0 Up votes0 Down votes

0 views10 pagesSep 29, 2012

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

0 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Neuromancer
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- How Not to Be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking
- Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
- Chaos: Making a New Science
- The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity
- How to Read a Person Like a Book
- Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The 6th Extinction
- The Housekeeper and the Professor: A Novel
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- A Short History of Nearly Everything
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- The End of Average: How We Succeed in a World That Values Sameness
- Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Universe in a Nutshell

You are on page 1of 10

Document Number:

Release / Revision

MTD-0903

Rev A

04/16/2009

Document Owners:

Samuel French

MEMSenseProprietary

ThisdocumentisconsideredMEMSenseconfidentialproperty.Theinformationsetforthinthisdocumentmaynot,withoutthewrittenpermissionofMEMSense,be disclosedtoanypersonorentityotherthantheaddressee,itsemployeesoragents. DocumentNumber: MTD0903 DocumentRevision: A ProductNumber:

n/a

Rev A

Status

Description

Date 04/16/2009

MEMSenseProprietary

ThisdocumentisconsideredMEMSenseconfidentialproperty.Theinformationsetforthinthisdocumentmaynot,withoutthewrittenpermissionofMEMSense,be disclosedtoanypersonorentityotherthantheaddressee,itsemployeesoragents. DocumentNumber MTD0903 DocumentRevision A ProductNumber n/a Page1

Drift in Inertial Sensors When a value is quoted for drift in a gyroscopic inertial senor we are referring to the random fluctuations in bias that may not be removed by any correction schemes rooted in characterization of deterministic changes in bias, e.g. temperature bias dependence, cross sensitivity. Confusing the discussion of drift is the tendency of professionals referring to deterministic bias changes as drift when speaking in general. Our discussion here will refer to the random fluctuations by the use of the term drift.

Random Walk Consider a clumsy man who can walk forwards or backwards along a straight sidewalk. He stumbles either forward or backwards with some probability assigned to forward and backward motion:

probability of moving one step forward,

Eq. 1 Eq. 2

His motion describes a path in space (one dimension) which is called a random walk. A key element that we demand of this process is that each step occurs according to the probability of either forward or backward motion, and therefore an individual step does not depend on the past history of steps.

Lets look at the results (Figure 2) of a single experiment where a man has an equal chance of taking a step forward as he does to take a step backwards (p = q = 0.5) and then proceeds to take a set number of steps.

MEMSenseProprietary

ThisdocumentisconsideredMEMSenseconfidentialproperty.Theinformationsetforthinthisdocumentmaynot,withoutthewrittenpermissionofMEMSense,be disclosedtoanypersonorentityotherthantheaddressee,itsemployeesoragents. DocumentNumber MTD0903 DocumentRevision A ProductNumber n/a Page2

40 30 20

distance

time

This result may defy intuition upon first examination as it seems reasonable that if you have an equal chance of taking a step forward as backwards that the gain in distance should average to zero (our starting point for the walk) over time. This is clearly not true for this single case. Nevertheless this type of behavior has been confirmed by countless observations and experiments: when a single experiment is conducted, a clear trend away from the starting point is usually observed. Only the average of a large number of separate trials moves towards a displacement of zero (and for a infinite number of trials, exactly zero). We can demonstrate this fact by considering a larger ensemble (N = 20) of walking men (Figure 3). We can clearly see that the average of even twenty trials tends towards zero. Most users are not interested in the fact that the average of many sensors will average to zero. What we want to know is how far we will be from the origin on average with a single observer (a single sensor) after a certain amount of time has elapsed. The random walk can be quantified in terms of the expectation value of position, which is to say the absolute distance we find the walker to be from the origin after a certain number of steps. This value grows with time grows at a rate proportional to the root of the number of steps or N. After 1000 steps, we will find the walker about 32 steps in either direction from the origin. The bias in gyroscopic sensors fluctuates about a reference value in the same manner encountered with our random walker and the degree to which the bias has drifted can be described in these terms.

MEMSenseProprietary

ThisdocumentisconsideredMEMSenseconfidentialproperty.Theinformationsetforthinthisdocumentmaynot,withoutthewrittenpermissionofMEMSense,be disclosedtoanypersonorentityotherthantheaddressee,itsemployeesoragents. DocumentNumber MTD0903 DocumentRevision A ProductNumber n/a Page3

60 40 20

distance

200

400

600

800

1000

dimensionless time

Quantifying Random Walk In an inertial sensor system we measure a signal from a angular rate gyroscope that progresses with time. Each step corresponds to a uniform unit of time, t, defined by the sample rate. The signal behaves according to an equation of the form.

R = Qt

1 2

Eq. 3

The quantity R is the component of drift due to random fluctuations in bias that behave as a random walk and is measured in degrees per unit time. Often in gyroscopic sensor applications the coefficient Q is used to specify Angle Random Walk (ARW) since it describes the random drift in terms of a convenient constant for noise proportional to t (while simultaneously introduced an unusual unit of measure).

MEMSenseProprietary

ThisdocumentisconsideredMEMSenseconfidentialproperty.Theinformationsetforthinthisdocumentmaynot,withoutthewrittenpermissionofMEMSense,be disclosedtoanypersonorentityotherthantheaddressee,itsemployeesoragents. DocumentNumber MTD0903 DocumentRevision A ProductNumber n/a Page4

Inertial Sensor Output The behavior seen in random walk phenomena has applicability to inertial sensor technology in the description of sensor performance. Gyroscopes especially have characteristics that can be quantified in terms of the random walk model.

Random Bias Offset: Bias Instability The minimum drift in the rate signals is called Bias Instability. Its represents the lowest possible drift attainable in the system under test. Angular Displacement Derived from Rate Signals: Angle Random Walk

In applications where angle calculations are determined from the rate gyro signals (Figure 4) we observe distinct random walk behavior(Figure 5).

1.0

0.5

0.0

-0.5

time (sec)

MEMSenseProprietary

ThisdocumentisconsideredMEMSenseconfidentialproperty.Theinformationsetforthinthisdocumentmaynot,withoutthewrittenpermissionofMEMSense,be disclosedtoanypersonorentityotherthantheaddressee,itsemployeesoragents. DocumentNumber MTD0903 DocumentRevision A ProductNumber n/a Page5

80 60

Angular Displacement ()

time (sec)

The output of gyroscopes display changes in bias over long term use that can be characterized by random walk. However, the effects of this noise component are often found to be minimal for gyroscope applications that involve dynamic systems operating over time periods ranging from one second to one hour. Long term changes to bias offset (i.e. long term shelving) will be randomly distributed and may be permanent in nature. Even though the drift of an individual sensor can not be predicted, the time scale over which the changes occur can be defined by the RRW and introduces the opportunity to plan for recalibration in critical applications that require extended shelf life.

Determining the Random Noise Components: Allan Deviation While a researcher at NIST, Dr. David Allan developed a method for quantifying random noise components in oscillators used in clock applications. The various noise components contributing to deviation as a function of averaging time can be easily seen by way of this analysis. The deviation in the signal is calculated for a series of varying averaging times and plotted via increasing averaging time, .

MEMSenseProprietary

ThisdocumentisconsideredMEMSenseconfidentialproperty.Theinformationsetforthinthisdocumentmaynot,withoutthewrittenpermissionofMEMSense,be disclosedtoanypersonorentityotherthantheaddressee,itsemployeesoragents. DocumentNumber MTD0903 DocumentRevision A ProductNumber n/a Page6

In general, the analysis involves collecting zero-rate data for a time period ten times longer than the most significant averaging time (time period of interest) which in most MEMS gyro applications is ranges from one second to one hour1 .

10

10

theoretical limits have been calculated

10

10

-6

10

-5

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

10

(s)

Allan Deviation reveals three observable random noise components significant to our gyroscopes: Bias Instability, Angle Random Walk, and Rate Random Walk. The Allan deviation plot via its representation in log space reveals these noise components by their signature power dependence and corresponding proportionality coefficients:

1. Bias Instability, B, is defined as the minimum on this curve for industrial applications.

Random fluctuations are also observed in longer time periods which are relevant to long term bias, e.g. bias repeatability.

MEMSenseProprietary

ThisdocumentisconsideredMEMSenseconfidentialproperty.Theinformationsetforthinthisdocumentmaynot,withoutthewrittenpermissionofMEMSense,be disclosedtoanypersonorentityotherthantheaddressee,itsemployeesoragents. DocumentNumber MTD0903 DocumentRevision A ProductNumber n/a Page7

2. Angle Random Walk appears as the negative slope (m=-) section on the left side of the plot. 3. Rate Random Walk corresponds to upwards sloping (m=+) sections that appear on the right side of the plot.

MEMSense Products Bias Instability, B Angle Random Walk, Q Rate Random Walk, K Legacy Systems Mid-2009 Onwards 42 /hr 20/hr 3.1/hr 2.29 /hr n/a

= 9.9/hr3/2 &

The RRW number quoted here represents the limit on this quantity established to date.

Deviation due to Angle Random Walk is determined for a time period, t, via:

Q (t ) = Qt

K (t ) =

K 12 t 3

It should be noted that there are long term random changes in bias that occur on the order of months. These bias vintages behave according to Rate Random Walk. A selection of ten devices display RRW behavior as seen in Figure 7.

MEMSenseProprietary

ThisdocumentisconsideredMEMSenseconfidentialproperty.Theinformationsetforthinthisdocumentmaynot,withoutthewrittenpermissionofMEMSense,be disclosedtoanypersonorentityotherthantheaddressee,itsemployeesoragents. DocumentNumber MTD0903 DocumentRevision A ProductNumber n/a Page8

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

-0.1

-0.2

(hr)

Concluding Remarks It is important to maintain good perspective of the larger picture here in our discussion of random noise. This process is important in order to characterize the random noise, but keep in mind that there are numerous noise sources that vary in the applicability of a particular gyroscope. Deterministic behavior often outweighs the detrimental effects of the random fluctuations for a particular application. The goal here is to find the limits on applicability imposed by the random fluctuations that can not be directly removed with compensation.

MEMSenseProprietary

ThisdocumentisconsideredMEMSenseconfidentialproperty.Theinformationsetforthinthisdocumentmaynot,withoutthewrittenpermissionofMEMSense,be disclosedtoanypersonorentityotherthantheaddressee,itsemployeesoragents. DocumentNumber MTD0903 DocumentRevision A ProductNumber n/a Page9

- Noa techUploaded byPancho RJ
- Jee 2014 Booklet7 Hwt ProbabilityUploaded byvarunkohliin
- NUS ME3112-2 labUploaded byClifton Chang
- Intermediate_f (Autoguardado).docxUploaded byanon_665985340
- Examination of Proper Randomness of the Numbers generated by L.H.C. Tippett (1927)Uploaded byIOSRjournal
- discoUploaded byRaj Pawar
- Exploring Random VariablesUploaded byRex Fajardo
- Design and Fabrication of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)Uploaded byIman Azrbj
- MT 202S-Statistics & ProbabilityUploaded bymarlontaylor
- INS AlgorithmsUploaded byversine
- ALN With PPM StabilityUploaded byPaMe LiTa
- SEII Discussion Paper 2016.08 Abdulkadiroglu Et Al Impact EvaluationUploaded byElena Saltos
- SamplingUploaded bySANIUL ISLAM
- Trading eBook-Can Technical Analysis Still Beat Random SystemsUploaded byapi-3733080
- NIG Biezad. Integrated Navigation and Guidance Systems.pdfUploaded byDiogo Martins
- prob notesUploaded byapi-273061228
- 1-s2.0-S0967066102000436-mainUploaded byJuan Manuel Mauro
- p-404Uploaded byRam Kumar Gummadi
- 144th Kentucky Derby odds (Feb. 26, 2018)Uploaded byJonathan
- Kalman Imu GpsUploaded bycaoap3847
- Philosophical Heuristics and Philosophical CreativityUploaded byCainã Silva Coutinho
- social justice lpUploaded byapi-273343020
- 1 Steps in Research ProcessUploaded byvaibhavpoilkar
- Lec 03 - Sampling TechniquesUploaded byGimhan Godawatte
- Iros 2013Uploaded byAshutosh Ashu
- IBM C20-8011: Random Number Generation and TestingUploaded byTheAnonymousLugia

- Defense MechanismsUploaded byPriya Puri
- Asg 8 Human Machine InterfaceUploaded byRavindra Angal
- Races of Domestic PoultryUploaded byJohn Benziken
- A course in digital signal processing.pdfUploaded byJohn Benziken
- Introduction to the Calculus of VariationsUploaded byNiflheim
- How_to_play_GoUploaded bykamonohashi3141
- Dr. Seuss the LoraxUploaded byAlb Villa

- Column and Thin Layer ChromatographyUploaded bycloudsandblues
- Brazil 2014ugm Validation of Filtered Two Fluid Models for GasparticleUploaded byaaa
- EAMCET_PB_Chemistry_Sr Inter Chem_09.METALLURGY_154-170Uploaded byWawan Hermawan
- Dilution of Citril AcidUploaded bymiadelfior
- CE1_MANUAL_3rd EDITION_FINAL (2).pdfUploaded byAyush Pratap Singh
- Lec-5 Image Analysis-Boundary DetectionUploaded bybalasha_937617969
- Expt No-5Uploaded bysabitavabi
- Convert Sa PptUploaded byTristan Tabago Consolacion
- Kuttler LinearAlgebra AFirstCourse YorkU MATH2022 Winter2017Uploaded byRazan Ali
- Some Ink Recipes.docxUploaded bySubir Das
- Lesson Learned From Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPPUploaded byeraybaturalp
- Diverter GatesUploaded byBoy Alfredo Pangaribuan
- ECON6306F16Lab02_Eswar.docxUploaded byEshwar Sai
- 2009 City Multi Modular Engineering ManualUploaded byNiong David
- 10.2307@41297605Uploaded byAnonymous 4FyErakH
- Instruction for Horizon 202Uploaded byctrlaltstacy
- MT BASICUploaded byElyJoaquinMalbueso
- [Eng]Tutorial Concrete 1D Members - Setting Overview, Concrete Solver and Checks Acc. to EC2Uploaded byVlad Mos
- water and energy conservation plan2Uploaded byapi-298268185
- (Great Discoveries) David Foster Wallace-Everything and More_ A Compact History of Infinity-W. W. Norton & Company (2003).pdfUploaded byHR AC
- Papadrakakis - Dynamic RelaxationUploaded byDina Arzina
- Two LevelUploaded byvinaykumaar
- coal HGI is.4433.1979Uploaded byak_thimiri
- Chapter Seven- Ducts and Fans SystemsUploaded byalhusseny
- Compressive Strength CalculationUploaded byShakil Ahmad
- black boxUploaded byHakeemi Baseri
- Physics Investigatory ProjectUploaded byAnonymous
- test navalUploaded bycastillo_leo
- Graphs and Trees Lecture9Uploaded bytheresa.painter
- Holden Commodore Engine Control Module InformationUploaded byJosé Luiz Citolino

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.