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TIU CHUN VIT NAM

TCVN 4295:2009
U HT - PHNG PHP TH
Pea beans Test methods
Li ni u
TCVN 4295 : 2009 thay th TCVN 4295 : 1986;
TCVN 4295 : 2009 do Ban k thut tiu chun quc gia TCVN/TC/F13 Phng php phn tch v
ly mu bin son. Tng cc Tiu chun o lng Cht lng ngh, B Khoa hc v Cng
ngh cng b.
U HT - PHNG PHP TH
Pea beans Test methods
1. Phm vi p dng
Tiu chun ny quy nh cc phng php th cho u xanh (Phaseolus radiatus), u en
(Phaseolus mungo) v u trng (Diichos catjang) dng kh.
2. Ti liu vin dn
Cc ti liu vin dn sau rt cn thit cho vic p dng tiu chun ny. i vi cc ti liu vin dn
ghi nm cng b th p dng phin bn c nu. i vi cc ti liu vin dn khng ghi nm
cng b th p dng phin bn mi nht, bao gm c cc sa i, b sung (nu c).
TCVN 5451 : 2008 (ISO 13690 : 1999), Ng cc, u v sn phm nghin Ly mu t khi
hng tnh
TCVN 6129 (ISO 605), u - Xc nh tp cht, c ht, mi l, cn trng, loi v ging
Phng php th
TCVN 8123 : 2009 (ISO 520 : 1977), Ng cc v u - Xc nh khi lng ca 1.000 ht
TCVN 8124 : 2009 (ISO 2171 : 2007), Ng cc, u v sn phm ph ca chng Xc nh
hm lng tro bng phng php nung
TCVN 8125 : 2009 (ISO 20483 : 2006), Ng cc, u - Xc nh hm lng nit v tnh hm
lng protein th phng php Kjeldahl.
3. Ly mu
Ly mu theo TCVN 5451 : 2008 (ISO 13690 : 1999)
4. Phng php th
4.1. Xc nh cm quan, tp cht, c ht v cn trng
4.1.1. Chun b mu
Chun b mu kim tra cm quan theo TCVN 6129
4.1.2. Cch tin hnh
Tin hnh xc nh cm quan, tp cht, c ht v cn trng theo TCVN 6129.
4.2. Xc nh khi lng ca 1000 ht, theo TCVN 8123 : 2009 (ISO 520 : 1977)
4.3. Xc nh hm lng nc
4.3.1. Nguyn tc

Hm lng nc ca u ht c xc nh theo nguyn tc sy u ht nghin nh trong t


sy n khi lng khng i.
4.3.2. Thit b dng c
S dng thit b, dng c phng th nghim thng thng, c th nh sau:
4.3.2.1. T sy, c th iu chnh nhit 105oC 2oC.
4.3.2.2. Cn phn tch, c th cn chnh xc n 1mg.
4.3.2.3. Hp kim loi hoc chn cn thy tinh.
4.3.2.4. Kp kim loi, gp hp hoc chn cn.
4.3.2.5. Bnh ht m.
4.3.2.6. Ry, ng knh l 1mm.
4.3.2.7. My nghin trong th nghim.
4.3.2.8. L thy tinh c nt mi.
4.3.3. Chun b mu
Dng cn (4.3.2.2), cn khong 300g u ht t mu c ly theo 3.1. Xay hoc nghin
nhanh lng mu cho n khi lt ht qua ry (4.3.2.6), trn nhanh mu nghin v cho vo l
thy tinh c nt mi (4.3.2.8). Mu chun b phi c bo qun ni kh, mt v khng c
qu 90 min.
4.3.4. Cch tin hnh
T mu c chun b (theo 4.3.3) cn 5g mu chnh xc n 1mg, cho mu vo hp hoc
chn cn (4.3.2.3) c sy kh n khi lng khng i v c xc nh khi lng. t
hp cha mu vo t sy (4.3.2.1), m np hp v sy mu trong 2 h k t khi nhit t sy t
105oC 2oC. Sau dng kp (4.3.2.4) ly hp hoc chn cn cha mu y np ra v
ngui trong bnh ht m (4.3.2.5) khong 30 min. Cn v ghi li khi lng hp cha mu chnh
xc n 1mg. Tip tc sy mu khong 45 min, lm ngui, ri cn ln th hai. Nu sai lch gi tr
gia hai ln cn vt qu 1mg th mu phi c sy thm cho n khi chnh lch khi lng
gia hai ln cn khng vt qu 1mg.
4.3.5 Tnh v biu th kt qu
Hm lng nc, tnh bng phn trm khi lng, X1, theo cng thc (1):
X1 =

m m1
x 100
m m0

(1)

Trong :
m l khi lng hp hoc chn cn cha mu th trc khi sy, tnh bng gam (g);
m1 l khi lng hp hoc chn cn cha mu th sau khi sy, tnh bng gam (g);
m0 l khi lng hp hoc chn cn rng, tnh bng gam (g);
Kt qu th l trung bnh cng ca hai ln xc nh song song v c biu th ti hai ch s sau
du phy.
Sai lch gi tr gia hai ln xc nh song song khng c vt qu 0,2% gi tr trung bnh.
4.4. Xc nh axit chun c
4.4.1. Nguyn tc
Chit rt cc axit c trong mu th bng nc ct. Chun phn dch chit thu c bng dung
dch natri hydroxit 0,1M vi cht ch th phenolphtalein n khi xut hin mu hng bn. Cn c

vo s mililit dung dch natri hydroxit tiu tn trong qu trnh chun tnh axit chun
c.
4.4.2. Thuc th
Ch s dng cc thuc th t cht lng tinh khit phn tch, nc s dng phi l nc ct
hoc nc c cht lng tng ng, tr khi c qui nh khc.
4.4.2.1. Natri hydroxit (NAOH), dung dch chun nng 0,1M.
CH THCH: Nng chnh xc ca dung dch natri hydroxit s c kim tra ngay trc mi t
phn tch bng cch s dng dung dch chun gc axit oxalic hoc bng cc dung dch chun ca
cc axit khc nh: axit clohydric, axit sulfuric. T xc nh h s iu chnh nng ca dung
dch natri hydroxit 0,1M
Dung dch chun b c bo qun trong l thy tinh mu nu vi nt cao su kn trnh s
hp th kh cacbon dioxit trong khng kh.
4.4.2.2. Phenolphtalein, 1% trong etanol
Ha tan 1 g phenolphtalein trong 100 ml etanol 95 % phn th tch
4.4.3. Thit b, dng c
S dng thit b, dng c ca phng th nghim thng thng, c th nh sau:
4.4.3.1. Cn phn tch, c th cn chnh xc n 1mg
4.4.3.2. My nghin phng th nghim
4.4.3.3. Ry, ng knh l 1,0mm
4.4.3.4. Buret, dung tch 25 ml, c vch chia ti 0,1 ml
4.4.3.5. Pipet, dung tch 25 ml v 50 ml
4.4.3.6. Bnh nh mc, dung tch 250 ml
4.4.3.7. Bnh nn, dung tch 250 ml, c nt mi.
4.4.3.8. Giy lc trung tnh
4.4.3.9. Phu lc, ng knh 7 cm
4.4.3.10. Hp ng mu, c np y kn
4.4.4. Chun b mu
T mu th c ly theo 3.1 chia u v ly t nht khong 100g, em nghin cn thn trong
my nghin (4.4.3.2) cho n khi mu lt hon ton qua ry (4.4.3.3). Mu c bo qun trong
cc hp ng mu (4.4.3.10) kh, sch
4.4.5. Cch tin hnh
Trn k mu th c chun b theo 4.4.4, cn khong 10g n 20g mu, chnh xc n 1mg cho
vo bnh nh mc (4.4.3.6). Thm khong 100ml nc, y nt, lc u trong 5 min trn my lc
hoc lc bng tay. yn trong 1h, thnh thong lc nh. Sau thm nc n vch. Lc u v
lc qua giy lc (4.4.3.8).
Dng pipet (4.4.3.5) ly chnh xc 25 ml hoc 50 ml dch lc cho vo bnh nn dung tch 250ml.
Thm 5 git dung dch ch th phenolphtalein. Va lc u, va chun lng aixt trong bnh nn
(4.4.3.7) bng dung dch chun natri hydroxit 0,1 M n khi xut hin mu hng bn trong 30s. Ghi
li s mililit dung dch natri hydroxit 0,1 M dng chun .
Tin hnh hai php xc nh song song trn cng mt mu th
4.4.6. Tnh v biu th kt qu

axit chun c ca u ht, tnh bng s mililit (ml) dung dch natri hydroxit 0,1 M dng
trung ha 100g mu tnh theo cht kh, theo cng thc (2)
X2 =

V K V0
100

100
V1 m
100 X 1

(2)

Trong :
V l th tch dung dch natri hydroxit 0,1 M dng chun , tnh bng mililit (ml);

V0 l th tch ca mu th trong bnh nh mc, tnh bng mililit (ml);


V1 l th tch mu ly chun , tnh bng mililit (ml);
K l h s hiu chnh nng ca dung dch natri hydroxit 0,1 M;
m l khi lng mu th, tnh bng gam (g);

X 1 l hm lng nc ca mu (tnh theo 4.3);


100 l h s chuyn v 100g mu;
Kt qu th l trung bnh cng ca hai ln xc nh song song v c biu th ti hai ch s sau
du phy.
Sai lch gi tr gia hai ln xc nh song song khng c vt qu 0,2% gi tr trung bnh.
4.5. Xc nh hm lng protein tng s, theo TCVN 8125 : 2009 (ISO 20483 : 2006)
4.6. Xc nh hm lng lipit
4.6.1. Nguyn tc
Phng php ny c da trn nguyn tc chit lipit ra khi mu bng dung mi hu c ete
etylic.
4.6.2. Thuc th
Ch s dng cc thuc th loi tinh khit phn tch, tr khi c qui nh khc.
4.6.2.1. Ete etylic
4.6.3. Thit b, dng c
S dng cc thit b, dng c ca phng th nghim thng thng v c th nh sau:
4.6.3.1. Cn phn tch, c th cn chnh xc n 1mg.
4.6.3.2. B chit lipit Soxhlet.
4.6.3.3. T sy
4.6.3.4. B chng ct cch thy
4.6.3.5. Giy lc
4.6.3.6. Bng vi kh lipit
4.6.3.7. Bnh ht m
4.6.3.8. Ry, ng knh mt li 1mm
4.6.4. Chun b mu th
Cn khong 300g u ht t mu c ly theo 3.1. Xay hoc nghin nhanh lng mu cho
n khi lt ht qua ry (4.6.3.8), trn nhanh mu nghin v cho vo l thy tinh c nt mi. Mu
chun b phi c bo qun ni kh, mt v khng c qu 180 min.

4.6.5. Cch tin hnh


T lng mu c chun b (theo 4.6.4), dng cn (4.6.3.1), cn ly 2g hoc 3g, chnh xc
n 1mg, cho vo giy lc c gp thnh hnh tr bt kn mt u v c kch thc ph hp
vi b Soxhlet. u trn ng giy lc cha mu t mt t bng vi kh lipit. Chiu cao ca ng
giy lc cha mu phi thp hn ng hi lu ete ca b ct Soxhlet.
t ng giy cha mu vo phn gia b Soxhlet, lp bnh cu kh, sch bit trc khi lng
pha di, ete etylic ngp ng giy cha mu v cao hn ng hi lu. B Soxhlet c lp
trn b chng ct cch thy.
Qu trnh chit lipit c coi l kt thc khi git ete etylic t ng hi lu chy xung khng lm
loang giy lc khi bay ht ete. Ct thu hi ete etylic trong bnh cu. t bnh cu trong t sy
nhit 1000C n 1050C, sy n khi lng khng i.
ngui bnh 30 min trong bnh ht m, cn bnh cu xc nh hm lng lipit c trong mu
4.6.6. Tnh v biu th kt qu
Hm lng lipit c trong mu, tnh bng phn trm khi lng, X3, theo cng thc (3):
X3 =

m1 m0
100
m

(3)

Trong :

m1 l khi lng ca bnh cu chc hm lng lipit ca mu, tnh bng gam (g);
m0 l khi lng bnh cu, tnh bng gam (g);
m l khi lng mu, tnh bng gam (g);
Kt qu l gi tr trung bnh cng ca hai ln xc nh song song.
4.7. Xc nh hm lng tro tng s, theo TCVN 8124 : 2009 (ISO 2171 : 2007)
5. Bo co th nghim
Bo co th nghim phi ghi r:
a) mi thng tin cn thit nhn bit y v mu th;
b) phng php ly mu s dng, nu bit;
c) phng php th nghim dng;
e) mi chi tit thao tc khng c quy nh trong tiu chun ny hoc nhng iu c coi l ty
cng nh cc s c bt k m c th nh hng n kt qu th;
f) Kt qu th nghim thu c, hoc nu tha mn yu cu v lp li th nu kt qu cui
cng thu c.