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Journal of Internet Commerce, 9:186207, 2010 Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1533-2861 print=1553-287X online

DOI: 10.1080/15332861.2010.529052

Consumer-to-Consumer e-Commerce Research in Information Systems Journals


LORI N. K. LEONARD
University of Tulsa, Collins College of Business, School of Accounting and MIS, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA

KIKU JONES
Yukon, Oklahoma, USA

This study conducts a literature review of a sample of information systems journals in order to determine the consumer-to-consumer (C2C) electronic commerce (e-commerce) research that currently exists. Thirty-five information systems journals are reviewed between the years 19972009, and the articles are categorized as being e-commerce and then, more specifically, as C2C e-commerce. The findings indicate the study of C2C e-commerce is 10.86 percent of the total e-commerce studies published, which is considerable given the multitude of e-commerce topics. However, the study indicates many additional areas within the C2C e-commerce area that need to be researched, such as e-service, mobile commerce, and trust. KEYWORDS consumer-to-consumer, e-commerce, online auctions, online communities

INTRODUCTION
The majority of stores with an online presence went online in 1999. Since that time, electronic commerce (e-commerce) has seen a continual rise. Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce is perhaps one of the fastest growing segments, heavily due to the increase in popularity of online
Kiku Jones was affiliated with University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma, during the writing of the article. Address correspondence to Lori N. K. Leonard, University of Tulsa, Collins College of Business, School of Accounting and MIS, 800 S. Tucker Ave., Tulsa, OK 74104, USA. E-mail: lori-leonard@utulsa.edu 186

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auctions. In fact, eBay has approximately 90.1 million active users and nearly $9 billion in revenue (as of the end of 2009; eBay.com). However, C2C e-commerce is also being performed in places such as discussion forums, online communities, chat rooms, and third party listing services (Jones and Leonard 2007). Even though C2C e-commerce has not grown as quickly as business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce, the impact of C2C transactions should not be overlooked. As early as 1999, consumer transactions generated as much as $33.1 billion (Colon-Fung 2007). In fact, Koreas C2C e-commerce transactions were estimated at $7.5 billion in 2007 and are expected to double by 2012. That is an average annual growth of 21 percent (Hyun-Joo 2008). The increase of participation in the C2C e-commerce segment makes it imperative to have a review of the literature to determine what has and has not been studied in this segment. Researchers have examined C2C e-commerce in several studies, but those studies have been limited to a few areas. For example, many studies exist regarding online auctions (e.g., Amyx and Luehlfing 2006; Ba, Whinston, and Zhang 2003; Lin, Janamanchi, and Huang 2006; Vishwanath and Barnett 2005) and online communities (e.g., Leimeister, Ebner, and Krcmar 2005; Lueg 2003; Tan, Lin, and Urquhart 2006; Yap 2002). However, there have been very few articles devoted to areas outside of those two realms. In particular, there is a lack of research regarding other methods for conducting C2C e-commerce, such as in chat rooms. In addition, a research stream in the area of trust in C2C e-commerce has only just begun (see Jones and Leonard 2008; Strader and Ramaswami 2002; Sutanonpaiboon and Abuhamdieh 2008), but much more is needed to fully understand this aspect. With so few categories being studied in the C2C e-commerce realm, the opportunity exists to determine areas for future studies in C2C e-commerce. One study has sought to determine areas of research in e-commerce. Wareham, Zheng, and Straub (2005) conducted an analysis of critical themes in e-commerce research. They identified auctions as one major domain in e-commerce research, but they made no distinction between B2C, B2B, or C2C auctions. This distinction needs to be made, since a B2B auction is clearly much different from a C2C auction. In addition to auctions, all venues for participating in C2C e-commerce need to be researched. One way to identify the gaps in the research and to present a justification for future C2C e-commerce studies is by conducting a review of the literature. The purpose of this work is to identify those areas that have been addressed in the IS literature regarding C2C e-commerce and those areas that still need to be assessed. In order to accomplish this, articles are reviewed from a sample of information systems (IS) journals. The following sections will discuss the approach used in this study to review the literature, followed by the results of the analysis and a discussion and conclusion.

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LITERATURE REVIEW APPROACH


E-commerce is discussed and researched in many disciplines. Because of the increased emphasis on e-commerce, there has also been the addition of e-commerce-specific journals in many disciplines, such as the International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, Journal of Strategic e-Commerce, and Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce. Therefore, there are a tremendous number of articles that could be reviewed regarding e-commerce. Given the multitude of articles available, this analysis does not assess e-commerce research in all disciplines. In order to have a manageable, yet meaningful, sample, the study began with the IS journals. Given that there are also a multitude of IS journals that could be assessed, the first review was the list created by Wareham and colleagues (2005) in their analysis of critical themes in e-commerce research. Their list was developed based on the mainstream IS journals. Given that the list represented the journal discipline that was the focus of this study, their list was chosen for adaptation for this study. However, since their study was published in 2005 and only assessed journals through 2003, there were many additional e-commerce specific journals in the past several years that were not assessed by Wareham and others. Therefore, e-commerce journals were also added that may not have existed in the previous study, such as the International Journal of E-Business Research (which began in 2005). A total of 35 journals are reviewed, including both academic and professional journals. A list of the total articles reviewed by journal and year of publication can be found in table 1. The years 19972009 were assessed. This time period represents before e-commerce became common in the literature as well as a substantial period after e-commerce had developed into its own research stream. It should be noted that the first e-commerce mini-track at the Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS) was in 1997, indicating that interest in e-commerce research began around that time. In order to allow for many domains to be researched in the e-commerce area, as many years as possible were gathered. The sample consisted of 22,303 articles. The literature search consisted of scanning the abstracts of each journal article within the specified years, looking for terms such as e-commerce, e-business, online auctions, C2C e-commerce, and so forth. The number of e-commerce-related articles was determined first, and then, from those e-commerce articles, the number of C2C e-commerce-specific articles was determined. The abstracts were reviewed and classified by both authors. If the article could not be classified based on the abstract alone, the complete article was reviewed to determine appropriate classification. In the event that there was a disagreement regarding the classification, both authors read the abstract or article and then

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discussed the proper classification. After appropriate discussion, the authors would come to an agreement regarding the article in question. An inter-rater reliabilities test was conducted. Using Cohens Kappa, table 2 was developed. This statistic adjusts raw agreement figures to account for the possibility of the agreement occurring by chance (Wareham et al. 2005, 2). As table 2 shows, the Kappa value is 0.641. This meets the threshold of 0.6, which is considered substantial (Landis and Koch 1977).

ANALYSIS
The classification of articles as e-commerce was by far the most challenging aspect of this research. For this study, e-commerce is defined as the transaction of buying and=or selling by electronic means. e-Commerce can entail many domains, such as B2B, B2C, strategy, technology adoption, and so forth. However, the word Internet does not necessarily imply that e-commerce is involved. Table 3 lists the total e-commerce articles by journal and year of publication. As the table indicates, 2,291 of the total 22,303 articles published can be classified as e-commerce (9.74 percent). Next, the C2C e-commerce-specific articles were identified from those classified as e-commerce. C2C e-commerce is defined as the process of buying and=or selling between two or more consumers. However, the actual payment and exchange of goods=services does not have to occur electronically. The transaction contact, transfer of information, and agreement on terms can all occur online, while the actual payment can be offline. Some articles clearly indicated that C2C e-commerce was being studied. Others required a thorough read of the abstract or article to identify if C2C e-commerce was involved. Words such as online community and online auction required further investigation to determine if C2C e-commerce was being studied. Table 4 lists the total C2C e-commerce articles by journal and year of publication. Two hundred eleven of the total 2,291 e-commerce articles are classified as C2C e-commerce (10.86 percent).

FINDINGS
C2C e-commerce has been researched and published in IS journals to some extent, and the percentage of published articles does seem comparable to the amount of overall e-commerce articles in IS journals (9.74 percent of e-commerce articles published in IS journals as compared to 10.86 percent of C2C e-commerce articles of the total e-commerce articles). However, there are still many areas in the C2C e-commerce arena that can and should be studied.

TABLE 1 Total Articles by Journal and Year of Publicationa 1997 61 29 308 0 6 40 61 0 40 0 23 64 107 98 72 42 22 70 20 38 269 0 17 44 49 0 52 0 24 54 95 76 70 47 22 49 23 29 289 44 19 46 63 0 39 0 24 76 104 80 63 53 23 42 22 27 268 31 15 34 65 0 34 0 27 52 135 92 70 37 28 41 24 29 312 61 13 28 53 23 32 5 18 56 190 120 63 49 18 37 24 28 307 46 9 26 48 19 31 15 21 56 164 100 70 46 27 38 27 27 315 88 14 29 60 17 25 14 25 61 186 92 73 73 30 38 17 59 56 67 64 77 71 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 79 29 295 70 14 27 86 20 31 9 23 59 241 124 72 70 20 42 20 2005 52 28 319 89 18 24 81 17 35 4 23 60 213 102 68 62 33 39 21 2006 36 27 291 80 21 23 157 18 29 4 45 35 296 158 78 79 30 34 23 2007 48 36 279 109 28 21 167 16 22 8 58 39 221 151 81 56 34 31 23 2008 48 27 294 69 16 28 158 14 31 6 49 39 213 174 97 62 26 30 25 2009 48 29 388 92 21 31 120 15 16 3b 41 41 239 182 87 59 28 26 29

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Academy of Management Executive (renamed Academy of Management Perspectives) California Management Review Communications of the ACM Communications of the AIS Database for Advances in Information Systems Decision Sciences Decision Support Systems Electronic Commerce Research Electronic Markets e-Service Journal European Journal of Information Systems European Management Journal Harvard Business Review IEEE Computer IEEE Internet Computing Information & Management Information Society Information Systems Management Information Systems Research

International Journal of E-Business Research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 21 25 23 20 International Journal of Electronic Business 0 0 0 0 0 0 26 44 36 30 36 33 31 International Journal of Electronic Commerce 20 19 26 23 24 22 22 27 23 27 21 20 20 Journal of Computer Information Systems 30 60 52 52 58 55 61 52 45 61 50 47 49 Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 26 21 17 22 19 20 Journal of Electronic Commerce Research 0 0 0 13 13 24 13 21 23 15 17 20 17 Journal of Information Systems 6 7 9 28 7 21 18 17 17 19 15 23 9 Journal of Information Technology 22 24 31 20 15 21 14 16 18 24 37 25 28 Journal of Internet Commerce 0 0 0 0 0 32 19 30 17 37 25 23 16 Journal of Management Information Systems 41 36 29 35 34 36 34 35 40 31 40 41 37 Journal of Organizational Computing and 12 13 14 17 15 15 14 14 14 17 15 14 15 Electronic Commerce Journal of Strategic Information Systems 14 14 21 15 16 13 15 17 18 14 18 17 14 Journal of the Association for Information Systems 0 0 0 12 8 7 15 18 14 25 33 31 33 Management Science 121 137 115 110 115 107 112 141 136 141 135 151 142 MIS Quarterly 20 20 22 22 16 16 22 24 28 42 30 36 42 MIT Sloan Management Review 31 29 34 29 75 76 76 72 68 68 63 50 70 Total 1,380 1,349 1,425 1,423 1,591 1,600 1,731 1,885 1,824 2,053 2,010 1,979 2,055

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a Articles fitting any of the following listed descriptions were excluded from the count for all tables in this article: executive summaries, letters to the editor, commentaries, interviews, sidebars, news briefs, elections, editorials and guest editorials, book reviews, special issue announcements, obituaries=tributes, editorial notes, author replies, and conference information. b Data is missing for Fall 2009 for this journal.

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TABLE 2 Measurement of Inter-rater Reliability with Kappa Statistic Value Measurement of kappa agreement Number of valid cases 0.641 100 Asymp. std. error 0.148 Approx. T 6.562 Approx. sig. .000

There are currently three main areas of research in C2C e-commerce: general C2C, online auctions, and online communities. Each of these main areas is discussed below. Additionally, there are many other areas in C2C e-commerce that should be researched; those areas are discussed in the next section.

C2C
The articles considered to be general C2C e-commerce cover vast topics, but no one topic was substantial enough to be considered its own topic. For example, Strader and Ramaswamis (2002) article, The value of seller trustworthiness in C2C online markets, Jones and Leonards (2008) article, Trust in consumer-to-consumer electronic commerce, and Sutanonpaiboon and Abuhamdiehs (2008) article, Factors influencing trust in online consumer-to-consumer (C2C) transactions, all deal with trust in C2C online markets. These three articles are a first step toward understanding the dimensions of trust in this arena, but are not substantial enough to provide a complete understanding. Hennig-Thurau and Walsh (20032004) examined electronic word-ofmouth in C2C e-commerce and found that consumers read online articulations to save in decision-making time and to make better buying decisions, and Chu and Liao (2008) proposed a conceptual model of consumer (C2C) online resale behavior. Zhao, Fang, and Whinston (2008) also proposed online mediation services for C2C e-commerce to eliminate asymmetric information. Jones and Leonard (2007) examined satisfaction in C2C e-commerce and found the technology acceptance model, transaction cost analysis, and service quality to all impact satisfaction in C2C e-commerce. Other researchers focused on a particular C2C market. For example, Chen and colleagues (2007) studied C2C e-commerce in China and indicated that the marketplace needs to be tailored to the Chinese culture. Overall, 23 of the 211 C2C e-commerce articles can be classified as general C2C e-commerce.

Online Auctions
Articles in the C2C online auctions area discussed items such as the use of reputation systems with online auctions, trust among buyers and sellers in

TABLE 3 Total e-Commerce Articles by Journal and Year of Publication 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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Academy of Management Executive (renamed Academy of Management Perspectives) California Management Review Communications of the ACM Communications of the AIS Database for Advances in Information Systems Decision Sciences Decision Support Systems Electronic Commerce Research Electronic Markets e-Service Journal European Journal of Information Systems European Management Journal Harvard Business Review IEEE Computer IEEE Internet Computing Information & Management Information Society Information Systems Management Information Systems Research International Journal of E-Business Research International Journal of Electronic Business International Journal of Electronic Commerce Journal of Computer Information Systems Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations Journal of Electronic Commerce Research Journal of Information Systems Journal of Information Technology Journal of Internet Commerce Journal of Management Information Systems Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce Journal of Strategic Information Systems Journal of the Association for Information Systems Management Science MIS Quarterly MIT Sloan Management Review Total 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 18 0 1 1 1 4 7 3 8 0 1 0 0 16 2 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 1 0 1 0 0 76 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 36 0 1 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 68 0 7 4 0 0 3 0 26 0 1 4 1 1 1 0 0 5 1 0 0 19 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 2 2 0 0 1 0 86 2 16 4 0 0 12 0 28 0 1 3 4 5 5 5 0 7 0 0 0 16 2 0 5 3 4 0 4 7 0 4 1 0 6 144 5 10 4 0 1 9 12 21 6 0 5 1 2 3 6 1 11 4 0 0 17 4 0 11 0 2 0 3 6 0 2 0 0 13 159 1 13 5 3 3 4 13 26 0 4 5 0 2 10 9 0 2 12 0 0 24 11 0 23 11 1 23 1 5 4 3 2 2 3 225 3 28 11 3 1 11 11 15 9 4 4 0 5 13 4 9 12 1 0 17 14 2 9 10 1 3 13 5 8 1 3 16 2 2 250 1 5 5 6 1 5 17 23 6 4 7 1 3 10 14 0 2 6 0 20 20 4 26 19 1 0 23 7 5 1 2 11 3 2 260 1 9 3 3 4 8 8 22 1 3 3 0 3 9 12 2 10 7 6 26 23 4 17 14 0 3 13 9 4 2 0 20 0 1 250 1 4 8 1 1 26 6 12 0 4 0 0 2 9 18 3 4 6 9 22 15 5 13 13 0 0 21 7 6 2 1 10 3 1 233 1 5 2 2 4 15 5 10 0 7 0 2 1 8 7 1 2 5 11 14 14 6 16 11 0 4 13 11 8 2 0 4 5 1 197 1 1 1 0 1 10 6 11 0 1 1 2 1 9 6 0 1 5 16 14 12 6 12 18 0 1 16 14 3 0 3 3 4 1 180

0 3 3 6 1 10 3 2 0 1 0 1 5 5 13 1 2 2 4 18 12 9 5 14 0 0 10 6 10 3 1 8 4 1 163

TABLE 4 Total C2C e-Commerce Articles by Journal and Year of Publication 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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Academy of Management Executive (renamed Academy of Mgmt Perspectives) California Management Review Communications of the ACM Communications of the AIS Database for Advances in Information Systems Decision Sciences Decision Support Systems Electronic Commerce Research Electronic Markets e-Service Journal European Journal of Information Systems European Management Journal Harvard Business Review IEEE Computer IEEE Internet Computing Information & Management Information Society Information Systems Management Information Systems Research International Journal of E-Business Research International Journal of Electronic Business International Journal of Electronic Commerce Journal of Computer Information Systems Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations Journal of Electronic Commerce Research Journal of Information Systems Journal of Information Technology Journal of Internet Commerce Journal of Management Information Systems Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce Journal of Strategic Information Systems Journal of the Association for Information Systems Management Science MIS Quarterly MIT Sloan Management Review Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 18 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 3 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 18 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 11 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 7 1 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 26 0 0 0 0 1 1 4 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 26 1 1 2 0 0 9 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 31 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 18 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 22

0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 2 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 17

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online auctions, and methods of participating in online auctions. Online auctions have been studied more extensively, with 123 articles having been published. While there is still more to learn regarding C2C online auctions, this area of research has been popular and will continue to be studied and is, therefore, represented in the IS literature. For example, Vishwanath and Barnett (2005), Stafford and Stern (2002), and Ward and Clark (2002) studied auctions from eBay in order to understand bidding patterns and the effects of information on bidding; Amyx and Luehlfing (2006) studied the winners curse that occurred when online auctions and electronic retailers were linked together to form a parallel sales channel. A comparison of C2C and B2C online auctions has also been conducted, with an examination of the winners curse for both (Oh 2002). Additionally, Ba and colleagues (2003) studied the use of third parties to build trust in an online auction environment, and Lin and others (2006) examined reputation mechanisms in a C2C online auction.

Online Communities
Sixty-five articles have been published regarding online communities. These articles discuss the use of online communities in C2C e-commerce. Discussions of feedback are included among these articles. Leimeister and colleagues (2005) studied trust-enabling mechanisms in virtual communities for cancer patients. Yap (2002) investigated elements in an online community that encouraged people to visit and participate, and he used his findings regarding social forces to explain the growth in online communities and e-commerce. Tan and colleagues (2006) studied design preferences for virtual communities in two cultural groups (United States and China) and found that differences do exist. Also, Lueg (2003) studied knowledge sharing in online communities, and he attempted to show the potential power of online communities in knowledge sharing for e-businesses. The study of online communities has become more popular in the last few years with the advent of Facebook and other similar sites. However, there is still much that is unknown regarding transactions in these communities. For example, how is trust formed between members? Do transactions center on the theme of the online community, for example, automobiles? Table 5 provides a summary of example articles in each of the C2C e-commerce categories. The table is organized to show examples only and does not represent all articles categorized in each. The next section will discuss topics in C2C e-commerce that should be investigated further in order to provide a broader perspective of this transaction market. All of the below topics have been researched in the e-commerce area, but need to be tailored to C2C e-commerce.

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TABLE 5 C2C e-Commerce Categories and Example Literature C2C (in general) Chen et al. (2007) Chu and Liao (2008) Hennig-Thurau and Walsh (20032004) Jones and Leonard (2007) Jones and Leonard (2008) Strader and Ramaswami (2002) Sutanonpaiboon and Abuhamdieh (2008) Zhao et al. (2008) Amyx and Luehlfing (2006) Ba et al. (2003) Lin et al. (2006) Stafford and Stern (2002) Vishwanath and Barnett (2005) Ward and Clark (2002) Leimeister et al. (2005) Lueg (2003) Tan et al. (2006) Yap (2002)

Online auctions

Online communities

DISCUSSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH


While C2C e-commerce research could be considered to be well covered in the IS research given its market size, there are still vast opportunities to expand our understanding in this growing segment. There are general e-commerce topics that should be specifically studied for C2C e-commerce. Below is a representation of the findings from the sample of e-commerce articles that were studied as well as a discussion of how research in these areas can be beneficial to the understanding of C2C e-commerce. Table 6 provides a summary of these categories with the supporting literature for each.

e-Commerce Curriculum
There have been a few articles (19 from this sample of e-commerce articles) discussing curriculum for teaching e-commerce (McCubbrey 1999; Menasce 2000). However, in the description of the courses for these programs, C2C e-commerce is not mentioned. For example, Ngai (2004) discussed the teaching and learning of e-commerce platforms at a Hong Kong University, Foster and Lin (2004) discussed the use of modules to teach students about e-commerce and e-business, and Moshkovich and colleagues (2005) examined e-commerce content in business=IS curriculum in the United States. With the rise in C2C e-commerce sales, it is quickly becoming a strong segment with many individuals choosing to support themselves and their families through such sales. As such, this area should be included in any e-commerce curriculum. Researchers should determine the most viable aspects of C2C e-commerce and advise institutions on the aspects to be taught in an e-commerce program. This research could also be extended

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TABLE 6 Categories and Example Literature for Future C2C e-Commerce Areas of Study e-Commerce curriculum e-Malls=e-markets e-Service Foster and Lin (2004) McCubbrey (1999) Menasce (2000) Feldman (2000) Galbreth et al. (2005) Hopkins and Kehoe (2006) Currie and Parikh (2006) Massad, Heckman, and Crowston (2006) Ray and Ray (2006) Bigne, Ruiz, and Sanz (2005) Chan et al. (2002) Cyr, Head, and Ivanov (2006) Fan (2009) Harris, Rettie, and Kwan (2005) Lee and Benbasat (2004) Ahn and Hong (2004) Gregg (2009) Josang, Ismail, and Boyd (2007) Aldiri, Hobbs, and Qahwaji (2008) Belanger, Hiller, and Smith (2002) Gefen, Karahanna, and Straub (2003) Jones, Leonard, and Riemenschneider (2009) Kassim and Abdullah (2008) Kim and Benbasat (2003) Kim, Ferrin, and Rao (2009) Lowry et al. (2008) Benbunan-Fich and Fich (2005) Flavian, Guinaliu, and Gurrea (2006) Ho (2006) Kim and Stoel (2004) Moshkovich, Mechitov, and Olson (2005) Ngai (2004) Koppius, van Heck, and Wolters (2004) OReilly and Finnegan (2005) Rust and Kannan (2003) Xue, Heim, and Harker (2005) Lin and Wang (2006) Ngai et al. (2007) Raisinghani and Haneback (2002) Tarasewich, Nickerson, and Warkentin (2002) Li and Hitt (2008) Qu, Zhang, and Li (2008) McKnight, Choudhury, and Kacmar (2002) Palvia (2009) Riemenschneider, Jones, and Leonard (2009) Tan and Thoen (2002) Van Slyke, Belanger, and Comunale (2004, 2009) Wingreen and Baglione (2005) Long et al. (1999) Muylle, Moenaert, and Despontin (2004) Pearson and Mykytyn (2009) Zviran, Glezer, and Avni (2006)

Mobile commerce

Online feedback and recommendation systems Trust

Web design

to determine if such curriculum should be contained in courses outside the IS discipline, such as a business entrepreneurship course.

e-Malls and e-Markets


e-Malls and e-markets provide a rich arena for businesses to buy and sell from one another. The technology allows for dynamic pricing to reflect the real-time environment. These markets have greatly increased companies abilities to find products at prices that suit their needs. This is done in a way that also allows sellers to find buyers who are willing to provide them with the highest revenue potential (Feldman 2000). In this sample, 150 e-commerce articles address e-malls and e-markets. For example, Hopkins and Kehoe (2006) identified steps for developing an effective, intuitive, and user-friendly mechanism for making an e-marketplace selection, and OReilly and Finnegan (2005) developed a conceptual model to explain

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the performance of e-markets. Galbreth and colleagues (2005) studied how to grow participation in e-markets and found pricing policies of the e-marketplace intermediary to affect the rate of participation growth. Koppius and others (2004) examined the effects of online product presentation in an electronic marketplace and found deficient product representation to partially explain reduced pricing in electronic markets. A C2C e-commerce site could imitate these markets. C2C e-commerce can occur through any interaction online, yet little is known as to how the consumers meet. Is it by chance that one consumer sees a product posted to a discussion board that they are interested in? Do consumers seek out each other? Perhaps an e-marketplace could serve as a way for these consumers to connect. Researchers could find ways to better develop the sites to reflect various categories where consumers are looking to transact. This could be based on product type, price, age group, or social setting.

e-Service
e-Service is a way for businesses to provide customized service offerings to their customers. It focuses on trying to increase a customers relationship or service portfolio with the business (Rust and Kannan 2003). In this sample, 178 articles address e-service. Xue and colleagues (2005) proposed a model to evaluate the effectiveness and the efficiency of e-services. They focused on meeting the consumer needs from two perspectivesas the consumer and as the co-producer. Currie and Parikh (2006) developed a model for understanding value creation in Web services from the perspective of the provider, and Ray and Ray (2006) examined the strategic benefits for small- and medium-sized enterprises to utilize publicly available Web services. e-Services have also been examined as to customer satisfaction (Massad et al. 2006). This type of service could also be utilized in C2C e-commerce. Perhaps a consumer who has sold to another consumer continues to send information regarding other products he has to offer. This grows the relationship between the consumers, potentially increasing trust of transactions. Researchers would need to examine such services in a C2C setting in order to determine if trust is being impacted.

Mobile Commerce
In this e-commerce sample, 80 articles studied mobile commerce (MC). MC has been defined as all commercial transaction activities conducted through wireless or mobile devices (Tarasewich et al. 2002). Basically, this involves completing transactions on some wireless device, such as a cell phone or PDA. Lin and Wang (2006) and Cyr and colleagues (2006) studied customer loyalty in MC. They found customer loyalty in MC to be affected by trust, habit, customer satisfaction, perceived value, usefulness, ease of use, and

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enjoyment. Raisinghani and Hanebeck (2002) investigated the change in the exchange relationship in B2B e-commerce as a result of MC. This change in relationship can also be applied to C2C e-commerce, as well as MC usability issues (Chan et al. 2002). MC has also been studied with regards to differences depending on culture, age, and social class (Bigne et al. 2005; Harris et al. 2005); integration with radio frequency identification (RFID) technology (Ngai et al. 2007); useful customer interface design (Lee and Benbasat 2004); and speech-enabled MC (Fan 2009). Consumers may find the ability to utilize their cell phones to track an online auction very helpful. Not only can they see what the auction is doing, but they also can utilize MC to complete a bid transaction. This can be done in any of the e-commerce segments, but it is particularly important in C2C e-commerce. While much research has been completed regarding MC, specific research regarding the impact on C2C transactions has not been conducted. Researchers should determine the aspects of MC that need to be addressed in this segment.

Online Feedback and Recommendation Systems


Many online auction sites have already begun using online feedback and recommendation systems. Research on these types of systems has shown that consumers are heavily influenced by the results (Josang et al. 2007; Qu et al. 2008). These systems can be used to provide feedback on businesses or individuals and have, to a large extent, been studied in e-commerce (43 articles from this sample). Ahn and Hong (2004) explored technical aspects of recommendation systems by studying collaborative filtering and determining how scalability issues can be resolved, and Li and Hitt (2008) explored online product reviews and found it to be important to have positive word-of-mouth for new products early in the market. Gregg (2009) also found Amazons five-star response system to be useful when determining which sellers to purchase from. Researchers will want to determine if there are different types of feedback systems that work better in the C2C e-commerce segment as opposed to the other e-commerce segments. Perhaps level of detail, quantity of results, and variety of comments may affect consumers differently in C2C e-commerce as opposed to the other areas. It appears that this segment is particularly important in online auctions and has been covered in that area; however, feedback in discussion forums, online communities, and so forth should also be considered.

Trust
Trust encompasses 123 studies from this e-commerce article sample. When trust is introduced in an e-commerce research model, many researchers do

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not specify the realm in which trust is being assessed. For example, trust in a B2B e-commerce transaction would have different influencers than trust in a C2C e-commerce transaction. Clearly, trust issues differ depending on the type of relationship and the players involved. Wingreen and Baglione (2005); Belanger and others (2002); McKnight and colleagues (2002); and Van Slyke and co-workers (2009) examined vendor trustworthiness and technology trustworthiness in e-commerce. They found situational normality to have a causal relationship with both vendor trustworthiness and technology trustworthiness; for vendor trustworthiness to affect consumer willingness to provide information; for structural assurance, perceived Web vendor reputation, and perceived Web site quality to affect consumer trust in the vendor; and for behavior-related beliefs to influence trust, respectively. Additionally, Gefen and others (2003) studied trust in online vendors and found trust to be just as important as ease of use and usefulness in online commerce; Kim and others (2009) and Aldiri and colleagues (2008) studied trust for B2C e-commerce and found trust to affect a consumers purchase decision; and Kassim and Abdullah (2008) and Palvia (2009) found trust to be imperative in creating customer loyalty. Tan and Thoen (2002) studied trust in B2B e-commerce. They argued that control mechanisms are needed and must be understood for trust to exist. Van Slyke and colleagues (2004) studied trust in online shopping for B2C e-commerce. They found consumer trust in online merchants to be positively related to intentions to make purchases from the online merchants. Jones and others (2009) and Riemenschneider and co-workers (2009) studied trust of the Web in general. They found disposition to trust and years of Web experience to influence Web trust and trust to influence the Webs perceived individual impact, respectively. Additionally, Kim and Benbasat (2003) proposed a trust framework (personal information, product quality and price, customer service, and store presence) for online stores, and Lowry and colleagues (2008) examined brands and Web site quality and found both to be important for increasing initial trust. Trust has been studied in e-commerce extensively (as can be seen from the above-referenced articles), but very little is known about C2C e-commerce trust beyond online auctions and the three C2C e-commerce trust studies previously mentioned. How does one consumer trust another enough to send a payment before he has received the product? This happens every day, and if you ask that consumer why they trust, it will be hard for him to answer. C2C e-commerce needs just as extensive studies as B2B and B2C regarding trust. Intentions to trust should be examined along with variables that invoke intention to trust; years of experience with C2C e-commerce should be studied for a possible influence on trust, and reputation of the consumer (in terms of reviews) should be considered. Additionally, personality traits, the human persona, and so forth, must be examined in C2C e-commerce trust. There is a huge realm of possibilities for this dynamic area.

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Web Design
The biggest threat to e-commerce is not security of personal information, but perceptions of consumers (Jones and Leonard 2008). How consumers perceive another party is heavily influenced by how they view the Web site (Long et al. 1999), with many consumers abandoning a Web site based on a poor experience. This may be especially true in the C2C e-commerce segment. Organizations may have other avenues for customers to receive their trusting cues, such as reputation of past transactions; however, an individual consumer may only have the outward appearance of his Web site or Web ad to provide that feedback. Ninety-eight articles dealt with Web design in our e-commerce sample. For example, Ho (2006) studied Web experience for users and their perceptions towards personalization. He found that users who are actively involved with a Web site are not motivated enough by personalization services to switch from one site to another. Although the study does not specifically study C2C Web site users, personalization services are directly applicable and should be studied in a C2C e-commerce environment. Also, Benbunan-Fich and Fich (2005) studied Web site redesigns and found that refining a Web site did not produce significant valuation adjustments for the company. Pearson and Mykytyn (2009) also examined Web site functionality and determined that some functions are more important than others when considering the customer service life cycle stages. Additionally, much research has been conducted regarding Web site design and its affect on user satisfaction, perceived quality, usability, and so forth (Flavian et al. 2006; Kim and Stoel 2004; Muylle et al. 2004; Zviran et al. 2006). Researchers will want to determine the best aspects to be included on a Web site to gain the most favor with other consumers. For example, the display of the product on the online auction Web site and the format of the corresponding description could determine if a product sells, especially when many similar or identical products are also available through the same online auction. Future research is needed to explore the areas of C2C e-commerce outlined above. While many articles mention C2C e-commerce, they do not specifically address the issues that are inherit only to C2C e-commerce. Generic e-commerce models are not enough. Understanding the differences between the types of e-commerce is part of the battle, but more important is the knowledge that there are areas of C2C e-commerce that should be covered further.

LIMITATIONS
This study provides a literature review of C2C e-commerce research and identifies areas for conducting future research of C2C e-commerce in the IS discipline by reviewing a sample of IS journals as well as numerous

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e-commerce specific IS journals; however, this study did not review all IS and all e-commerce journals. Additionally, this study did not consider journals outside of the discipline, such as marketing and management, which also publish e-commerce-related articles. Furthermore, the study authors did not read entire articles for all 22,303 abstracts reviewed. Instead, a more manageable assessment was chosen by reviewing the abstracts first and reading full articles only as needed. Therefore, it is possible that some articles may have inadvertently been omitted because the terms e-commerce or C2C e-commerce, or similar terms, were not specifically included in the title or abstract.

CONCLUSION
This study conducted a literature review of IS journals in order to determine what has and has not been researched regarding C2C e-commerce. After reviewing the abstracts of 35 IS journals between the years 19972009, the findings indicate that C2C e-commerce appears to be covered at an adequate level given the multitude of additional topics that also need to be studied in the e-commerce area. However, after further review, the majority of those C2C articles are centered on online auctions or online communities. Therefore, this literature review indicates that the C2C e-commerce segment is not being researched extensively beyond those two areas. The study also identifies areas of future study, such as C2C e-commerces involvement with feedback and recommendation systems, curriculum, and trust, which should be addressed regarding C2C e-commerce. For researchers, the findings provide a roadmap of areas to pursue in future C2C e-commerce studies. Researchers will want to focus their efforts on filling these areas with rich studies on the C2C segment. For practitioners, this study provides a broad overview of the research in C2C e-commerce. e-Commerce users can utilize this study by referencing the multitude of material provided regarding C2C e-commerce as they begin making decisions for themselves in this area. They can also take the findings and discussion material and apply them to their future endeavors.

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