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# IBR CALCULATION

WT/SD 500/F/208

Working Pressure

10.5 Kg/Cm2(g)

Working Temp.

185oC.

## Ref. Drawing Nos.

WT/SD-500/F/8.1 R0
WT/SD-500/F/8.2, Sh.1/2 R0
WT/SD-500/F/8.2, Sh.2/2 R0
WT/SD-500/F/8.2, Sh.3/3 R0
WT/SD-500/F/8.3, Sh.1/2 R0
WT/SD-500/F/8.3, Sh.2/2 R0
WT/SD-500/F/8.3, Sh.3/3 R0
WT/SD-500/F/8.4, Sh.1/2 R0
WT/SD-500/F/8.4, Sh.2/2 R0
WT/SD-500/F/8.5, Sh.1/2 R0
WT/SD-500/F/8.5, Sh.2/2 R0

7
Drum:
1)

Min. UTS of Pl .

= 42 Kg/mm2(g)

## Permissible Stress = f = 0.36 x 42/1.5 = 10.08 Kg/mm2(g)

And, f = UTS / 2.7 = 42 / 2.7 = 15.55 Kg/mm2
Ligament Efficiency:(a)

## For Down Comer :- d = 76.6, P = 410

E =( P-d)/p =(410 76.6)/410 = 0.813

(b)

## For Roof Tubes : - d = 76.6, P = 320

E =( P-d )/p =( 320 76.6) / 320 = 0.760

Taking the minimum of the two, ligament efficiency for further calculations = E = 0.760
I.D. of Shell = 912 20 = 892 mm
Thk. of shell plate = T = 10 mm
W.P. = 2.f.E (T-C) /( D + T-C) Where, C = 0.762 (Constant)
= 2 x 10.08 x 0.760 (10-0.762) / (892 + 10 0.762)
= 0.1570 Kg/mm2
= 15.70 Kg/Cm2(g)
Therefore the thickness (10 mm) of shell plate proposed is adequate for a W.P. of 10.50
Kg/Cm2(g).
2)

## Dished End :- (Reg. 275, 277, 278)

UTS of d / e = 42 kg/mm2, f = 0.36 x 42 / 1.5 = 10.08 Kg/mm2
Thk. of d / e = 12 mm
Thk. of d / e after dishing (considering 12.5% thining )
= 12 0.125 x 12 = 10.50 mm.
r2 = 162 and R2 = 762
R2 = 762 mm, D = 912 mm
h = R2 - (R2 D/2) (R2 + D/2 2 r2)

Eqn. 75

## = 762 - (762 912/2) (762 + 912/2 2 x 162)

= 762 306 x 894
= 762 17.49 x 29.89
= 762 523 = 239
h/D ratio = 239 / 912 = 0. 262
ContdP/2-

: 2 :
Opening in the d/e is elliptical by (345 x 446) mm
Max. dia of opening = 446 mm
Thk. of Comp. pad = 10 mm
Width of Comp. pad = 50 mm
Thk. of M.H. Ring = 20 mm
Ht. of M.H. Ring below the inside surface of d/e = 28 mm
Ht. of M.H. Ring above the inside surface of d/e = 52 mm
Additional Conditions to Comply :(i) T/D 0.1, Actual T/D = 10.5 / 912 = 0.011
(ii) d/D 0.5, Actual d/D = 446 / 912 = 0.489
The conditions are therefore satisfied.
Max. limit of area of reinforcement :(a) L1 (Max.) = 2RT for the width of reinforcing plate.
(b) L2 (Max.) = d.Tt for the height of nozzle.
R int. tadine of spherical part of the dished end C.R T = 762 10.5 / 2 = 756.75 mm
Tt = Actual thk. of nozzle = 20 mm
L1 = Width of Compensating = 50 mm
L2 = Height of nozzle ring = 80 mm
So (a) L1 = 2 RT = 2 x 756.75 x 10.5 = 126.06
Hence, the width provided ( 50 mm ) is within the limit.
(b) L2 (Max.) = d Tt = 446 x 20 = 94.45
Actual height provided (80 mm) is within the limit.
Hence O.K.
Calculation for Imaginary Diameter (d1)
d = Actual dia of opening in head.
T = Min. thk. in Head.
A= Effective Cross Section of Reinforcement.
W.P. = 10.50 Kg/Cm2, UTS of d/e = 42 Kg/mm2
UTS of Nozzle & Comp. Pad = 31 Kg/mm2
Contd..P/3-

: 3 :
f = 10.08 Kg/mm2 (For D/E)
E = 0.95
te = Equivalent thk. of nozzle for opening of 406 mm at a pressure of 10.50 Kg/mm2
C = 0.762
W.P. = 2 x f x E (te c) /( D + t C)
0.105 = 2 x 10.08 x 0.95 x (te 0.762) / (406 + te 0.762) = 19.152 te 14.593/405.2 + te
Or 19.152 te 14.593 = 42.54 + .105
Or 19.04 te = 57.133
Or te = 57.133 / 19.04 = 3.00
te = 3.00 mm
Calculation for Compensation:
(a) Compensation available from Comp. pad = 2 x 50 x 10 = 1000 mm2
(b) Compensation available from Nozzle:h = 2 [ (20 2.76) 52+20 x 28 ]
= 2912.96 2913 mm2
Total Effective Compensating
a + b = 1000 + 2912.96
= 3912.96 mm2
Effective Compensation = A = (a+b) x UTS of Nozzle / UTS of Pl.
= 3912.96 x 31 / 42
= 2888.137 mm2
Imaginary dia = d1 = d A/T = 446 3912.96 / 10.5 = 73.34
Ratio d1/ DT = 73.34 / 912 x 10.5 = 0.7495
h/D = 0.244
Safe factor K as read from fig. 23D of IBR = 1.1
Working Pressure of Dished Ends.
= W.P. = 2 x f x (T-C) / DK (Regn. 278)
= 2 x 10.80 (10.5 0.75) / 912 x 1.1
= 196.56 / 1003.2
= 0.1959 kg/mm2
= 19.59 kg/cm2
Hence the thickness (12 mm) of dished end proposed is adequate for a W.P. of 10.50
kg/cm2(g).
Contd..P/4-

: 4 :

1)

## T.P. & E.P.

t = Thk. of T.P. & E.P. = 16 mm.
b = Internal breadth btn supporting side = 189
c = Constant = 3.413
C1 = Constant = 0.8
f = Permissible Stress = 0.36 x 42 / 1.5 = 10.08 kg/mm2
E = Efficiency of ligament between holes = (160 76.6) / 160 = 0.521
W = Width (Internal) of header = 118 mm
W.P. = c.f (t c1)2 / b2 = 3.413 x 10.08 ( 16 0.8 )2 / (189)2
= 34.40 x 231.04 / 35721
= 0.2224 kg/mm2
= 22.24 kg/cm2
Or
W.P. = 6.25 f.E.t2 / W2
= 6.25 x 10.08 x 0.521 x (16)2 / (118)2 = 8402.688 / 13924
= 0.6034 kg/mm2
= 60.34 kg/mm2
In the calculations the calculated value is higher than the proposed working pressure. So
the selected thickness of plate (16 mm) is safe and adequate for a working pressure of 10.50
Kg/Cm2(g).
2)

Side Ring:
t = 20, f = 10.08 kg/mm2, d = 118, c = 1, k = 0.4
f = 0.36 x 42 / 1.5 = 10.08 kg/mm2
W.P. = f ( t c)2 / d2k
= 10.08 (20 1)2 / (118)2 x 0.4
= 0.653346 kg/mm2
= 65.33 kg/cm2
Hence the size of side ring ( 20 mm thk.) is adequate for a W.P. of 10.50 kg/cm2(g).
ContdP/5-

: 5 :
Calculation for Stay Bar:
Dia of Stay Pin

d = 32

## Permissible Stress = 0.36 x 42 / 1.5 = 10.08 kg/mm2

Load Capacity - 10.08 x /4 (32)2 = 8105.28 kg.
W.P. = Load / Area = 8105 / 160 x 160
= 0.3166125 kg/mm2
= 31.66 kg/cm2(g)
Proposed Working Pressure - 10.50 Kg/Cm2(g).
Hence the proposed stay pin is safe and adequate for a W.P. of 10.50 Kg/Cm2(g).
Working Pressure of B.E. Headers:
1)

## T.P. & E.P.

t = Thk. of t.P. & E.P. = 16 mm.
b = Internal breadth btn supporting side = 154 mm
c = Constant = 3.413
C1 = Constant = 0.8
f = Permissible Stress = 0.36 x 42 / 1.5 = 10.08 kg/mm2
E = Efficiency of ligament between holes =( 140 63.9) / 140 = 0.543
W = Internal Width of header = 118 mm (Max)
W.P. = c.f (t c1) / b2 = 3.413 x 10.08 ( 16 0.8 )2 / (154)2
= 0.335122 kg/mm2
= 33.512 kg/cm2
Or
W.P. = f.E.t2 x 6.25 / W2
When f = 10.08
then W.P. = 6.25 x 10.08 x 0.543 x (16)2 / (118)2
= 0.6289 kg/mm2
= 62.89 kg/cm2
In the calculations the calculated value is higher than the proposed working pressure. So
the selected thickness of plate (16 mm) is safe and adequate for a working pressure of
10.50/Cm2(g).
Contd..P/6-

: 6 :
2)

## Side Ring Plate:

t = 20, f = 10.08 kg/mm2, d = 168, c = 1, k = 0.4
W.P. = f ( t c)2 / d2k
= 10.08 (20 1)2 / (168)2 x 0.4 = 10.08 x 361 / 11289.6
= 0.32232 kg/mm2
= 32.23 kg/cm2
Hence the size of side ring plate ( 20 mm thk. ) is safe and adequate for a W.P. of

10.50
kg/cm2(g).
Calculation for Stay Pins:
Dia of Stay Pin

d = 32

## Permissible Stress = 10.08 kg/mm2.

Load Developed - 10.5 x (140)2 = 2058 kg.
Stress on stay = 2058 / /4 (32)2 = 2.56 kg/mm2 = 256 Kg/Cm2.
Hence the proposed size is adequate for a W.P. of 10.50 kg/cm2(g).
W.P. = Load / Area = 7141.7 / 160 x 160
= 0.2789 kg/mm2
= 27.89 kg/cm2(g)
Proposed Working Pressure - 10.50 Kg/Cm2(g).
Hence the proposed stay pin is safe and adequate for a W.P. of 10.50 Kg/Cm2(g).

## Working Pressure of Tubes:

(a) (Generating, Roof, Riser and Down Comer)
Min. UTS = 31 kg/mm2

## f = 0.36 x 31 / 1.5 = 7.44 kg/mm2

e = Constant = 1
W.P. = 2 x fe ( t c ) / d-t+c

## = 2 x 7.44 x 1 x ( 3.25 0.75 ) / 76.2 3.25 0.75

= 0.5152 kg/mm2
= 51.52 kg/cm2(g)
Contd.P/7: 7 :

(b)

Inbed Tubes:
d = 63.5 , t = 4.06
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1 (4.06 0.75) /(63.5 4.06 + 0.75)
= 0.8183 kg/mm2
= 81.83 kg/cm2(g).
Hence the proposed thickness of tube is safe and adequate for a W.P. of 10.50

Kg/Cm2(g).

## Calculation for Compensation of Stubs (For BE DC) on Drum (Reg. 279)

B.E. Down Comer Stub= 114.3 OD x 8.56 thk.
I.D. of Drum = 892 mm.
e = Constant = 1, Eqv. Thk. of Shell = es
Permissible Stress = f = 7.44kg/mm2, c = constant 0.762 UTS = 31 kg/mm2
f = 0.36 x 31/ 1.5 = 7.44
I.D. of Stubs = 114.3 2 x 8.56 = 97.18
W.P = 2 x f x e (es c )/ ( D + es c)
= 0.105 = 2 x 7.44 x 1 (es 0.762) / (892 + es 0.762)
es = (892 0.762) 0.105 + 2 x 7.44 x 0.762 / ( 2 x 7.44 0.105)
= 7.09 mm.
Compensation Required = x = dn x es
= 97.18 x 7.69 = 689.00 mm2
Let Eqv. Thk. of Nozzle = en
UTS of Nozzle = 31 kg/mm2
fn = 0.36 x 31 / 1.5 = 7.44 kg/mm2
en = (97.18 0.762) x 0.105 + 2 x 7.44 x 0.762 / (2 x 7.44 0.105)
= 1.452 mm.
Thickness of Shell = ts = 10 mm
b = Least Value of 2.5 ts Or 2.5 tn
= 2.5 x 10 Or 2.5 x 8.56

= 25 Or 21.4
Contd..P/8:

8 :

b = 21.4
C1 = Greater of ( ts + 75 ) Or dn / 2
= ( 10 + 75 ) Or 97.18 / 2
= 85 Or 48.59
C1 = 85
Cw = Agregate area of Fillet Weld = 2 x (8.56)2 x
= 73.27 mm2
fn / ts = 7.44/10 = 0.744
Compensation = Available = Y = 2 ( tn - en ) b. fn / ts + 2. tn . b. fn / ts + 2. ( ts es) C1 + Cw
= 2 x ( 8.56 1.452 ) 21.4 x 0.744
+ 2 x 8.56 x 21.4 x 0.744
+ 2 ( 10 7.09 ) 85 + 73.27
= 1066.88 mm2
Y > X
Hence there is no need of extra compensation.

## Calculation for Compensation of Stubs (For BER) on Drum (Reg. 279)

B.E. Down Comer Stub = B.E. Riser Stub = 141.3 OD x 9.53 thk.
I.D. of Drum = 892 mm.
e = Constant = 1, Eqv. Thk. of Shell = es
Permissible Stress = f = 7.44 kg/mm2, c = constant 0.762
I.D. of Stubs = 141.3 2 x 9.53 = 122.24
W.P = 2 x f x e (es c ) / ( D + es c)
= 0.105 = 2 x 7.44 x 1 (es 0.762) / (892 + es 0.762)
es = (892 0.762) 0.105 + 2 x 7.44 x 0.762 / ( 2 x 7.44 0.105)
= 7.10 mm.
Compensation Required = x = dn x es
= 122.24 x 7.10 = 867.90 mm2
Let Eqv. Thk. of Nozzle = en
Contd.P/9: 9:

## UTS of Nozzle = 31 kg/mm2

l = 0.36 x 47 / 1.5 = 7.44 kg/mm2
en = ( (122.24 0.762) x 0.105 + 2 x 7.44 x 0.762) / (2 x 7.44 0.105)
= 1.63 mm.
Thickness of Shell = ts = 10 mm
b = Least Value of 2.5 ts Or 2.5 tn
= 2.5 x 10 Or 2.5 x 9.53
= 25 Or 23.825
b = 23.825
C1 = Greater of ( ts + 75 ) Or dn / 2
= ( 10 + 75 ) Or 122.24 / 2
= 85 Or 61.12
C1 = 85
Cw = Agregate area of Fillet Weld = 2 x (9.53)2 x
= 90.82 mm2
fn / ts = 7.44 / 10 = 0.744
Compensation = Available = Y = 2 ( tn - en ) b. fn / ts + 2. tn . b. fn / ts + 2. ( ts es) C1 + Cw
= 2 x ( 9.53 1.63 ) 23.825 x 0.744
+ 2 x 9.53 x 23.825 x 0.744
+ 2 ( 10 7.10 ) 85 + 90.82
= 1201.73 mm2
Y > X
Hence there is no need of extra compensation.

Contd.P/10-

: 10 :

Heating Surface:
1)

## Generating Tubes:d = 76.2, l = 6050, n = 81

H.S. = x 76.2 x 6050 x 81 / 106 = 117.313

2)

## Roof Tubes :- (Half Exposed)

d = 76.2, l = 5779, n = 6
HS2 = x 76.2 x 5779 x 6 /( 2 x 106 ) = 4.149 M2

3)

## Down Comer :- ( Half Exposed )

d = 76.2, l = 739, n = 5
HS3 = x 76.2 x 739 x 5 /( 2 x 106 ) = 0.442 M2

4)

## Part of Drum :- ( Quarterly Exposed )

d = 912, l = 1960
HS4 = x 912 x 1960 / 106 x 4 = 1.40

5)

## In Bed Tubes:d = 63.5 , l = 2360, n = 38

HS5 = x 63.5 x 2360 x 38 / 106 = 17.89

= 123.30 + 17.89
= 141.194 M2

## Calculation for Safety Valve :- (Reg. 293)

Total Evaporation = 30 x 141.194 = 4235.7 Kgs/Hr. ( Take it as minimum 5000 Kgs/Hr.
from
IBR for Safety Valve Calculation).
E = C A P Where C = 0.1 Makers Certificate.
5000 = 0.1 x A x 11.5

## A = 5000/ 0.1 x 11.5

= 4347 cm2 ( For two sides )
Contd.P/11-

: 11 :

## As area is always found in mm2 as follows from IBR 293.

So area is 4347 mm2 (For two sides )
For one side area is
= 4347 / 2 = 2173.9 mm2
As we know that area = /4 d2
So /4 d2 = 2173.9
d2 = 2173.9 x 4 / 3.141
d2 = 2768.41
d = 2768.41
= 52.61 mm
Hence, the provision of 2 D.P. Safety Valve is safe and adequate.

## FOR PRESSELS PVT. LTD.

( S. K. MULLICK )

bp/sm/pkb.

291,293,288,287,Revised-287,290,187,Eco.,295

2- 12-19-26- 37-39-47-56-57

CALCULATION SHEET
BOILER MAKERS NO.

WT/SD-300/F/291

WORKING PRESSURE

17.5 KG/CM2(G)

WORKING TEMPERATURE

2070 C.

## HYD. TEST PRESSURE

26.25 KG/CM2(G)

REFERENCE DRAWINGS

WT/SD-300/F/25.1,R0
WT/SD-300/F/25.2,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-300/F/25.2,Sh.2/2, R0
WT/SD-300/F/25.3,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-300/F/25.3,Sh.2/2, R0
WT/SD-300/F/25.4,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-300/F/25.4,Sh.2/2, R0
WT/SD-300/F/25.5,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-300/F/25.5,Sh.2/2, R0

:: 2 ::
WORKING PRESSURE CALCULATION FOR DRUM:
Max. Working Temp.<4540 C.
Min. UTS of Plate
=
47 kg/mm2
Stress = Et/1.5
=
0.36 x 47/1.5 =
Or F = UTS/2.7
=
47/2.7
=
Min. Stress for calculation = f = 11.28 kg/mm2

11.28 kg/mm2
17.41 kg/mm2

i)

For RoofTubes

ii)

## For Down Comer Tubes:

E

=
=

76.6, p = 320
(p-d) / p = (320-76.6)/320 = 0.760

d
p

=
=

76.6,
330

## Min. Ligament Efficiency for calculation = E = 0.760

I.D of shell = D = 912 20 = 892 mm, T = 10 mm. ,C=0.762
W.P. of shell

= 2.f.E (T c)/(D + T c)
= 2 x 11.28 x 0.760(10 0.762)/(892 + 10 0.762)
= 0.1757 kg/mm2
= 17.57 kg/cm2(g)

## W.P. CALCULATION FOR DISHED ENDS: (Reg.275, 277, 278)

U.T.S. of d/e =
47 kg/mm2
Thk. of d/e =
12 mm.
Thk. after dishing (12.5% thining)
= T = 10.5 mm.
R1 = 762 mm, r2 = 162 mm, D = 912 mm
External Height of d/e =
h
=
R2 - {(R2 - D/2)(R2 + D/2 2 r2)} (Eqn.75)
=

0.262

## Opening in dished end in elliptical.

Max.dia of opening = d

446 mm.

## Comp. plate thk.

Width of compensation
Thk. of nozzle(M.H.Ring)
Height of nozzle( do-)
Height above of d/e

:: 3 ::
10 mm.
50 mm.
20 mm.
80 mm
55 mm.

Ratio (h/d) =

239/912

Contd.P/3=
=
=
=
=

## The conditions are therefore satisfied.

Max. limit of area of reinforcement:a)

L1

(2RT)

b)

L2

(d.Tt )

=
=

## Int. Radious of spherical part of the dished end

C.R 1/2T = 762 5.25 = 756.75 mm.

T1
L1
L2

=
=
=

## Actual thk. of nozzle

Width of compensation
Height of nozzle ring

a)

So, L1 (max.) =
(2RT)
=
(2 x 756.75 x 10.5)
Hence, provided width is, 50 mm is within the limit.

=
=
=

20 mm.
50 mm
80 mm.

b)
L2 (max.)
=
(d.Tt) =
(446 x 20)
=
Actual height provided (80 mm) is within the limit. Hence O.K.
CALCULATION FOR (d1), THE IMAGINARY DIAMETERS:
d
T
A

=
=
=
=

## actual dia of opening in head.

min. thk. in head.
Effective cross section of reinforcement
actual C/S of comp. plate + C / S of nozzle

94.45

= 126.06

## support the pressure.

Thickness necessary to support the
Pressure in respect of the nozzle:
W.P

=
=

## 47 kg/mm2 for dished end.

47 kg/mm2 for nozzle & comp. pad.
Contd.P/4:: 4 ::

E
Te

=
=

0.95
Equivalent thk. of nozzle for opening of
406 mm at a pressure of 10.5 kg/cm2
0.762

W.P =
0.175 =
Or te =

2 x f x E (te c)/(D + t c)
2 x 11.28 x 0.95 (te 0.762)/(406 + te 0.762)
4.10 mm.

es

8.10 mm.

=
=

a)

## Comp. available for compensation pad.

a

b)

2 x 10 x 50 = 1000 mm2

b

= 3773.6 mm2

## Effective compensation = A = (a + b) x UTS of Nozzle/UTS of Plate.

= 3773.6 x 47/47
= 3896.4 mm2
Imaginary dia d1
d1/(DT)

= d A/T
= (446 3773.6 / 10.5) = 86.61
= 86.61/ (912 x 10.5) = 0.885

h/D= 0.262.
Shape factor K as read from fig.23D = 1.2
W.P. of dished end =
2.f(T c)/D.K =

(Regn.278)

=
=
=

0.2010 kg/mm2
20.10 kg/cm2

## Selected thickness of dished end is 12 mm safe for W.P. of 17.50 kg/cm2(g)

Contd.P/5:: 5 ::
CALCULATION OF W.P. OF HEADER BOX:(Reg.340)
1)
T.P. & E.P:
t
=
thk. of tube plate of hdr. Box
=
b
=
int. breadth between supporting sides =
c
=
constant
=
c1
=
constant
=
f
=
permissible stress = 0.36 x 37/1.5
=
E
=
Efficiency legament between holes =
W
=
Width (internal) of hdr.
=
W.P =

c.f.(t c1)/b2

Or W.P=

6.25 f.E.t2/W2 =
=
=

16 mm.
189
3.413
0.8
8.88 kg/mm2
160 76.6/160 = 0.521
118
.

## = 3.413 x 8.88 (16 0.8)2 / (189)2

= 0.1960 mm2
= 19.60 kg/cm2
6.25 x 162 x 8.88 x .521/(118)2
0.5316 kg/mm2
53.16 kg/cm2

In both calculation the value is higher than the proposed working pressure. So the
selected thk. of plate i.e. 16 mm is safe & adequate for a working pressure of 17.50
kg/cm2(g).
2)

## SIDE RING PLATE CALCULATION:

Side ring plate thk.
=
20 mm.
p
=
Permissible stress = 0.36 x 37/1.5
d
=
least width between walls of hdr.
c
=
constant
e
=
W.P

=
=
=
=

## f(t c)2/d2k {Eqn.89(a)}

8.89 (20 1)2/{(118)2 x 0.4}
0.5756 kg/mm2
57.56 kg/cm2

## Selected thk. of side ring plate is safe.

CALCULATION FOR STAY PINS:

= 8.88 kg/mm2
= 118.
= 1 mm
=1

## Dia of stay pin

Stress on each stay

= d = 32
= 10.5 x 16 x 16//4 x (32)2

=
=

3.342 kg/mm2
334.2 kg/cm2

Alternately,
Load = 8.88 x /4 x (32)2
= 7141.7 kg.
W.P = 7141.72/(160 x 160)
= 0.2789 kg/mm2
= 27.89 kg/cm2
Contd.P/6:: 6 ::
Min. UTS of Stay Bar = 37 kg/mm2
Permissible stress = 0.36 x 37/1.5
Proposed working pressure

= 8.88 kg/mm2
= 888 kg/cm2
= 17.50 kg/cm2(g)

Hence, the provided dia 32 mm of stay bar is adequate for a working pressure of 17.50
kg/cm2(g)
CALCULATION OF W.P. FOR B.E. HEADERS (Reg.340)
1)
Tube Plate & End Plate.
t
c
c1
b
w
f
E

## = thk. of T.P & E.P =

16 mm.
= constant
=
3.413
= constant
= 0.8
= internal breadth between supporting sides =
154 mm
= internal width of header
=
168 mm.
= permissible stress =( 0.36 x 37)/1.5 =
8.88 kg/mm2
= efficiency of ligament between holes = (140 63.9)/140 = 0.543

## W.P = c.f (t 1)2 / b2 =

=
=
Or W.P.=( f.E.t2 x 6.25)/W2

## 3.413 x 8.88 (16 0.8)2/(154)2

0.2953 kg/mm2
29.53 kg/cm2
={ 6.25 x 8.88 x 0.543 x (16)2}/(168)2
= 0.2734 kg/mm2
= 27.34 kg/cm2
In both the calculations, the calculated value is higher than the proposed working pressure. So
the selected thickness of plate (16 mm) is safe and adequate for a working pressure of 17.50
kg/cm2(g).
2)

## Side Ring: (Reg.340)f

t = 20,f = 8.88 kg/mm2,d = 168, C = 1, K = 0.4
W.P =
f (t c)2/(d2K)
=
8.88 (20 1)2/{(168)2 x 0.4}
=
0.2839 kg/mm2
=
28.39 kg/cm2(g)

3)

Hence, proposed size of plate (20 mm) is safe & adequate for a W.P. of 17.50
kg/cm2(g).
Stay Pins:
Dia of stay pin
= 32 mm.
Permissible Stress at each stay= 8.88 kg/mm2
Load developed = 10.5 x (140)2
= 2058 kg.
Stress on stay
= 2058//4(32)2
= 2.56 kg/mm2
= 256 kg/cm2
Hence the proposed size is adequate for a W.P. of 17.50 kg / cm2(g).
Contd.P/7:: 7 ::

## Working Pressure Of Tubes:

Min. UTS
t = thickness
d = 76.2 mm,
Permissible stress = f
c = constant
e = weld efficiency

= 31 kg/mm2
= 0.36 x 31/1.5 = 7.44 kg/mm2
= 0.75
=1

W.P = 2.f x e (t c) / (d t + c)
1)

## Generating, Roof, Riser & Down Comer Tube:

d = 76.2 mm,
t = 3.25 mm.
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1 (3.25 0.75)/(76.2 3.25 + 0.75)
= .5048 kg/mm2
= 50.48 kg/cm2

2)

In Bed Tube:
d = 63.5 mm
t = 4.06
W.P = 2 x 7 x 1 (4.06 0.75)/(63.5 4.06 + 0.75)
= 0.8183 kg/mm2
= 81.83 kg/cm2

3)

## B.E. Riser Tube:

d = 88.9 mm
t = 5.49
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1 (5.49 0.75)/(88.9 5.49 + 0.75)
= 0.8381 kg/mm2
= 83.81 kg/cm2

4)

## B.E.Down Comer Tube:

d = 76.2 mm
t = 3.25 mm.
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1(3.25 0.75)/ (76.2 3.25 + 0.75)
= 0.5048 kg/mm2
= 50.48 kg/cm2
In all the cases the calculated value is more than proposed W.P. Hence, the selected thk. of
tube are adequate for a W.P. of 17.50 kg/cm2
Contd.P/8:: 8 ::
Calculation for compensation of Stubs (for B.E. Down Comer
& Riser) on Drum: (Regn.279)
B.E. Down Comer Stub size

## = 114.3 OD x 8.56 thk.

ID of Drum
=D
= 892 mm.
e
= constant
=1
Eqv. Thk. of shell
= es
Permissible stress = f = 11.28 kg/mm2
C = constant = 0.762
ID of stub
= 141.3 2 x 8.56
=97.18
W.P
= 2 x f x e (es - c)/(D + es c)
Or 0.175
= 2 x 11.28 x 1(es- .762)/(892 + es 0.762)
es =( (892 0.762)0.175 + 2 x 11.28 x 0.762)/(2 x 11.28 0.175)
= 7.74 mm.
Comp. required = X = dn x es = 97.18 x 7.74 = 752.17 mm2
Let Equivalent thk. of nozzle = en
UTS of nozzle
= 47 kg/mm2
f
= 0 .36 x 47/1.5 = 11.28 kg/mm2
en
= ((97.18 - 0.762) x 0.175 + 2 x 11.28 x 0.762)/(2 x 7.44 0.175)
= 1.52 mm
thickness of shell = ts = 10 mm.
b
= least value of 2.5 ts
or 2.5 tn
=
2.5 x 10
or 2.5 x 8.56
= 25 or 21.4
b
= 25
C1
= Greater of ts + 75 or dn / 2

c1
Cw
fn/fs

= 10 + 75 or 97.18 / 2
= 85
or 48.59
= 85
= Agregated area of fillet weld = 2 x (8.56)2 x
= 73.27 mm2
= 11.28/11.28 = 1

Compensation available = Y =

## 2(8.56 1.52) 25 x 1 + 2 x 8.56 x 25 x 1

+ 2(10 7.74) 85 + 73.27

1237.47

Y> X
Hence there is no need of extra compensation.
Contd.9/:: 9 ::
HEATING SURFACE:
1)

Generating Tubes:
d = 76.2
l = 6050 mm
n = 74
H.S1

2)

=
=

## x 76.2 x 6050 x 74/ 106

107.175 m2

Roof Tubes:
d = 76.2
l = 5779
n=6
=
x 76.2 x 5779 x 6 / 2 x 106
=
4.15 m2
Down Comer Tubes (Half Exposed):
d = 76.2
l = 739
n=5
H.S2

3)

H.S3
4)

=
=

0.44 m2

## Part of Drum (quarterly exposed):

d = 912
l = 1800
H.S4 =
x 912 x 1800/ 106 x 4
=

5)

1.29 m2

In Bed Tubes:
d = 63.5
l = 2250
n = 29
H.S5

13.565 m2

## Total Heating Surface = H.S1 + HS2 + HS3 + HS4 + HS5

= 107.175 + 4.15 + 0.44 + 1.29 + 13.565
= 126.62 m2
Contd.P/10-

:: 10 ::
CALCULATION FOR SAFETY VALVE : (Reg.293)
Total evaporation
E

A

= 3303.13 mm2

/ 4 d2 = 3303.13
d

## PRESSELS PVT. LTD.

(P. Swain )
Design Engineer

IBR CALCULATION
BOILER MAKERS NO.

WT/SD 400/F/293

WORKING PRESSURE

10.5 Kg/Cm2(g)

WORKING TEMP.

185oC.

EVAPORATION

4000 Kgs/Hr.

HEATING SURFACE

189.780 M2

## REF. DRAWING NOS.

WT/SD-400/F/28.1 R0
WT/SD-400/F/28.2, Sh.1/2 R0
WT/SD-400/F/28.2, Sh.2/2 R0
WT/SD-400/F/28.3, Sh.1/2 R0
WT/SD-400/F/28.3, Sh.2/2 R0

:: 2 ::

DRUM
1)

Shell
Max. Working Temp. = 185oC. < 454oC.
= 47 Kg/Cm2(g)

Min. UTS of Pl .

## Permissible Stress = f = 0.36 x 47 / 1.5 = 11.28 Kg/Cm2(g)

Ligament Efficiency:(a)

E1

(b)

## For Roof Tubes :- d

E2

= 76.6, P = 410
= P-d/p = (410 76.6)/410 = 0.813
= 76.6, P = 320
= P-d/p = (320 76.6 ) / 320 = 0.760

Taking minimum of the two, ligament efficiency for further calculations = E = 0.760
O.D. of Shell

= 912 mm

## Thk. of shell plate = T = 10 mm

I.D of shell = D = 9.2 10 x 2 = 892 mm
W.P. = 2.f.E (T-C) / (D + T-C ) Where, C = 0.762 (Constant)
= 2 x 11.28 x 0.760 (10-0.762) / ( 892 + 10 0.762)
= 0.1757 Kg/mm2
= 17.57 Kg/Cm2(g)
Therefore the thickness (10 mm) of shell plate proposed is adequate for a W.P. of 10.50
Kg/Cm2 (g).
2)

Dished End
UTS of d/e = 47 kg/mm2, f = 0.36 x 47 / 1.5 = 11.28 Kg/mm2
Thk. of d/e = 12 mm
Thk. of d/e after dishing (considering 12.5% thinning)
= 12 0.125 x 12 = 10.50 mm.
R2

= 762, d2 = 162

## h = R2 - {(R2 D/2) (R2 + D/2 2 r2)}

= 762 - {(762 9.2/2) (762 + 412 / 2 2 x 162)}
= 762 523
= 239
h/D ratio = 239 / 912 = 0.262
Contd.P/3:: 3 ::

## Opening in the d/e is elliptical by (345 x 446) mm

Max. dia of opening

= 446 mm

= 10 mm

= 50 mm

= 20 mm

## Ht. of M.H. Ring below the inside surface of d/e = 28 mm

Ht. of M.H. Ring above the inside surface of d/e = 52 mm
Additional Conditions to Comply :T / D 0.1, Actual T/D = 10.5 / 912 = 0.011
d / D 0.1, Actual d/D = 446 / 912 = 0.489
The conditions are therefore satisfied.
Max. limit of area of reinforcement :L1 (Max.) = 2RT

## R = 762 10.5 = 751.5

= (2 x 751.5 x 10.5)
= 125.62 mm
Hence, the provided width (50 mm) is within the limit.
L2 (Max.) = d.Tt
= (446 x 20)
= 94.44
Hence, it is within the limit.
Thickness necessary to support the pressure in respect of nozzle (te)
W.P. = 2.f e ( te c) / (D + te c )

( e = 0.95)

## 0.105 = 2 x 11.28 x 0.95 x (te 0.762) / (406 + te 0.762)

te = 0.105 (406 0.762) + 2 x 11.28 x 0.95 x 0.762 / (2 x 11.28 x 0.95 0.105)
= 2.76 mm

## Compensation available from Comp. pad = 2 x 50 x 10 = 1000 mm2

Compensation available from MH Ring.
= 2 {(20 2.76) 52- 20 x 28}
= 2912.96 2913 mm2
ContdP/4: 4

## Total Effective Compensating

= 1000 x 42 / 47 + 2913 x 42/47
= 893.62 + 2603.11
= 3496.73 mm2
d1 = d A/T

Ratio d1/ DT

= 1.15

## Valve of K from fig. 23(D) of IBR = 1.3

Working Pressure of d/e
= W.P. = 2.f (T-C) / DK (Reg. 278)
= 2 x 11.28 (10.5 0.75) / 912 x 1.3 ( c = 0.78 )
= 0.1855 kg/mm2
= 18.55 kg/cm2
Hence the thickness (12 mm) of dished end proposed is adequate for a W.P. of 10.50
kg/cm2(g).

## Calculation for Headers (Reg. 340)

a)

Tube Plates
t = 16, w = 118, b = 189, c = 3.413. c1 = 0.8
Min. UTS of Pl. = 42 kg/mm2
f = 0.36-42 / 1.5 = 10.08 kg/mm2

I)

= 0.2225 kg/mm2
= 22.25 kg/cm2
Or

II)

## E = 160 76.6 / 160

= 0.6035 kg/mm2

= 0.521

= 0.6035 kg/mm2
= 60.35 kg/cm2(g)
In both the cases the calculated value is higher than the proposed W.P. Hence the size of
t.p. proposed is adequate for a W.P. of 10.50 kg/cm2(g).
Contd.P/5: 5

(b)

Side Ring
UTS of Pl. = 37 Kg/mm2

## = 0.36 x 37 / 1.5 = 8.88 kg/mm2

W.P.

= f ( t c)2 / d2k
= 8.88 (20 1)2 / (118)2 x 0.4
= 0.5756 kg/mm2
= 57.56 kg/cm2

Hence the size of side ring (20 mm thk.) is adequate for a W.P. of 10.50 kg/cm2(g).
Stay Pins
Load on stay = 10.5 x 160 x 160 = 2688 Kg.
Stress on Stay = 2688 / /4 d2 ,

## d = 32 mm ( dia of stay pin )

= 2688 / /4 (32)2
= 3.342 kg/mm2
= 334.2 kg/cm2
Min UTS of stay pin = 37 kg/mm2
Stress = f = 0.36 x 37 / 1.5 = 8.88 kg/mm2
= 888 kg/cm2 (g).
The developed stress is less than the stress capacity of the stay pin. Therefore the proposed
stay pin is safe and adequate for a W.P. of 10.50 kg/cm2(g).

## Working Pressure of Tubes: (Generating, Roof, Riser and Down Comer)

d = 76.2, t = 3.25, c = 0.75 constant,
e = Constant = 1

## Min. UTS = 31 kg/mm2

f = 0.36 x 31 / 1.5 = 7.44 kg/mm2

W.P. = 2 x fe ( t c ) / d-t-c
= 2 x 7.44 x 1 x ( 3.25 0.75 ) / (76.2 3.25 0.75)

= 0.5152 kg/mm2
= 51.52 kg/cm2(g)
Contd..P/6:: 6 ::

Heating Surface
1)

## Generating Tubes:d = 76.2, l = 6050, n = 127

H.S. = x 76.2 x 6050 x 127 / 106 = 183.93 M2

2)

## Roof Tubes :- (Half Exposed)

d = 76.2, l = 5779, n = 6
HS2 = x 76.2 x 5779 x 6 / 2 x 106 = 4.15 M2

3)

## Down Comer :- ( Half Exposed )

d = 76.2, l = 739, n = 5
HS3 = x 76.2 x 739 x 5 / 2 x 106 = 0.44 M2

4)

## Part of Drum :- ( 81o Exposed )

d = 912, l = 1955
HS4

= 1.26 M2

## Total Heating Surface :HS = HS1 + HS2 + HS3 + HS4

= 183.93 + 4.15 + 0.44 + 1.26
= 189.78 M2

## Calculation for Safety Valve

Min. Evaporation = 30 Kgs/Hr/M2
Total Evaporation = E = 30 x 189.78 = 5693.4 Kgs/Hr.
E = C A P Makers Certificate C = 0.4 For high lift S.V.
P = 10.5 + 1 = 11.5 Kg/Cm2 (g)
5693.4 = 0.4 x A x 11.5
A = 5693.4 / 0.4 x 11.5 = 1237.69 mm2

/ 4 d2 = 1237.69
d = 1237.69
= 39.69 mm
ContdP/7: 7

## Bore of stand pipe required = 1.41 x 39.69

= 55.96 mm
Therefore 20 D.P. Safety Valve is adequate.

## FOR PRESSELS PVT. LTD.

( P. SWAIN )
JR. MANAGER (Q.A.)

CALCULATION SHEET
BOILER MAKERS NO.

WT/SD-400/F/288

WORKING PRESSURE

17.5 KG/CM2(G)

WORKING TEMPERATURE

2070 C.

## HYD. TEST PRESSURE

26.25 KG/CM2(G)

REFERENCE DRAWINGS

WT/SD-400/F/26.1,R0
WT/SD-400/F/26.2,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-400/F/26.2,Sh.2/2, R0
WT/SD-400/F/26.3,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-400/F/26.3,Sh.2/2, R0

:: 2 ::
WORKING PRESSURE CALCULATION FOR DRUM:
Max. Working Temp.<4540 C.
Min. UTS of Plate
=
47 kg/mm2
Stress = Et/1.5
=
0.36 x 47/1.5 =
Or F = UTS/2.7
=
47/2.7
=
Min. Stress for calculation = f = 11.28 kg/mm2

11.28 kg/mm2
17.41 kg/mm2

i)

For RoofTubes

ii)

## For Down Comer Tubes:

E

=
=

76.6, p = 320
(p-d) / p = (320-76.6)/320 = 0.760

d
p

=
=

76.6,
410

## Min. Ligament Efficiency for calculation = E = 0.760

I.D of shell = D = 912 20 = 892 mm, T = 10 mm. ,C=0.762
W.P. of shell

= 2.f.E (T c)/(D + T c)
= 2 x 11.28 x 0.760(10 0.762)/(892 + 10 0.762)
= 0.1757 kg/mm2
= 17.57 kg/cm2(g)

## W.P. CALCULATION FOR DISHED ENDS: (Reg.275, 277, 278)

U.T.S. of d/e =
47 kg/mm2
Thk. of d/e =
12 mm.
Thk. after dishing (12.5% thining)
= T = 10.5 mm.
R1 = 762 mm, r2 = 162 mm, D = 912 mm
External Height of d/e =
h
=
R2 - {(R2 - D/2)(R2 + D/2 2 r2)} (Eqn.75)
=

Ratio (h/d) =

239/912

## Opening in dished end in elliptical.

Max.dia of opening = d

0.262

446 mm.
Contd.P/3-

## Comp. plate thk.

Width of compensation
Thk. of nozzle(M.H.Ring)
Height of nozzle( do-)
Height above of d/e

=
=
=
=
=

:: 3 ::
10 mm.
50 mm.
20 mm.
80 mm
55 mm.

## The conditions are therefore satisfied.

Max. limit of area of reinforcement:a)
L1
=
(2RT)
for the width of reinforcing plate.
b)

L2

(d.Tt )

=
=

## Int. Radious of spherical part of the dished end

C.R 1/2T = 762 5.25 = 756.75 mm.

T1
L1
L2

=
=
=

## Actual thk. of nozzle

Width of compensation
Height of nozzle ring

a)

So, L1 (max.) =
(2RT)
=
(2 x 756.75 x 10.5)
Hence, provided width is, 50 mm is within the limit.

=
=
=

20 mm.
50 mm
80 mm.

b)
L2 (max.)
=
(d.Tt) =
(446 x 20)
=
Actual height provided (80 mm) is within the limit. Hence O.K.
CALCULATION FOR (d1), THE IMAGINARY DIAMETERS:
d
T
A

=
=
=
=

## actual dia of opening in head.

min. thk. in head.
Effective cross section of reinforcement
actual C/S of comp. plate + C / S of nozzle
support the pressure.

## Thickness necessary to support the

Pressure in respect of the nozzle:

94.45

= 126.06

W.P

=
=

## 47 kg/mm2 for dished end.

47 kg/mm2 for nozzle & comp. pad.
contd.P/4-

:: 4 ::
E
Te

=
=

0.95
Equivalent thk. of nozzle for opening of
406 mm at a pressure of 10.5 kg/cm2
0.762

W.P =
0.175 =
Or te =

2 x f x E (te c)/(D + t c)
2 x 11.28 x 0.95 (te 0.762)/(406 + te 0.762)
4.10 mm.

es

8.10 mm.

=
=

a)

## Comp. available for compensation pad.

a

b)

2 x 10 x 50 = 1000 mm2

b

= 3773.6 mm2

## Effective compensation = A = (a + b) x UTS of Nozzle/UTS of Plate.

= 3773.6 x 47/47
= 3896.4 mm2
Imaginary dia d1
d1/(DT)

= d A/T
= (446 3773.6 / 10.5) = 86.61
= 86.61/ (912 x 10.5) = 0.885

h/D= 0.262.
Shape factor K as read from fig.23D = 1.2
W.P. of dished end =
2.f(T c)/D.K =
(Regn.278)
=
2 x 11.28 (10.5 0.75)/(912 x 1.2)
=
0.2010 kg/mm2

20.10 kg/cm2

## Selected thickness of dished end is 12 mm safe for W.P. of 17.50 kg/cm2(g)

Contd.P/5:: 5 ::
CALCULATION OF W.P. OF HEADER BOX:(Reg.340)
1)
T.P. & E.P:
t
=
thk. of tube plate of hdr. Box
=
b
=
int. breadth between supporting sides =
c
=
constant
=
c1
=
constant
=
f
=
permissible stress = 0.36 x 37/1.5
=
E
=
Efficiency legament between holes =
W
=
Width (internal) of hdr.
=
W.P =

c.f.(t c1)/b2

Or W.P=

6.25 f.E.t2/W2 =
=
=

16 mm.
189
3.413
0.8
8.88 kg/mm2
160 76.6/160 = 0.521
118
.

## = 3.413 x 8.88 (16 0.8)2 / (189)2

= 0.1960 mm2
= 19.60 kg/cm2
6.25 x 162 x 8.88 x .521/(118)2
0.5316 kg/mm2
53.16 kg/cm2

In both calculation the value is higher than the proposed working pressure. So the
selected thk. of plate i.e. 16 mm is safe & adequate for a working pressure of 17.50
kg/cm2(g).
2)

## SIDE RING PLATE CALCULATION:

Side ring plate thk.
=
20 mm.
p
=
Permissible stress = 0.36 x 37/1.5
d
=
least width between walls of hdr.
c
=
constant
e
=
W.P

=
=
=
=

= 8.88 kg/mm2
= 118.
= 1 mm
=1

## f(t c)2/d2k {Eqn.89(a)}

8.89 (20 1)2/{(118)2 x 0.4}
0.5756 kg/mm2
57.56 kg/cm2

## Selected thk. of side ring plate is safe.

CALCULATION FOR STAY PINS:
Dia of stay pin
= d = 32
Stress on each stay
= 10.5 x 16 x 16//4 x (32)2

3.342 kg/mm2

334.2 kg/cm2

Alternately,
Load = 8.88 x /4 x (32)2
= 7141.7 kg.
W.P = 7141.72/(160 x 160)
= 0.2789 kg/mm2
= 27.89 kg/cm2
Contd.P/6:: 6 ::
Min. UTS of Stay Bar = 37 kg/mm2
Permissible stress = 0.36 x 37/1.5
Proposed working pressure

= 8.88 kg/mm2
= 888 kg/cm2
= 17.50 kg/cm2(g)

Hence, the provided dia 32 mm of stay bar is adequate for a working pressure of 17.50
kg/cm2(g)
Hence there is no need of extra compensation.
HEATING SURFACE:
1)

Generating Tubes:
d = 76.2
l = 6050 mm
n =104
H.S1

2)

=
=

## x 76.2 x 6050 x 104/ 106

150.623 m2

Roof Tubes:
d = 76.2
l = 5779
n=6
=
x 76.2 x 5779 x 6 / 2 x 106
=
4.15 m2
Down Comer Tubes :
d = 76.2
l = 739
n=5
H.S2

3)

=
x 76.2 x 739 x 5 / 106
=
0.884 m2
Riser Tubes (Half Exposed):
d = 76.2
l = 739
n=5
H.S3

4)

H.S4

=
=

0.07 m2

5)

## Part of Drum (quarterly exposed):

d = 912
l = 1955
H.S4 =
x 912 x 1955/ 106 x 4
=

1.40 m2
Contd.P/7:: 7 ::

## Total Heating Surface = H.S1 + HS2 + HS3 + HS4 + HS5

= 150.623 + 4.15 + 0.884 + 0.07 + 1.40
= 157.127 m2
CALCULATION FOR SAFETY VALVE : (Reg.293)
Total evaporation

= CAP, where,

A

= 637 mm2

/ 4 d2 = 637
d

## PRESSELS PVT. LTD.

(P. Swain )
Design Engineer

CALCULATION SHEET
BOILER MAKERS NO.

WT/SD-1000/F/287

WORKING PRESSURE

17.50 KG/CM2(G)

WORKING TEMPERATURE

2070 C.

## HYDRAULIC TEST PRESSURE

26.25 KG/CM2(G)

HEATING SURFACE

345.52 M2

REFERENCE DRAWINGS

WT/SD-1000/F/2.1,R0
WT/SD-1000/F/2.2,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-1000/F/2.2,Sh.2/2, R0
WT/SD-1000/F/2.3,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-1000/F/2.3,Sh.2/2, R0
WT/SD-1000/F/2.4,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-1000/F/2.4,Sh.2/2, R0
WT/SD-1000/F/2.5,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-1000/F/2.5,Sh.2/2, R0

: 2 :
1.

DRUM:
Max. Temp. = 2070C. Working Metal Temp. = 207 + 10 = 2170C.
Min. UTS of shell plate = 47 kg/mm2

I.

## f = Et/1.5 = 0.36 x 47/1.5 = 11.28 kg/mm2

Or UTS/2.7 = 47/2.7
= 17.41 kg/mm2.
Min. stress for calculations = f = 11.28 kg/mm2

II.

(Reg.215)

## For Roof Tubes, d = 76.6, P = 310

E = p-d/p = 310 76.6/310 = 0.753.

## For Down Comer Tubes, d = 76.6, p = 325

E = (p-d)/p = 325 76.6/325 = 0.764

## Min. efficiency for calculation = E = 0.753

OD of shell = 1050 mm.
W.P = 2.f.E (t c)/(d t c)

(c = 0.762)

## 0.175 = 2 x 11.28 x 0.753 (t 0.762)/(1050 t 0.762)

t = 0.175 (1050 0.762) + 2 x 11.28 x 0.753 x 0.762/(2 x 11.28 x 0.753 + 0.175)
= 11.45 mm.
Proposed thickness of shell = 12 mm which is adequate for a W.P. of 17.50 kg/cm2(g)
DISHED ENDS: (Reg. 275, 277, 278)
UTS of d/e = 52 kg/mm2, thk. of d/e = 12 mm.
f =( 0.36 x 52)/1.5 = 12.52 kg/mm2

## thk. of d/e. after dishing (12.5% thining) = 10.5 mm.

R1 = 912, r2 = 162.
Contd.P/3: 3 :
h = R2 - {(R2 D/2) (R2 + D/2 2r2)}
= 912 - {(912 1050/2) (912 + 1050/2 2 x 162)}
= 912 656.3
= 255.7
Ratio h/d = 255.7/1050 = 0.2435
Opening of d/e is elliptical in shape.
Max. dia. of opening = d = 446
Compensating pad thickness
= 12 mm
Width
= 65 mm
Man Hole Ring
thickness
= 20 mm.
Height
= 85 mm.
Height of ring above the internal surface of d/e
Height of ring below the internal surface of d/e
Additional conditions to comply:
I)
II)

## T/D 0.1, actual T/D = 10.5/1050 = 0.01

d/D 0.5, actual d/D = 446/1050 = 0.424

## The conditions are therefore satisfied.

Max. limit of area of reinforcement.
I)
II)

## L1 = (2RT) for the width of reinforcing plate

L2 = d.Tt for the height of nozzle.
R
T1
L1

= 912 10.5/2
= 906.75 mm.
= Actual thk. of nozzle= 20 mm.
= width of nozzle ring = 85 mm.

## So, (I) L1 = (2 x 906.75 x 10.5) = 137.99

Hence, the width provided (65 mm) is within the limit.
II)

L2(max.) = (d.Tt)
= (446 x 20)
= 94.45.

= 57
= 28

## Actual height provided (85 mm) is within the limit.

Calculation for imaginary diameter (d1)
d = Actual dia. Of opening in head.
Contd.P/4: 4 :
T = Min. thk. in head.
A = Effective area of reinforcement.
W.P = 17.50/cm2(g), UTS = 47
f = 11.28 (calculated earlier)
fn= 0.36 x 47/1.5 = 11.28 kg/mm2
E = 0.95
Te= Eqv. thk. of nozzle for opening of 406 mm at a pressure of 17.50 kg/cm2(g)
c = 0.762 (constant)
W.P = 2 x f x e (te c)/(D + t c)
0.175

te

= 4.22 mm.

Compensation:
a)

b)

= 2918.92 mm2

## Total effective compensations

= (1300 + 2918.92) 47/52 = 3813.25 mm2
Imaginary dia = d1 = d A/T = 446 3813.25/10.5 = 82.83 mm.
d1/(DT) = 82.83/(1050 x 10.5) = 0.788
h/D ratio = 0.2435
Shape factor (K) as read from fig 23D = 1.1
W.P. of dished ends = 2.f(T c)/D.K. (Reg.278)
= 2 x 12.48(10.5 0.75)/(1050 x 1.1)
= 0.2107 kg/mm2

= 21.07 kg/cm2(g)
Hence, the proposed thickness of d/e (12 mm) is safe & adequate for a W.P1 of
17.50 kg/cm2(g)
Contd.P/5: 5 :
Calculation for W.P. of Box Headers : (Reg. 340)
1)

## T.P & E.P:

t = thk. of T.P & E.P = 16 mm.
b= internal breadth between the supporting sides = 189
c= constant = 3.413
min. UTS of plates = 47 kg/mm2
c1= constant = 0.8
f = permissible stress = (0.36 x 47)/1.5
= 11.28 kg/mm2
E= efficiency of ligament between the holes = (160 76.6)/160
= 0.521
W = internal width of header = 168 mm.
W.P = f(t c1)2/b2 = 3.413 x 11.l28 (16 0.8)2/(189)2
= 0.2490 kg/mm2 = 24.90 kg/cm2(g)
or W.P = 6.25 f.E.t2/W2
= 6.25 x 11.28 x 0.521 x (16)2/(168)2
= 0.3332 kg/mm2
= 33.32 kg/cm2(g)
In both the cases the calculated value is higher than the proposed working pressure. So,
the selected thickn ess of plates (16 mm) is safe & adequate for a W.P. of 17.50
kg/cm2(g).

2.

## Side Ring Plate

UTS = 47 kg/mm2
t = 20, f = 11.28 kg/mm2 (as calculated earlier)
d = 168, c = 1, K = 0.4
W.P = f (t c)2/d2K = 11.28 (20 1)2/{(168)2 x 0.4}
= 0.3607 kg/mm2
= 36.07 kg/cm2(g)

3.

Stay Pins
d = 32 mm
f = 0;.36 x 37/1.5 = 8.88 kg/mm2
Load capacity = 8.88 x /4(32)2 = 7141.7 kg.
W.P = Load/area

= 7141.7/(160 x 160)

= 0.2789 kg/mm2(g)
= 27.89 kg/cm2(g)
Proposed W.P. = 17.50 kg/cm2(g)
Contd.P/6: 6 :
Hence the size of stay pins proposed is safe & adequate for a W.P.
of 17.50 kg/cm2(g).
Working Pressure for B.E. Headers (Reg.340)
1)

## T.P & E.P

t = thk. of T.P & E.P = 16 mm.
b = internal breadth between supporting sides = 154 mm.
c = constant = 3.413, c1 = constant = 0.8
f = permissible stress =( 0.36 x 47) / 1.5 = 11.28 kg/mm2
E = efficiency of ligament between holes.
= (140 63.9)/140 = 0.543
W = internal width of the header = 208 mm.
W.P = c.f.(t c1)/b2
= 3.413 x 11.28 (16 0.8)2/(154)2
= 0.3751 kg/mm2
= 37.51 kg/cm2(g)
or W.P = 6.25 f e t2/W2
= 6.25 x 11.28 x 0.543 x (16)2/(208)2
= 0.2265 kg/mm2
= 22.65 kg/cm2(g)
In both the cases the calculated value is higher than the proposed W.P. so the selected
Thickness of T.P is safe & adequate.

2)

Side Ring
t = 20, UTS = 47 kg/mm2, f = 11.28 kg/mm2(as calculated earlier)
d = 208, C = 1, K = 0.4
W.P = f (t c)2/d2 K = 11.28 (20 1)2/{(208)2 x 0.4}
= 0.2353 kg/mm2
= 23.53 kg/cm2

3)

Stay Pins

## W.P. calculation already under Box Header.

Contd.P/7: 7 :
Working Pressure of Tubes
1)

## Gen., Roof, Riser, Down Comer Tubes

d = 76.2 mm, t = 3.25 mm thk., c = 0.75, e = 1
Min. UTS of tubes = 31 kg/mm2
f = (0.36 x 31)/1.5
W.P = 2.f.e. (t c)/(d t + c)
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1 x (3.25 0.75)/(76.2 3.25 + 0.75)
= 0.5047 kg/mm2
= 50.47 kg/cm2(g)

2)

## Inbed Tubes : d = 63.50 mm, t = 4.06

W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1 x (4.06 0.75)/(63.5 4.06 + 0.75)
= 0.8183 kg/mm2
= 81.83 kg/cm2(g)

3)

## Bed Element Down Comer

d = 141.3 mm, t = 6.55 mm
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1(6.55 0.75)/(141.3 6.55 + 0.75)
= 0.6369 kg/mm2
= 63.69 KG/cm2(g)

4)

## Bed Element Riser

d = 168.3 mm, t = 7.11 mm
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1(7.11 0.75)/(168.3 7.11 + 0.75)
= 0.5844 kg/mm2
= 58.44 kg/cm2(g)

## B.E. Riser) on Drum (Reg.279)

B.E. Down Comer Stub = 141.3 OD x 9.53 thk.
B.E. Down Comer Stub = 168.3 OD x 10.97 thk.
Contd.P/8: 8 :
I.D. of drum = 1026 mm
e = constant = 1, eqv. Thk. of shell = es
Permissible stress = f = 11.28 kg/mm2
I)

## B.E.D.C. Stub: D = 141.3 2 x 9.53 = 122.24

W.P. = 2.f.e (es c)/(D + es c)
or 0.175 = 2 x 11.28 (es 0.762)/(1026 + es 0.762)
or es

= 8.78 mm.

## Compensation required (X) = dn x es

= 122.24 x 8.78
= 1073.27 mm2
Let, eqv. thk. of nozzle = en
UTS of pipe

= 47 kg/mm2

en

=1.72 mm.

## thickness of shell = ts = 12 mm.

b = least value of 2.5 ts or 2.5 tn
b

= 2.5 x 12

or 2.5 x 9.53

=30

or 23.825

b = 23.825
C1 = Greater of (ts + 75) or

dn/2

= Greater of
= Greater of

(12 + 75) or
87

122.24/2

or 61.12
Contd.P/9: 9 :

## C1 = aggregate area of fillet weld.

=2 x (9.53)2 x = 90.82 mm2
fn/fs = 11.28/11.28 = 1

Compensation available (Y):=2 (tn - en).b. fn/fs + 2, tn.b. fn/fs + 2 (ts es) C1 + Cw
= 2(9.53 1.72) 23.825 X 1 + 2 X 9.53 X 23.825 X 1 +2( 12 8.78) 87 + 90.82
= 372.15 + 454.11 + 560.28 + 90.82
= 1477.36 mm2

Y> X
Hence, there is no need of extra compensation.
II)

## B.E.R Stub: I.D = 168.3 (2 x 10.97) = 146.36 mm.

es =[ (D c) W.P + 2 x f x c]/(2 x f W.P)
=[ (1026 0.762) 0.175 + 2 x 11.28 x 0.762]/[2 x 11.28 0.175]
= 8.78 mm
Compensation required (X)

= dn x es
= 146.36 x 8/78
= 1285.04 mm2

## fn = 11.28 kg/mm2 (calculated earlier)

Let, eqv. thk. of nozzle = en
en =[ (146.36 0.762) 0.175 + 2 x 11.28 x 0.762]/[2 x 11.28 0.175]
= 1.91
ts = 12 mm
b = Least value of 2.5 ts

or 2.5 tn

## = Least value of 2.5 x 12 or 2.5 x 10.97

= Least value of 30
or 27.425
b = 27.425
Contd.P/10: 10 :
C1 = Greater of (ts + 75)
= Greater of (12 + 75)
= Greater of 87

or dn/2
or 146.36/2
or 73.18

C1

= 87.

Cw

## = Agregate area of fillet weld.

= 2 x (10.97)2 x = 120.34 mm2

fn/fs

## Compensation available (Y)

= 2(tn en)b fn/fs + 2.tn.b.fn/fs + 2 (ts es) C1 + Cw
= 2 (10.97 1.91) 27.425 x 1 + 2 x 10.97 x 27.425 x 1 + 2(12 8.78) 87 + 120.34
= 496.94 + 601.71 + 560.28 + 120.34
= 1779.27 mm2

Y> X
Hence, there is no need of extra compensation.

HEATING SURFACE:
1)

## Gen. tubes: d = 76.2, l = 7250, n 1 171

HS1 = x 76.2 x 7250 x 171/106 = 296.78 M2

2)

Roof Tubes:
HS2 = x 76.2 x 6905 x 8/106 = 6.61 M2

3)

Part of Drum:
HS3 = x 1050 x 2600 x 83/360 x 106 = 1.98 M2

Contd.P/11-

: 11 :
4)

5)

## HS4 = x 63.5 x 2348 x 70/106 = 32.79 M2

Headers:
HS5 = [2560 x 1790 - /4 x (76.26) x 171 - /4 (32)2 x 155/106] x 2
= 7.36 M2

Total (H.S)

## = HS1 + HS2 + HS3 + HS4 + HS5

= 296.78 + 6.61 + 1.98 + 32.79 + 7.36
= 312.73 + 32.79
= 345.52 M2

SAFETY VALVE:
Heating surface

= 345.52 M2

Evaporation

= 30 kgs/hr/m2

Total Evaporation

=E

= 345.52 x 30
= 10365.6 kgs/hr.

## C = 0.4 (Makers Constant), P = 18.5

E = CAP
A = 10365.6/(0.4 x 18.5) = 1400.76
d = {(1400.76 x 4)/ }= (1414.18)
= 42.23 mm.
Safety valve proposed = 2 NB D.P. Safety Valve.
Hence safe and adequate.
FOR PRESSELS PVT. LTD.

( P. SWAIN )
REVISED CALCULATION FOR BOILER MAKERS NO.WT/SD-1000/F/287
HEATING SURFACE:
1)

## Gen. tubes: d = 76.2, l = 7250, n 1 171

HS1 = x 76.2 x 7250 x 171/106 = 296.78 M2

2)

Roof Tubes:

3)

Part of Drum:

4)

## HS3 = x 1050 x 2600 x 83/360 x 106 = 1.98 M2

In Bed Tubes : d = 63.5l, l = 2348, n = 70

5)

## HS4 = x 63.5 x 2348 x 70/106 = 32.79 M2

Headers:
HS5 = [2560 x 1790 - /4 x (76.26) x 171 - /4 (32)2 x 155/106] x 2
= 7.36 M2

Total ( H.S )

## = HS1 + HS2 + HS3 + HS4 + HS5

= 296.78 + 6.66 + 1.98 + 32.79 + 7.36
= 312.78 + 32.79
= 345.57 M2

SAFETY VALVE:
Heating surface

= 345.57 M2

Evaporation

= 30 kgs/hr/m2

Total Evaporation = E

= 345.57 x 30
= 10367.1 kgs/hr.

## C = 0.4 (Makers Constant), P = 18.5

E = CAP
Contd.P/2-

:: 2 ::
A = 10367.1 / (0.4 x 18.5) = 1400.96
d = {(1400.96 x 4)/ }= (1783.76)
= 42.24 mm.
Safety valve proposed = 2 NB D.P. Safety Valve.
Hence safe and adequate.
FOR PRESSELS PVT. LTD.

( P. SWAIN )

Design Engineer

PRESSURE CALCULATION
BOILER MAKERS NO.

WT/VSSD 800/290

WORKING PRESSURE

21.0 KG/CM2(G)

WORKING TEMP.

216.233OC.

HEATING SURFACE

420 M2

REF. DRAWINGS

WT/SD-800/9.1
WT/SD-800/9.2
WT/SD-800/9.3
WT/SD-800/9.4
WT/SD-800/9.5
WT/SD-800/9.6
WT/SD-800/9.7
WT/SD-800/9.8
WT/SD-800/9.10
WT/SD-800/9.11

: 2 :
Headers:
1)

From Wall Panel Top and Bottom Headers and Rear Wall Panel Top and Bottom Headers

## d = 141.3, Min Thickness t = 6.55,

Min. pitch ( taken) = 76, E = 76 51.2 / 76 = 0.326
UTS = 47 Kg/mm2, f = 0.36 x 47 / 1.5 = 11.28 Kg/mm2
W.P. = 2 f E ( t c ) /( d - t c)
= 2 x 11.28 x 0.326 (6.55 0.762) / (141.3 6.55 - 0.762)
= 0.3177 Kg/mm2
= 31.77 Kg/Cm2(g)
Therefore this material proposed for the headers is safe and adequate for a W.P. of
21 Kg/Cm2(g)
2)

LHS and RHS Wall Top and Bottom Headers:d = 168.3, t = 7.11, UTS = 47 Kg/mm2
f = 0.36 x 47 / 1.5 = 11.28 Kg/mm2
Pitch (Lineer) = 76, d1 = 51.2
E = 76 51.2 / 76 = 0.326
W.P. = 2 x 11.28 x 0.326 x (7.11 0.762) / (168.3 7.11 0.762)
= 0.2910 kg/mm2
= 29.10 kg/cm2(g)

## Stub on Side Wall Headers:

Stub Size = 168.3 x 7.11, 141.3 x 6.55 thk.
dn1 = 168.3 217.11, dn2 = 141/3 2 x 6.55, tn2 = 6.55
= 154.08

= 128.2,

tn1 = 7.11
f = 11.28 kg/mm2 ( As calculated Earlier)
e = 1, c = 0.762 , ds = 168.3 , ts = 7.11

## I) For 168.3 OD Stubs

WP = 2 f e ( es c) / ds es c
0.21 = 2 x 11.28 x 1 ( es 0.762) / 168.3 - es - 0.762
Contd.P/3-

:: 3 ::
es = (168.3 0.762) 0.21 + 2 x 11.28 x 0.762 / (2 x 11.28 + 0.21)
= 2.3 mm
Compensation Required = X = dn x es
= 154.08 x 2.3
= 354.384 mm2
Similarly , en = 2.3 mm
Constant (C1) = 76 + ts Or dn/2 (whichever is greater)
= 76 + 7.11

= 83.11

## Or 77.04 (whichever is greater)

= C1 = 83.11
b = Max. of 2.5 ts

Or 2.5 tn

## = Max. of 2.5 x 7.11

Or 2.5 x 7.11

= Max. of 17.775

Or 17.775

b = 17.775
Compensation available (Y)
= 2 [ ( tn en) b + 2 tn b + 2 (ts es) C1 + Cw ] fn / fs
= [ 2 ( 7.11 2.3) 17.775 + 2 x 7.11 x 17.775 + 2 (7.11 2.3) 83.11 + 0] x 1
= 1223.27 mm2
Y>X
There is no need of extra compensation for
II)

141.3 OD stub.
ds = 168.3 2 x 7.11 = 154.08, ts = 7.11
dn = 141.3 2 x 6.55 = 128.2 mm , tn = 6.55 mm
es = 2.3 mm (Calculated Earlier)
en = (141.3 0.762) 0.21 + 2 x 11.28 x 0.762 /(2 x 11.28 + 0.21)
= 2.051 mm
C1 = Greater of (76 + 7.11) Or 128.2 / 2
= Greater of 83.11 Or 64.1
C1 = 83.11
b

## = Min. of 2.5 x 7.11 Or 2.5 x 6.55

= Min. of 17.775

Or 16.375
Contd.P/4-

:: 4 ::
Compensation Required = X = dn x es
= 128.2 x 2.3
= 294.86 mm2
Compensation available = Y
= [ 2 ( tn en ) b + 2 x (ts es) C1 + 2. tn.b + Cw ] tn / fs
= [ 2 ( 6.55 2.051) 16.375 + 2 x 6.55 x 16.375 + 2 ( 7.11 2.3) 83.11 + 0 ] 1
=Y>X
There is no need of extra compensation.
Front, Rear, LHS & RHS Wall Tubes.
d = 50.8, Min Thickness = 3.66 mm, f = 11.28 kg/mm2 (as calculated earlier).
e = 1, Taking 12.5 % thinning at bends, t = 3.66 0.125 x 3.66
= 3.2025 mm
W.P. = 2 f e ( t c) /( d t + c )

C = 0.75

## = 2 x 11.28 x 1 (3.2025 0.75) / (50.8 3.2025 + 0.75)

= 1.144 kg/mm2
= 114.4 kg/cm2(g)
Economiser Connecting Pipes:
D = 50.8, t = 3.66
Taking 12.5% thinning at bends, t = 3.66 0.125 x 3.66
= 3.2025
f = 11.28 calculated earlier.
e = 1, c = 0.75
W.P. = 2 f e ( t c ) /( d t + c)
= 2 x 11.28 x 1 ( 3.2025 0.75) /( 50.8 3.2025 + 0.75)
= 1.144 kg/mm2
= 114.4 kg/cm2 (g)
1)

Shell:
UTS = 47 kg/mm2, f = 0.36 x 47 / 1.5 = 11.28 kg/mm2
d = 1000, t = 16 mm, c = 0.762
Contd.P/5-

:: 5 ::
W.P. = 2 f E ( t c) /( d-t-c)
= 2 x11.28 x 0.95 ( 16 0.762 ) /( 1000 16 0.762)
= 0.3321 kg/mm2
= 33.21 kg/cm2 (g)
Therefore the thickness proposed ( 16 mm) is safe and adequate for a W.P of 21.0
Kg/Cm2(g).
Stubs on Shell : - D = 1000 2 x 16 = 968, f = 11.28 kg/mm2 (Calculated Earlier)
[ dn = 168.3 mm, tn = 10.97 mm]
en = (146.36 0.762) 0.21 + 2 x 11.28 x 0.762 / (2 x 11.28 - 0.21)
= 2.14 mm
X = 146.36 x 9.85 = 1441.646 mm2
fn = 11.28
es = (968 0.762) 0.21 + 2 x 11.28 x 0.762 /( 2 x 11.28 0.21)
= 9.85 mm
b = 27.425
C1 = 91
Cw = 120.34
fn / fs = 1
Y = 2 ( 10.97 2.14) 27.425 + 2 x 10.97 x 27.425 + 2 (16 9.85) 91 + 120.34
= 2325.67 mm2
Y>X
There is no need of extra compensation.
Dished Ends:
OD = 1000 mm

f = 11.28 kg/mm2 , t = 16

CR = 780
KR =150
SF = 50

## h = 796 - { ( 796 500) ( 796 + 500 2 x 166)}

= 796 - { 296 x 964}
= 261.8
h/d = 261.8 / 1000 = 0.262
Contd.P/6-

Opening in d/e

:: 6 ::
= 446 x 345 mm

= 16 mm

= 65 mm

= 85 mm

= 20 mm

## Height above the internal surface of d/e = 57 mm

Height below the internal surface of d/e = 28 mm
i) T/D 0.1, Actual T/D = 14.0/ 1000 = 0.0175
ii) d /D 0.5, Actual d/D = 446/1000 = 0.446
R = 2 x (800 14.0/2 ) = 791.25 mm
L1 = ( 2 RT) = (2 x 791.25 x 17.5)
= 27693.75 = 166.41
Provided width 65 mm is within the limit.
L2 = ( d.Tt)
= (446 x 20) = 94.45
Actual height provided = 85 mm is within the limit.
Calculation of Imaginary Dia (d)
fn = 0.36 x 42 / 1.5 = 10.08 kg/mm2 , E = 0.95
C = 0.762
0.21 = 2 x11.28 x 0.95 ( te 0.762) /( 406 + te 0.762)
te = ( 406 0.762) 0.21 + 2 x 11.28 x 0.95 x 0.762 / (2 x 11.28 x 0.95 0.21)
= 4.78 mm
i)

## Compensation available from M.H. Ring.

= 2 x 16 x 50 = 1200 mm2

ii)

## Compensation available from M.H. Ring.

= 2 x [ ( 20 4.78) 57 + 20 x 28 ]
= 2855.08 mm2

## A = 1200 + 2855.08 = 4055.08 mm2

d1 = 446 = 4055.08 / 14.0 = 156.35
d1 / DT = 156.35 / (1000 x 14) = 1.32
Shape Factor (K) as read from fig. 23D = 1.25
Contd.P/7-

:: 7 ::
W.P. = 2 x 11.28 ( 14 0.75) / 1000 = 0.2391 Kg/mm2
= 23.91 Kg/Cm2(g)

## Steam Collecting Header, Main Down Commer and Bottom Rear

Cross Header:d = 168.3, t = 7.11, f = 11.28 kg/mm2 ( As calculated earlier)
Taken g 12.5% thinning at bends, t = 7.11 0.125 x 7.11 = 6.22125
E = 0.95, C = 0.762
W.P. = 2 x 11.26 x 0.95 x (6.22125 0.762) /( 168.3 6.22125 0.762)
= 0.7253 kg/mm2
= 72.53 Kg/Cm2 (g)

Stubs on Steam Collecting Header:Refer calculations under stubs on side wall headers.

## Connecting Headers:d = 141.3, t = 6.55 0.125 x 6.55 = 5.73125

E = 0.95, C = 0.762, f = 11.26 kg/mm2
W.P. = 2 x 11.26 x 0.95 ( 5.73125 0.762) / (141.3 5.73125 0.762)
= 0.7900 Kg/mm2
= 79.00 Kg/Cm2 (g)
Heating Surface:
1) Boiler

= 350 M2

2) Economiser = 70 M2
Total

- 420 M2

Safety Valves:
E = CAP
A = E / CP
= 420 x 30 / 0.4 x 22 ( Making Contact = 0.4 )
= 1431.82
Contd.P/8-

:: 8 ::
d = 1421.82 x 4 /
= 42.69 mm
Therefore process of 2 nos. of single post safety valves are adequate.

## FOR PRESSELS PVT. LTD.

( P. SWAIN )

CALCULATION SHEET
BOILER MAKERS NO.

WT/SD-600/F/187.

WORKING PRESSURE

10.50 KG/CM2(G),

WORKING TEMP.

185oC.

REFERENCE DRGS.

WT/SD-600/F/18.1, Sh.1/2
WT/SD-600/F/18.1, Sh.2/2

: 2 :

## WORKING PRESSURE FOR DRUM:

a) Shell : Min. UTS of plate = 47 Kg/mm2.
Stress = (f) = 0.36 x 47/1.5 Or 47/2.7
= 11.28

Or 17.41

## Min. stress for calculation = 11.28 Kg/mm2

Ligament efficiency (E) :For Roof Tubes, P = 320, d = 76.6,

## E = P- d/P = 320 76.6/320 = 0.76

For Down Comer Tubes, P = 625, d = 114.7, D = P - d/P = 625 114.7/625 = 0.88
Min. Ligament Efficiency for Calculation = E = 0.76
I.D. of Shell = D = 1224 20 = 1204
W.P. of Shell = 2.f.E (T-c) / (D+T-c )
= 2 x11.28 x 0.76 (10 0.762)/(1204 + 10 0.762)
= 0.1306 Kg/mm2
= 13.06 Kg/Cm2
Hence, proposed thk. (10 mm) of shell is safe and adequate for a W.P. of 10.50 Kg/Cm2(g).
b) Dished End: (Regn. 275, 277, 278)
UTS of D/E = 47 Kg/mm2.
Stress (f)

thk. of d/e

= 16 mm,

## thk. after dishing considering 12.5% thinning, T = 14 mm.

H = 995, r2 = 191, D = 1224
External height of d/e = h = R2 - (R2 D/2) (R2 + D/2 2 r2) Eqn. 75
= 995 - (995 912/2) (995 + 912/2 = 2 x 191)
= 235.93 236
thk. of d/e = 16 mm
Ratio H/D = 236/1224 = 0.193
Opening in d/e is elliptical.
Max. dia of opening

= 446 mm.

## Comp. Pad thk.

= 16 mm.

: 3 :
Width of Comp. Pad

= 65 mm.

= 20 mm

## Height of M.H. Ring = 85 mm.

Height of portion of ring above the lower portion of d/e = 57 mm

below the

-do-

= 28 mm

## Additional conditions to comply:I) T/D 0.1 Actual T/D = 14/1224 = 0.011

II) d/D 0.5, Actual d/D = 446/1224 = 0.364
The conditions are therefore satisfied.
Max. limit of area of reinforcement:a) L1 = (2RT) for the width of reinforcing plate.
b) L2 = ( d.Tt ) for the height of ring.
R = Int. radious of spherical part of the dished end = C.R 1/2T = 995 7 = 985.
Tt = Actual thk. of ring

= 20 mm.

L1 = Width of compensation

= 65 mm.

= 85 mm.

## a) L1 (max.) = 2 x 955 x 14 = 166

Therefore the provided width (65 mm) is within the limit.
b) L2 (max) = d.T1 = (446 x 20) = 94.45
Actual height provided = 85 mm is within the limit. Hence, O.K.
Thickness necessary to support the pressure in respect of ring:
W.P. = 10.50 Kg/Cm2, f = 11.28 kg/mm2 for d/e
E = 0.95

## = 8.88 kg/mm2 for ring.

Te = Eqv. Thk. of ring for (UTS of ring = 37 kg/mm2) a opening of 406 mm at a pressure of
10.50 kg/mm2.
C
= 0.762
W.P. = 2.f.E (te c )/D + te c
0.105 = 2 x 22 x 11.28 x 0.95 (te 0.762)/406 + te 0.762
te = (406 0.762) 0.105 +2 x 11.28 x 0.95 x 0.762/2 x 11.28 x 0.95 0.105
= 2.76 mm.

: 4 :
Compensation:
a) Comp. available from Comp. Pad
a = 2 x 10 x 50 = 1300 mm2
b = Comp. available from ring.
b = 2 [ (20 2.76) 57 + 20 x 28 ] = 3085.36
Total compensation = a + b = 1300 + 3085.36 = 4385.36 mm2
Effective compensation = 4385.36 x 37/47 = 3452.3 mm2
Imaginary dia (d1) = d A/T = 446 3452.3/14 = 199.42
Ratio d1/DT = 199.42/1224 x 14 = 1.52
h/D ratio = 0.193
Shape factor (K) as read from fig. 23D = 1.6
W.P. of d/e = 2.f. (T c )/D.K (Regn. 278)

## = 2 x 11.28 (14 0.75)/(1224 x 1.6)

= 0.1526 kg/mm2.
= 15.26 kg/cm2.

The selected thk. (16 mm) of d/e is safe for a W.P. of 10.50 kg/cm2(g).
2. BOX HEADERS: (Reg. 340)
a) T.P & E.P :- E = 160 76.0/160 = 0.521
Taking min. UTS of plate = 37 kg/mm2
f = 0.36 x 37/1.5 Or 37/2.7
= 8.88 kg/mm2 Or 13.7 kg/mm2.
Thk. of plate = T = 16 mm, C1 = Constant = 0.8
C = Constant = 3.413b = Internal width between supporting sides = 189 mm.
W = Internal width of header

= 168 mm.

## I) W.P = c.f (T - C1)/b2 = 3.413 x 8.88 (16 0.8)2/(189)2

= 0.1960 kg/mm2
= 19.60 Kg/Cm2.

II) W.P = 6.25 f.E t2/W2 = 6.25 x 8.88 x 0.521 x (16)2/(168)2 = 0.2623 kg/mm2
= 26.23 kg/cm2
We both the cases, the calculated value is more than the proposed working pressure. So,
selected thickness of plate is 16 mm is safe.
: 5 :

## b) Side Ring Plates:f = 8.88 Kg/mm2 (as calculated earlier)

d = least width of wall header = 168
c = constant = 1 mm.
K = constant = 0.4
W.P = f (t c)2/d2k = 8.88 (20 1)2/(168)2 x 0.4 = 0.2839 kg/mm2
= 28.39 kg/cm2.
Selected thk. of side ring is safe for a W.P. of 10.5 Kg/Cm2(g).
c) Stay Pins:
d = 32
Stress on each stay = 10.5 x 16 x 16 //4 x (32)2 = 3.342 kg/mm2
= 334.2 kg/cm2
Min. UTS of stay

= 37 kg/mm2.

Permissible Stress

= 0.36 x 37/1.5

= 8.88 kg/mm2
= 888 kg/cm2

Hence, the provided dia (32 mm) is safe for a working pressure of 10.5 kg/cm2(g).
3) CALCULATION FOR B.E. HEADERS (Regn. 340)
a) T.P. & E.P = 16 mm.

C = 3.413 mm

## E = 140 63.9/140 = 0.5

b = 154, C1 = 0.8, W = 208.
I) W.P = c.f (t c)/b2 = 3.413 x 8.88 (16 0.8)2/(154)2

= 0.2952 kg/mm2
= 29.52 kg/cm2

## Proposed tube plates are safe for a W.P. of 10.50 kg/cm2(g).

b) Side Ring:
f = 8.88 kg/mm2
d = 208, K = 0.4, T = 20
W.P. = 8.88 ( 20 1 )2/(208)2 x 0.4 = 0.1852 kg/mm2
= 18.52 kg/cm2(g)
c) Stay Pins:
Stress on each stay = 10.5 x 14 x 14 / /{4 x (32)2} = 2.559 kg/mm2
= 255.9 kg/cm2.
Min. UTS of stay = 37 kg/mm2
: 6 :

## Permissible Stress = 0.36 x 37/1.5 = 8.88 kg/mm2

= 888 kg/cm2.
Hence, provided dia (32 mm) is safe for a W.P. of 10.50 kg/cm2(g).
4) B.E. DOWN COMMER AND RISER (Regn. 279)
B.E.D.C stub size (provided) = 141.3 OD x 12.7 thk.
B.E.R.

168.3 =

OD x 10.97 thk.

## Out of the B.E.R. Pipe is of higher OD and having lower thickness.

Therefore take the case of BER for calculation.
ID of drum D = 1204 mm.
e = constant = 1
es = eqv. Thk. of shell.
f = permissible stress= 11.28 kg/mm2.
c = 0.762 (constant)
ID of riser stub = 168.3 2 x 10.97 = 146.36 mm.
W.P = 2 x 11.28 x 1 (es 0.762) /( 146.36 + es 0.762)
0.105 x (145.598 + es) = 22.56

es - 17.191

## es = 0.105 x 145.598 + 17.191 / (22.56 0.105) = 1.45 mm.

Comp. required (X) = dn x es
= 146.36 x 1.45 = 212.222 mm2.
Eqv. thk. of nozzle = en
UTS of nozzle

= 31 kg/mm2,

## f = 0.36 x 31/1.5 = 7.44 kg/mm2

en = (146.36 0.762) x 0.105 + 2 x 7.44 x 0.762 /( 2 x 7.44 0.105) = 1.8 mm.
ts = 10 mm.
b = 2.5 ts or 2.5 tn (least one)
= 25 Or 27.825
b = 25
C1 = Greater of ts + 75 Or dn/2
= 10 + 75 Or 146.36 / 2
= 85

Or 73.18
: 7 :

C1 = 85.
Cw = O area of fillet weld
Compensating available = Y = 2 (tn en) b fn/fs + 2 tn.b. fn/fs + 2 (ts es) c1 + cw
= 2 (10.97 1.80) 25 x 31/(47 + 2 x 10.97)
25 x 31/47 + 2 (10 1.45) 85 + 0 = 2117.69 mm2.
Y >X
Therefore, there is no need of extra compensation.
5) W.P. OF TUBES
Min. UTS = 31 kg/mm2
f = 0.36 x 31/ 1.5 Or 31/2.7
W.P. = 2fe (t c) / d t + c
= 7.44 kg/mm2 Or 11.48 kg/mm2.
C = constant = 0.75, e = weld efficiency = 1.
a) Gen, Roof & Riser:
d = 76.2 mm, t = 3.25 mm thk.
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1 ( 3.25 0.75) / (76.2 3.25 + 0.75)
= 0.5047 kg/mm2 = 50.47 kg/cm2
b) Dn. Comer:
d = 114.3, t = 6.02
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1 (6.02 0.75) / 114.3 6.02 + 71.92 kg/cm2.
c) Inbed Tubes:
d = 63.5, t = 4.06
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1 (4.06 0.75) /( 63.5 4.06 + 0.75)
= 0.8183 kg/mm2

= 81.83 kg/cm2

## d) B.E. Down Comer:

D = 141.3, t = 6.55
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1 (6.55 0.75 ) / (141.3 6.55 + 0.75) = 0.8183 kg/mm2
= 63.69 kg/cm2

: 8 :
e) B.E. Riser:
d = 168.3, t = 7.11
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1 (7.11 0.75) /( 168.3 7.11 + 0.75)
= 0.5844 kg/mm2
= 58.44 kg/cm2.
In all the cases the calculated valueis higher than the design value. Hence the proposed
tubes/pipes are safe for a W.P. of 10.50 kg/cm2(g).
6. HEATING SURFACE:
Surface area exposed to heat on one side and coming in contact with water on other side are
:
Generating, roof, down comer portion of drum, in bed tubes in the furnace.
1) Gen Tubes:
d = 76.2, L = 6050, N = 121
H.S1 = x 76.2 x 6050 x 121 / 106 = 175.245 M2
2) Roof Tubes (half exposed)
d = 76.2, L = 5642, N = 7
H.S2 = x 76.2 x 5642 x 7 /( 2 x 106) = 4.727 M2
3) Part of drum : (Quarterly Exposed)
d = 1224, L = 2276.
HS3 = / 1224 x 2276 /( 4 x 106) = 2.188 M2
4) In Bed Tubes:
d = 63.5, L = 2214, N = 43
H.S4 = x 63.5 x 2214 x 43 / 106 = 18.99 M2
Total H.S = HS1 + HS2 + HS3 + HS4
= 175.245 + 4.727 + 2.188 + 18.99 = 201.15 M2
7. SAFETY VALVE: (Reg.293)
HS = 201.15 M2
Rated Capacity = 30 Kg/Hr/M2
E = 201.15 x 30 = 6034.5 kg/hr.
P = 10.5 + 1 = 11.5 kg/cm2
: 9 :

## C = 0.1 (for high lift S.V.)

E = CAP A = E / c. P. = 6034.5 /( 0.1 x 11.5) = 5247.39
2 x /4 d2 = 5247.39
d = ( 5247.39 )x 4 / 2 = 57.79 mm
2 Safety Valve is adeauate.
Bore of stand pipe = 1.25 x 57.79 = 72.2375 mm.
Provided stand pipe = 88 NB. Hence adequate.

( P. SWAIN )

## PRESSURE CALCULATION FOR SPARE ECONOMIZER BEARING

JOB NO.P-180 FOR BOILER REGISTRATION NO.GT3455

## Header size 114.3 x 8.56 thk.

Economiser tube size : 38.1 x 3.66 thk.
W.P. = 12.50 kg/cm2(g), P = 125, d = 39, E = (125 39) / 125 = 0.688
Min. UTS for Tubes/Pipes = 31 kg/mm2,
f = (0.36 x 31) / 1.5 = 7/44 kg/mm2
e = 1, c = 0.762 for headers, C1 = 0.75 for tubes.
HEADERS
W.P. = 2 f E (t c )/D t + c = { 2 x 7.44 x 0.688 (8.56 0.762)} /( 114.3 8.56 + 0.762)
= 0.7496 kg/mm2
= 74.96 kg/cm2 (g)
Therefore the thickness of pipe proposed for header is adequate for a W.P. of 12.50 kg/cm2(g)
TUBES
Taking a thinning effect of 12.5% at the bends
t
= 3.25 0.125 x 3.66 = 3.2025
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1 (3.2025 0.75)/(38.1 3.2025+ 0.75)
= 1.024 kg/mm2
= 102.4 kg/cm2(g)
Hence, the thickness of tubes proposed is adequate for a w.p of 12.50 kg/cm2(g)
HEATING SURFACE
d = 38.1, exposed length of each coil = l = 40556 mm.
No. of coils = 9
HS = x 38.1 x 40556 x 9 / (10)6 = 43.6 M2

## FOR PRESSELS PVT. LTD.

(P. SWAIN)
Jr. Manager (Q.A)

CALCULATION SHEET
BOILER MAKERS NO.

WT/SD-400/F/295

WORKING PRESSURE

10.50 KG/CM2(G)

WORKING TEMPERATURE

1850 C.

## HYD. TEST PRESSURE

15.75 KG/CM2(G)

REFERENCE DRAWINGS

WT/SD-450/F/2.1,R0
WT/SD-450/F/2.2,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-450/F/2.2,Sh.2/2, R0
WT/SD-450/F/2.3,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-450/F/2.3,Sh.2/2, R0
WT/SD-450/F/2.4,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-450/F/2.4,Sh.2/2, R0
WT/SD-450/F/2.5,Sh.1/2, R0
WT/SD-450/F/2.5,Sh.2/2, R0

:: 2 ::
WORKING PRESSURE CALCULATION FOR DRUM:
Max. Working Temp.<4540 C.
Min. UTS of Plate
=
47 kg/mm2
Stress = Et/1.5
=
0.36 x 47/1.5 =
11.28 kg/mm2
Or F = UTS/2.7
=
47/2.7
=
17.41 kg/mm2
Min. Stress for calculation = f = 11.28 kg/mm2
Ligament Efficiency (E)
i)

For RoofTubes

ii)

## For Down Comer Tubes:

E

=
=

76.6, p = 320
(p-d) / p = (320-76.6)/320 = 0.760

d
p

=
=

76.6,
410

## Min. Ligament Efficiency for calculation = E = 0.760

I.D of shell = D = 1050 20 = 1030 mm, T = 10 mm. ,C=0.762
W.P. of shell

= 2.f.E (T c)/(D + T c)
= 2 x 11.28 x 0.760(10 0.762)/(1040 + 10 0.762)
= 0.1524 kg/mm2
= 15.24 kg/cm2(g)
Therefore the thickness (10 mm) of shell plate proposed is adequate for a W.P. of
10.50 kg/cm2(g).
W.P. CALCULATION FOR DISHED ENDS: (Reg.275, 277, 278)
U.T.S. of d/e =
47 kg/mm2
Thk. of d/e =
12 mm.
Thk. after dishing (12.5% thining)
= T = 10.5 mm.
R1 = 912 mm, r2 = 162 mm, D = 1050 mm
External Height of d/e =
h
=
R2 - {(R2 - D/2)(R2 + D/2 2 r2)} (Eqn.75)

Ratio (h/d) =

255.7/1050

0.244

## Opening in dished end in elliptical by (345 x 446) mm.

Max.dia of opening = d
=
446 mm.
Contd.P/3-

:: 3 ::
Comp. plate thk.
=
10 mm.
Width of compensation
=
50 mm.
Thk. of M.H. Ring
=
20 mm.
Height of M.H. Ring below the inside surface of d/e = 28 mm
Height of M.H. Ring above the inside surface of d/e = 52 mm
Additional conditions to comply:I) T/D 0.1, actual T / D =

## The conditions are therefore satisfied.

Max. limit of area of reinforcement:a)
L1
=
(2RT)
for the width of reinforcing plate.
b)

L2

(d.Tt )

=
=

## Int. Radious of spherical part of the dished end

C.R 1/2T = 912 5.25 = 906.75 mm.

T1
L1
L2

=
=
=

## Actual thk. of nozzle

Width of compensation
Height of nozzle ring

a)

So, L1 (max.) =
(2RT)
=
(2 x 906.75 x 10.5)
Hence, provided width is, 50 mm is within the limit.

=
=
=

20 mm.
50 mm
80 mm.

b)
L2 (max.)
=
(d.Tt) =
(446 x 20)
=
Actual height provided (80 mm) is within the limit. Hence O.K.

= 137.99

94.45

d
T
A

=
=
=
=

## actual dia of opening in head.

min. thk. in head.
Effective cross section of reinforcement
actual C/S of comp. plate + C / S of nozzle
support the pressure.

## Thickness necessary to support the

Pressure in respect of the nozzle:
W.P

=
=

## 47 kg/mm2 for dished end.

47 kg/mm2 for nozzle & comp. pad.
contd.P/4-

:: 4 ::
E
Te

=
=

W.P =
0.175 =
Or te =

0.95
Equivalent thk. of nozzle for opening of
406 mm at a pressure of 10.5 kg/cm2
0.762
2 x f x E (te c)/(D + t c)
2 x 11.28 x 0.95 (te 0.75)/(406 + te 0.762)
2.76 mm.

a)

## Comp. available for compensation pad.

a

b)

2 x 10 x 50 = 1000 mm2

b

= 3912.96 mm2

## Effective compensation = A = (a + b) x UTS of Nozzle/UTS of Plate.

= 3912.96 x 47/47
= 3912.96 mm2
Imaginary dia d1
d1/(DT)

= d A/T
= (446 3912.96 / 10.5) = 73.34
= 73.34/ (1050 x 10.5) = 0.698

h/D= 0.244.
Safe factor K as read from fig.23D = 1.1
W.P. of dished end =
2.f(T c)/D.K
(Regn.278)
=
2 x 11.28 (10.5 0.75)/(1050 x 1.1)
=
0.1904 kg/mm2
=
19.04 kg/cm2
Selected thickness of dished end is 12 mm safe for W.P. of 10.50 kg/cm2(g)

Contd.P/5-

:: 5 ::
CALCULATION OF W.P. OF HEADER BOX:(Reg.340)
1)
T.P. & E.P:
t
=
thk. of tube plate of hdr. Box
=
b
=
int. breadth between supporting sides =
c
=
constant
=
c1
=
constant
=
f
=
permissible stress = 0.36 x 37/1.5
=
E
=
Efficiency legament between holes =
W
=
Width (internal) of hdr.
=
W.P =

c.f.(t c1)/b2

Or W.P=

6.25 f.E.t2/W2 =
=
=

16 mm.
189
3.413
0.8
8.88 kg/mm2
(160 76.6)/160 = 0.521
118
.

## = 3.413 x 8.88 (16 0.8)2 / (189)2

= 0.1960 mm2
= 19.60 kg/cm2
6.25 x 162 x 8.88 x .521/(118)2
0.5316 kg/mm2
53.16 kg/cm2

In both calculation the value is higher than the proposed working pressure. So the
selected thk. of plate i.e. 16 mm is safe & adequate for a working pressure of
10.50 kg/cm2(g).
2)

## SIDE RING PLATE CALCULATION:

Side ring plate thk.
=
20 mm.
p
=
Permissible stress = 0.36 x 37/1.5
d
=
least width between walls of hdr.
c
=
constant
e
=
W.P

=
=
=
=

= 8.88 kg/mm2
= 118.
= 1 mm
=1

## f(t c)2/d2k {Eqn.89(a)}

8.89 (20 1)2/{(118)2 x 0.4}
0.5756 kg/mm2
57.56 kg/cm2

Hence the size of side ring (20 mm thk.) is adequate for a W.P. of 10.50 kg/cm2(g).
CALCULATION FOR STAY BAR:
Dia of Stay Pin d
=
32
Permissible Stress
= 0.36 x 37 / 1.5
= 8.88 kg/mm2
Load Capacity 8.88 x /4 (32)2 = 7141.7 kg.
W.P. = Load / Area = 7141.7 / 160 x 160
= 0.2789 kg/mm2
= 27.89 kg/cm2(g)

Contd.P/6:: 6 ::
2
Proposed Working Pressure = 10.50 kg/cm (g).
Hence the proposed stay pin is safe and adequate for a W.P. of 10.50 kg/cm2(g).
Working Pressure of B.E. Headers:
1)

## T.P. & E.P.

t = Thk. of T.P. & E.P.

= 16 mm.

## b = Internal breadth btn supporting side = 154 mm

c = Constant

= 3.413

C1 = Constant

= 0.8

= Permissible Stress
= 0.36 x 37 / 1.5 = 8.88 kg/mm2

## = Efficiency of ligament between holes

=( 140 63.9) / 140 = 0.543

## W.P. = c.f (t c1) / b2 = 3.413 x 8.88 ( 16 0.8 )2 / (154)2

= 0.2953 kg/mm2
= 29.53 kg/cm2
Or
W.P. = f.E.t2 x 6.25 / W2
= 6.25 x 8.88 x 0.543 x (16)2 / (118)2
= 0.2734 kg/mm2
= 27.34 kg/mm2
In the calculations the calculated value is higher than the proposed working pressure. So
the selected thickness of plate (16 mm) is safe and adequate for a working pressure of
10.50/Cm2(g).
2)

## Side Ring Plate:

t = 20, f = 8.88 kg/mm2, d = 168, c = 1, k = 0.4
W.P. = f ( t c)2 / d2k
= 8.88 (20 1)2 / (168)2 x 0.4
= 0.2839 kg/mm2
= 28.39 kg/cm2
Hence the size of side ring plate ( 20 mm thk. ) is safe and adequate for a W.P. of 10.50
kg/cm2(g).

Contd.P/7:: 7 ::
Calculation for Stay Pins:
Dia of Stay Pin

Permissible Stress

= 32
= 8.88 kg/mm2.

## Load Developed - 10.5 x (140)2 = 2058 kg.

Stress on stay = 2058 / /4 (32)2
= 2.56 kg/mm2
= 256 Kg/Cm2.
Hence the proposed size is adequate for a W.P. of 10.50 kg/cm2(g).
W.P. = Load / Area = 7141.7 / 160 x 160
= 0.2789 kg/mm2
= 27.89 kg/cm2(g)
Proposed Working Pressure = 10.50 Kg/Cm2(g).
Hence the proposed stay pin is safe and adequate for a W.P. of 10.50 Kg/Cm2(g).

## Working Pressure of Tubes:

(a) (Generating, Roof, Riser and Down Comer)
d = 76.2, t = 3.25, c = 0.75 constant,

e = Constant = 1

## f = 0.36 x 31 / 1.5 = 7.44 kg/mm2

W.P. = 2 x fe ( t c ) / d-t+c
= 2 x 7.44 x 1 x ( 3.25 0.75 ) / 76.2 3.25 0.75
= 0.5048 kg/mm2
= 50.48 kg/cm2(g)
(b) Inbed Tubes:
d = 63.5 , t = 4.06
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1 (4.06 0.75) /(63.5 4.06 + 0.75)
= 0.8183 kg/mm2
= 81.83 kg/cm2(g).
Hence the proposed thickness of tube is safe and adequate for a W.P. of
10.50 Kg/Cm2(g).

Contd.P/7:: 7 ::

## Calculation for Compensation of Stubs

(For BE DC) on Drum (Reg. 279)
B.E. Down Comer Stub

## = B.E. Riser Stub

= 114.3 OD x 8.56 thk.

I.D. of Drum

= 1030 mm.

## e = Constant = 1, Eqv. Thk. of Shell = es

Permissible Stress = f = 11.28 kg/mm2, c = constant 0.762
I.D. of Stubs = 114.3 2 x 8.56 = 97.18
W.P

= 2 x f x e (es c ) /( D + es c)
= 0.105 = 2 x 11.28 x 1 (es 0.762) / (1030 + es 0.762)

## es = (1030 0.762) 0.105 + 2 x 11.28 x 0.762 / ( 2 x 11.28 0.105)

= 5.578 mm.
Compensation Required

= x = dn x es
= 97.18 x 5.578 = 542.07 mm2

UTS of Nozzle

= en

= 47 kg/mm2

## l = 0.36 x 47 / 1.5 = 11.28 kg/mm2

en = (97.18 0.762) x 0.105 + 2 x 11.28 x 0.762 / (2 x 11.28 0.105)
= 1.216 mm.
Thickness of Shell = ts = 10 mm
b

## = Least Value of 2.5 ts Or 2.5 tn

= 2.5 x 10 Or 2.5 x 8.56
= 25 Or 21.4

= 21.4

C1

## = Greater of (ts + 75) Or dn / 2

= (10 + 75) Or 97.18 / 2
= 85 Or 48.59

C1 = 85
Cw

= 73.27 mm2

## fn /ts = 11.28 / 11.28 = 1

Contd.P/8:: 8 ::
Compensation = Available = Y = 2 (tn en)b. fn/tn + 2.tn.b.fn/ts + 2 (tn en) C1 + Cw
= 2 x (8.56 1.216) 21.4 x 1 + 2 x 8.56 x 21.4 x 1 + 2(10 5.578) 85 + 73.27
= 1505.7 mm2
Y>X
Hence there is no need of extra compensation.
Calculation for Compensation of Stubs (For BER) on Drum (Reg.279)
B.E. Down Comer Stub = B.E Riser Stub = 141.3 OD x 9.53 thk.
I.D. of Drum = 1030 mm.
E

## Permissible Stress = f = 11.28 kg/mm2, c = constant 0.762

I.D. of Stubs = 141.3 2 x 9.53 = 122.24
W.P.

= 2 x f x e (es c ) / (D + es c)
= 0.105 = 2 x 11.28 x 1 (es 0.762) / (1030 + es 0.762)

## es = (1030 0.762) 0.105 + 2 x 11.28 x 0.762 / (2 x 11.28 0.105)

= 5.578 mm
Compensation Required

= x = dn x en
= 122.24 x 5.578 = 681.855 mm2

## Let Eqv. Thk. of nozzle = en

UTS of Nozzle = 47 kg/mm2.
l = 0.36 x 47 / 1.5 = 11.28 kg/mm2
en = (122.24 0.762) x 0.105 + 2 x 11.28 x 0.762) / (2 x 11.28 0.105)
= 1.334 mm
Thickness of Shell = ts = 10 mm.
b

## = Least value of 2.5 ts Or 2.5 tn

= 2.5 x 10 Or 2.5 x 9.53
= 25 Or 23.825

b = 23.825
C1

## = Greater of (ts + 75) Or dn / 2

= (10 + 75) Or 122.24 / 2
= 85 Or 61.12

C1 = 85
Contd.P/9:: 9 ::
Cw

## = Agregate area of fillet weld = 2 x (9.53)2 x

= 90.82 mm2

fn / ts = 11.28 / 11.28 = 1
Compensation Available = Y = 2 (tn en )b.fn / tn + 2.tn.b.fn/ts + 2.(ts es) C1 + Cw
= 2 x (9.53 1.334) 23.825 x 1 + 2 x 9.53 x 23.825 x 1 +
2 (10 5.578) 85 + 90.82
= 1687.2 mm2
Y>X
Hence there is no need of extra compensation.
HEATING SURFACE:
1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

Generating Tubes:
d = 76.2
l = 6050 mm
n =81
H.S1 =
x 76.2 x 6050 x 81/ 106
=
117.313 m2
Roof Tubes:
d = 76.2
l = 5710
n=6
H.S2 =
x 76.2 x 5710 x 6 / 2 x 106
=
4.101 m2
Down Comer Tubes :
d = 76.2
l = 670
n=5
H.S3 =
x 76.2 x 670 x 5 / 106
=
0.401 m2
Inbed Tubes:
d = 63.5
l = 2360
n = 38
H.S4 =
x 63.5 x 2360 x 38x 106
=
17.89 m2
Part of Drum (quarterly exposed):
d = 1050
l = 1960
H.S5 =
x 1050 x 1960/ 106 x 4
=
1.616 m2

Contd.P/10:: 10 ::
Total Heating Surface = H.S1 + HS2 + HS3 + HS4 + HS5
= 117.313 + 4.101 + 0.401 + 17.89 + 1.616
= 141.321 m2
CALCULATION FOR SAFETY VALVE : (Reg.293)
Total evaporation

= CAP, where,

A

## = 3123 / (0.4 x 11.5)

/ 4 d2 = 3123/(0.4 x 11.5)
d

## PRESSELS PVT. LTD.

(P. Swain )
Jr. Manager (Q.A)

## CALCULATION OF W.P. FOR FEED LINE OF BOILER MAKERS NO.SIHHF-20/142

Max. W.P. 9.0 Kg/cm2 (g)
Size of pipes proposed =

26.7 OD x 2.87
21.3 OD x 2.77

W.P. = {2 x f x e (t c)} / d t c

## f = (0.36 x 31) / 1.5 = 7.44 kg/mm2

e = 1, c = 0.75
d = O.D of tube, t=thk. of tube proposed.
t1 = thk. of tube after adding 12.5% for
thining at bends.

OD of Tube
Proposed (d)
In (mm)

t
in mm

t1
in mm

W.P.(kg/cm2)
as per
above
Formula.

Remarks

21.3

2.77

2.42

137.5

26.7

2.87

2.51

111.7

## Safe & Adequate

for the proposed
W.P.
-do-

Therefore the size of pipes proposed is safe and adequate for a W.P. of 9.0 kg/cm2(g).
FOR PRESSELS PVT. LTD.

( P. SWAIN )

IBR CALCULATION

WT/SD 800/F/1001

Working Pressure

17.5 Kg/Cm2(g)

Working Temp.

207oC.

## Ref. Drawing Nos.

WT/SD-800/F/9.1 R0
WT/SD-800/F/9.2, Sh.1/2 R0
WT/SD-800/F/9.2, Sh.2/2 R0
WT/SD-800/F/9.3, Sh.1/2 R0
WT/SD-800/F/9.3, Sh.2/2 R0
WT/SD-800/F/9.4, Sh.1/2 R0
WT/SD-800/F/9.4, Sh.2/2 R0
WT/SD-800/F/9.5, Sh.1/2 R0
WT/SD-800/F/9.5, Sh.2/2 R0

Drum:
1)

## Shell : Max. Working Temp. < 454oC.

Min. UTS of Pl .

= 42.19 Kg/mm2(g)

## Permissible Stress = f = 0.36 x 42.19/1.5 = 10.12 Kg/mm2(g)

And, f = UTS / 2.7 = 42.19 / 2.7 = 15.62 Kg/mm2
Ligament Efficiency:(a)

## For Down Comer :- d = 76.6, P = 325

E =( P-d)/p =(325 76.6)/325 = 0.76

(b)

## For Roof Tubes : - d = 57.4, P = 205

E =( P-d )/p =( 205 57.4) / 205 = 0.72

Taking the minimum of the two, ligament efficiency for further calculations E = 0.72
I.D. of Shell = 1224 32 = 1192 mm
Thk. of shell plate = T = 16 mm
W.P. = 2.f.E (T-C) /( D + T-C) Where, C = 0.762 (Constant)
= 2 x 10.12 x 0.760 (16 - 0.762) / (1192 + 16 0.762)
= 0.1839 Kg/mm2
= 18.39 Kg/Cm2(g)
Therefore the thickness (16 mm) of shell plate proposed is adequate for a W.P. of 17.5
Kg/Cm2(g).
2)

## Dished End :- (Reg. 275, 277, 278)

UTS of d / e = 42.19 kg/mm2, f = 0.36 x 42.19 / 1.5 = 10.12 Kg/mm2
Thk. of d / e = 16 mm
Thk. of d / e after dishing (considering 10 % thinning )
= 16 0.1 x 16 = 14.4 mm.
r2 = 191 and R2 = 995
D = 1224 mm
h = R2 - (R2 D/2) (R2 + D/2 2 r2)
= 995 - (995 1224/2) (995 + 1224/2 2 x 191)
= 995 383 x 1225
= 995 684.963
= 995 684.963 = 310.037
h/D ratio = 310.037 / 1224 = 0.25
ContdP/2-

: 2 :
Opening in the d/e is elliptical by (345 x 446) mm
Max. dia of opening = 446 mm
Thk. of Comp. pad = 10 mm
Width of Comp. pad = 50 mm
Thk. of M.H. Ring = 20 mm
Ht. of M.H. Ring below the inside surface of d/e = 28 mm
Ht. of M.H. Ring above the inside surface of d/e = 57 mm
Additional Conditions to Comply :(i) T/D 0.1, Actual T/D = 14.4 / 1224 = 0.01
(ii) d/D 0.5, Actual d/D = 446 / 1224 = 0.364
The conditions are therefore satisfied.
Max. limit of area of reinforcement :(a) L1 (Max.) = 2RT for the width of reinforcing plate.
(b) L2 (Max.) = d.Tt for the height of nozzle.
R int. Radious of spherical part of the dished end = 979 mm
Tt = Actual thk. of nozzle = 20 mm
L1 = Width of Compensating = 50 mm
L2 = Height of nozzle ring = 85 mm
So (a) L1 = 2 RT = 2 x 979 x 14.4 = 167.914 mm
Hence, the width provided ( 50 mm ) is within the limit.
(b) L2 (Max.) = d Tt = 446 x 20 = 94.45
Actual height provided (85 mm) is within the limit.
Hence O.K.
Calculation for Imaginary Diameter (d1)
d = Actual dia of opening in head.
T = Min. thk. in Head.
A= Effective Cross Section of Reinforcement.
W.P. = 17.5 Kg/Cm2, UTS of d/e = 42.19 Kg/mm2
UTS of Nozzle & Comp. Pad = 42.19 Kg/mm2
Contd..P/3-

: 3 :
f = 10.12 Kg/mm2 (For D/E)
E = 0.95
te = Equivalent thk. of nozzle for opening of 406 mm at a pressure of 17.5 Kg/mm2
C = 0.762
W.P. = 2 x f x E (te c) /( D + t C)
te =( w.p x d / 2fe wp) + 0.762
te = ( 0.175 x 406/ 2x10.12x0.95 0.175 ) + 0.762
= 4.49 mm
Calculation for Compensation:
(a) Compensation available from Comp. pad = 2 x 65 x 12 = 1560 mm2
(b) Compensation available from Nozzle:h = 2 [ (20 4.49) 57 + 20 x 28 ]
= 2888.14 mm2
Total Effective Compensating
a + b = 1560 + 2888.14
= 4448.14 mm2
Effective Compensation = A = (a+b) x UTS of Nozzle / UTS of Pl.
= 4448.14 mm2
Imaginary dia = d1 = d A/T = 446 4448.14 / 14.4 = 137.102
Ratio d1/ DT = 137.102/ 1224 x 14.4

= 1.03

H / D = 0.25
Safe factor K as read from fig. 23D of IBR = 1.2
Working Pressure of Dished Ends.
= W.P. = 2 x f x (T-C) / DK (Regn. 278)
= 2 x 10.12 (14.4 0.75) /1224 x 1.2
= 196.56 / 1003.2
= 18.80 kg/cm2
Hence the thickness (16 mm) of dished end proposed is adequate for a W.P. of 17.5 kg/cm2(g).
Contd..P/4-

: 4 :

1)

## T.P. & E.P.

t = Thk. of T.P. & E.P. = 16 mm.
b = Internal breadth btn supporting side = 189
c = Constant = 3.413
C1 = Constant = 0.8
f = Permissible Stress = 0.36 x 42.19 / 1.5 = 10.12 kg/mm2
E = Efficiency of ligament between holes = (160 76.6) / 160 = 0.521
W = Width (Internal) of header = 118 mm
W.P. = c.f (t c1)2 / b2 = 3.413 x 10.12 ( 16 0.8 )2 / (189)2
= 34.53 x 231.04 / 35721
= 0.2233 kg/mm2
= 22.33 kg/cm2
Or
W.P. = 6.25 f.E.t2 / W2
= 6.25 x 10.12 x 0.521 x (16)2 / (118)2 = 8436.032 / 13924
= 0.6058 kg/mm2
= 60.58 kg/mm2
In the calculations the calculated value is higher than the proposed working pressure. So
the selected thickness of plate (16 mm) is safe and adequate for a working pressure of 17.5
Kg/Cm2(g).
2)

Side Ring:
t = 20, f = 10.08 kg/mm2, d = 118, c = 1, k = 0.4
f = 0.36 x 49.22 / 1.5 = 11.81 kg/mm2
W.P. = f ( t c)2 / d2k
= 11.81 (20 1)2 / (118)2 x 0.4
= 0.7654 kg/mm2
= 76.54 kg/cm2
Hence the size of side ring ( 20 mm thk.) is adequate for a W.P. of 17.5 kg/cm2(g).
ContdP/5-

: 5 :
Calculation for Stay Bar:
Dia of Stay Pin

d = 32

## Permissible Stress = 0.36 x 42 / 1.5 = 10.08 kg/mm2

Load Capacity - 10.08 x /4 (32)2 = 8105.28 kg.
W.P. = Load / Area = 8105 / 160 x 160
= 0.3166125 kg/mm2
= 31.66 kg/cm2(g)
Proposed Working Pressure - 17.5 Kg/Cm2(g).
Hence the proposed stay pin is safe and adequate for a W.P. of 17.5 Kg/Cm2(g).
Working Pressure of B.E. Headers:
1)

## T.P. & E.P.

t = Thk. of t.P. & E.P. = 16 mm.
b = Internal breadth btn supporting side = 154 mm
c = Constant = 3.413
C1 = Constant = 0.8
f = Permissible Stress = 0.36 x 42.19 / 1.5 = 10.12 kg/mm2
E = Efficiency of ligament between holes =( 140 63.9) / 140 = 0.543
W = Internal Width of header = 208 mm (Max)
W.P. = c.f (t c1) / b2 = 3.413 x 10.12 ( 16 0.8 )2 / (154)2
= 0.3364 kg/mm2
= 33.64 kg/cm2
Or
W.P. = f.E.t2 x 6.25 / W2
When f = 10.12 kg/mm2
then W.P. = 6.25 x 10.08 x 0.543 x (16)2 / (118)2
= 20.32 kg/cm2
In the calculations the calculated value is higher than the proposed working pressure. So
the selected thickness of plate (16 mm) is safe and adequate for a working pressure of 17.5
kg /cm2(g).
Contd..P/6-

: 6 :
2)

## Side Ring Plate:

t = 20, f = 11.81 kg/mm2, d = 208, c = 1, k = 0.4
W.P. = f ( t c)2 / d2k
= 11.81(20 1)2 / (154)2 x 0.4 = 11.81 x 361 / 9486.4
= 0.4494 kg/mm2
= 44.94 kg/cm2

Hence the size of side ring plate ( 20 mm thk. ) is safe and adequate for a W.P. of
17.5kg/cm2(g).
Calculation for Stay Pins:
Dia of Stay Pin

d = 32

## Permissible Stress = 10.08 kg/mm2.

Load Developed - 0.175 x (140)2 = 3430 kg.
Stress on stay = 3430 / /4 (32)2 = 4.26 kg/mm2 = 426 Kg/Cm2.
Hence the proposed size is adequate for a W.P. of 17.5 kg/cm2(g).
W.P. = Load / Area = 8105. 287 / 140 x 140
= 0.4135 kg/mm2
= 41.35 kg/cm2(g)
Proposed Working Pressure - 17.5 Kg/Cm2(g).
Hence the proposed stay pin is safe and adequate for a W.P. of 17.5 Kg/Cm2(g).

## Working Pressure of Tubes:

(a) (Generating, Roof, Riser and Down Comer)
Min. UTS = 31 kg/mm2

## f = 0.36 x 31 / 1.5 = 7.44 kg/mm2

e = Constant = 1
W.P. = 2 x fe ( t c ) / d-t+c

## = 2 x 7.44 x 1 x ( 3.25 0.75 ) / 76.2 3.25 + 0.75

= 50.47 kg/cm2(g)
Contd.P/7-

: 7 :

(b)

Inbed Tubes:
d = 63.5 , t = 4.06
W.P = 2 x 7.44 x 1 (4.06 0.75) /(63.5 4.06 + 0.75)
= 0.8183 kg/mm2
= 81.83 kg/cm2(g).
Hence the proposed thickness of tube is safe and adequate for a W.P. of 10.50

Kg/Cm2(g).

## Calculation for Compensation of Stubs (For BE DC) on Drum (Reg. 279)

B.E. Down Comer Stub= 168.3OD x 18.26 thk.
I.D. of Drum =1192mm.
e = Constant = 1, Eqv. Thk. of Shell = es
c = constant 0.762
UTS = 42.19 kg/mm2
f = 0.36 x 42.19/ 1.5 = 10.12 kg / cm2
I.D. of Stubs = 168.3 2 x 18.26 = 131.78 mm2
en = ( WP x D / 2fe - WP ) + 0.762
= (0.175 x 131.78 / 2x10.12 0.175) + 0.762
= 1.91 mm
es = (WP x D / 2fe - WP ) + 0.762
= (0.175 x 1192 / 2x10.12x0.72 0.175) + 0.762
= 15.25 mm
Compensation Required = x = dn x es
= 131.78x 15.25 = 2009.64 mm2
b = Least Value of 2.5 ts Or 2.5 tn
= 2.5 x 16 Or 2.5 x 18.26 = 40 Or 45.65 mm
Contd..P/8-

8 :

b = 40 mm
C1 = Greater of ( ts + 76 ) Or dn / 2
= ( 16 + 76 ) Or 131.78 / 2
= 92 Or 65.89 mm
C1 = 92 mm
Cw = Agregate area of Fillet Weld = 2 x (18.26)2 x
= 333.427 mm2
fn / fs = 10.12/10.12 = 1
Compensation Available Y = 2 ( tn - en ) b. fn / fs + 2. tn . b. fn / fs + 2. ( ts es) C1 + Cw
= 2 x ( 18.26 1.91 ) 40 x 1 + 2 x 18.26x 40 x 1
+ 2 ( 16 15.25) 92 + 333.427
= 3240.227 mm2
Y > X
Hence there is no need of extra compensation.

## Calculation for Compensation of Stubs (For BER) on Drum (Reg. 279)

B.E. Riser Stub = 141.3 OD x 15.88thk.
I.D. of Drum = 1192 mm.
e = Constant = 1, Eqv. Thk. of Shell = es
Permissible Stress = f = 10.12kg/mm2, c = constant 0.762
I.D. of Stubs = 141.3 2 x15.88 = 109.54 mm
W.P = 2 x f x e (es c ) / ( D + es c)
= 0.175 = 2 x 10.12 x 1 (es 0.762) / (1192 + es 0.762)
es = (1192 0.762) 0.175 + 2 x 10.12x 0.762 / ( 2 x 10.12 0.175)
= 15.25 mm.
Compensation Required = x = dn x es
= 109.54 x 15.25 = 1670.485 mm2
Let Eqv. Thk. of Nozzle = en
Contd.P/9-

: 9:

## UTS of Nozzle = 42.19 kg/mm2

l = 0.36 x 42.19 / 1.5 = 10.12 kg/mm2
en = ( (109.54 0.762) x 0.175 + 2 x 10.12 x 0.762) / (2 x 10.12 0.175)
= 1.71 mm.
Thickness of Shell = ts = 16 mm
b = Least Value of 2.5 ts Or 2.5 tn
= 2.5 x 16 Or 2.5 x 15.88
= 40 Or 39.7mm
b = 39.7 mm
C1 = Greater of ( ts + 76 ) Or dn / 2
= ( 16 + 76 ) Or 122.24 / 2
= 92 Or 54.77mm
C1 = 92 mm
Cw = Agregate area of Fillet Weld = 2 x (15.88)2 x
= 252.174 mm2
fn / fs = 10.12 / 10.12 = 1
Compensation Available Y = 2 ( tn - en ) b. fn / fs + 2. tn . b. fn / fs + 2. ( ts es) C1 + Cw
= 2 x ( 15.88 1.71 ) 40 x 1 + 2 x 15.88 x 40 + 2 ( 16 15.25 ) 92
+ 252.174
= 2794.174 mm2
Y > X
Hence there is no need of extra compensation.

Contd.P/10-

: 10 :

Heating Surface:
1)

## Generating Tubes:d = 76.2, l = 6050, n = 155

H.S. = x 76.2 x 6050 x 155 / 106 = 224.51

2)

## Roof Tubes :- (Half Exposed)

d = 76.2, l = 5623, n = 12
HS2 = x 76.2 x 5623 x 12/( 2 x 106 ) = 8.074 M2

3)

## Down Comer :- ( Half Exposed )

d = 76.2, l = 583, n = 8
HS3 = x 76.2 x 583 x 8 /( 2 x 106 ) = 0.558 M2

4)

## Part of Drum :- ( Quarterly Exposed )

d = 912, l = 2600
HS4 = x 1224 x 1960 / 106 x 4 = 2.499 m2

5)

## In Bed Tubes:d = 63.5 , l = 2373, n = 53

HS5 = x 63.5 x 2373 x 53 / 106 = 25.08 m2

= 235.637 + 25
= 260.717 M2

## Calculation for Safety Valve :- (Reg. 293)

Total Evaporation = 30 x 260.717 = 7821 Kgs/Hr
E = C A P Where C = 0.1 Makers Certificate.
7821.51 = 0.1 x A x 18.5

## A = 7821.51/ 0.1 x 18.5

= 4227.837 cm2 ( For two sides )

Contd.P/11-

: 11 :

## As area is always found in mm2 as follows from IBR 293.

So area is 4227.837 mm2 (For two sides )
For one side area is
= 4227.837 / 2 = 2113.918 mm2
As we know that area = /4 d2
So /4 d2 = 2113.918
d2 = 2113.918 x 4 / 3.141
d2 = 2692.032
d = 2692.032
= 51.88 mm
Hence, the provision of 2 D.P. Safety Valve is safe and adequate.

## FOR PRESSELS PVT. LTD.

( S. K. MULLICK )

sm