data to the SGSN l the HLR terminates the location_update procedure Attach Complete The SGSN terminates the attach_procedure with the MS : l attach_accept message (with a new P_TMSI allocation) l attach_complete message (since a new P_TMSI has been allocated)

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2 GPRS Operation 2.4 Basic Procedures

GPRS attachment
after a GPRS_Attach procedure

SGSN1

TLLI1
GPRS IP backbone

GGSN1

PDN1

SGSN2

GPRS - CN LLC layer

GGSN2

PDN2

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Attached MS After running the attach procedure, the MS is GPRS_attached: l a logical connection is established between the MS and the SGSN l connection established between the peer LLC layers in the MS and the SGSN l this connection is identified by the TLLI (Temporary Logical Link Identity) l this logical connection remains established until the MS detaches l the MS can now access to GPRS services and is reachable for GPRS services

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2- GPRS Operation 2.4 Basic procedures

PDP context activation


DNS
DHCP

2 PLMN Activate_PDP_req (PDN2)

SGSN GPRS backbone

GGSN1

PDN1

TLLI1 Activate_PDP_resp(@IP_MS)

GGSN2
BSS Create_PDP_req (PDN2) 3 5 Create_PDP_resp (@IP_MS) GPRS Core Network

PDN2

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MS IP address In case of IP PDP_type access with no additional mobile authentication procedure, the MS IP address is provided by the PLMN, using either the subscription data, or the backbone DHCP server. No additional user authentication is needed on top of the GPRS authentication mechanisms (i.e. using IMSI and authentication triplets) PDP Context Activation l MS requests for a PDP_context activation, providing the name of target Packet Data Network (PDN2 parameter). l SGSN queries the backbone Name Server (here DNS) to identify the GGSN giving access to the Data Network PDN2 (here GGSN2). l SGSN sends a Create_PDP message to the corresponding GGSN2, in order to setup a GTP tunnel. l GGSN2 allocates an IP address to the MS (@IP_MS), using the backbone DHCP server. l GGSN2 acknowledges the Create_PDP message to the SGSN, returning the @IP_MS allocated to the MS. l SGSN acknowledges the Activate_PDP message to the MS, with the allocated @IP_MS.

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2 GPRS Operation 2.4 Basic Procedures

PDP context activation


DNS

Authentication and accounting

RADIUS
2 PLMN Activate_PDP_req (PDN1)

SGSN GPRS backbone

GGSN1
4

PDN1 Intranet/ISP

TLLI1 Activate_PDP_resp(@IP_MS)

GGSN2
BSS Create_PDP_req (PDN1) 3 6 Create_PDP_resp (@IP_MS)
Address allocation

DHCP

GPRS Core Network

33
MS address IP PDP_type access with mobile authentication via a RADIUS. The address allocation server (i.e. DHCP) and/or authentication server (i.e. RADIUS) may be located within the PLMN or in the ISP/Intranet network. Non-transparent access is aimed for corporate intranet access, where additional user authentication is often required. PDP Context Activation l The authentication data are piggybacked in the Protocol Configuration Options (PCO) field of the PDP context activation messages and . l , , same as for IP PDP_type in transparent access. l GGSN performs the user authentication towards a RADIUS server. l GGSN allocates an @IP to the MS using the intranet/ISP DHCP server. l , same as for a PDP context in transparent access.

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2 GPRS Operation 2.4 Basic Procedures

PDP context activation


after PDP_context_activation procedures after GPRS_Attach procedure

SGSN1
TLLI1

TID1=IMSI+ NSAPI1

GGSN1
TID 2= IM S I+ GPRS IP NS backbone AP

PDN1

SGSN2

I2

GPRS - CN
by the LLC layer by the GTP layer

GGSN2

PDN2

34
User data transfer In order to achieve a proper transfer of User Data, two main protocols are used: GTP (between GGSN and SGSN) and LLC (between SGSN and MS), and two types of logical connections are established: l MS <-> SGSN. Logical Link used for signaling and data transfer, created at GPRS attach (unique per MS), identified by a TLLI value; l SGSN <-> GGSN. Created with the activation of PDP context = when opening a session (several per MS), identified each by a TID value. TLLI (Temporary Logical Link Identity) Identifies uniquely a MS attached to the GPRS core network (Standby or Ready state). TID (Tunnel Identity) Identifies a logical connection ("tunnel") between GGSN and SGSN (for each session of each MS). TID= IMSI+NSAPI.

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2 GPRS Operation 2.4 Basic Procedures

PDP context activation


after PDP_context_activation procedures after GPRS_Attach procedure ul/dl data_transfers

SGSN1
TLLI1

TID1=IMSI+ NSAPI1

GGSN1
TID 2= IM S I+ GPRS IP NS backbone AP

PDN1

SGSN2

I2

GPRS - CN
by the LLC layer by the GTP layer

GGSN2

PDN2

35

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2 GPRS Operation 2.4 Basic Procedures

User data transfer


SGSN GGSN
over the Gi interface

over the Gn interface

U-data MS

@ MS @server @ MS @server GTP header GTP header @server @ MS UDP header @sgsn @ggsn

U-data

@ MS @server

U-data
within the MS

PDN

@ggsn @sgsn

UDP header

U-data server @server @ MS U-data

@server @ MS

U-data

36
User data transfer Data are transferred from header translation, then encapsulation in underlined protocol data unit. At the GGSN, the IP address of the MS is used to retrieve a PDP context and therefore a TID and the address of the current SGSN. At the SGSN, the TID is used to work out the NSAPI and the IMSI (therefore the TLLI). If the MS is ready, no need for paging because the MS is located to the exact cell.

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2 GPRS Operation 2.5 Charging

Charging process

CCBS
ftp

MS

CG S_CDR M_CDR
GTP GPRS backbone

G_CDR

BSS

SGSN

GGSN

PDN

GPRS_Attach procedure

PDP_context_activation and data transfers


37

CDR (Call Detail Record) CDRs are used for subscriber charging, statistics and location purposes. Three types of CDR are managed within the GPRS backbone: l M-CDR related to the GPRS mobility of a mobile station l S-CDR related to PDP-contexts activation and data transfers as seen by the SGSN l G-CDR related to PDP-contexts activation and data transfers as seen by the GGSN CDRs, generated by the xGSN, are then sent to the CG (Charging Gateway) : l periodically, l using reliable transfers (GTP over TCP) The CG forwards those CDRs to external CCBS (Customer Care and Billing System) CDR content Here are the main information in the CDR : l IMSI l location information (LAC + RAC + Cell) l APN l PDP-context identifier l PDP-context start time and duration l negotiated QoS l volume of data sent / received l source and destination PDP addresses, l .

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2 GPRS Operation 2.5 Charging

Charging process
SGSN
MS
S-CDR CG CCBS

VPLMN backbone

VPLMN

BG

Inter-PLMN network BG
CCBS CG

HPLMN backbone
G-CDR

GGSN

PDN

HPLMN

38
Charging data collection for inter-PLMN charging l Use of G_CDR and S-CDR as specified by GSM 12.15 l Inter-operator agreement to transfer between Billing Systems

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2 GPRS operation 2.6 Security


1- Secured network access Authentication of MSs and confidentiality of their identity Possibility of encrypting user data Possibility of verifying IMEI with an EIR (Gf)

2- Secured backbone IP network Firewall = application-level filtering Filtering by access lists (in the GGSNs)

GPRS Network Public Internet

3- Secured intranet access APN with mandatory subscription APN with access lists APN with tunneling on Gi (IPsec)

39
Authentication and confidentiality As in GSM, by security triplets and the use of the TLLI/P_TMSI instead of the IMSI. Encryption The LLC frame is encrypted, so encryption from the MS to the SGSN and not just on Um. Firewall Filtering function installed on routers (ex: GGSN). Packets are rejected by filtering at application level (for example: in http, some URLs are barred). Also makes it possible to hide the IP addresses of MSs and backbone entities from external hosts (Network Address Translation function). Access Lists (IP addresses lists) A function of Cisco routers (and therefore of GGSNs). Each APN is linked to two lists of IP addresses to be checked during the PDP context activation phase (calling address and called address in both UL and DL directions). These lists are therefore used to protect access to the operator's backbone IP, but also to filter the access to external PDNs. At the GGSN, some APNs can be declared "with mandatory subscription" (at the HLR) and therefore inaccessible to other MSs. Tunneling Several ways: l by IPsec (Secured IP) = IP version in which the user data is encrypted (IP datagrams payload but not their header). Or by Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) l by PPTP (Point-To-Point Tunneling Protocol). Refer to ANNEX for PPP Tunneling.

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2 GPRS operation Exercise (1/3)

True or False?

The GGSN read the header of user

packets arriving from the PDN The GPRS HLR knows the location of an MS to the nearest RA With each web page downloaded, a new PDP context must be activated A CDR is generated for each packet sent or received
Time allowed : 5 minutes

40

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Page 40

2 GPRS operation Exercise (2/3)

True or False ?

A CDR is generated for each packet

Time allowed : 5 minutes

sent or received The Charging gateway provides a single interface towards the billing centers No need for paging to send a packet to a mobile in the "Ready" state Attachment to the network does not involve GGSN

41

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Page 41

2 GPRS operation Exercise (2/3)

What interfaces of the GPRS NSS does a packet cross from a PDN to an MS? Why is an RA smaller than an LA?

Time allowed : 5 minutes

42

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Page 42

2 GPRS operation Evaluation

Objective : to be able to describe the organization of a GPRS network : architecture, interfaces, protocols,

Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet

43

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Page 43

The Base Station Subsystem

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VT ZZA Ed.10

44

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3 The Base Station Subsystem Session presentation

Objectives : l To be able to briefly describe the data interchange mechanisms through the BSS Program : l 3.1 3GPP Position l 3.2 Alcatels Choice l 3.3 Layered Model l 3.4 Gb Interface l 3.5 Radio Interface

45

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3 The Base Station Subsystem 3.1 3GPP Position

PCU function
CCU BTS CCU
Gb Um

PCU

BSC

SGSN

BSC BTS CCU CCU PCU SGSN

BTS

CCU CCU
Abis

Gb

BSC

PCU

CCU = Channel Control Unit PCU = Packet Control Unit

SGSN

46
PCU functions RLC and MAC layers: LLC frame transportation (segmentation/reassembly), l Gb interface end point, l network access functions (radio resource management), l radio channel management (power control, congestion control, etc). CCU functions l encoding suited to radio channels, l radio measurements (receive quality, signal level, "timing advance" management).

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3 The Base Station Subsystem 3.2 Alcatels Choice

PCU function
MFS

BTS

TRE TRE

BSC

PCU
GSL

SGSN PCU
Gb

MFS PCU

BTS
Um

TRE TRE
Abis

BSC
Ater mux

= GPRS Signaling Links

47
The Multi BSS Fast packet Server (MFS): l performs the GPRS Packet Control Unit (PCU) functions (3GPP 03.60 standard), l manages the Gb interface with the GPRS & EGPRS core network, l performs the Serving Mobile Location Center (SMLC) functions, l manages the SAGI interface with the A-GPS server.

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3 The Base Station Subsystem 3.3 Layered Model

User plane
IP

SNDCP

SM

GMM

GMM SM

SNDCP

LLC PCU RLC


RLC

LLC relay
BSS GP

BSSGP
Frame relay Physical layer SGSN

MAC Physical layer


MS

relay
Physical L2-GCH layer L1-GCH BTS

MAC L2-GCH L1-GCH

Frame relay Physical layer MFS

Um

Abis/Ater

Gb

48
For GPRS TRAFFIC, the BSS simply relays the LLC frames between the MS and the SGSN. BSSGP = BSS Gprs Protocol. Functions: l to relay LLC frame over the Gb, with no guarantee of integrity (relaying user data and GMM / SM messages : session, RA_update and paging procedures). Conceals the FR layers for the LLC layer. l SGSN-MFS signaling = management of Gb interface objects (flush, paging, resume suspend, LLC-discarded and other procedures). l cell-SGSN traffic management (identified by BssgpVCs): in particular cell update management (in the same RA): the BSSGP header always indicates the current cell so if a "ready" MS moves into a new cell, then the SGSN stores this new cell and sends all the unacknowledged LLC_PDUs to it (DL). The concept of handover has no meaning in packet switching (GPRS). There is no "circuit" to re-establish! RLC = Radio Link Control. (Provides a safe link for transporting LLC-PDUs in acknowledged or unacknowledged mode, LLCPDU segmentation into blocks and reassembly, management of TBF contexts. RLC depends on the physical bearer: data encoding, error control and flow control suited to GSM channels. MAC = Medium Access Control. Multiplexing of RLC frames onto PDCH (transfer of blocks over the different PDCHi). Including traffic sharing over several TSs or, conversely, the use of one TS for several users.

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3 The Base Station Subsystem 3.3 Layered Model

Signaling plane

BSCGP BSCGP
L2-GSL L1-GSL L2-GSL L1-GSL

RRM

RRM

relay
physical layer

relay
physical layer

MS

Um

BTS

Abis

BSC

Ater

MFS

Gb

49
BSCGP protocol l administration interface of Radio Resource management : (de)allocation of PDCH and MPDCH within a cell activation / release of PDCH l System control information: BSC reset procedure cell and GIC group state management l Radio signalling : GSM / GPRS paging, GPRS access procedure RMM protocol l dynamic allocation of Radio Resources to a MS : radio blocks from one or several PDCH for uplink or downlink data transfers

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3 The Base Station Subsystem 3.4 Gb Interface

Managed entities
BSS side GPRS Core Network side
BVCI=2
BVCI=2 BVCI=1 BVCI=3

PCM BC

NSVC1

PCM PVC BC NSE1

BVCI=1

BSC1

NSE1 PCM BC NSVC2 PCM PVC BC

BVCI=3

F.R Network
PCM BC
BVCI=4 BVCI=6

BVCI=5 PCM PVC BC NSE2 BVCI=4

BVCI=5

NSVC3

BSC2

NSE2 PCM BC NSVC4 PCM PVC BC

BVCI=6

SGSN 50
For GPRS TRAFFIC, the BSS simply relays the LLC frames between the MS and the SGSN. BSSGP = BSS Gprs Protocol. Functions: l to relay LLC frame over the Gb, with no guarantee of integrity (relaying user data and GMM / SM messages : session, RA_update and paging procedures). Conceals the FR layers for the LLC layer. l SGSN-MFS signaling = management of Gb interface objects (flush, paging, resume suspend, LLC-discarded and other procedures). l cell-SGSN traffic management (identified by BssgpVCs): in particular cell update management (in the same RA): the BSSGP header always indicates the current cell so if a "ready" MS moves into a new cell, then the SGSN stores this new cell and sends all the unacknowledged LLC_PDUs to it (DL). The concept of handover has no meaning in packet switching (GPRS). There is no "circuit" to re-establish! RLC = Radio Link Control. (Provides a safe link for transporting LLC-PDUs in acknowledged or unacknowledged mode, LLCPDU segmentation into blocks and reassembly, management of TBF contexts. RLC depends on the physical bearer: data encoding, error control and flow control suited to GSM channels. MAC = Medium Access Control. Multiplexing of RLC frames onto PDCH (transfer of blocks over the different PDCHi). Including traffic sharing over several TSs or, conversely, the use of one TS for several users.

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3 The Base Station Subsystem 3.4 Gb Interface

Protocols
BSS side
BVCI=2 BVCI=1 BVCI=3

GPRS Core Network side

BSC1
BSS GPRS Protocol

(BSSGP)
BVCI=5 BVCI=4 BVCI=6

BVC

BSS GPRS Protocol

(BSSGP)

BSC2

Network Service Control

NSE NS-VC PVC BC PCM

Network Service Control

(NSC)
Sub-Network Service

(NSC)
Sub-Network Service

(SNS) Physical layer

(SNS)
PCM

Physical layer
SGSN

Packet Control Unit function (PCU)

Frame Relay

51
For GPRS TRAFFIC, the BSS simply relays the LLC frames between the MS and the SGSN. BSSGP = BSS Gprs Protocol. Functions: l to relay LLC frame over the Gb, with no guarantee of integrity (relaying user data and GMM / SM messages : session, RA_update and paging procedures). Conceals the FR layers for the LLC layer. l SGSN-MFS signaling = management of Gb interface objects (flush, paging, resume suspend, LLC-discarded and other procedures). l cell-SGSN traffic management (identified by BssgpVCs): in particular cell update management (in the same RA): the BSSGP header always indicates the current cell so if a "ready" MS moves into a new cell, then the SGSN stores this new cell and sends all the unacknowledged LLC_PDUs to it (DL). The concept of handover has no meaning in packet switching (GPRS). There is no "circuit" to re-establish! RLC = Radio Link Control. (Provides a safe link for transporting LLC-PDUs in acknowledged or unacknowledged mode, LLCPDU segmentation into blocks and reassembly, management of TBF contexts. RLC depends on the physical bearer: data encoding, error control and flow control suited to GSM channels. MAC = Medium Access Control. Multiplexing of RLC frames onto PDCH (transfer of blocks over the different PDCHi). Including traffic sharing over several TSs or, conversely, the use of one TS for several users.

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3 The Base Station Subsystem 3.5 Radio Interface

GPRS / EGPRS throughput


Coding Scheme CS4 CS3 CS2 CS1 MCS9 MCS8 MCS7 Modulation GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK Maximum rate per PDCH (kb/s) 21.4 15.6 13.4 9.05 59.2 54.4 44.8 29.6 / 27.2* 22.4 17.6 14.8 / 13.6* 11.2 8.8 * in case of padding

GPRS

EGPRS

MCS6 MCS5 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1

52

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The Base Station Subsystem 3.5 Radio Interface

GMSK / 8-PSK modulations


Gross bit rate per carrier 270 kb/s GMSK
001 8-PSK 101 011 001

1 GMSK

810 kb/s 8-PSK

53
Transmission and reception data flows are the same for GPRS and EGPRS, except for EGPRS MCS-9, MCS-8 and 7, where 4 normal bursts carry 2 RLC blocks (1 RLC block within 2 bursts for MCS-9 and MCS-8). Radio blocks are transported on the air interface (Um) over 4 consecutive normal bursts of the TDMA frame. The GMSK normal burst is composed of 156.25 symbols (1 bit for 1 symbol): 6 tail symbols, 26 training sequence symbols, 114 encrypted symbols, 2 stealing flags (2 symbols), 8.25 guard period (symbols). l For GMSK, the radio blocks are transported by 114 x 4 = 456 symbols. The 8-PSK normal burst is composed of 156.25 symbols (3 bits for 1 symbol): 6 tail symbols, 26 training sequence symbols, 116 encrypted symbols (there is stealing flags), 8.25 guard period (symbols). l For 8-PSK, the radio blocks are transported by 116 x 4 = 456 symbols. MCS-

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3 The Base Station Subsystem 3.5 Radio interface

TDMA frame and GPRS physical channels


TDMA frame 0 TDMA1
7

TDMA51

fi

Multi-frame (52)

0 to 3

TS0
Block0

47 to 50 51

Block11

PDCH0

10

11

8 physical channels PDCH7


54
One TDMA frame = eight TSs, each of 156.25 bits (!). The structure of the bits forms a "burst". One TDMA frame = 4.615 ms. One 52 multi-frame = 52 * 4.615 = 240 ms The succession of TSi on a frequency fi forms a channel (UL or DL). A channel used for GPRS is called a Packet Data CHannel. Division into blocks: One block = four TS of the same rank on 4 consecutive TDMA frames. This is the radio resource allocation unit. One block = four TS of 156.25 bits = 625 bits. In each cell, CS Adaptation according to the radio environment is part of the QoS. It is based on the received signal strength and its BER. CS3 and CS4 will be available with the B8 BSS release. Note: A physical channel on a frequency fi in practice includes two frequencies: fi DL and fi UL.

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3 The Base Station Subsystem 3.5 Radio interface

GPRS channels
Um BTS Abis BSC AterMux MFS (PCU) Gb SGSN

Radio blocks PDTCH 1

Channel Coding

RLC/MAC PDU EGCH 1

LLC PDUs (1600 bytes max)

PDTCH n

11

EGCH n

11

Radio blocks GMSK: 456 symbols 8-PSK: 464 symbols 55


EGCH The BSC connects several Abis terrestrial channels (from 1 to 5) to several Atermux terrestrial channels (from 1 to 5) upon request from the MFS. This connection is called a EGCH channel, which is controlled by the GCH layer in the BTS and in the MFS. An EGCH is made up of a pool of GCH (from 1 to 5) ): One main GCH and a pool of auxiliary GCH. (GCH uses the basic 16k Abis nibble)

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3 The Base Station Subsystem 3.5 Radio interface

Master and Slave PDCHs

PDCH

MPDCH

PBCCH PCCCH = PPCH + PAGCH + PRACH PTCH = PDTCH + PACCH

SPDCH

PTCH = PDTCH + PACCH

56
For each cell, it is possible to define the MINIMUM and MAXIMUM number of channels reserved for GPRS + the maximum number of channels reserved for GPRS in case of high traffic load (when the BSC sends "Load indication" to the MFS through BSCGP protocol). There are two types of PDCH : MPDCH and SPDCH l MPDCH = Master PDCH = PBCCH + PCCCH (PPCH + PAGCH + PRACH) -> carries GPRS signaling and system information. l SPDCH = Slave PDCH -> carries the user traffic. Benefits of the Master Channel : l Preserves CCCH capacity for speech services l Higher GPRS signaling capacity, in line with GPRS traffic growth l Differentiated cell re-selection strategy between GPRS and non GPRS MS. When GPRS attached, a MS listen to PSI broadcast on PBCCH. It allows a finer tuning of GPRS re-selection algorithms, for example in hierarchical networks (C31 and C32 criteria). Otherwise, MS applies the basic Cell-reselection as in GSM Idle-Mode using the C1 and C2 GSM criteria

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3 The Base Station Subsystem 3.5 Radio interface

UL transfer
start of TBF1

MS

end of TBF1 TBF2 TBF3 TBF4

network time

fULi
Packet Channel Request Packet Resource Assignment (list of PDCHi, token=T,TFIk)

MFS

MS starts listening to all DL blocks token value on the allocated PDCHi DL PDCHi
N T T T T T T

in block b token =T ?
Y

SEND on block b+1 (TFIk)


?
TFIk

UL PDCHi

TFIk

TFIk

TFIk

TFIk

TFIk

57
This slide demonstrate that the radio resources (blocks) are used only when data need to be transferred (LLC-PDU) : dynamic radio resource allocation. As a matter of fact, an MS shall specify its radio resource request at initiation of each TBF for a better optimization of radio resource & MS capabilities. A TBF (the blue shape) comprises one or more consecutive LLC-PDUs. Temporary (Block) Flow Identity = TLLI + sequential number, used by the network to recognize data from different MSs. Identifies uniquely a TBF in one direction within a cell. l The blocks are dynamically allocated upon the use of a token (Uplink State Flag) allocated to the MS at TBF establishment. Any DL block includes a USF in the header. l The mobile "listens" to the PDCHi assigned, when block b (in DL) contains USF = T, the MS shall send one PDTCH in UL on block b+1 on the UL PDCHi. The theoretical maximum of 160 kbit/s is given for one MS which would have 8 PDCHs of 21.4 kbit/s each. Those MS are yet to be available on the market place.

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3 The Base Station Subsystem 3.5 Radio interface

DL transfer
MFS SGSN
MS PDU

Paging Request ("packet") UL TBF: refer to previous slide Packet Paging Response

PS Paging

Packet Resource Assignment (list(PDCHj),TFIz) MS starts listening to all DL blocks TFI value on the allocated PDCHj

DL PDCHj
N

in block b, TFI=TFIz ? Y

The MS consumes the content of block b


58
In DL, each time an LLC-PDU is received, if there is no TBF in progress, it is essential to establish" one. To respond to the paging, the MS needs to send a "paging response" to the SGSN (GMM) encapsulated in an LLC_PDU. This response is carried by an UL TBF. Upon reception of the Paging response, the SGSN can send the DL PDU (LLC frame) to the MS through the MFS. The MFS shall establish a DL TBF with the MS. DL TBF: each block of the DL TBF are identified by the DL TFI = TFIz After completion of the TBF establishment phase, the MS listen to all the DL blocks on the allocated PDCHs and keeps the blocks tagged with the TFIz.

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3 The Base Station Subsystem Exercise (1/2)

True or False?

interface based on the Frame Relay protocol For each cell, the number of channels which can be used for GPRS traffic is operator-configurable If a user packet is lost at the Gb interface, it can be recovered using frame relay protocol mechanisms Time allowed : The LLC protocol is independent of the type of BSS employed 5 minutes

The SGSN is linked to the BSS by an

59

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Page 59

3 The Base Station Subsystem Exercise (2/2)

True or False?

to a single user If necessary, blocks on different PDCHs can be allocated to a single user The NSEI is the identifier used by the SGSN to indicate the destination cell of a LLC frame to the MFS The same quantity of PVCs is declared on Time allowed : the MFS and SGSN sides
5 minutes

In a cell, a TRX can carry eight PDCHs One PDCH can be allocated in its entirety

60

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Page 60

3 The Base Station Subsystem Evaluation

Objective : To be able to briefly describe the data interchange mechanisms through the BSS

Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet

61

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Alcatel Solution

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VT ZZA Ed.10

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4 Alcatel Solution Session presentation

Objectives: to be able to characterize the solution offered by Alcatel Program: l 4.1 GPRS Network Overview l 4.2 Alcatel 9135 MFS l 4.3 Packet Switched Core Network l 4.4 GPRS Network Management l 4.5 Alcatel QoS Offer

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4 Alcatel Solution 4.1 GPRS Network Overview


HLR
B T S B T S

BSS1
BSC

MSC

SCP

SMS-C

GSM/GPRS common servers

Radio subsystem RADIUS server GGSN1 A9135 MFS GPRS Core Network

B T S B T S

BSS2
BSC

SGSN
GGSN2

Firewall server Intranet GPRS IP backbone Access router

Frame Relay network

B T S B T S

BSS-BSC A9135 MFS

SGSN
NTP server Charging Gateway

external DNS

Internet Border Gateway Inter-PLMN backbone

PLMN DNS/DHCP server

64
Within the radio subsystem : l Existing Alcatel BTS and BSC from GSM are reused for GPRS : no need of hardware change to provide GPRS features need just software upgrade l The GSM-BSS now includes a proprietary equipment : Alcatel A9135 = MFS (Multi BSS Fast packet Server) which deals with the GPRS PCU functions Within the GPRS Core Network : l the SGSN is a telecom node developped by Alcatel l the GGSN is a CISCO IP router with additional GPRS-dedicated software. l The border gateway is a CISCO IP router l the DNS/DHCP, RADIUS, NTP and firewall servers are standard IT components l the Charging Gateway is an Alcatel component based on HP platform The HLR, MSC, SCP and SMS-C are reused from the GSM-NSS

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4 Alcatel Solution 4.2 Alcatel 9135 MFS

Functional architecture
Control Subsystem

OMC-R

Ethernet LANs
B T S B T S

BSC1 GPU 1

GPU 2
B T S B T S

SGSN
GPU x BSC2 GPU y

A-ter interface

Telecom Subsystem

Gb interface
65

The duplex "Control subsystem" (two DS10 in active/standby mode, with 2 shared disks) : l l controls the telecom subsystem (initialization, supervision, defence) provides the management interface (OMC-R or local maintenance terminal)

The Telecom subsystem is composed of GPU boards : l l GPRS Processing Unit (GPU). Each GPU board performs the PCU functions towards the BSC and the SGSN 16 PCM ports per GPU board some PCM ports connected to the BSS, the other to the SGSN There are two different configurations regarding the support of BSC by the GPU boards : l l only one GPU board supporting each BSC (in the B6.2 release) multiple GPU boards supporting each BSC (from the B7 release)

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4 Alcatel Solution 4.2 Alcatel 9135 MFS

Rack layout
1 BSXTU 1 BSXTU
11 GPU (+1) 11 GPU (+1) maxi maxi

1 BSXTU 1 BSXTU
11 GPU (+1) 11 GPU (+1) maxi maxi

2 DS 10 2 DS 10
Control Control sub-rack sub-rack

3 COM 3300 3 COM 3300 + IOLAN module + IOLAN module

2 or 4 2 or 4 Switches Switches

66

The "Control sub-rack" part is duplex (two DS10 in active/standby modes). each BSXTU sub-rack contains a maximum of 12 JBGPU boards. The GPRS traffic of one BSC can be handled by several GPUs (up to six are foreseen from the same MFS rack) In B7, a full MFS contains from 4 to 22 BSS (BSC), due to multi-GPU feature l l l l l l l l 4 BSS per MFS: 2* (1 BSS / 6 GPU)+(1 BSS / 5 GPU) 22 BSS per MFS: 22*(1 BSS/GPU)

One JBGPU board (= 1 PCU) offers 480 PDCH. Two uses of JBGPUs : One JBGPU for each BSC, (Ater interface), so one MFS serves a maximum of 22 BSCs. With 240 PDCH per GPU, a BSC can offer up to 6*240 = 1440 PDCH To be connected to the FR network (Gb interface).

Fast ethernet Switches (100 Mb/s) made by 3COM: 2 or 4 (as needed) to build LANs to which are connected the Nectar stations (DS10) GPU boards printers and craft terminals (for local management, the terminal is called IMT = Installation & Maintenance Terminal)

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4 Alcatel Solution 4.3 Packet Switched Core Network

SGSN architecture
CCS N7 CCS N7
DS10

Gr

CCS N7 CCS N7
towards

DS10

SGSN router
DS10

towards IP backbones

SS7

GPU GPU
E1

DS10

Pilot servers
DS10

GPU
towards

Gb

SGSN server

LSN

DS10

LAN/IO
67

The SGSN main functions are processed by DS10 Nectar servers, other hardware equipments performing the physical interfaces towards the networks accessed by the SGSN : l BSS network (Gb = E1 or Frame Relay) via GPU boards, l SS7 networks (Gs, Gr, Gd, Gc, Gf, SCP) via CMIC couplers, l GPRS IP backbone(s) (Gn, Gp, Ga, GIN, OMC) via Cisco 7206. routers The equipments are gathered around two duplicated LAN at 10/100 Mbits/s: l LSN (Local Sub Network) = 2 fast Ethernet switches :
communication between DS10 servers, communication between GPU boards and DS10 servers, communication between ETI boards and the DS10 servers.

l LAN I/O (Local Area Network for Input/Output) = 2 fast Ethernet switches :
communication through IP/Ethernet between the DS10 servers and the SGSN routers

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4 Alcatel Solution 4.3 Packet Switched Core Network

Compacted configuration racks


first rack second rack

third rack
NTS150 NTS150

NTP Server

CCS N7 LAN Gi Gp GPU Non-pilot servers


NS500 NS500

Firewall Server

KVM Switch Screen Keyboard

pilot servers

SGSN/GGSN routers

BG, Access Router

external DNS PLMN DNS/DHCP

LSN Ethernet switches

LANIO/Gn switches

68

The E configuration is the smallest one available. It can be software-blocked to 25K, 50K or 75 K MM contexts. Above, the configuration with co-located GGSN.
lEquipment lCMIC couplers lGPU boards lGb PCM links lDS10 servers lShared Disks lRouters lEquipment lCMIC couplers lGPU boards lGb PCM links lDS10 servers lShared Disks lRouters Quantity 2 to 4 2 to 6 Up to 96 4 (2 Pilots et 2 non Pilots with SS7 adapter) 2x18 Gbytes 2 or 3 Quantity 2 to 4 8 128 12 to 14 (2 Pilots, 10 to 12 Non Pilots with SS7 adapter) 2x18 Gbytes 2 or 3

G configuration is the largest one available.

Power Supply: l48V DC by a Top Rack Unit inside Each rack (GPU sub-rack, Fans, CMIC sub-rack, SGSN router). l230V AC in Direct Link for each Non Pilot DS10, secured link for the Pilot DS10, Fast Ethernet Switches and RS232 concentrators. The GPU redundancy functionality is not provided in Release 2

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4 Alcatel Solution 4.4 GPRS Network Management

Dedicated OMCs
Radio part

BSC1

B T S B T S

BSC2

OMC -R MFS

B T S

NMC Q3
Core Network part OMC -G
BG

SGSN

DNS/DHCP

NTP

GGSN

Charging Gateway 69

OMC-R: Called Alcatel 1353 RA = management of the radio subsystem : l Alcatel 9135 MFS. l BSCs and associated BTSs OMC-G : called ALMA 1364 GPRS = management of the Core Network : l l l the SGSN server the SGSN router the GGSN.

l The Charging Gateway (alarm supervision) l the DNS/DHCP server (supervision) l the GPRS network level (APN and Routing Areas)

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4 Alcatel Solution 4.5 Alcatel QoS offer

R97/98 QoS compliance


ETSI R97/98 QoS attributes
Delay class
(4) Best Effort 1, 2 or 3 1, 2 or 3 1, 2 or 3 1, 2 or 3 any (3) Low priority Normal, High priority (2) Normal priority (1) High priority

Alcatel Offer
Resulting QoS class Best-Effort Best-Effort Best-Effort Normal Premium

Precedence class
any any

Mean throughput class

Best Effort specified, except BE specified, except BE

Reliability class:

as required by the MS

70

These QoS attributes are associated with a PDP context performed by a R97/98 MS The five QoS parameters of the standard define more than 60 combinations ! Which is too much and leeds to simplification : l Too complex to implement, l Many of the combinations have no meaning! l The standard "allows" more simple QoS implementations. - = any value. In bold, the main criterion for definition of the resulting QoS. Best effort = inexpensive, comparable to the Internet (no commitment). Ideal for foraging on the internet. Normal: Premium: Comparable to an intranet. Expensive, high performance.

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4 Alcatel Solution 4.5 Alcatel QoS offer

R97/98 QoS mapping into R99 QoS

R99 Traffic class conversational streaming interactive interactive interactive background

Traffic handling priority 1 2 3 -

R97/98 Bearer QoS class Premium Premium Premium Normal Normal Best Effort

71

The mapping of R97/98 QoS attributes to R99 QoS is applicable in the following cases : m hand-over of PDP context from GPRS R97/R98 SGSN to GPRS R99 or UMTS SGSN m when a R99 MS performs a PDP context activation in a R99 SGSN with a R97/98 GGSN m when the SGSN has received R97/98 QoS subscribed profile, but the MS is R99 The mapping of R99 QoS attributes to R97/98 QoS is applicable in the following cases : m PDP context is handed-over from GPRS R99 to R97/R98 m when a R99 MS performs a PDP context activation in a R99 SGSN while the GGSN is R97/98 m when the SGSN sends user data to the BSS for a R99 MS m when the SGSN has received R99 QoS subscribed profile but the MS is R97/98 m in the new SGSN, during an inter-SGSN RA_update procedure, or inter-system change, on receipt of the R99 QoS attributes from the old SGSN

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4 Alcatel Solution Exercise (1/2)

True or False?

Implementing GPRS in the BSS simply

Time allowed : 5 minutes

entails adding A9135 MFS servers The GGSN is an IP router developed by Cisco with GPRS-dedicated software The SGSN server is an Alcatel proprietary equipment based on IT devices The DNS/DHCP servers used in the GPRS Core Network are IT standard servers

72

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4 Alcatel Solution Exercise (2/2)

True or False?

GPRS Core Network equipments are

managed from an OMC- G GPRS radio subsystem (BSS) equipments are managed from an OMC-R Alcatel GPRS network handles simultaneously the UMTS QoS classes (R99 QoS parameters) and the GPRS QoS profiles (R97/98 QoS attributes)
Time allowed : 5 minutes

73

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4 Alcatel Solution Evaluation

Objective : to be able to characterize the solution offered by Alcatel

Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet

74

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Annex and Glossary

Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VT ZZA Ed.10

75

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5 Annex Coding Schemes : CS1 -> CS4

20 Channel rate (kbps) 15 10 5 0 0 10 20

CS4 CS3 CS2 CS1

30

C/I (dBm)

76
The data rate on a PDCH depends on the coding scheme : l for CS-1: PDCH data rate = 9.05 kbit/s (poor radio conditions or BSS signaling) l for CS-2: PDCH data rate = 13.4 kbit/s (better radio conditions) l for CS-3: PDCH data rate = 15.6 kbit/s l for CS-4: PDCH data rate = 21.4 kbit/s. The system selects automatically the best coding scheme : l the data rate is set according to the current C/l. l maximum data rate (160 kbit/s) only possible with CS4 on 8 parallel channels

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5 Annex GPRS compared to other technologies

Bit rate

2 Mbps 384 Kbps 160 Kbps 64 Kbps 9.6 Kbps

Technology CS data - SMS, 9.6Kbps HSCSD GPRS EDGE UMTS 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

77
SMS : With GPRS, the 160-character barrier for short messages will be able to be broken (when SMS over GPRS is implemented). High Speed Circuit-Switched Data : This still involves circuit switching, meaning that, with a continuous use of radio resources, so billed by time. HSCSD is based on the assignment of several traffic channels (TCH) to a single MS to offer a higher bit rate. HSCSD is suited for services requiring a minimum bandwidth guaranteed. EDGE : (Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution) is a technology previously developed by Ericsson, based on TDMA and offering a maximum theoretical speed of 384 kbit/s (8 channels, each 48 kbit/s, using a new modulation scheme: 8-PSK, eight-phase shift keying, instead of GMSK for GSM and GPRS). EDGE-specific MTs are required! The BSS remains the same, except for the implementation of EDGE TRX (Evolium product line). Alcatel will offer EDGE from release B8 onwards. This is an important step towards UMTS UMTS : requires a new Radio Access Network based on W-CDMA technology. The UMTS standard is part of the Third Generation (3G). Together with CDMA 2000 and other systems, they form a set of ITU radio access technologies standardized by IMT 2000.

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5 Annex Network Mode of Operation I with Master Channel

CCCH PCCCH

MSC/VLR

BSS
(a)

Gs

(b)

Um

PACCH

Gb

SGSN

CS paging for GPRS-attached MS in idle state (a), or in data transfer state (b) CS paging for non GPRS-attached MS GPRS paging

78
In this mode, the Gs interface is present in the core network. As far as GPRS-attached MS are concerned, the BSS receives both GPRS and circuit-switched paging messages from the Gb interface. There is paging co-ordination because all paging messages towards GPRS-attached mobile stations are sent either on the Master Channel, if present, or on the CCCH otherwise. In addition, whilst involved in a packet data transfer the GPRS mobiles receive the circuit-switched paging messages via the GPRS traffic channel currently used. NMO II : l There is neither Gs interface nor Master Channel. There Paging coordination over the CCCH of GSM. Also, GPRS Mobile Stations operating in Class B may lose CS Paging message if they are not able to monitor CCCH at the same time. NMO III: l In this mode, there is no Paging coordination because Gs interface is not present while the Master Channel is. Therefore, CS Paging is transmitted over CCCH when PS Paging is transmitted over PCCCH. Class C Mobile are not able to manage both type of channels.

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5 Annex GMM - Combined GPRS and NSS attach with Gs (1)

SGSN
Attach_request (IMSI)
Triplet request Authentication

HLR

Update_location
IMSI current SGSN Insert_subscriber_data

Update_location_ack
IMSI TLLI + current RA + subscription data

Attach_accept (TLLI)
MS TLLI
79
"Attach" the MS switches on (GMM protocol): l MS sends his previous P_TMSI, otherwise a random one. The attach_request message is placed in an LLC frame with its old TLLI if its exists, or a randomly chosen TLLI if not. TLLI: This is allocated to the subscriber on his attachment to the network. In reality, the SGSN allocates the MS a P-TMSI, from which the MS and the SGSN itself derive the TLLI. The functions of the HLR: l to supply the security triplets l l l l to check roaming restrictions (or ODB) to store the address of the current SGSN to initiate the deletion of data from the old SGSN to send subscriber data to the SGSN

"Detach" proceeds as follow: l MS to SGSN: Detach request l SGSN to GGSN: Delete PDP context then Acknowledge l SGSN to MS: detach accept

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5 Annex GMM - Combined GPRS and NSS attach with Gs (2)

SGSN

MSC/VLR

HLR

Location_Update_req (IMSI, LAI) Update_ location (IMSI, @VLR) IMSI current VLR Insert_subscriber_data Update_location_ack Location_Update_accept

80
Location-Update-request: The SGSN determines the MSC/VLR based on the RA where the subscriber is located. At the HLR: If the MS was declared in another MSC, the HLR sends it a Cancel_Location before doing ISD to the new MSC. Attach-accept: In practice, the SGSN sends the MS the P-TMSI (and not the TLLI) and the V-TMSI (TMSI of the VLR), designated TMSI here. Once this combined-attach is done, the MS can make combined LA/RA update procedures (see GSM 03.60)..

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5 Annex GMM - RA update Inter-SGSN (1)

new

SGSN2 Routing_Area_update_req (RA1)

old

SGSN

GGSN

SGSN_context_req (RA1, TLLI, @SGSN2) SGSN_context_resp (MM_ctxt, PDP_ctxt) SGSN_context_ack


transfer of stored packets

Update_PDP_context_req (TID, @SGSN2) Update_PDP _context_resp


81
RA1: This is the mobile's previous RA The New SGSN retrieves the IP address of the old SGSN from RA1, after request to the DNS which translate RA1 into IP @ of SGSN1. SGSN_context_req:To obtain any PDP contexts and the MM contexts (IMSI, RA, cell, IMEI, etc) = all the data stored in the old SGSN concerning the MS, including the address of the GGSN related to each PDP context activated. SGSN_ctxt _ack: This message is sent only if the subscriber has PDP contexts activated. Used to inform the old SGSN that receives and stores datagrams for the MS. Update_PDP_context_req: Mainly to inform the GGSN of the address of the new current SGSN for this MS. Thus, any new packet arriving from the PDP network is routed to the new SGSN. This operation is carried out in parallel with the retrieval of the old SGSN packets, and not afterwards as the figure above seems to indicate.

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5 Annex GMM - RA update Inter-SGSN (2)

new

old

SGSN

SGSN
Update_location (IMSI, @SGSN2)

HLR

cancel_location (IMSI) cancel_location_ack insert_subscriber_data (+ack) Update_location_ack Routing_Area_update_accept (TLLI) Routing_Area_update_complete


82
ISD: = ISD (IMSI, GPRS subscription data). The tunnel (SGSN-GGSN) moves with the subscriber: The GGSN is always the same and the SGSN is variable (same TID). RA update accept: The SGSN allocates the subscriber a P-TMSI or TLLI, as mentioned (derived from the P-TMSI).

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5 Annex SMS-MT on GPRS -Gd interface-

SGSN

HLR

SMS-GMSC

SMS-SC SM transfer

SRI_for_SM ([GPRS supported]) SRI_for_SM_res (MSC@ and/or SGSN@) forward_SM (SM) SM transfer forward_SM_res report report

83
Gd: This is the SGSN SMS-GMSC interface. The HLR must include the option F_GPRS_002 "Support of SMS-MT over GPRS" to enable transmission of SMs to the MSs (which have this subscription option) via GPRS. SRI: If the SMS-GMSC supports GPRS, it tells the HLR so. SRI-res: The HLR sends back the following addresses: l MS IMSI-attached only: VMSC@ l MS GPRS-attached only: SGSN@ l MS both IMSI and GPRS attached: SMS-GMSC does not support GPRS: One address returned according to MS preference option. SMS-GMSC supports GPRS: Both addresses returned. The SMS-GMSC first performs transfer through NSS or GSS according to an option. If the transfer to the MS fails (Forward-SM-res), the SMS-GMSC repeats the attempt through the second network. If the delivery through the GSS fails, the HLR sets the MNRG flag and stores the address of the SMS-GMSC.

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5 Annex "Mobile User Activity" Procedure

SGSN
GPRS_Attach_request
If MNRG=1 MNRG 0

HLR

SMS_GMSC

Ready_for_SM (IMSI) Alert_Service_Center Alert_Service_Center_ack

84
Mobile user activity procedure: When the MS is reattached, the HLR indicates this to the SMS-GMSC (conventional GSM "alerting" procedure) and to all the GGSNs which had tried in vain to activate PDP contexts to this MS. The SGSN sends Ready-for-SM to the HLR before sending the update location message. The SMS-GMSC obviously alerts the SMSC which makes a new attempt to deliver the SM to the mobile (as in the previous slide).

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5 Annex SM - PDP context activation review


- @ MS + IP/X25 - APN - QoS

IMSI TLLI

NSAPI1 + PDP context1 NSAPI2 + PDP context2

SGSN

IMSI TLLI + current RA


+ subscription data

(NSAPI1 + PDP context1 + @ of GGSN1) (NSAPI2 + PDP context2 + @ of GGSN2)

GGSN1

IMSI @ current SGSN

TID1 + PDP context1

HLR

IMSI @ current SGSN


85

The SGSN even knows the current cell, if the mobile is in the ready state by looking at the routing over the Gb interface of the PDU originated by the MS. For further explanation, please refer to the sub-chapter The Base Station Sub-System, The Gb interface

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5 Annex The Gb interface - Frame Relay overview


User connected to the frame relay network through a synchronous access line Based on semi-permanent connection, PVC A PVC is identified on each end by a local connection identity : DLCI possible control of data loss (use of CRC) User to network signaling is carried by a specific PVC tagged with the DLCI0

access line PVC


DLCIm DLCIp

DLCI =p

DLCI=0 (Sig)

DL C I =m

Frame Relay
PVC

DLCIb

DLCIa

PVC access line

86
Access Line = any synchronous line would do. On a FR access line, there can be a large number of PVCs (Permanent Virtual Circuits), identified each by a DLCI, (Data Link Connection Identifier), different on each side + a PVC for signaling (DLCI=0). Data Loss: all frames have a CRC field used to determine if the data (payload) is correct or not. The network discards any frame with an erroneous payload. user-to-network signaling is to check the l local availability of the FR link ("Link Integrity Verification procedure) l end-to-end availability of each user's PVC ("Full Status Report" procedure) Security (redundancy): the user to the right has 2 access lines.

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5 Annex The Gb interface - physical layer


PCU1 BSSGP
Frame Relay NSC SNS Physical layer
BC1 = TSa, TSb,... BC2 = TSu, TSv, BCa = all TS

BSSGP
NSC SNS
PCMa PCM1

BSSGP
NSC SNS Physical layer

Frame Relay
Gb

Physical layer
PCMb

Gb
PCM2

SGSN
BCb

PCU2

BC3 = TSi, TSj, BC4 = TSx, TSy,

PCM Bearer Channel

87
Physical layer = PCM links from the JBGPU boards. It is best to connect the MFS and the SGSN to the FR network by two PCM links for added protection. Bearer Channel: This is N x 64 kbit/s over a 2048 kbit/s link l N time slots on one PCM link l FR access line. SGSN end, a BC can recover all the TSs of the PCM link to have the fastest possible access to the FR network. MFS end, on a BC, only one PVC will be declared (option chosen by Alcatel for simplicity). Therefore, for security: two BCs per BSC, each on a different PCM link (see next slides). If no FR network, the declarations of the physical and SNS layers must be the same at both ends.

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5 Annex The Gb interface - SubNetwork Service layer

PCU1 BSSGP Frame Relay NSC SNS Physical layer PVC2 BSSGP NSC SNS Physical layer PCU2 BC4 Gb PVC3 DLCIo BC1 DLCIm PVC1 Frame Relay PVC4 Gb PVC Bearer Channel BCa DLCIp SNS DLCIr Physical layer SGSN NSC BSSGP

88
The FR layer is part of the layer 2 in OSI model = Sub-Network Service layer (2.1). On top of this layer, and for telecom and quality of service purposes was added the Network Service Control layer (2.2). The "Bearer Channel" object of GPRS corresponds to the notion of FR access line. On a BC, there can be several PVCs (Permanent Virtual Circuits), each identified by a DLCI, which may be different at each end. Alcatel has set the limit on the BSS (MFS) side, to one PVC per BC. Several PVCs are needed: l firstly because a PVC is used for traffic with a given BSC (and therefore several BSCs means several PVCs) l secondly to provide security at Frame Relay level by introducing redundancy There is also, on each BC, a virtual link (with DLCI=0) for signaling with the FR switch.

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5 Annex The Gb interface - Network Service Control layer


PCU1 BSSGP BSC1 NSC SNS Physical layer NS-VCI=12 Frame Relay NS-VCI=13 NSEI=y Gb NSC SNS Physical layer SGSN NS-VC NSE NS-VCI= 11 NSEI=x BSSGP

BSSGP NSC BSC2 SNS Physical layer PCU2

NS-VCI=14 Gb

89
The Network Service Control layer is used: l To transport BSSGP frames between MFS and SGSN l To manage FR virtual circuits (offering in particular a common identifier for the PVCs: these are the NS-VCs (Network Service layer - Virtual Circuit) thanks to a range of standard procedures : (un)block, reset and test. l To share dynamically the UL/DL traffic (BSC to SGSN) over the existing NS-VCs of the same NSE Multiplexing scheme: 1 NS-VC = 1 PVC. NSE = Network Service Entity, identified by its NSEI, representing the packet traffic to/from a given BSC. The NSE = NSVCs dedicated to the packet traffic for one BSC. NSEI is information included in the messages between SGSN and MFS.

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5 Annex The Gb interface - BSS GPRS Protocol


BVCI=i BVCI=j BVCI=k

PCU1 BSC1

NSC SNS Physical layer

BVC I=i, B V

CI=j, B

VCI= k

BSSGP
n, B CI= I=p VC

BVCI=m BVCI=n BVCI=p

I=m VC

, BV

NSC SNS

BSC2

NSC SNS

Physical layer

cell BVC NSE

Physical layer

SGSN

PCU2

Gb
90

BVC = BSSGP Virtual Connection. l One BVC for each cell (Point-To-Point BVC) to identify traffic to a particular cell within a NSE. l One BVC-SIG (identified by BVCI0 : the fine black line) for signaling with the BSC (one per NSE). The standard also provides for BVC-PTMs. Not implemented. NSEI and BVCI are information items included in all messages between SGSN and MFS. This information must be consistent on either sides of the Gb interface. Review of the role of the BSSGP: l to relay LLC frame (one LLC frame encapsulated into one BSSGP frame) and offer QoS over the Gb l BVC management = management of packet traffic flow for a cell (DL flow control mechanisms, BVC supervision procedures, etc) l MFS-SGSN signaling for LLC relay management and MS mobility management

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5 Annex R97/98 QoS attributes


Precedence
1 2 3

Precedence Name
High priority Normal priority Low priority

Interpretation
Service commitments shall be maintained ahead of precedence classes 2 and 3. Service commitments shall be maintained ahead of precedence class 3. Service commitments shall be maintained after precedence classes 1 and 2.

R e lia b il it y C la s s
1

GTP M ode
A c k n o w le d g e d

L L C F ram e M ode
A c k n o w le d g e d

L L C D a ta P r o t e c t io n
P ro te c te d

R L C B lo c k M ode
A c k n o w le d g e d

T r a f f ic T y p e
N o n re a l-tim e tra ffic , e r ro r-s e n s itiv e a p p lic a tio n th a t c a n n o t c o p e w ith d a ta lo s s . N o n re a l-tim e tra ffic , e r ro r-s e n s itiv e a p p lic a tio n th a t c a n c o p e w ith in fr e q u e n t d a ta lo s s . N o n re a l-tim e tra ffic , e r ro r-s e n s itiv e a p p lic a tio n th a t c a n c o p e w ith d a ta lo s s , G M M /S M , a n d S M S . R e a l- tim e tr a ffic , e rro rs e n s itiv e a p p lic a tio n th a t c a n c o p e w ith d a ta lo s s . R e a l- tim e tr a ffic , e rro r n o n -s e n s itiv e a p p lic a tio n th a t c a n c o p e w ith d a ta lo s s .

U n a c k n o w le d g e d

A c k n o w le d g e d

P ro te c te d

A c k n o w le d g e d

U n a c k n o w le d g e d

U n a c k n o w le d g e d

P ro te c te d

A c k n o w le d g e d

4 5

U n a c k n o w le d g e d U n a c k n o w le d g e d

U n a c k n o w le d g e d U n a c k n o w le d g e d

P ro te c te d U n p ro te c te d

U n a c k n o w le d g e d U n a c k n o w le d g e d

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Peak Throughput Class


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Peak Throughput in octets per second


Up to 1 000 (8 kbit/s). Up to 2 000 (16 kbit/s). Up to 4 000 (32 kbit/s). Up to 8 000 (64 kbit/s). Up to 16 000 (128 kbit/s). Up to 32 000 (256 kbit/s). Up to 64 000 (512 kbit/s). Up to 128 000 (1 024 kbit/s). Up to 256 000 (2 048 kbit/s).

Mean Throughput Class


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 31
Alcatel University - 8AS 90164 0001 VH ZZA Ed.10

Mean Throughput in octets per hour


100 (~0.22 bit/s). 200 (~0.44 bit/s). 500 (~1.11 bit/s). 1 000 (~2.2 bit/s). 2 000 (~4.4 bit/s). 5 000 (~11.1 bit/s). 10 000 (~22 bit/s). 20 000 (~44 bit/s). 50 000 (~111 bit/s). 100 000 (~0.22 kbit/s). 200 000 (~0.44 kbit/s). 500 000 (~1.11 kbit/s). 1 000 000 (~2.2 kbit/s). 2 000 000 (~4.4 kbit/s). 5 000 000 (~11.1 kbit/s). 10 000 000 (~22 kbit/s). 20 000 000 (~44 kbit/s). 50 000 000 (~111 kbit/s). Best effort.

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5 Glossary of abbreviations used A to L


ALMAP: ALcatel MAnagement Platform APN: Access Point Name AS: Alpha Server (Compaq) BG: Border Gateway BSC: Base Station Controller BSS: Base Station Subsystem BSCGP: BSC-GPRS Protocol BSSGP: BSS-GPRS Protocol BVCI: BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier CCBS: Customer Care and Billing Center CCU: Channel Codec Unit CDR: Call Detail Record CG: Charging Gateway CS: Circuit Switching DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DL: Down Link

DLCI= Data Link Connection Identifier DNS: Domain Name System EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for GSM

Evolution FUMO : Frame Unit Module FR: Frame Relay GPRS: General Packet Radio Service GGSN: Gateway GSN GMM: GPRS Mobility Management GR: GPRS Register GSL: GPRS Signaling Link GSM: Global System for Mobile communication GSN: GPRS Support Node GSS: GPRS Sub-System GTP: GPRS Tunneling Protocol HLR: Home Location Register HSCSD: High Speed Circuit-Switching Data

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5 Glossary of abbreviations used M to R


IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity IP: Internet Protocol ISDN : Integrated Service Digital Network ISP: Internet Service Provider LAN: Local Area Network LLC: Logical Link Control MAC: Medium Access Control MFS: Multi-Bsc Fast packet Server MNRG: Mobile Not Reachable for Gprs MS: Mobile Station MSC: Mobile Switching Center MT: Mobile Terminal NDL : NE: Network Element NMC: Network Management Center NNM: Network Node Manager NRPA : Network Requested PDP Context Activation NSAPI: Network Service Access Point Identifier NSC: Network Service Control layer NSEI: Network Service Entity Identifier

NSS: Network Sub-System NS-VC: Network Service- Virtual Circuit NTP: Network Time Protocol DB : On Demand Bandwidth OMC: Operation & Maintenance Center OS: Operation System PAGCH: Packet- Access Grant Channel PCCCH: Packet- Common Control CHannel PCO: Protocol Configuration Options PCU: Packet Control Unit PDCH: Packet Data CHannel PDN: Packet Data Network PDP: Packet Data Protocol (IP or X25) PDU: Protocol Data Unit PPCH: Packet- Paging CHannel PRACH: Packet- Random Access CHannel PS: Packet Switching

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5 Glossary of abbreviations used R to Z


P-TMSI: Packet- Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity PVC: Permanent Virtual Circuit P-VLR: Packet- Visitors Location Register QoS: Quality of Service RA: Routing Area RIP : Routing Information Protocol RLC: Radio Link Control RADIUS: Remote Authentication Dial In Use Service RRDTUF : Roaming Restriction Data Towards Unknown Foreign PLMN RRM: Radio Resource Management RSZ : Regional Subscription Zone SGSN: Serving GSN SM: Session Management | Short Message SMS: Short Message Service SMS-C: SMS-Center SNDCP: Sub Network-Dependent Convergence Protocol

SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol SNS: Sub-Network Service layer TBF: Temporary Block Flow TC: Trans Coder TCH: Traffic CHannel TCP: Transmission Control Protocol TDMA: Time-Division Multiplexing Access TFI: Temporary block Flow Identifier TID: Tunnel IDentity TLLI: Temporary Logical Link Identity TMN: Telecommunication Management Protocol TS: Time Slot UDP: User Datagram protocol UL: Up Link UMTS: Universal Mobile Transmission System WAP: Wireless Application Protocol WAN: Wide Area Network
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5 Main GPRS Standards


EN 301 344 (GSM 03.60) GPRS Service description stage 2 TS 101 350 (GSM 03.64) GSM 04.60 TS 101 351 (GSM 04.64) TS 101 297 (GSM 04.65) TS 101 356 (GSM 07.60) GSM 08.18
EN 301 347 (GSM 09.60) TS 101 348 (GSM 09.61) TR 10.18
(GSM 10.18)

Overall description of the GPRS radio interface, stage 2 GPRS MS-BSS interface. RLC/MAC protocols MS-SGSN Logical Link Control layer MS-SGSN Sub-Network-Dependent Convergence Protocol layer MS supporting GPRS BSS-SGSN BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP)
GPRS Tuneling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp interface

GPRS inter-working between PLMN and PDN O&M in GPRS GPRS charging

TS 101 393 (GSM 12.15)

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New ETSI standard designations: l EN = ETSI Standard l TS = Technical Specification l TR = Technical Report l TS and TR are less constraining than a true standard (EN). The designation GSM xx.xx remains valid.

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