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PROTOZOA Protozoa may be detined as 'microscopic, acellular animalcules existing singly or in .

colonies without tissues and organs, having one or more nuclei. GENERAL CHARACTERS : 1. The protozoans are small, microscopic animalcules. 2. They are simplest and primitive of all animals with very simple body organisation, i. e., Protoplasmic grade of organisation. 3. They are acellular animals, without tissues and organs . 4. Body naked or covered by pellicle but in some forms body is covered with shell 5. Protozoans are solitary or colonial, in colonial forms the individuals are alike and independent. 6. Body protoplasm is differentiated into an outer ectoplasm and inner endoplasm 7. Protozoans may have one or more nuclei; nuclei may be monomorphic or dimorphic 8. Locomotory organelles are pseudopodia, flagella, cillia or none. 9. Nutrition may be may be holozoic(animal-like), holophytic(plant-like), saprozoic or parasitic 10. Digestion intracellular and takes place inside the food vacuoles. 11. Respiration occurs by diffusion through general body surface. 12. Excretion also occurs through general body surface but in some forms through a temporary opening in the ectoplasm or through a permanent pore, the cytopyge 13. Contractile vacuole perform osmoregulation in fresh water form and also help in removing excretory products. 14. Reproduction asexual or sexual; asexual reproduction occurs by binary fission, multiple fission, budding or sporulation and or sexual reproduction is performed by gamate formation or conjugation 15. Life cycle often exhibit alternation of generation.

PORIFERA The Porifera may be defined as "asymmetrical or radially symmetrical multicellular organisms" with cellular grade of organisation without well-defined tissues and organs; exclusively aquatic, mostly marine, sedentary, solitary or colonial animals with body perforated by pores, canals and chambers through which water flows; with one or more internal cavities lined with choanocytes and with characteristic skeleton made of calcareous spicules, siliceous spicules or horny fibres of spongin". GENERAL CHARACTERS: 1. Porifera are all aquatic, mostly marine except one family Spongillidae which lives in freshwater. 2. They are sessile and sedentary and grow like plants. 3. Body shape is cylinder like, asymetrical or radially symmetrical. 4. The body surface is perforated by numerous pores called the ostia through which the water enters the body and through one or more large openings called the oscula, the water passes out. 5. Multicellular body consisting of outer ectoderm and inner endoderm with an intermediate layer of mesenchyme, therefore they are diploblastic animals. 6. The interior space of the body is either hollow or permeated by numerous canals lined with choanocytes. The interior space of sponge body is called spongocoel 7. Characteristic skeleton consisting of either fine flexible horny fibres of spongin, calcareous spicules or siliceous spicules 8. Mouth absent, digestion intracellular,excretory and respiratory organs absent. 9. The nervous and sensory cells are probably not differentiated. 10. The sponges are monoecious; reproduction both by asexual and sexual methods. 11. Asexual reproduction occurs by buds and gemmules

12. The sponges possess high power of regeneration. 13. Sexual reproduction occurs by ova and sperms; fertilization is internal but cross-fertilization occurs as a rule. 14. Cleavage holoblastic,.development indirect through a free-swimming ciliated larva called amphiblastula or Parenchymula 15. The organisation of sponges has been grouped into three main types ,Viz., Ascon type, Sycon type and leuconoid type due to simplicity in some forms and complexity in others. ADVANCED CHARACTERS OF PORIFERA OVER PROTOZOA Porifera possesses some more advanced characters over the Protozoans. 1. Porifera has the multicellular organization . 2. Division of the labour occurs among the cells of the body 3. Because of multicellular organization distinct male and female gametes are formed by this group of animals . 4. Segmantation of the zygote occurs as in other multicellular organisms. 5. Distinct multicellular embryo is formed from the zygote.