# SCE3105 PHYSICS IN CONTEXT Practical Investigation Involving PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge) of the Primary School Science Curriculum

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PCK 1 2 3

Topic Newton’s laws of motion Buoyancy, floating and sinking Equilibrium and thermometry

Page 2-3 4-5 6

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Practical Investigation Involving PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge) of the Primary School Science Curriculum. PCK 1: Work and machines To build a simple and compound machine.

Learning Outcome: Materials:

Inclined plane, load, pulley and block of wood Activity: Procedures: 1. Set up two sets of inclined plane as shown below: Building a simple and compound machine.

0.5 m m
10 cm

1m block of wood

10 cm

Try pushing the same load up both inclined plane. Which is easier? When you double the length of an inclined plane, you _____________ the mechanical advantage.

2.

Build 4 sets of pulley with the same load attached as shown below.

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Which set of pulley requires the least force to lift the load? Explain. 3. Identify a problem eg how to pluck fruits from a tall tree. Plan and design a model that incorporate simple machines to overcome the problem. Explain how you can improve your model’s mechanical advantages and efficiency. 4. Write a report on the above 3 activities based on the following format: Identifying the problem, forming a hypothesis, testing your hypothesis, recording and analyzing your data and conclusions. Mastery Of Knowledge And Skills Questions: 1. At the end of these activities, answer the following questions: (a) What have you learnt from these activities? (10 marks) (b) Which part of the primary science curriculum teaches this particular topic? (2 marks)

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(c)

Discuss how you can use these activities in your teaching and learning? (10 marks)

(d)

What was the role of the teacher in these activities? (3 marks)

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Practical Investigation Involving PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge) of the Primary School Science Curriculum. PCK 2: Buoyancy, floating and sinking To investigate conditions essential for buoyancy, floating

Learning Outcome: and sinking

Materials: Two measuring cylinder, saline solution, 2 eggs, water trough, and 5 balls of plasticene (each 50g). Activity : Procedures: 1. Fill two measuring cylinder full, one with tap water and the other with saline solution. Place an egg in each and observe what happens. 2. Take 3 balls of plasticene, each measuring 50g. Fashion 2 of the balls into the shape of a boat, one with low sides and the other with higher sides. 3. Place the 50g ball and the two boats into a water trough filled ¾ full with water. Record your observations. 4. Now take another two 50g ball and slowly place each of them at the centre of each boat. Record your observations. 5. State the inferences for each of these observations. Investigating why a body float or sink in a body of liquid

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6.

Write a report on the above activity based on the following format: Identifying the problem, forming a hypothesis, testing your hypothesis, recording and analyzing your data and conclusions.

Questions: 1. 2. 3. Why does an object float or sink in a body of liquid? Can an object which is denser than water float on water? Explain. State the factors which affect the buoyancy of an object.

Mastery Of Knowledge And Skills Questions: 1. At the end of these activities, answer the following questions: (a) What have you learnt from these activities? (10 marks) (b) Which part of the primary science curriculum teaches this particular topic? (2 marks) (c) Discuss how you can use these activities in your teaching and learning? (10 marks) (d) What was the role of the teacher in these activities? (3 marks)

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Practical Investigation Involving PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge) of the Primary School Science Curriculum. PCK 3: Equilibrium and thermometry-x yah buat To design and build effective food containers to keep your

Learning Outcome: things hot and cold. Materials:

Food (hot chicken and coco-cola), polystyrene sheet (1 m X 1m), ice, cardboard box, brown paper, cotton wool, plastic bags, sawdust, coconut husk, glue, string, and cellophane tape. Activity : Building food containers to keep your things hot and cold.

Procedures: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. First identify the materials that are good heat insulators. Design food containers to keep your food hot and cold. Draw your plans. Explain your plans. Make your models. Test them out. Write a report on the above activity based on the following format: Identifying the problem, forming a hypothesis, testing your hypothesis, recording and analyzing your data and conclusions. Questions:
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1. 2.

Are your models effective? Why or why not? We use a refrigerator to keep our food cold. How does it perform this task?

Mastery Of Knowledge And Skills Questions: 1. At the end of these activities, answer the following questions: (a) What have you learnt from these activities? (10 marks) (b) Which part of the primary science curriculum teaches this particular topic? (2 marks) (c) Discuss how you can use these activities in your teaching and learning? (10 marks) (d) What was the role of the teacher in these activities? (3 marks)

SCE3105 PHYSICS IN CONTEXT Practical Activities

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Practical 1 2 3 4 5 6

Topic Measurement in everyday life Force and motion Making music – Sound quality Microscopes and telescopes Electrical circuits Induction and transmission of electric current

Page 8-9 10-11 12-13 14 15-16 17-19

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Practical 1: Measurement in everyday life (4 hours). Learning Outcome: of instruments. Instruments & Materials: Meter rule, vernier calipers, micrometer screw-gauge, beam balance, electronic balance, a piece of copper wire, pencil, hair and a teaspoon of sand. Activity 1: Procedures: 1. By using the meter rule, vernier calipers and micrometer screw-gauge, measure the diameter of a pencil, piece of copper wire, and a strand of your own hair. 2. 3. Repeat your measurements. Tabulate your results. Measuring length To take and compare measurements using different types

Mastery Of Knowledge And Skills Questions: 1. Of the three measuring instruments used to measure length, which is the most precise? Which is the most accurate? (4 marks) 2. If a student uses a meter rule to measure the thickness of an object, it is not realistic for him to record the reading as 4.32 cm. Explain why? (3 marks)

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3.

What instrument would you use to measure the thickness of a piece of paper? Explain. (4 marks)

Activity 2: Procedures: 1.

Measuring mass

By using the beam balance and the electronic balance, measure the mass of a piece of pencil and a teaspoon of sand.

2. 3.

Mastery Of Knowledge And Skills Questions: 1. Of the two measuring instruments used to measure mass, which is the most precise? Which is the most accurate? Explain. (6 marks) 2. Name another balance which can be use to measure mass in everyday life. (2 marks) 3. What have you learnt from the above two activities?
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(6 marks)

NOTE: 1. 2. is 9:34:45 a.m. is very precise (the time is given to the second) but if the watch runs several minutes slow, then this value isn’t very accurate. 3. if the clock has no second hand, it isn’t very precise. A grandfather clock might be very accurate (i.e. it displays the correct time) but The accuracy of a measured value: how close it is likely to be to the true value. Precision is not the same as accuracy. A cheap digital watch that says the time

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Practical 2: Force and motion Learning Outcomes: 1) 2) Materials: A wooden block, a ping-pong ball, a stretched wire on a wooden block, a beaker and a book Activity 1: Procedures: 1. Place a wooden block on the floor. Give the wooden block a push and record your observations. 2. 3. Throw a ping-pong ball up into the air. Record your observations. Tie a piece of wire tightly between 2 nails hammered into a piece of wood. Touch the wire. Record your observations. 4. Place a ping-pong ball into a beaker of water. Try pushing the ball into the water. Record your observations. 5. 6. Place a book on the palm of your hand. Record your observations State the inferences for each of these observations. Identifying different types of force in different contexts. To identify the different types of force in different contexts. To measure the acceleration of a freely falling object.

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Results : Activity 1 : Situation a) Push a wooden block on floor. • Observations • Wooden block was moved onwards. Wooden block became warm and produce b) Threw a pingpong ball up into the air • sound. The ping pong ball fell downwards.

• •

Inference It is because there was repulsive force. Because when the wooden block was moved, there was frictional force between the wooden block and the floor. This is occurred because there was gravitational force or weight and the gravitational force is more than the upthrust. It is because the existence of tension on the wire.

c) Tie a piece of wire tightly between 2 nails hammered into a piece of wood. d) Place a ping pong ball into a beaker of water.

The wire was difficult to move and it was too strained.

The ping pong ball emerged and moved upwards on the surface of the water. The book was static and not moves.

It is because the upthrust is the bigger than the gravitational force (weight).

e) Place a book on the palm of your hand.

It is because the normal force is balance with the weight. The palm exerted a force upwards to support the weight of the book.

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Activity 2: Materials:

Measuring the acceleration of a freely falling object.

A ticker-timer, ticker tape, clamp, power pack, connecting wires, masses of 300 g, 450 g and 600 g and cello tape Procedures: 1. Place a chair on top of a table. Clamp a ticker-timer onto the upper side of the chair. 2. Fix a piece of ticker tape through the ticker-timer and then cellotape a 300g mass to the tape. 3. 4. 5. 6. Switch on the ticker-timer and let the mass fall freely downwards. Cut the tape into 2 dots strips and arrange them to form a graph. Repeat step 3 by using masses of 450 g and 600 g. For each case, build a graph from their strips and then determine their accelerations.

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Mass =

300 g

V

= = =

4.8 cm 0.048 m 0.02 s 2.4 ms-1

u

= = =

0.8 cm 0.008 m 0.02 s 0.4 ms-1

10 dots x 0.02 s = 0.2s

a

= = =

v–u t 24 ms-1 - 0.6 ms-1 0.2 s 10 ms-2 #

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Mass =

450 g

V

= = =

5.6 cm 0.056 m 0.02 s 2.8 ms-1

u

= = =

1.2 cm 0.056 m 0.02 s 0.6 ms-1

10 dots x 0.02 s = 0.2s

a

= = =

v–u t 2.8 ms-1 - 0.6 ms-1 0.2 s 10 ms-2 #

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Mass =

600 g

V

= = =

6.0 cm 0.060 m 0.02 s 3 ms-1

u

= = =

1.5 cm 0.015 m 0.02 s 0.75 ms-1

10 dots x 0.02 s = 0.2s

a

= = =

v–u t 3.0 ms-1 - 0.75 ms-1 0.2 s 11.25 ms-2 #

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Mastery Of Knowledge And Skills Questions: 1. Are the values of acceleration of the different masses obtained equal to g (acceleration due to gravity on earth)? Explain.

Velocity :

Displacement, X Time, t

Acceleration :

(Final velocity, V) – (initial velocity, U) Time, t

• •

Masses of 300 g : 10 m s-2 Masses of 450 g : 11 m s-2 Masses of 600 g : 11.25 m s-2 The value of acceleration of the different masses obtained are not equal to g.

This is because all free falling objects on earth accelerate downwards at rate of 9.8 ms-2.

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2.

What conclusion can be made about the force acting on a freely falling

object? Answer : A free falling object in an object that is falling under the sole influence of gravity. The free falling object does not encounter the air resistance.

3.

If this experiment was done on the moon, will the value of acceleration of

the different masses obtained be equal to g? Explain. The acceleration of gravity on the moon is 1/6 of the acceleration of gravity of the earth. The acceleration of gravity on the moon would be : a = 9.8 m s-2 6 a = 1.63 m s-2

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4.

What have you learnt from the above two activities? From the activity 1, I have learned about many thing about force act upon the

object around us, for example like a normal force, upthrust, gravitational force or weight, frictional and tension. In activity 2, I also have learnt about te free falling object. The falling object is an object that is falling under the sole influence of gravity. Any object that is being acted upon only be the force of gravity is said to be in a state of free fall. Free falling objects do not encounter air resistance. All free falling objects on earth accelerate downwards at a rate of 9.8 m s-2. Increasing force tends to increase acceleration while increasing mass tends to decrease acceleration.

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Practical 3: Sound quality (4 hours).

Learning Outcome: To demonstrate and explain how different sound quality is produced. Materials: 3 identical glass bottles, water, tuning fork, bowl, meter rule, and pencil. Activity : Procedures: 1. Fill a bowl with water. Tap a tuning fork against the sole of your shoes. Place the tip of one of the prongs in the water. What do you observe? 2. Tap the tuning fork again. Predict what will happen when you hold it near your ear. What do you hear? 3. Put water into 3 identical glass bottles so that bottle A is ¼ full, bottle B is ½ full and bottle C is ¾ full. 4. Measure the distance from the top of each bottle to the surface of the water. Then measure the height of the water in each bottle. Record your measurements. 5. Predict the difference in pitch you will hear if you blow across the top of each bottle in turn. Give reasons for your predictions. 6. Test your prediction by blowing over the top of each bottle. Listen to the sound you produce. Describe each sound in terms of its pitch – low, medium or high. Record the pitch of each sound. Demonstrating the production of different sound quality.

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7.

When you gently tap the side of a bottle with a pencil, you produce another sound. Do you think the sound will be similar to or different from the sound produced by blowing across the top of the bottle? Explain.

8.

Test your prediction by tapping on the side of each bottle with a pencil. Record the pitch of each sound.

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Hipotesis : 1. Semakin kuat tuning fork di ketuk, semakin banyak percikan air mengenai dinding botol. 2. Semakin tinggi paras udara, semakin tinggi kelantangan bunyi yang di hasilkan. 3. Semakin tinggi paras air, semakin tinggi kelantangan bunyi yang dihasilkan. Variables : 1. (i) (ii) (iii) Pemboleh ubah dimanipulasi Pemboleh ubah bergerak balas Pemboleh ubah dimalarkan : : : kekuatan ketukan jumlah percikan air saiz tuning fork

2.

(i) (ii) (iii)

Pemboleh ubah dimanipulasi Pemboleh ubah bergerak balas Pemboleh ubah dimalarkan

: : :

Paras air kelantangan bunyi bekas air

3. (i) (ii) (iii)

Pemboleh ubah dimanipulasi Pemboleh ubah bergerak balas Pemboleh ubah dimalarkan

: : :

Paras air kelantangan bunyi kekuatan ketukan

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1. Tapping of tuning fork Bahan bahan : Tuning fork dan bikar Langkah – langkah : 1. Fill a bowl with water. Tap a tuning fork against the sole of your shoes. Place the tip of one of the prongs in the water. What do you observe? 2. Tap the tuning fork again. Predict what will happen when you hold it near your ear. What do you hear? Keputusan : Keadaan Tap a tuning fork against the sole of your shoes. Place the tip of one of the prongs in the water Tap the tuning and hold near ear Pemerhatian Percikan air mengenai sekeliling dinding bekas air. Bunyi kedengaran.

2. Blowing and tapping the bottle

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Metarial : 3 identical glass bottle, water, meter rule and pencil. Langkah – langkah :
1. Put water into 3 identical glass bottles so that bottle A is ¼ full, bottle B is ½ full

and bottle C is ¾ full. 2. Measure the distance from the top of each bottle to the surface of the water. Then measure the height of the water in each bottle. Record your measurements. 3. Predict the difference in pitch you will hear if you blow across the top of each bottle in turn. Give reasons for your predictions. 4. Test your prediction by blowing over the top of each bottle. Listen to the sound you produce. Describe each sound in terms of its pitch – low, medium or high. Record the pitch of each sound. 5. When you gently tap the side of a bottle with a pencil, you produce another sound. Do you think the sound will be similar to or different from the sound produced by blowing across the top of the bottle? Explain. 6. Test your prediction by tapping on the side of each bottle with a pencil. Record the pitch of each sound.

Result : a) Ukuran Botol A (1/4 penuh) B (1/2 penuh) C (3/4 penuh) Ukuran Ruangan bahagian atas dalam botol 14.777 9.85 4.923

Paras air (cm) 4.923 9.85 14.777

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b) penghasilan bunyi 1. Blowing the bottle Botol A Ramalan Bunyi yang rendah Inferen Kerana ruang udara didalam botol yang panjang dan banyak menyebabkan gegaran partikal yang perlahan untuk menghasilkan B Bunyi yang sederhana bunyi. Kerana paras udara dan air adalah sama banyak dan menghasilkan getaran yang sama banyak dan sederhana untuk penghasilan C Bunyi yang tinggi bunyi. Kerana ruang udara didalam botol adalah sedikit dan menyebabkan getaran yang laju dalam penghasilan bunyi.

2. Tapping the bottle Botol A Ramalan Penghasilan bunyi yang tinggi B C Penghasilan bunyi yang sederhana Penghasilan bunyi yang rendah Inferens Kerana getaran botol yang kuat dan water dampens the vibration untuk menghasilkan bunyi. Kerana getaran yang sama antara air dan botol. Kerana getaran botol yang rendah dan water dampens the vibration untuk menghasilkan bunyi. Tapping the bottle with the stik causes the glass of the bottle to vibrate and produce sound. The water dampens these vibrations. So, the less water in the bottle, the faster the bottle vibrates and the higher the picth. Kesimpulan :

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1. hipotesis diterima. Semakin kuat pukulan menggunakan tuning fork maka semakin banyak air yang tepercik sekitar dinding bekas. When blowing, the higher the air column, the higher the pitch produced. When tapping, the higher amount of water, the lower pitch produced.

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Mastery Of Knowledge And Skills Questions: 1. In procedure 6, which bottle produced the highest pitch? What caused the change in pitch from bottle to bottle? • Bootle C produced the highest pich. The change in picth from bootle to be bottle is caused by the colum of air that causes the vibration of particle to produce sound. 2. Describe how the sound is produced in procedure 8? Which bottle produced the highest pitch? What caused the change in pitch from bottle to bottle? • Sound is produced by the vibrations of a body of the bottle and is transmitted through the water particle. The bottle A is produced the highest pitch. The change in the pitch from the bottle to the bottle is caused by the differences of the amount on water particle inside the bottle that dampens the vibration of bottle to produce sound.

3.

Compare the sounds you produce by blowing across the top of the bottles with those produced by tapping on the bottles. What was the difference in pitch for each bottle? Explain your observations. • The sound produces by blowing : o The longer the air column, the lower the pitch produced. o The shorter the air column, the higher the pitch produced. • The blowing across the top of the bottle cause the air particle in the bottle vibrate to produce sound. The longer the amount air column, the lower the picth produced. • The sound produce by tapping :

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o The lower the amount of water, the higher the picth produced. o The higher the amount of water, the lower the picth produced.

The tapping on the bottle cause the water in the bottle vibrate to produce sound. The higher the amount of water particle, the lower the picth produced.

4.

By looking at your data table, how does the length of the column of air affect the pitch? How does the height of the water affect the pitch? • The longer the column of the air, the lower the pitch of sound produced. This happen because the lower amount of the air molecule vibrates when the bottle are blew. Those are different from tapping the bottle. The higher the amount of water, the lower the pitch produced.

5.

What conclusions can you draw about the relationship between the sounds produced and the medium through which the sound travels? • The least the medium that sound travels, the higher the pitch produced.

6.

THINK: Violins are stringed instruments. Flutes and clarinets are woodwinds, and trumpets are brass instruments. What do all these musical instruments have in common?

Violins, flutes and trumpets are musical instruments. All of them produce sound but in different types of medium. All of them need a medium to produce sound by vibrating the molecule involves either air molecules or instruments molecules.

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Practical 4: Microscopes and telescopes (4 hours). Learning Outcome: To determine the conditions essential for increasing the

magnification power of both the astronomical telescope and compound microscope. Materials: Mounting rod, plasticene, lens holders, convex lenses (+2.5 D, +7 D, +14 D, + 20 D) Activity 1: Building a simple astronomical telescope.

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Procedures: 1. You are given converging lenses of different focal lengths. Describe with the help of a diagram how you set up a simple astronomical telescope. 2. Build your simple astronomical telescope and test it out by focusing on a distant object. Determine the magnification of your telescope. 3. How can you increase the magnification power of the telescope? Test out your idea.

Activity 2:

Building a compound microscope.

Procedures: 1. You are given converging lenses of different focal lengths. Describe with the help of a diagram how you set up a compound microscope. 2. Build your compound microscope and test it out by focusing on a tiny object. Determine the magnification of your compound microscope. 3. How can you increase the magnification power of the compound microscope? Test out your idea.

Mastery Of Knowledge And Skills Questions: 1. State the functions of both the objective and eye lenses of the astronomical telescope. (4 marks)

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2.

How do you increase the magnification power of both the astronomical telescope. and compound microscope? (5 marks)

3.

What precautions have you taken in undertaking the above projects? Why? (8 marks)

4.

What have you learnt from the above two activities? (8 marks)

Practical 5: Electrical circuits (4 hours). Learning Outcome: To determine the advantages and disadvantages of series

and parallel circuits. Materials: Battery holder, batteries, several insulated wires, ammeter, voltmeter and light bulbs Activity 1: Procedures: 1. Construct both the circuits shown below by using a battery holder, a battery, several insulated wires and two light bulbs for each circuit. Building a simple series and parallel circuits.

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2. 3.

Connect all wires and observe the light bulbs. Now connect the ammeter and voltmeter in both the above circuits. Construct a suitable table to record the readings.

4.

Now unscrew one bulb in each circuit. Observe the remaining bulbs and also record down the readings of both the ammeter and voltmeter in each circuit.

5.

Now connect another bulb in series to circuit A. Observe the remaining bulbs and also record down the readings of both the ammeter and voltmeter.

6.

Now connect another bulb in parallel to circuit B. Observe the remaining bulbs and also record down the readings of both the ammeter and voltmeter.

Mastery Of Knowledge And Skills Questions: 1. What happens to the bulbs in a series circuit if one of the bulbs burns out? Explain. (3 marks) 2. What happens to the bulbs in a parallel circuit if one of the bulbs burns out? Explain. (3 marks) 3. You are building a string of lights using several bulbs. How is the brightness of the lights related to whether you connect the bulbs in series or in parallel? (4 marks)

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4.

What happens to the bulbs in a series circuit if another bulb is connected in series to it? Explain (3 marks)

5.

What happens to the bulbs in a parallel circuit if another bulb is connected in parallel to it? Explain. (3 marks)

Activity 2: Procedures: 1.

Building a combined series and parallel circuit

Construct the circuit shown below by using a battery holder, a battery, a switch, several insulated wires and three light bulbs.

2. 3.

Connect the switch and observe the light bulbs. Now connect the ammeter and voltmeter to measure the current and potential difference through each bulb. Construct a suitable table to record the readings.

4.

Now remove bulb 1. Observe the remaining bulbs and also record down the readings of both the ammeter and voltmeter.

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5.

Now remove bulb 2. Observe the remaining bulbs and also record down the readings of both the ammeter and voltmeter.

Mastery Of Knowledge And Skills Questions: 1. What happens to the other bulbs in the circuit when bulb 1 is removed? Explain. (3 marks) 2. What happens to the other bulbs in the circuit when bulb 2 is removed? Explain. (3 marks) 3. Would you want the circuits in your home to be series or parallel circuits or a combination of both? Explain your reasoning. (3 marks) Practical 6: Induction and transmission of electric current (4 hours). Learning Outcome: Materials: Copper coil, galvanometer, and magnets, Activity 1: Procedures: 1. Wind a copper coil of 10-20 turns around two fingers. Connect their free ends to a sensitive galvanometer.
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To investigate the factors which affect the magnitude of the

current induced.

Investigating induced currents.

2.

Investigate what happens when the: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) North pole of magnet is moved into the coil? North pole of magnet is moved out of the coil? North pole of magnet is moved very quickly into the coil? coil is moved over the magnet? magnet is kept stationary in the middle of the coil?

3. 4.

Repeat procedures 2 (a) to (e) using the South pole of the magnet. Now wind a copper coil of 40 turns around two fingers. Connect their free ends to a sensitive galvanometer. Repeat procedures 2 (a) to (e) using the North pole of the magnet.

5.

Make a stronger magnet by using two or three magnets fastened together with their North poles all at the same end. Repeat procedures 2 (a) to (e) with this stronger magnet.

Mastery Of Knowledge And Skills Questions: 1. What happens when a magnet is moved into the coil? Explain. (2 marks) 2. What happens when a magnet is kept stationary in the middle of the coil?

Explain. (2 marks) 3. What happens when a magnet is moved very quickly into the coil? Explain. (2 marks) 4. What happens when a stronger magnet is moved into the coil? Explain.

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(2 marks) 5. What happens when a magnet is into a coil with more turns? Explain. (2 marks) 6. What must you do to increase the magnitude of the current induced? (1 marks) Activity 2: Building a step-up and a step-down transformer To demonstrate the use of transformers in the transmission

Learning Outcome: Materials:

of electricity.

PVC covered copper wire, soft iron C-core, a.c. power supply, switch, bulb, a.c. ammeter, a.c. voltmeter, and C-core clamp. Procedures: 1. Wind about 10 turns of PVC covered copper wire around a soft iron C-core and connect the coil to a a.c. power supply and a switch. This coil is referred to as the primary coil. 2. Wind about 25 turns of wire around another C-core and connect the ends of the coil to a bulb. The diagram below shows how meters are connected to measure the current and the potential difference in the primary coil.

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3.

Now reconnect the meters to measure the current and the potential difference in the secondary coil as shown in the diagram below.

4.

In the above transformer, the number of turns in the secondary is larger than the primary. What is the name of this transformer? Turn on the switch and record your measurements.

5.

Now reverse the connections of both the primary and secondary coils. The number of turns in the secondary is now smaller than the primary. What is the name of this transformer? Turn on the switch and record your measurements.

Mastery Of Knowledge And Skills Questions:

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1.

For a step-up transformer, which current do you expect to be the larger – primary current or secondary current? (1 marks)

2.

How do you measure the power input and power output for the step-up transformer and what are their values? (2 marks)

3.

Calculate the ratio of the power output to power input. What is this ratio called? (2 marks)

4.

In the transmission of electricity, the power loss in each electric cable is calculated by using the formula, Power loss in each cable = I2 R where I is the current and R is the resistance of a cable How can this power loss be reduced? (2 marks)

5.

Explain the role of the step-up transformer in helping to reduce power loss during the transmission of electricity. (2 marks)

6.

For a step-down transformer, which current do you expect to be the larger – primary current or secondary current? (1 marks)

7.

What are the values of the power input and power output for the step-down transformer? (2 marks)

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8.

Explain the role of the step-down transformer in the transmission of electricity. (2 marks)

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