OF

KRISHNA-DWAIPAYANA VYASA
Translated into English prose from the original Sanskrit Text.

BY

PRATAP

CHANDRA ROY,

C.

I.

E.

VOL
VIRATA
and

IV

UDYOGA PARVA

ORIENTAL PUBLISHING CO.
11D,

ARPULI LANE CALCUTTA-12

THE MAHABHARATA
CONTENTS
VIRATA PARVA

SECTION I-XII
Pandava Prabesha Parva
...

...

121
21

SECTION
Samaya-palana Parva
Kichaka-badha Parva
....

XIII

24

SECTION XIV-XXV
....

2452
52 131

SECTION XXVI-LX1X
Goharana Parva

SECTION LXX LXXII
Vaivahika Parva
...

132136

UDYOGA PARVA
SECTION I-XXI
Sainyodyoga Parva
Sanjaya Yana Parva
Prajagara Parva
(

...

...

...

135
36

SECTION XXII XXXII
...

...

...

60

SECTION XXXIII-XL
Vidura-Dhntarashtra
...
....

Sambad

)

...

6094
95114
114159

SECTION XLI XLVI
Sanat-Sujata Parva
... ... ...

SECTION XLVII LXXI
Yana Sandhi Parva
Bhagavat Yana Parva
Story of Matali
...

...

....

SECTION LXXII CXXXIX
....

...

159278

209-221

Gala v a

222245 SECTION CXL-CLXVI
...
...

Karna-Vivada Parva (Sreekrishna's and Kunti's
Talks with

Kama)
...

279291
291

SECTION CXLVII-CLIX
Saina-Niryana Parva
... ...

315

SECTION CLX-CLXIV
Uluka Dutagamana Parva
Rathatiratha Sankhana Parva
...
....

315331
331
344

SECTION CLXV-CLXXIII
....

344

SECTION CLXXIV-CXCIX
Amba-upakhyana Parva
....

...

388

VIRATA PARVA
SECTION
I

(Pandava-Pravesa Parva)

Om
be uttered.

/

After having

bowed

down

to

exalted of male beings,

and

also to the goddess Saraswati

Narayana, and Nam, the most must be word Jaya

Janamejaya
the

said,

"How

did

my

great-grandfathers, afflicted with

Duryodhana, pass their days undiscovered in the city of And, O Brahman, how did the highly blessed Draupadi, 1 stricken with woe, devoted to her lordsi and ever adoring the Deity,
fear of

Virata?

spend her days unrecognised ?"

Vaisampayana
in this

said,

Listen,

O

lord of men,

how

thy great-grand-

fathers passed the period of unrecognition in the city of Virata.

Having

way obtained boons from

the god of Justice, that best of virtuous

men, Yudhishthira, returned to the asylum and related unto the Brahmanas all that had happened. And having related everything unto them, Yudhishthira restored to that regenerate Brahmana, who had followed him the churning staff and the fire-sticks he had lost. And, O
Bharata, the son of the god of Justice, the royal Yudhishthira of high soul then called together all his younger brothers and addressed them,
saying.

Exiled from our kingdom,

thirteenth year, hard to spend, hath

Arjuna, the son of Kunti select undiscovered by our enemies.

we have passed twelve years. The now come. Do thou therefore, O some spot where we may pass our days
shall,

"Arjuna
residence,
secluded.
I

replied,

'Even by virtue of Dharma's boon, we
Still,

O

lord of men, range about undiscovered by men.
shall

for purposes of

Do

mention some spots that are both delightful and thou select some one of them. Surrounding the kingdom

of the Kurus, are
as

many

countries, beautiful and abounding in corn, such

Dasarna, Navarashtra, Malla, Salva, Yugandhara, Saurashtra, Avanti, and the spacious Kuntirashtra. Which of these, O king, wouldst thou choose,
Chedi,

Panchala,

Matsya,

Surasena,

Pattachchara,

,

and where,

O

foremost of monarchs,
said,

shall

we spend

'

this year

?'

'O thou of mighty arms, it is even so. What must become true. Surely, after consulting together, we must select some delightful, auspiciousi and agreeable region for our abode, where we may live free from fear. The
"Yudhishthira
that aborable

Lord

of all creatures hath said

1

Brahma~Vadini

Nilakantha explains this as Krishna -kirtajiatila.

T.

2

MAHABHABATA
is

aged Virata, king of the Matsyas,
table,

and

is

liked by

all.

And

he

virtuous and powerful and chariis also attached to the Pandavas.
shall,

Even
cities

in the city of Virata,

O

child,

we

O Bharata,
Kuru
race,

spend this year,

entering his service- Tell me, ye sons of the

ye
!"

will

severally

present

yourselves

before

in what capathe king of the

Matsyas

Arjuna

said,
?

'O god among men, what service wilt thou take

in

Virata's kingdom

O

righteous one, in what capacity wilt thou reside

in the city of Virata ?

Thou

art mild,

virtuous,

and firm

in promise.

What
is

wilt thou,

and charitable, and modest, and O king, afflicted as thou
like

art with calamity, do ?

A

king

qualified to bear trouble
this great

an

ordinary person.

How

wilt thou

overcome

calamity that has

overtaken thee ?' "Yudhishthira replied, 'Ye sons of the Kuru race, ye bulls among men, hear what I shall do on appearing before king Virata. Presenting myself as a Brahmana, Kanka by name, skilled in dice and fond of play,
I shall

become a courtier

of that

high-souled king.
of ivory,

And moving upon

chess-boards beautiful pawns

and red and white hue, by throws of black and red dice, I shall entertain the king with his courtiers and friends. And while I shall continue to thus delight the king, nobody will succeed in discovering me. And should the monarch ask me, I shall say, Formerly I was the bosom friend of
Yudhishthira.
city of Virata).
I tell

made

of blue and yellow

you that

it is

thus that

I shall

pass

my
in

days (in the
the city of

What

office wilt thou,

O

Vrikodara,

fill

Virata?'"

Thus ends the
Virata Parva.

first

section

in

the Pandava-Pravesa Parva of the

SECTION
''Bbima said,
'I

II

(Pandava-pravesa Parva continued)
intend to present myself before the lord of Virata lam skilled in culinary art, as a cook bearing the name of Vallabha.

and

I shall prepare curries for the king, and excelling all those skilful cooks that had hitherto dressed his food I shall gratify the monarch.

And

witnessing that mighty Bharata, beholding such superhuman feats of mine, the servants of the royal household will honour me as a king. And I shall have entire control over all kinds of
I

shall

carry mighty loads of
will

wood.

And

feat,

the monarch

be pleased.

And,

O

viands and drinks.

And commanded
do as bidden.
I

to

mighty
with

bulls,

I

will

And

subdue powerful elephants and if any combatants will fight

me

in the lists, then will

the monarch.

But

I shall

not take the

vanquish them, and thereby entertain life of any of them. I shall only

bring

them down

in

such way that they

may

not be killed.

And on

VIBATA PAEVA
being asked as regards
wrestler

3
say that

my

antecedent

I shall

Formerly

I

was

the

and cook

of Yudhishthira.
said,

"Yudhishthira

Thus shall I, O king, maintain myself.' 'And what office will be performed by that

mighty descendant of the Kurus, Dhananjaya, the son of Kunti, that foremost of men possessed of long arms, invincible in fight, and before whom, while he was staying with Krishna, the divine Agni himself
desirous of

consuming the forest

of

Khandava had formerly appeared
office will

in

the guise of a

of warriors, Arjuna,

Brahmana ? What who proceeded

be performed by that best

to that

forest

and

gratified

Agni,

vanquishing on a single car and slaying huge Nagas and Rakshasas, and who married the sister of Vasuki himself, the king of the Nagas ? Even as the sun is the foremost of all heat-giving bodies, as the Brahmana is the best of all bipeds, as the cobra is the foremost of all serpents, as
Fire
is

the

first

of all things possessed of energy, as the thunder-bolt

is

the foremost of all weapons, as the

humped

bull
is

is

the foremost of
all

all

animals of the bovine breed, as the ocean

the foremost of
all

watery
as
all

expanses, as clouds charged with rain are the foremost of

clouds,
of

Ananta

is

the

first

of all
is

Nagas,
all

as

Airavata
all

is

the

foremost

elephants, as the son

the foremost of
of
friends,

the wife

is

the best

so,

beloved objects, and lastly, as O Vrikodara, is the youthful

will

Gudakesa, the foremost of all bowmen. And, O Bharata, what office be performed by Vibhatsu, the wielder of Qandiva, whose car is drawn by white horses, and who is not inferior to Indra or Vasudeva
himself
five
?

What

office

will

be performed by Arjuna who, dwelling for
(

years in the abode of the thousand-eyed Deity

Indra ) shining

in celestial lustre,

acquired by

his

own energy

the science of

superhuman

weapons, and whom I regard as the tenth Rudra, the thirteenth Aditya, the ninth Vasu, and the tenth Qraha, whose arms, symmetrical and long, have the skin hardened by constant strokes of the

arms with

all celestial

bow-string and cicatrices which resemble those on the

humps of bull?, that foremost of warriors who is as Himavat among mountains, the ocean among expanses of water, Sakra among the celestials, Havyavaha ( fire ) among the Vasus, the tiger among beasts, and Gaduda among
feathery tribes
!'

"Arjuna

replied,
sex.

'O lord

of the Earth,
it is,

I

will

declare

myself as

one of the neuter

O

monarch,

indeed, difficult to hide the

marks of the bowstring on my arms. I will, however, cover both my cicatrized arms with bangles. Wearing brilliant rings on my ears and conch-bangles on my wrists and causing a braid to hang down from my head, I shall, O king, appear as one of the third sex, Brihannala by name.

And
I

living as a female

I

shall

(

always

)

entertain the king and

the
king,

inmates of the inner appartments by reciting stories.
shall also instruct the

And,

O

women

of Virata's palace in singing and delight-

4
ful
I

MAHABHABATA
modes
of dancing

and

in musical

shall also recite the various excellent acts

And instruments of diverse kinds. of men and thus conceal
And,

myself,

O

son of Kunti, by feigning disguise.
I

O

Bharata,

should

the king enquire,

will say that

I

lived as a waiting maid of Draupadi in

YudhisHthira's palace.
this

And,

means, as

fire is

foremost of kings concealing myself by concealed by ashes, I shall pass my days agreeably

O

in the palace of Virata.

Vaisampayana continued, "Having said this, Arjuna, that best of men and foremost of virtuous persons, became silent. Then the king
1 addressed another brother of his ."

Thus ends the second section
Virata Parva.

in the

Pandava-Pravesa Parva of the

SECTION
(

III
)

Pandava-pravesa Parva continued

''Yudhishthira said, "Tender, possessed of a graceful presence, and deserving of every luxury as thou art, what office wilt thou, O heroic Nakula, discharge while living in the dominions of that king ? Tell me all about it !"

"Nakula said, 'Under the name of Granthika, I shall become the keeper of the horses of king Virata. I have a thorough knowledge (of this work) and am skilful in tending horses. Besides, the task is agreeand I possess great skill in training and treating horses able to me, and horses are ever dear to me as they are to thee, O king of the Kurus. At
;

my

hands even colts

and mares become docile
.

;

these

never become

2 And those persons in the vicious in bearing a rider or drawing a car bull of the Bharata of Virata that may enquire of me, I shall, city

O

race, say,
horses.

Formerly

I

was employed by

YudKishthira in

the charge of his

Thus

disguised,

city of Virata.

No
!

O king, I shall spend my days delightfully in the one will be able to discover me as I will gratify the

monarch thus 3

"Yudhishthira said, 'How wilt thou, O Sahadeva, bear thyself before that king ? And what, O child, is that which thou wilt do in
order to live in disguise.

"Sahadeva
king.
I

replied,

am

skilled in milking kine

taming their

fierceness.

become a keeper of the kine of Virata's and taking their history, as well as in Passing under the name of Tantripal, I shall
I

will

1 This speech of Vaisampayana is not included in some texts within the second section. To include it, however, in the third, is evidently a mistake. T.

2 The sloka commencing with Adushta and ending ratheshu cha does not occur in texts except those in Bengal. T. 3 A difference of reading is observable here. The sense, however, is the same. T.

VIKATA PARVA

5*

perform my duties deftly. Let thy heart's fever be dispelled. Formerly I was frequently employed to look after thy kine, and, O lord of earth, I have a particular knowledge of that work. And, O monarch, I am
well acquainted with the nature of kine,
as

also
I

with their auspicious

marks and.other matters
barren bring forth child.
light in

relating to

them.
will
I

can also discriminate bulls

with auspicious marks, the scent of whose urine

may make even

the

Even thus

live,

work
I

of this kind.

Indeed, no one will

and I always take dethen be able to recognise

me, and

will

moreover

gratify the monarch.'

"Yudhishthira said,

This

is

our beloved wife dearer to us than

our

lives.

Verily,

she deserveth to be cherished

by us
as she
is

like

a

mother,

and
of

regarded like an elder sister.

Unacquainted

with any kind

womanly work, what

office will Krishna,

the daughter of Drupada,

perform ? Delicate and young, she is a princess of great repute. Devoted to her lords, and eminently virtuous, also, how will she live ? Since
her birth, she hath enjoyed only garlands and perfumes and ornaments

and costly robes." "Draupadi
replied,

There
others.
so.

is

a class of persons called Sairmd/ms

1
,

who

enter the

services of

Other females, however
class there are some.

(that
I shall

arc
give

respectable)

do not do

Of

this

Bharata, on myself out as a Sairindhri, skilled in dressing hair. And, by the king, I shall say that I served as a waiting being questioned

O

woman

of

Draupadi

in Yudhishthira's

house-hold.

I

shall thus pass

my

days in disguise. And I shall serve the famous Sudeshna, the wife of the king. Surely, obtaining me she will cherish me (duly). Do not
grieve
so,

O king.'

"Yudhishthira said, 'O Krishna, thou speakest well- But O fair Chaste as thou art, and girl, thou wert born in a respectable family. always engaged in observing virtuous vows, thou knowest not what is
sin.

Do

thou, therefore, conduct thyself in such a

way
'

that sinful

men

of evil hearts

may not be gladdened by gazing at thee.' Thus ends the third section in the Pandava-Pravesa Parva of the

Virata Parva.

SECTION IV
(Pandava-Pravesa Parva continued)

"Yudhishthira
respectively

said,

'Ye have already said what offices ye will
according to the measure of

perform.

I also,

my

sense,

have said what office I will perform. Let our priest, accompanied by charioteers and cooks, repair to the abode of Drupada, and there mainAnd let Indrasena and the others, taking with tain our Agnihotra fires.
1

An

independent

female artisan working in

another person's house.

"Wilson.

6

MAHABHABATA
cars, speedily

them the empty
wish.

proceed to Dwaravati.

Even
say,

this

is

my
not
'

And

let all

these maid-servants of Draupadi go to the Panchalas,

with our charioteers and cooks.

And

let

all of

them

We do

know where

Pandavas have gone leaving us at the lake of Dwaitavana.' Vaisampayana said, "Having thus taken counsel of cne another
the

and

told

one another the
advice:

offices

sought Dhaumya's

And Dhaumya
'Ye sons
of

they would discharge, the Pandavas also gave them advice in the

following words, saying,

Pandu, the arrangements ye have made regarding the Brahmanas, your friends, cars, weapons, and the (sacred) fires, are excellent. But it behoveth thee, O Yudhishthira,

and Arjuna

for the protection of Draupadi. with the characters of men- Yet Ye acquainted whatever may be your knowledge, friends may from affection be
specially, to

make provision

king, ye are well

permitted to repeat what is already known. Even this is subservient to the eternal interests of virture, pleasure, and profit. I shall, therefore

speak to
difficult.

you something.
I

Mark
ye

ye.

shall tell you,

princes,

household, avoiding every fault.

ye may reside in the royal Ye Kauravas, honourably or otherwise,

To how

dwell with

a

king

is,

alasi

ye will have to pass this year in the king's palace, undiscovered by those son that know you. Then in the fourteenth year, ye will live happy. of Pandu, in this world, that cherisher and protector of all beings, the

O

king,

who
all

is

a deity in an

embodied form,
should

is

as a

great

fire

sanctified

with
after

the

mantras 1 .

One

present

himself

before the king,

permission at the gate. No one should keep contact with royal secrets. Nor should one desire a seat which another may covet. He who doth not, regarding himself to be a favourite,

having obtained

his

occupy (the king's) car, or coach, or
worthy
the occupation
of

seat, or vehicle, or elephant,

is

alone
seat

of dwelling in a royal household-

He

that

sits

not upon a

which

is

calculated to raise alarm in the minds of

malicious people, is alone worthy of dwelling in a royal household. No one should, unasked offer counsel (to a king). Paying homage in season unto the king, one should silently and respectfully sit beside the king, for
kings take

umbrage

at babblers,

and disgrace-laying counsellors.

A

wise

person should not contact friendship with the king's wife, nor with the inmates of the inner apartments, nor with those that are objects of royal
displeasure.
acts

One about

and with the

the king should do even the most unimportant king's knowledge. Behaving thus with a sovereign, one

doth not come by harm. Even if an individual attain the highest office, he should, as long as he is not asked or commanded, consider himself as

born blind, having regard to the king's dignity, for O repressers of foes, the rulers of men do not forgive even their sons and grandsons and
1 Some of the Bengal text and Sarvastramaya The former is evidently incorrect. T.

for

Sarvamantramaya.

VIRATA PABVA
brothers

7
their dignity.

when they happen
disloyal

to

tamper with
is

Kings should
;

be served with regardful care, even as Agni or and other god
that
is

to

his

sovereign,

certainly destroyed by him.

and he Re-

nouncing angen and pride, and negligence, it behoveth a man to follow the course directed by the monarch. After carefully deliberating on
all things,

a person should set forth before the king those topics that are both profitable and pleasant but should a subject be profitable without he should still communicate it, despite its disagreeablebeing pleasant,
;

ness.

It

interests,

behoveth and not

a

man

to be well disposed towards the king in

all

his

to

indulge in

speech that

is

alike unpleasant

and

Always thinking I am not lilted by the king one should profitless. banish negligence, and be intent on bringing about what is agreeable and
advantageous to him.

He

that swerveth not from his place, he that

is

not friendly to those that are hostile to the king, he that striveth not to do wrong to the king, is alone worthy to dwell in a royal household.

A

learned

man

should

sit

either on the king's right or the left
is

;

he should

not
to

sit

behind him for that

the place appointed for armed guards, and

Let none, when the king is is always interdicted. sit before him engaged in doing anything (in respect of his servants) come forward pressing himself zealously before others, for even if the aggrieved be
others any
lie

very poor, such conduct would
to reveal to

behoveth no man the king may have told inasmuch as the king
still
.

be inexcusable 1

It

bears

ill

will to those that report his falsehoods.

Kings also always dis-

regard persons that regard themselves as

learned.

No man

should be

intelligent, but a person obtains the proud thinking I am brave, or, I good graces of a king and enjoys the good things of life, by behaving agreeably to the wishes of the king. And, O Bharata, obtaining things agreeable, and wealth also which is so hard to acquire, a person should always do what is profitable as well as pleasant to the king. What man that is respected by the wise can even think of doing mischief to one whose ire is great impediment and whose favour is productive of mighty No one should move his lips, arms and thighs, before the king. fruits ?

am

before the king only mildly. In the presence of even laughable objects, a man should not break out into loud
laughter, like a

A person should speak and spit
maniac
to
;

nor should one show (unreasonable) gravity by

containing himself
1

the utmost.

One should

smile modestly, to show

This

is

very

difficult sloka.

Nilakantha adopts the reading Sanjayet.

The Bengal editions read Sanjapct. If the latter be the oorrect reading, the meaning then would be. "Let none talk about what transpires in the
fault."
it as a grave that tbe ooourenoes in respect of a king wbioh one witnesses should not be divulged. Even they tbat are powerless regard suoh divulgenoe of what occurs in respect of them as an insult to them, and, therefore, inexcusable. T.

presence

of

the king.

For tbose even that are poor, regard
is

The sense evidently

8
his

MAHABHABATA
interest
(in

what
is

is

before him).

He

that

is

ever mindful of the
depressed by

king's welfare, and

neither exhilarated by reward nor

disgrace,

is

alone worthy of dwelling in a royal household. That learned
pleaseth the king and his son with agreeable speech-

courtier
es,

who always

succeedeth in dwelling in a royal household as a favourite.

The

favourite courtier who, having lost

the royal favour for just reason,

does not speak evil of the king, regains prosperity. The man who serveth the king or liveth in his domains, if sagacious, should speak in praise
in his presence and absence. The courtier who attempts end by employing force on the king, cannot keep his place long and incurs also the risk of death. None should, for purpose Nor of self-interest, open communications with the king's enemies

of the king,

both

to obtain

his

1

.'

should one distinguish himself above the king in matters requiring
ability

and

talents.

truthful, and mild

He that is always cheerful and strong, brave and and of subdued senses, and who followeth his master

like his shadow, is alone worthy to dwell in a royal household. He that on being entrusted with a work, cometh forward, saying, I w ill do this is alone worthy of living in a royal household. He that on being entrusted with a task, either within the king's dominion or out of it, never

feareth to undertake
that living

it,

is

alone

fit

to reside in a royal household.
his dear

He
and

away from

his

home, doth not remember

ones,

who undergoeth
is

(present) misery in expectation of

(future)

alone worthy of dwelling in a royal household.

One

happiness, should not dress

like the king, nor should one indulge in laughter in the king's presence nor should one disclose royal secrets. By acting thus one may win royal

Commissioned to a task, one should not touch bribes for by such appropriation one becometh liable to fetters or death. The robes, ornaments, cars, and other things which the king may be pleased to
favour.

bestow should always be used, for by

this,

one winneth the royal favour.
sons of

Ye

children, controlling your minds, do ye spend this year, ye
in this

Pandu, behaving
live as ye please.

way.

Regaining your

own kingdom, ye may

'We have been well taught by thee. Blessed said, There is none that could say so to us, save our mother Kunti, and Vidura of great wisdom. It behoveth thee to do all that is necessary now for our departure, and for enabling us to come safely through this woe, as well as for our victory over the foeVaisampayana continued, "Thus addressed by Yudhishthira,
"Yudhishthira
be thou.

Dhaumya.
nance the
1

that best of
rites

Brahmanas, performed according

to

the ordi-

ordained in respect of departure.

And

lighting

up

their

The Bengal

genitive.

ing a manuscript T.

editions, read Bajna in the instrumental case. Followtext of a Pandit of acquaintance I read Rajnas in the

my

VIBATA PARVA
fires,

9

he offered, with mantras, oblations on them for the prosperity and success of the Pandavas, as for their reconquest of the whole world.

walking round those fires and round the Brahmanas of ascetic wealth, the six set out, placing Yajnaseni in their front- And when those
heroes had departed,
fires,

And

Dhaumya,

that best of ascetics, taking their sacred

set

out for the Panchalas.

And

Indrasena, and others already

mentioned, went to the Yadavas, and looking after the horses and the cars of the Pandavas passed their time happily and in privacy." Thus ends the fourth section in the Pandava-Pravesa Parva of the
Virata Parva.

SECTION V
(Pandava-Pravesa Parva continued)
swords, and with various equipped with finger-protectors made of iguana skins and weapons, those heroes proceeded in the direction of the river Yamuna.

Vaisampayana

said,

"Girding

their

waists

with

And

those

bowmen

desirous of (speedily) recovering their kingdom,

hitherto living in inaccessible hills and forest fastnesses,
their forest life and proceeded to the southern

now terminated

bank

of that river.

And

those mighty warriors endued with great strength and hitherto leading
the lives of hunters by killing

the deer of the forest, passed through
that of the Dasarnas.

Yakrilloma and Surasena, leaving behind, on their right, the country of
the Panchalas, and on their
left,

And

those

bow-

men, looking wan and wearing beards and equipped with swords, entered Matsya's dominions leaving the forest, giving themselves out as hunters. And on arriving at that country, Krishna addressed Yudhish"We see footpaths here, and various fields. From this thira, saying,
it

what part

appears that Virata's metropolis is still at a distance. Pass we here of the night is still left, for great is my fatigue.' "Yudhishthira answerd, 'O Dhananjaya of Bharata's race, do thou
'

take up Panchali and carry her. arrive at the city.

Just on emerging

from

this forest,

we

Vaisampayana continued, "Thereupon like the leader of a herd of elephants, Arjuna speedily took up Draupadi, and on coming to the And on reaching the city Ruru's son vicinity of the city, let her down.
(Yudhishthira), addressed Arjuna, saying weapons, before entering the city ? If,

O child,

'Where shall we deposit our we enter it with our
is

weapons about
zens.

us,

we

shall

thereby

surely excite the alarm of the citi-

Further, the tremendous bow,

the Qandiva,

so that people will,
of us
is

without doubt, recognise us soon.

known to all men, And if even one

discovered,

we

shall,

according to promise, have to pass another

twelve

years in the forest.
said.

"Arjuna

'Hard by yon cemetery and near that inaccessible

10

MAHABHABATA
is

peak

a mighty Samt tree, throwing about its gigantic branches and Nor is there any human being, who, I think, difficult to ascend.

O

is

Pandu's son, will espy us depositing our arms in the midst of an out-of-the way forest abounding in snakes, and is in the vicinity of a dreary cemetery. Stowing away our weapons on the Sami tree, let us, O Bharata, go to the city, and live
at that place.
'

That tree beasts and

there, free

from anxiety

!'

Vaisampayana continued, "Having O bull of the Bharata race spoken thus to king Yudhishthira the just, Arjuna prepared to deposit the weapons (on the tree). And that bull among the Kurus, then loosened the string of the large and dreadful Qandiva, ever producing thundering twang and always destructive of hostile hosts, and with which he had conquered, on a single car, gods and men and Nagas and swelling provinces.

And

the warlike

unfastened the undecaying string of that

Yudhishthira, that represser of foes, bow with which he had defen-

that

of Kurukshetra. And the illustrious Bhimasena unstrung means of which that sinless one had vanquished in fight the by Panchalas and the lord of Sindhu, and with which, during his career of conquest, he had, single-handed, opposed innumerable foes, and hearing whose twang which was like unto the roar of the thunder or the splitting of a mountain, enemies always fly (in panic) from the field of battle.

ded the

field

bow

coppery complexion and mild speech who is endued with great prowess in the field, and is called Nakula in consequence of his unexampled beauty in the family, then unfastened the string of that bow with which he had conquered all the regions of the

And

that son of

Pandu

of

west.

And

the heroic Sahadeva

also, possessed of a

mild disposition,

then untied the string of that bow with which he had subjugated the countries on the south. And with their bows, they put together their long and flashing swords, their precious quivers, and their arrows sharp as razors. And Nakula ascended the tree, and deposited on it the bows

and the other weapons. And he tied them fast on those parts of the tree which he thought would not break, and where the rain would not
penetrate. And the Pandavas hung up a corpse (on the tree), knowing that people smelling the stench of the corpse would say here sure, is a dead body, and avoid the tree from a distance. And on being asked by the shepherds and cowherds regarding the corpse, those repressers of
foes said unto them, This is our mother, aged one hundred and eighty have hung up her dead body, in accordance with the custom years. observed by our forefathers.' And then those resisters of foes approached the city. And for purposes of non-discovery Yudhishthira kept these (five) names for himself and his brothers respectively, viz., Jaya
'

We

Jayanta, Viyaya, Jayatsena, and Jayatvala. Then they entered the great city, with the view to passing the thirteenth year undiscovered in that kingdom, agreeably to the promise (to Duryodhana)."

Thus ends the Virata Parva.

fifth section in

the Pandava-Pravesa Parva of the

SECTION VI
(Pandava-Pravesa Parva continued)

Vaisampayana

said,

"And

while Yudhishthira was on his
to

way

to

praise mentally the Divine Durga, the Supreme Goddess of the Universe, born of the womb of Yasoda, and fond of the boons bestowed on her by Narayana, sprung from the race of cowherd Nanda, and the giver of prosperity, the

the delightful city of Virata, he began

enhancer (of the glory) of (the worshipper's) family, the terrifier of Kansa, and the destroyer of Asuras, and saluted the Goddess her who
ascended the skies when dashed (by Kansa) on a stony platform, who is the sister of Vasudeva, one who is always decked in celestial garlands and attired in celestial robes, who is armed with scimitar and shield,

and always rescues the worshipper sunk

in sin, like a

cow

in

the

mire,

who

hours of distress calls upon that eternal giver of blessings for relieving him of their burdens. And the king, desirous with his
in the

brothers of obtaining a sight of the Goddess, invoked her and began to praise her by reciting various names derived from (approved) hymns.

And

Yudhishthira

saidi

'Salutations to

thee,

O

giver of boons.

O

thou that art identical with Krishna, O maiden, O thou that hast observed the vow of Brahmacharya, O thou of body bright as the newlyrisen Sun, O thou of face beautiful as the full moon. Salutations to thee,
bosom,
arid four faces, O thou of fair round hips and deep thou that wearest bangles made of emeralds and sapphires, O thou that bearest excellent bracelets on thy upper arm. Thou shinest,

O

thou of four hands

O

O

Goddessi as Padma, the consort of Narayana.
Sable as the black clouds, thy face

O
is

thou that rangest

the etherial regions, thy true form and thy Brahmacharya are both of the

purest kind.

beautiful as that of

Sankarshana. Thou bearest two large arms long as a couple of poles raised in honour of Indra. In thy (six) other arms thou bearest a vessel, a lotus, a bell, a noose, a bow, a large discus, and various other weapons.

Thou

art the only female in the universe that possessest the attribute of

purity.

Thou

art

excellent rings.
the

decked with a pair of well-made ears graced with O Goddess, thou shinest with a face that challengeth,

moon in beauty. With an excellent diadem and beautiful braid with robes made of the bodies of snakes, and with also the brilliant girdle
round thy
hips,

thou shinest

like the

Mandara mountain

encircled with

snakes.

Thou

shinest also with peacock-plumes standing erect

on thy

head, and thou hast sanctified the celestial regions by adopting the
of perpetual

vow
the

maiden-hood.
1

It is for this,

O

thou

that

hast slain

MaHishasura,
1

that thou art praised and worshipped by the gods for the

many

Mahishasura, the son of Bambbasura. Durga had to fight for many years before she oould slay this formidable Asura. The story oooars

12

MAHABHABATA

protection of the three worlds.
to

O

thou foremost of

all

deities,

extend

thy grace, show me thy mercy, and be thou the source of blessings to me. Thou art Jaya and Vijaya, and it is thou that givest victory in

me

battle*

Goddess, and give me boons also at this hour of distress. Thy eternal abode is on Vindhya that foremost of mountains. O Kali, O Kali, thou art the great Kali, ever fond of wine

Grant me victory,

O

and meat and animal sacrifice. Capable of going everywhere at will, and bestowing boons on thy devotees, thou art ever followed in thy journeys by Brahma and the other gods. By them that call upon thee for the relief of their burdens, and by them also that bow to thee at day break on
Earth, there is nothing that cannot be attained in respect either of offspring or wealth. And because thou rescuest people from difficulties whether when they are afflicted in the wilderness or sinking in the great
ocean,
it is

for this that

sole refugee of

men

thou art called Durga 1 by all. Thou art the when attacked by robbers or while afflicted in cross-

ing streams and seas or in wilderness

and

forests.

Those men that remem-

ber thee are never prostrated, O great Goddess* Thou art Fame, thou art Prosperity, thou art Steadiness, thou art Success thou art the Wife,
;

thou art men's Offspring, thou art knowledge, and thou art the Intellect. Thou art the two Twilights, the Night Sleep, Light both solar and lunar,
Beauty, Forgiveness, Mercy, and every other thing. Thou dispellest, worshipped by the devotees their fetters, ignorance, loss of children and
death, and fear. I, who have been deprived of kingdom, seek thy protection. And as I bow to thee with bended head, O Supreme Goddess, grant me protection, O thou of eyes like lotus leaves. And be thou as boon-giving Truth unto us that are acting accordloss of wealth, disease,

my

ing to Truth.
*

And,

O

Durga, kind

as

thou art unto
thy

all

that seek

thy protection, and

affectionate unto

all

devotees,

grant

me

protection

I'

Vaisampayana continued, ''Thus praised by the son of Pandu, the Goddess showed herself unto him. And approaching the king, she addressed him in these words. 'O mighty armed king, listen, O Lord, to these words of mine. Having vanquished and slain the ranks of the Kauravas through my grace, victory in battle will soon be thine. Thou shalt again lord it over the entire Earth, having made thy dominions
destitute of thorns-

And,

O king,

thou shalt

also,

with thy brothers,

obtain great happiness.

through my grace, joy and health will be thine. And they also in the world who will recite my attributes and achievements will be freed from their sins, and gratified. I will bestow

And

upon them kingdom,

long

life,

beauty

of

person,

and offspring.

in the Markandeya Parana. To this day, Bengal during the great Durga Pujft festival in autumn, worships the goddess with great veneration. T.

1 Literally, one that rescues from difficulty.

T.

VIBATA PABVA
And
they,

13

O

the city, in

invoke me, after thy manner, in exile or in the midst of battle or of dangers from foes, in forests or in
king,
will

who

inaccessible deserts, in seas or

mountain

fastnesses, there

they will not obtain in this world.

And

is nothing that ye sons of Pandu, he will

achieve success

in

every business of

his that will listen to,

or himself

recite with devotion, this excellent

hymn. And through my grace neither

the Kurus' spies, nor those that dwell in the country of the Matsyas, will succeed in recognising you all as long as ye reside in Virata's city !'

words unto Yudhishthira, that chastiser of foes, and having arranged for the protection of the sons of Pandu, the Goddess disappeared there and then." Thus ends the sixth section in the Pandava-Pravesa Parva of the
said these

And having

Virata Parva.

SECTION
Vaisampayana
and
set
said,
lazuli,

VII

(Pandava-Pravesa Parva continued)

"Then

with

lapis

up in his cloth dice made of gold and holding them below his arm-pit, king
tying

Yudhishthira,
of the

that illustrious lord of
race,

men

that high-souled perpetuator
in

Kuru

regarded by

kings, irrepressible

might, and like

unto a snake of virulent poison, among men, endued with strength and beauty and prowess, and possessed of greatness, and resembling in form a celestial though now like unto the sun enveloped in
that bull

dense clouds, or
his followers

fire

covered with ashes,

first

made

his

was seated in Pandu in his court, looking like the moon hid in clouds and possessed of a face beautiful as the full moon, king Virata addressed his counsellors and the twice-born ones and the charioteers and the Vaisyas and others, saying 'Enquire ye who it is, so like a king, that looketh on my court for the first time. He cannot be a Brahmana. Me thinks he is a man of men, and a lord of earth. He hath neither
the famous king Virata
his

court.

And

appearance when beholding with

that son of

slaves,

nor cars, nor elephants with him, yet he shineth like the very Indra. The marks on his person indicate him to be one whose coronal locks have undergone the sacred investiture. Even this is my belief. He

approacheth

me without any

hesitation,
!'

even

as

an elephant

in rut

approacheth an assemblage of lotuses "And as the king was indulging in these thoughts, that bull among men, Yudhishthira, came before Virata and addressed him, saying, 'O
great king,
to

know me for
means

a

Brahmana who, having
subsistence.
I

lost his all

hath

come

thee for the

of

desire,
,

O

sinless one, to live

here beside thee acting under thy
I

commands 1

O lord.

The king then,

Kamachara
it

places

is explained by Nilakantba thus, although in other bears a quite different meaning. T.

14
well-pleased,

MAHABHABATA
replied unto

him saying,

then accept the appointment thou seekest !' lion among kings in the post he had prayed

Thou art welcome. Do thou And having appointed the
for,

king

Virata addressed
Tell

him with a glad heart, saying, the dominions of what king dost
what
is

'O

child, I

ask thee from affection, from
?

thou come hither

me

also truly

thy

name and

family, and

what thoa

"Yudhishthira said,
belonging to the family
in casting dice,

'My name is known by the name
I

knowledge of.* Kanka, and I am a Brahmana
hast a

of Vaiyaghra.

I

am

skilled

and formerly was "Virata replied, 'I will grant thee whatever boon thou mayst I shall remain in submission to thee. desire. Do thou rule the Matsyas, Even cunning gamblers are liked by me. Thou, on the other hand, art
a friend of Yudhishthira.'
like a god,

and deservest
in

a kingdom.'

"Yudhishthira

said,

My

first

prayer,

O

lord of earth,

is

that

I

any dispute (on account of dice) with low Further, a person defeated by me Cat dice) shall not be permitpeople. ted to retain the wealth (won by me). Let this boon be granted to me

may

not be involved

through thy grace.'
displease thee,

Virata replied, 'I shall certainly slay him who may happen to and should hB one of the twice-born ones, I shall banish
subjects listen
!

him from my dominions. Let the assembled

Kanka

is

as

much
and

'

lord of this

realm as

I

myself
as
I.

Thou

(Kanka) shalt be

my

friend
thy

shalt ride the

same vehicles

And

there shall also be at

disposal apparel in plenty, and various kinds of viands

and drinks.

And

thou shalt look into
all

my

affairs,

both internal and external.

And

for thee

my

doors shall be open.

cumstances will apply unto me, and I will surely give them whatever they be thine as long as thou residest with me.'

out of employ or of strained cirto thee, do thou at all hours bring their words
desire.

When men

No

fear shall

Vaisampayana said, "Having thus obtained an interview with Virata's king, and received from him boons, that heroic bull among men, began to live happily, highly regarded by all. Nor could any one discover him as he lived there." Thus ends the seventh section in the Pandava-Pravesa Parva of
the Virata Parva.

SECTION
Vaisampayana
said,

VIII

(Pandava-Pravesa Parva continued)

"Then another endued with

the

dreadful

strength and blazing in beauty, approached king Virata, with the playful And holding in hand a cooking ladle and a spoon, as gait of the lion.
also

he came in the guise of a cook illumining

an unsheathed sword of sable hue and without a spot on the blade, all around him by his splendour

VIBATA PARVA
like

15

the sun

discovering the whole world.
of the king of

And

attired

in

black and

mountains, he approached the king of the Matsyas and stood before him. And beholding that king-like person before him, Virata addressed his assembled subjects saying, 'Who
possessed of the strength
is

that youth, that bull

lion,

and

so exceedingly beautiful ?

among men, with shoulders broad That person, never

like those of a

seen before,

is

Revolving the matter in my mind, I cannot ascertain who he is, nor can I with even serious thoughts guess the intention of that bull among men (in coming here). Beholding him, it seems to me that
like the Sun.

he

is

either

the king of the Gandharvas,
it is

or Purandara himself.
eyes.

ascertain

who

that standeth before

my

Do ye Let him have quickly

Thus commanded by king Virata, his swift-footed went up to the son of Kunti and informed that younger messengers brother of Yudhishthira of everything the king had said. Then the highsouled son of Pandu, approaching Virata, addressed him in words that were not unsuited to his object, saying, 'O foremost of kings, I am a cook, Vallava by name. I am skilled in dressing dishes. Do thou
what he
seeks.'

employ me in the kitchen !' "Virata said, 'I do not believe,
office.

O

Vallava, that cooking
;

is

thy

Thou resemblest the

deity of a thousand eyes

and

in grace

and

beauty and prowess, thou shinest among these all as a king !' "Bhima replied, 'O king of kings, I am thy cook and servant in the
first place. It is

not curries only of which

I

have knowledge,

O

monarch,

although king Yudhishthira always used in days gone by to taste my lord of earth, I am also a wrestler. Nor is there one that is dishes.

O

equal to
I shall,

me

O

engaging in fight with lions and elephants, sinless one, always contribute to thy entertainment.
in strength.
'I

And

Virata said,

will

even grant thee boons.
skilled in
it.

Thou
I

wilt

do what

thou wishest, as thou describest thyself
think, that this office
is

not, however, worthy of thee, for thou deservest this (entire) earth girt round by the sea. But do as thou likest. Be thou the superintendent of my kitchen, and thou art placed at the head of those who have been appointed there before by me.'
'

do

Vaisampayana continued, "Thus appointed soon became the favourite of king Virata. And,
other people
1"

in the kitchen^

Bhima

O

king, he continued

to live there, unrecognised by ^the other servants of

Virata as also by
of the

Thus ends the eighth
Virata Parva.

section in the

Pandava-Pravesa Parva

SECTION IX
(Pandava.Pravesa Parva continued)

"Binding her black, soft, fine, long and faultless tresses with crisped ends into a knotted braid, Draupadi of black eyes and sweet smiles, throwing it upon her right shoulders, .concealed it

Vaisampayana

said,

by her cloth.
costly cloth.

And she wore a single And dressing herself as
hastily

piece of a black and dirty though
a Sairindhri, she

began to wander

hither and thither in seeming affliction.

men and women came to her are you ? And what do you
Sairindhri.
I

And beholding her wandering, and addressed her, saying, 'Who
And
she replied,
will
'I

seek

?'

am

a king's

But bealso her speech that was so sweet, the people could not take her for a maid-servant in search of And it came to pass that while looking this way and that subsistence. from the terrace, Virata's beloved queen, daughter of the king of Kekaya,
any one that holding her beauty and dress, and hearing
desire to serve

maintain me.'

saw Draupadi.

beholding her forlorn and clad in a single piece of O beautiful one, who are you, cloth, the queen addressed her saying, and what do you seek ?' Thereupon, Draupadi answered her, saying,
C

And

*O foremost of queen, lam Sairindhri. I will serve any body that will maintain me.' Then Sudeshna said, 'What you say (regarding your profession) can never be compatible with so much beauty. (On the
contrary) you might well be the mistress
female.
of servants both, male and and your thighs touch each other. And your intelligence is great, and your navel deep, and your words solemn. And your great toes, and bust and hips, and back and sides, and And your palms, soles, and toe-nails, and palms are all well-developed. face are ruddy. And your speech is sweet even as the voice of the swan. And your hair is beautiful, and your bust shapely, and you are possessed And your hips and bust are plump. And like a of the highest grace. Kashmerean mare you are furnished with every auspicious mark. And your eye-lashes are (beautiful) bent, and your nether-lip is like the ruddy ground. And your waist is slender, and your neck bears lines that resem-

Your

heels are not prominent,

ble those of the conch. And your veins are scarcely visible. Indeed your countenance is like the full moon, and your eyes resemble the leaves of the autumnal lotus, and your body is fragrant as the lotus itself. Verily, in beauty you resemble Sri herself, whose seat is the autumnal lotus.

Tell me,

O beautiful

damsel,

who thou

art.

Thou

canst never be a maid-

servant. Art thou a Yakthi, a Goddess, a Gandharvi, or an Apsara ? Art

thou the daughter of a
guardian goddess of
Rohini herself
?

celestial, or art

thou a female Naga

?

Art thou the
or art thou

some

city, a Vidyadhari, or a Kinnari,

Or

art thou

Malini, or the queen of Indra, or of

Alamvusha, or Misrakesi, Pundarika, or Varuna ? Or, art thou the spouse of

VIEATA PAEVA
Viswakarman, or of art renowned in the
the creative

IT
?

Lord himself

Of these

goddesses
?

who

celestial regions,

who

art thou,
I
I

O

graceful one

"Draupadi replied, 'O auspicious lady, a Qandharvi, nor a YafcsHi, nor a Rakshasi.
Sairindhri class.
I tell

am neither a goddess nor am a maid-servant of the
pound

thee this truly.

I

know

to dress the hair to

(fragrant substances) for preparing unguents, and also to

make

beautiful

and variegated garlands, O beauteous lady, of jasmines and lotuses and blue lilies and Champakas. Formerly I served Krishna's favourite queen Satyabhama, and also Draupadi, the wife of the Pandavas and the foremost beauty of the Kuru race. I wander about alone, earning good food and dress and as long as I get these, I continue to live in the place where they are obtainable. Draupadi herself called me Malini (maker
;

of garlands).'

itself, if

"Hearing this, Sudeshna the doubt did not cross

said,

I

my mind

would keep thee upon my head that the king himself would be

attracted towards thee with his whole heart.

the females of the

royal household and

my

Attracted by thy beauty, maids are looking at thee.

male person then is there that can resist thy attraction ? Surely, O thou of well-rounded hips, O damsel of exquisite charms, beholding thy form of superhuman beauty, king Virata is sure to forsake me, and will turn to thee with his whole heart. O thou of faultless limbs, O thou
that art endued with large eyes casting quick glances, he
wilt look

What

upon whom thou

thou of sweet smiles, thou that possessest a faultless form, he that will behold thee constantly, will surely catch the flame. Even as a person that climbs up a tree for
is

with desire

sure to be stricken.

O

O

compassing his
ruin,
I

own

destruction, even as the crab conceives for her

own

may,

O

thou of sweet smiles, bring destrucnon upon myself by

harbouring thee.

"Draupadi replied, 'O fair lady, neither Virata nor any other person will be able to have me, for my five youthful husbands, who are Qandharvas and sons of a Qandharva king of exceeding power, always proNone can do me a wrong. It is the wish of my Oandharva tect me.
husbands that
should serve only such persons as will not give me to touch food already partaken of by another, or tell me to wash their feet.
I

Any man that attempts to have me like any common woman, meeteth with death that very night. No one can succeed in having me, for, O beautiful lady, O thou of sweet smiles, those beloved Oandharvas possessed of great energy and mighty strength always protect

me

secretly.'
if it is

"Sudeshana
as

said,

'O thou that bringest delight to the heart,

thou

sayest, I will take thee into

my

household.

Thou

shalt not

have

to touch food that
1

hath

been partaken of by another, or to wash

'

another's feet.

18

MAHABHAEATA
Vaisampayana continued,

"Thus addressed by Virata's

wife,

O

Janamejaya, Krishna (Draupadi) ever devoted to her lords, began to live in that city. Nor could anyone ascertain who in reality she was I" Thus ends the ninth section in the Pandava-Pravesa Prava of the
Virata Parva.

SECTION X
(Pandava-Praveaa Parva continued.)

Vaisampayana

said,

"Then

clad in a cowherd's dress, and speaking

came to the cowpen of Virata's city. among men, who was shining in splendour, the king was struck with amazement. And he directed his men to summon Sahadeva. And when the latter came, the king addressed him, saying "To whom dost thou belong ? And whence dost thou come ? And what work dost thou seek ? I have never seen thee before. O bull among men, tell me truly about thee.' "Having come before the king that afflicter of foes, Sahadeva ansthe dialect of cowherds, Sahadeva

And

beholding that bull

wered in accents deep as the roar of the cloud, Tarn a Vaisya, Arishtanemi by name, I was employed as a cowherd in the service of those bulls of the Kuru race, the sons of Pandu. O foremost of men, I intend now to live beside thee, for I do not know where those lions among kings, the
sons of
I cannot live without service, Pritha, are and, O king, I do not like to enter into the service of anyone else save thee.' "Hearing these words, Virata said, "Thou must either be a Brah.

mana

or a Kshatriya.

Thou

lookest as
Tell

if

thou wert the lord of the entire

earth surrounded by the sea.

me

truly,

O

thou that mowest down

thy foes. The office of a Vaisya is not 6t for thee. Tell me from the dominions of what king thou cotnest, and what thou knowest, and in

what capacity thou wouldst remain with
wouldst accept.'

us,

and also what pay thou

"Sahadeva answerd, 'Yudhishthira, the eldest of the five sons of Pandu, had one division of kine numbering eight hundred and ten thousand, and another, ten thousand, and another, again, twenty thousand, and so on. I was employed in keeping those cattle, People used to call
Tantripala. I know the present, the past, and the future of all kine living within ten Tojanas, and whose tale has been taken. My merits

me

were known to that

illustrious one, and the Kuru king Yudhishthira was well pleased with me. I am also acquainted with the means which aid kine in multiplying within a short time, and by which they may enjoy

VIRATA PABVA
immunity from
single out bulls

19

disease. Also these arts are known to me. I can also having auspicious marks for which they are worshipped by men, and by smelling whose urine, the barren may conceive.' "Virata said, 'I have a hundred thousand kine divided into dis-

tinct herds.

All those together with their keepers,

I

place in thy charge.

Henceforth

my

beasts will be in thy keep

!"

Vaisampayana continued, "Then, O king undiscovered by that monarch that lord of men, Sahadeva, maintained by Virata, began to live happily. Nor did anyone else (besides his brothers) recognise him." Thus ends the tenth section in the Pandava-Pravesa Parva of the
Virata Parva.

SECTION XI
(Pandava-Pravesa Parva continued.)

Vaisampayana said ''Next appeared at the gate of the ramparts another person of enormous size and exquisite beauty decked in the ornaments
of

women, and wearing

large ear-rings and beautiful conch-

that mighty-armed individual with and abundant hair floating about his neck, resembled an elephant in long And shaking the very earth with his tread, he approached Virata gait. and stood in his court. And beholding the son of the great Indra, shining with exquisite lustre and having the gait of a mighty elephant, that

bracelets overlaid with gold.

And

grinder of foes having his true form concealed in disguise, entering the council-hall and advancing towards the monarch, the king addressed all
his courtiers, saying,

heard of him before."

comer

as

"Whence doth this person come? I have never And when the men present spoke of the newone unknown to them, the king wonderingly said, 'Possessed
thou
art like

of great strength,

unto a celestial and young and of darkish

hue, thou resemblest the leader of a herd of elephants ? Wearing conchbracelets overlaid with gold, a braid, and ear-rings, thou shinest yet like

one amongst those that riding on chariots wander about equipped with mail and bow and arrows and decked with garlands and fine hair. I am
rule thou like

old and desirous of relinquishing my burden. Be thou like my som or myself all the Matsyas. It seemeth to me that such
a person as thou can
saidi

never be of the neuter
'I

sex.'
I

"Arjuna ficient in dance and
(the princess) Uttara.
to

sing, dance, and play on instruments.

skilled
I

in song.

O lord

of men, assign

am prome unto

shall

how

I

have come by

this

be dancing-master to the royal maiden. form, what will it avail thee to hear the

A

20

MAHABHAEATA

account which will only augment my pain ? Know me, O king of men, to be Vrihannala, a son or daughter without father or mother. Virata said, O Vrihannala, I give thee what thou desirest. Insdaughter, and those like her, in dancing. To me, however, this Thou deservest (the dominion of) office seemeth unworthy of thee.
truct

my

'

the entire earth girt round by the ocean.'

Vaisampayana continued. "The king of the Matsyas then tested Vrihannala in dancing, music, and other fine arts, and consulting with his various ministers forthwith caused him to be examined by women. And
learning that this impotency was of a permanent nature, he sent him to

the maiden's apartments.
lessons in singing

And there the mighty Arjuna began giving and instrumental music to the daughter of Virata, her friends, and her waiting-maids, and soon won their good graces. And in
this

manner

the self-possessed
their

of pleasures in

Arjuna lived there in disguise, partaking company, and unknown to the people within or

without the palace." Thus ends the eleventh section in the Pandava-Pravesa Parva of
the Virata Parva.

SECTION

XII

(Pandava-Pravesa Parva continued.)

Vaisampayana said, "After a while, another powerful son of Pandu was seen making towards king Virata in haste. And as he
clouds.

advanced, he seemed to everyone like solar oib emerged from the And he began to observe the horses around. And seeing this,
the king of the Matsyas said to his followers,
'I

wonder whence

this

man, possessed of the effulgen c e of a celestial, cometh. He looks intentVerily, he must be proficient in horse-lore. Let him ly at my steeds.
be ushered into

my

presence quickly.
to

He

is

a warrior and looks like a

god

!'

And

that destroyer of foes
saying,
I

then went
thee,

up

to

the king

and
I

accosted him,

'Victory

O

king, and

blest be ye.'

As

a trainer of horses,

have always been highly esteemed by

kings.

will be a clever keeper of thy horses.

Virata said,
quarters.

1

will

Thou

shalt

give thee vehicles, wealth, and spacious be the manager of my horses. But first tell me
art,

whence thou comest, who thou
here.

and how

also

thou happenest to come

of.' Nakula replied. *O mower of enemies, know that Yudhishthira is the eldest brother of the five sons of Pandu. I was formerly employed by him to keep his

Tell

us also

all

the arts thou art master

VIBATA PABVA
horses.
I

11

acquainted with the temper of steeds, and know perfectly the art of breaking them. I know also how to correct vicious horses,

am

and all the methods of treating their diseases. No animal in my hands becometh weak or ill. Not to speak of horses, even mares in my hands will never be found to be vicious. People called me Granthika by

name and

so did Yudhishthira, the son of Pandu.'

I have, I consign to thy care even from today. And all the keepers of my horses and all my charioteers will from to-day be subordinate to thee. If this suits thee, say what remuneration is desired by thee ? But, O thou that resemblest a celesFor thou lookest like a tial, the office of equerry is not worthy of thee. king and I esteem thee much. Thy appearance here hath pleased me as much as if Yudhishthira himself were here. Oh, how does that blameless son of Pandu dwell and divert himself in the forest, now des-

Virata said,

'Whatever horses

titute of servants as

he

is.'

Vaismpayana continued, "That youth, like unto a chief of the Gandharvas, was treated thus respectfully by the delighted king Virata. And he conducted himself there in such a manner as to make himself
dear and agreeable to
all in

the palace.

living under Virata's protection.

And no one recoginised him while And it was in this manner then the
had never been
fruitless,

sons of Pandu, the very

sight

of

whom

con-

tinued to live in the

country

of the Matsyas.

And

true to their

pledge

those lords of the earth
of
incognito
1 '

with

bounded by her belt of seas passed their days great composure notwithstanding their poignant
section
in the

sufferings.

Thus ends

the twelfth

Pandava-Pravesa Parva of

the Virata Parva.

SECTION
Janamejaya
great prowess, do,
said,

XIII

(S&mayapalana

"While living thus disguised

in the city of the

Matsyas, what did those descendants of the O regenerate one !"

Kuru

race endued with

Vaisampayana

said

"Hear,

O

king,

what those descendants

of

did while they dwelt thus in disguise in the city of the Matsyas, worshipping the king thereof. By the grace of the sage Trinavindu and of the high-souled lord of justice, the Pandavas continued to live unrecognised

Kuru

by

others

in

the city of Virata.

O

lord of

men, Yudhishas

thira, as courtier

made himself agreeable

to Virata

and

his sons

also

to all

the Matsyas.

An

adept

in

the

mysteries of

the dice, the son of

Pandu caused them

to play at

dice according to his pleasure and

made

*i

MAHABHARATA
sit

them

And

that tiger

together in the dice-hall like a row of birds bound in a string. among men, king Yudhishthira the Just, unknown to the

monarch, distributed among his brothers, in due proportion, the wealth he won from Virata. And Bhimasena on his part, sold to Yudhishthira for price, meat and viands of various kinds which he obtained from

And Arjuna distributed among all his brothers the proceeds worn-out cloths which he earned in the inner apartments of the palace. And Sahadeva, too, who was disguised as a cowherd gave milk, curds and clarified butter to his brothers- And Nakula also shared
the king.
of

with his brothers the

wealth the king gave him,

satisfied

with his

management
tion,

of the horses.
all

And

Draupadi,

herself

in a pitiable condi-

looked after

those brothers and behaved in such a

way

as to

And thus ministering unto one another's wants, those mighty warriors lived in the capital of Virata as hidden from view, And those lords of as if they were once more in their mother's womb.
remain unrecognized.

men, the sons of Pandu, apprehensive of danger from the son of Dhritarashtra, continued to dwell there in concealment, watching over their wife Draupadi. And after three months had passed away, in the fourth,
the grand festival in

honour of the divine Brahma which was
the

cele-

brated with
there

pomp

in

country of the Matsyas, came
all

off.

And And

came

athletes from

quarters by

thousands, like

hosts of celes-

tials to

the abode of

Brahma or

of Siva to witness

that festival.

they were endued with huge bodies and great prowess, like the demons called Kalakhanjas. And elated with their prowess and proud of their And their shoulders strength, they were highly honoured by the king.

and waists and necks were like those of lions, and their bodies were very clean, and their hearts were quite at ease. And they had many
a time

won success in the lists in the presence of kings. And amongst them there was one who towered above the rest and challenged them all
to a

combat.

And

there was none

that dared approach him

as

he

proudly stalked in the arena. And when all the athletes stood sad and And dispirited, the king of the Matsyas made him fight with his cook. urged by the king, Bhima made up his mind reluctantly, for he could not openly disobey the royal behest. And that tiger among men then having

worshipped the king, entered the spacious arena, pacing with the careless steps of a tiger. And the son of Kunti then girded up his
loins to

the

great delight of the spectators.

And Bhima
of

then

summon-

ed to the combat that athlete
like

known by the name

Jimuta who was

unto the Asura Vritra whose prowess was widely known. And both of them were possessed of great courage, and both were endued with
terrible

prowess.

And

they were

like

a

couple

of

infuriate

and
of

huge-bodied elephants, each sixty years old.

And

those

brave

tigers

among men then

cheerfully engaged in a wrestling

combat, desirous

VIEATA PABVA
vanquishing each other.

23

And

terrible

was the encounter that took place

between them,
tain
breast.

like the clash of the thunder-bolt against the stony

moun-

both of them were exceedingly powerful and exat each other's strength, And desirous of vauquishtremely delighted ing each other, each stood eager to take advantage of his adversary's
lapse.

And

And
of

both were greatly delighted and both looked like infuriate

elephants

prodigious size. And various were the modes of attack and defence that they exhibited with their clenched fists. 1 And each

dashed against the other and flung his adversary to a distance. And each cast the other down and pressed him close to the ground. And each got up again and squeezed the other in his arms. And each threw
the other violently off his place by boxing him on the breast. And each caught the other by the legs and whirling him round threw him down on
the ground.

And

they slapped each other

with their palms that struck

as hard as the thunder-bolt.

And

they also struck each other with their

outstretched fingers, and stretching them out like spears thrust the nails And they gave each other violent kicks. And into each other's body.

they struck knee and head against head, producing
stone against another.

the crash of one

And

in this

manner that furious combat between

those warriors raged on without weapons, sustained mainly by the power of their arms and their physical and mental energy, to the infinite delight
of the

in that

concourse of spectators. And all people, king, took deep interest encounter of those powerful wrestlers who fought like Indra and

O

the Asura Vritra.
of applause.

And

they cheered both of them with loud acclamations

And the broad-chested and long-armed experts in wrestling then pulled and pressed and whirled and hurled down each other and struck each other with their knees, expressing all the while their scorn
for

each other

in

loud voices.

And

they began to fight with their bare

arms in this way, which were like spiked maces of iron. And at last the powerful and mighty-armed Bhima, the slayer of his foes, shouting aloud seized the vociferous athlete by the arms even as the lion seizes the elephant, and taking him up from the ground and holding him aloft,
began
to whirl

him round,

to the great astonishment of

the

assembled

and the people of Matysa. And having whirled him round and round a hundred times till he was insensible, the strong-armed Vrikodara dashed him to death on the ground. And when the brave and renowned Jimuta was thus killed, Virata and his friends were filled with great delight. And in the exuberance of his joy, the noble-minded king rewarded Valla va then and there with the liberality of Kuvera* And killing
athletes

Som*

attack ; Pracikrita 1 Krita The texts read Sankacakais.

warding it off Sankata clenched meaning then would be "cased in
;

gauntlets."

T

34

MAHABHABATA

strength, he pleased the king very

numerous athletes and many other men possessed of great bodily much. And when no one could be found there to encounter him in the lists, the king made him fight with And the king also made him battle with tigers and lions and elephants. furious and powerful lions in the harem for the pleasure of the ladies. And Arjuna, too, pleased the king and all the ladies of the inner apartments by singing and dancing. And Nakula pleased Virata, that best of kings, by showing him fleet and well-trained steeds that followed him wherever he went. And the king, gratified with him, rewarded him with ample'presents. And beholding around Sahadeva a herd of well-trained bullocks, Virata, that bull among men, bestowed upon him also wealth
of diverse

Draupadi distressed to see all those warriors suffer pain, sighed incessantly. And it was in this way that those eminent persons lived there in disguise, rendering services unto
kinds.

And.

O

king,

king Virata." Thus ends the thirteenth section in the Samayapalana Parva of

the Virata Parva.

SECTION XIV
(Kichaka-badha Parva)

Vaisampayana

said,

"Living

in

such

disguise,

those

mighty

warriors, the sons of Pritha,

passed ten months in Matsya's city.
to be waited

And,

O

monarch, although herself deserving

upon by

others, the

daughter of Yajnasena, OJanamejaya, passed her days in extreme misery, waiting upon Sudeshna. And residing thus in Sudeshna's apartments,
the inner apartments.

the princess of Panchala pleased that lady as also the other females of And it came to pass that as the year was about
to expire, the redoubtable Kichaka, the

Commander

of

Virata's forces,

chanced to behold the daughter of Drupada. And beholding that lady endued with the splendour of a daughter of the celestials, treading the
earth like a goddess, Kichaka, afflicted with the shafts of
to possess her.

Kama,

desired

And

to Sudeshna (his

burning with desire's flame, Virata's general came sister) and smilingly addressed her in these words,

"This beauteous lady had never before been seen by me in King Virata's abode. This damsel maddens me with her beauty, even as new wine maddens one with its fragrance. Tell me, who is this graceful and
captivating lady possessed of the beauty of a goddess, and whose she is, and whence she hath come. Surely, grinding my heart she hath reduced

no other medicine for my illness. O, this fair hand-maid of thine seemeth to me to be possessed of the beauty of a goddess. Surely, one like her is ill suited
to subjection. It

me

seems to

me

that (save her) there

is

VIBATA PABVA
to serve thee.

85

Let her rule over me and whatever is mine. O, let her grace my spacious and beautiful palace, decked with various ornamenti of gold, full of viands and drinks in profusion, with excellent plates, and
containing every kind of plenty, besides elephants and horses and cars And having consulted with Sudeshna thus, Kichaka went in myriads.
to princess Draupadi, and like
a

jackal in the forest accosting a lioness,

and whose spoke unto Krishna these words in a winning voicethou of beautiful face, whence hast And art thou, O beautiful one f thou come to the city of Virata ? Tell me all this, fair lady. Thy

Who

O

O

beauty and gracefulness are of the very
thy features
is

first

order and the comeliness of
shineth ever

unparalleled.

With

its

loveliness thy face
fair

like the resplendent

moon.

O

thou
of
I

of

beautiful and large like lotus-petals.
ful limbs, resembles the notes

Thy
the

eye-brows, thy eyes are thou of beautispeech also,

O

cuckoo.

O

thou of

fair

hips,

never before
like

in this

world have

beheld a
features.

woman
or,

possessed of beauty
herself

thine,

O

thou of

faultless

Art thou Lakshmi
art thou,

having her abode in the midst of lotuses
waisted
Kz'rti

O

slenderHri, Sri,

one, she

who

is

called Bhuli.

1

Or, which amongst these
?

and Kanti,
like

art thou,
art

O

thou of beautiful face

Or

possessed of

beauty

Rati's,
?

thou, she

who

sporteth in the embraces of the
fairest of eye-brows,

God

of

love

O

thou that possessest the

thou

shinest beautifully

even like the lovely light of the moon. Who is there in the whole world that will not succumb to the influence of desire beholding thy face ? Endued with unrivalled beauty and celestial grace of the most attractive kind, that face of thine is even like the full moon,
effulgence resembling his radiant face,
its

its celestial

smile resembling
?

his soft-light,

and

its

eye -lashes looking like the spokes on his disc

Both

thy bosoms, so beautiful and well-developed and endued with unrivalled
gracefulness and deep

them,
gold.

are

and well-rounded and without any space between certainly worthy of being decked with garlands of

thy

breast,

Kama

Resembling in shape the beautiful buds of the lotus, these O thou of fair eye-brows* are even as the whips of that are urging me forward, O thou of sweet smiles. O
waist,

damsel of slender
with four wrinkles

beholding

that

waist

of

thine

marked

and measuring

but a span, and slightly stooping

forward
those

because of the weight of thy breasts, and also looking on graceful hips of thine broad as the banks of a river, the in-

curable fever of desire,
fire of desire, fierce as a

O

beautious lady, afflicteth
thee

me sore. The

flaming

forest conflagration,
is

heart cherisheth of a

union with
Kirti

and fanned by the hope consuming me intensely.

my

O

1 Bhuti, Hri, Sri,

and Kanti are respectively the feminine

embodiments
4

of Prosperity,

modesty, Beauty, Fame, and loveliness.

SW

MAHABHARATA

thou of exceeding beauty quench thou that flaming fire kindled by Manmatha. Union with thee is a rain-charged cloud, and the surrender of thy person
face resembling the
is

the shower that the cloud

may

drop.

O

thou of

moon, the fierce and

maddening

shafts of

Manmttha

whetted and sharpened by the desire of a union with thee, piercing this heart of mine in their impetuous course, have penetrated into its coreCD black-eyed lady, those impetuous and cruel shafts are maddening me beyond endurance. It behoveth thee to relieve me from this plight by
surrendering thyself
to

me and

favouring

me

with

thy

embraces.

Decked

in beautiful garlands arid robes and adorned with every ornament, sport thou, O sweet damsel, with me to thy fill. O thou of the gait of an elephant in rut, deserving as thou art of happiness though deprived of it now, it behoveth thee not to dwell here in misery. Let

Drinking various kinds of charming and delicious and ambrosial wines, and sporting at thy pleasure in the enjoyment of diverse objects of delight, do thou, O blessed ladyi attain auspiunrivalled

weal be thine.

cious prosperity.

sweet lady, are

now without

This beauty of thine and this prime of thy youth, O their use. For, O beauteous and chaste

damsel, endued with such loveliness, thou dost not shine, like a graceful

Let them,
fair

garland lying unused and unworn. I will forsake all O thou of sweet smiles, become thy slaves.
damsel, will
stay

my old wives. And I also, O

O

thou of the most handsome face-

padi replied,

by thee as thy slave, ever obedient to thee, Hearing these words of his, DrauIn desiring me, a female servant of low extraction,

employed in the despicable office of dressing hair, O Suta's son, thou desirest one that deserves not that honour. Then, again, I am the wife of others. Therefore, good betide thee, this conduct of thine is not proper. Do thou remember the precept of morality, viz-, that persons
therefore,

should take delight only in their wedded wives. Thou shouldst not, by any means bend thy heart to adultery. Surely abstaining

from improper acts
ignorance sinful

is

ever the study of those that are good.
influence of desire
'

by extreme infamy or dreadful calamity.'

men under the

Overcome come by either

Vaisampayana continued. "Thus addressed by the Sairindhri, the wicked Kichaka losing control over bis senses and overcome by lust, although aware of the numerous evils of fornication, evils condemned
by everybody and sometimes leading to the destruction of life itself, then spoke unto Draupadi, 'It behoveth thee not, O beauteous lady,

O thou of graceful features, thus to disregard me who am, O thou of sweet smiles, under the power of Manmatha on thy account. If now O timid one, thou disregardest me who am under thy influence and who speak to thee so fair, thou wilt, O black-eyed damsel, have to repent for
it

afterwards.

O

tbou of graceful eye-brows, the real lord of

this entire

VIRATA PABVA
kingdom,

fl7

O

slender-waisted lady,

is

myself.

It is

people of this realm live. In energy and prowess unrivalled on earth. There is no other man on earth who rivals
the

whom

me depending upon I am me in

beauty of person,
in

in youth, in prosperity,

and

in the possession of excel-

auspicious lady, that having it thy power to enjoy here every object of desire and every luxury and comfort without its equal, thou preferest servitude. Becoming the
it is,

lent objects of enjoyment.

Why

O

kingdom which I shall confer on thee, O thou of fair face, me, and enjoy, O beauteous one, all excellent objects of desire. accept Addressed in these accursed words by Kichaka, that chaste daughter of Drupada answered him thus reprovingly 'Do not, O son of a Suta, act so foolishly and do not throw away thy life. Know that I am protected
mistress of this
i

my five husbands. Thou canst not have for my husbands. Enraged they will slay thee.
by
bring destruction on thyself.
is

me.

have Gandharvas Therefore, do thou not
I

Thou

intendest to tread along

incapable of being trod by men. Thou, foolish child that standing on one shore of

O

a path that wicked one, art even like a the ocean intends to cross

over to the other.

Even

if

thou enterest into the interior of the earth,
the ocean,
still

or soarest into the sky, or rushest to the other shore of

thou wilt have no escape from the hands of those sky-ranging offspring of gods, capable of grinding all foes. Why dost thou to-day, O Kichaka solicit me so persistently even as a sick person wisheth for the night that will put a stop to his existence ? Why dost thou desire me, even like
an infant lying on its mother's lap wishing to catch the moon ? For thee that thus solicitest their beloved wife, there is no refuge either on earth
or in sky.

O Kichaka,

hast thou no sense which leads thee to seek thy
life

good and by which thy
the Virata Parva.

may be saved
in

?'

Thus ends the fourteenth section

the Kichaka-badha

Parva

of

SECTION XV
(Kichaka-badha Parva Continued.)

Vaisampayana ted with maddening
Sudeshna saying,

"Rejected thus by the princess, Kichaka, affliclust and forgetting all sense of propriety, addressed 'Do thou, Kekaya's daughter, so act that thy Sairindhri
said,

may come

into

my

arms.

Do

thou,

O

Sudeshna, adopt the means by

which that damsel of the

gait

of an elephant

may accept me

;

I

am

dying of absorbing desire." Vaisampayana continued,

"Hearing

his profuse lamentations, that

gentle lady, the intelligent queen of Virata, was touched with pity. And having taken counsel with her own self and reflected on Kichaka'i

M

MAHABHABATA

purpose and on the anxiety of Krishna, Sudeshna addressed the Suta's ion in these words 'Do thou, on the occasion of some festival, procure viands and wines for me. I shall then send my Sairindhri to thee on the
in solitude,

pretence of bringing wine. And when she will repair thither do thou free from interruption, humour her as thou likest. Thus
soothed, she

may

incline her

mind

to thee."

Vaisampayana continued,
sister's

"Thus

addressed,

he went out of

his

apartments. And he soon procured wines well filtered worthy of a king. And employing skilled cooks, he prepared many and various kinds of choice viands and delicious drinks and many and
various kinds of meat of different degrees of excellence.

and

And when

all

this had been done, that genie lady Sudeshna, as previously counselled by Kichaka, desired her Sairindhri to repair to Kichaka's abode, saying. "Get up, O Sairindhri and repair to Kichaka's abode to bring wine, for,

O

beauteous lady,

I

am

afflicted
shall

with thirst."

Thereupon the Sairindhri

not be able to repair to Kichaka's apart'O princessi I replied, thou of ments. Thou thyself knowest, O Queen, how shameless he is.

O

faultless limbs,

a lustfull

life,

beauteous lady, in thy palace I shall not be able to lead becoming faithless to my husbands. Thou rememberest,

O

gentle lady,

O

beautiful one, the conditions

I

had

set

down

before
the

entering thy house.
foolish

O

thou of tresses ending

in graceful

curls,

by the god of desire, will, on seeing me, offer me insult. Therefore, I will not go to his quarters. Thou hast, O Do thou, good betide thee, send one princess, many maids under thee. of them* For, surely, Kichaka will insult me.' Sudeshna said, 'Sent
afflicted

Kichaka

by me, from my abode, surely he will not harm thee.' And having said And filled this, she handed over a golden vessel furnished with a cover. with apprehension, and weeping, Draupadi mentally prayed for the
protection of the gods, and set out for Kichaka's abode for fetching wine. And she said, 'As I do not know another person save my husbands, by

virtue of that Truth
1

let

Kichaka not be able to overpower me although

may approach

his presence.

Vaisampayana continued, 'And that helpless damsel then adored Surya for a moment. And Surya, having considered all that she urged,

commanded

a Rakshasa to protect her invisibly.

And from

that

time
cir-

the RaksKasa began to attend

upon that blameless lady under any

cumstances. And beholding Krishna in his presence like a frightened doe, the Suta rose up from his seat, and felt the joy that is felt by a person wishing to cross to the other shore, when he obtains a boat."

Thus ends the
Virata Parva.

fifteenth section in the

Kichaka-badha Parva

of the

SECTION XVI
(Kichakd'badha Parva continued)

"Kichaka
ous day, for
is

said,

'O thou of

tressess
is

art welcome. Surely, the night that
I

ending in beautiful curls, thou gone hath brought me an auspici-

have got thee today

as the mistress of

my

house.

Do what

agreeable to me. Let golden chains, and conches and bright ear-rings

made of gold, manufactured in various countries, and beautiful rubies and gems, and silken robes and deer-skins, be brought for thee. I have also an excellent bed prepared for thee. Come, sitting upon it do thou drink with me the wine prepared from the honey flower.' Hearing these
words, Draupadi said,
taking she
is
'I

have been sent to thee by the princess for
speedily bring

away wine. Do thou
exceedingly
thirsty.'

me

wine, for she told
said,

me

that

At

this,

Kichaka

'O gentle lady

others will carry what the princess wants.' son caught hold of Draupadi's right arm.

And saying this, the Suta't And at this, Draupadi ex-

claimed,

have never, from intoxication of the senses, been unat heart, by that Truth, O wretch, I shall behold thee dragged and lying powerless on the ground.' Vaisampayana continued, "Seing that large-eyed lady reproving him in that strain, Kichaka suddenly seized her by the end of her upper garment as she attempted to run away. And seized with violence by Kichaka, the beautiful princess, unable to tolerate it, and with frame trembling with wrath, and breathing quickly, dashed him to the ground.
'As
I

faithful to

my husbands even

tumbled down like a having thrown Kichaka down on the ground when the latter had seized her, she, trembling all over rushed And while to the court, where king Yudhishthira was, for protection.
tree

And

dashed to the ground whose roots had been

thus,

the sinful wretch

cut.

And

she

her speed, Kichaka (who followed her), seizing down on the ground, kicked her in the very presence of the king. Thereupon, O Bharata, the Rakshaaa that had been appointed by Surya to protect Draupadi, gave Kichaka a shove
all

was running with

her by the hair, and bringing her

with a force mighty as that of the wind. Kichaka reeled and force of Rakthata,

And overpowered
fell

down

by the senseless on the

ground, even like an uprooted tree. And both Yudhishthira and Bhimasena who were seated there, beheld with wrathful eyes that outrage on

Krishna by Kichaka. And desirous of compassing the destruction of the wicked Kichaka, the illustrious Bhima gnashed his teeth in rage- And his forehead was covered with sweat, and terrible wrinkles appeared thereon. And a smoky exhalation shot forth from his eyes, and his eye
lashes stood

on end.
his

head with

And that slayer of hostile hands. And impelled by rage,

heroes pressed his forehe was on the point of

80
starting

MAHABHABATA

up with speed. Thereat king Yudhishthira, apprehensive of discovery, squeezed his thumbs and commanded Bhima to forbear. And Bhima who then looked like an infuriate elephant eyeing a large tree, was thus forbidden by his elder brother. And the latter said, 'Lookest thou, O cook, for trees for fuel. If thou art in need of faggots, then go out and fell trees. And the weeping Draupadi of fair hips, approaching the entrance of the court, and seeing her melancholy lords, desirous yet
of keeping
in fire,
of a

up the

disguise

duty-bound by their pledge, with eyes burning

Matsyas, 'Alas, the son Suta hath kicked today the proud and beloved wife of those whose foe can never sleep in peace even if four kingdoms intervene between him and them. Alas, the son of a Suta hath kicked today the proud and beloved wife of those truthful personages, who are devoted to

spoke these words unto the king of the

Brahmanas and who always give away without asking any thing in gift. Alas, the son of a Suta hath kicked today the proud and beloved wife of those, the sounds of whose kettle-drums and the twangs of whose bowstrings are ceaselessly heard.

Alas, the son of a Suta hath kicked today
of

the proud and beloved

wife

those

who

are possessed of abundant

energy and might, and who are
wife of those who,
if

liberal

in gifts

and proud of
ties of

their

dignity. Alas, the son of a Suta hath kicked today the proud and beloved

they had not been fettered by the

duty,

could destroy this entire world.

today who, though living in

unto those that
as

solicit it ?

Where, alas, are those mighty warriors disguise, have always granted protection Oh, why do those heroes today, endued

they are with strength and possessed of immeasurable energy, quietly suffer, like eunuchs, their dear and chaste wife to be thus insulted by
a Suta' i son

Oh, where is that wrath of theirs, that prowess, and when they quietly bear their wife to be thus insulted by a wicked wretch ? What can I (a weak woman) do when Virata deficient
?

that energy,

(

in virtue, cooly suffcreth

my

innocent

self to

be thus wronged by a
in

wretch

?

Thou

dost not,
is

O

king,

act like a king towards this Kichaka.

Thy behaviour
That
I

like that of a robber,

and doth not shine

a

court.

should thus be insulted in thy very presence, Matsya, is highly let all the courtiers here look at this violence of Kichaka. improper. Oh,

O

Kichaka is ignorant of duty and morality, and Matsya also is equally so. These courtiers also that wait upon such a king are destitute of
virtue."

Vaisampayana continued, "With these and other words of the same kind the beautiful Krishna with tearful eyes rebuked the king of the Matsyas. And hearing her, Virata saidi 'I do not know what your dispute has been out of our sight. Not knowing the true cause how
can
I

show my discrimination

?"

Then the
all

courtiers, having learnt every

thing, applauded Krishna, and they

exclaimed,

"Well done

!'

'Well

VIEATA PABVA
done
!'

31

and censured Kichaka.
this large-eyed lady

And

the courtiers said.
of hers

who owneth

having every limb

'That person endued with

beauty for his wife, possesseth what is of exceeding value and hath no occasion to indulge in any grief. Surely, such a damsel of transcendent beauty and limbs perfectly faultless is rare among men. Indeed, it

seems to us that she
held

is

a goddess."

"And while the courtiers, having beKrishna (under such circumstances), were applauding her thus, Yudhishthira's forehead, from ire, became covered with sweat. And that bull of the Kuru race then addressed that princess, his beloved
Vaisampayana continued,
spouse, say ing
'Stay

ments
they at

of

Sudeshna.

not here, O Sairindhri but retire to the apartThe wives of heroes bear affliction for the sake
;

of their

husbands, and undergoing
last

toil in

ministering unto their lords,

where their husbands may go. Thy Gandharva husbands, effulgent as the Sun, do not, I imagine, consider this as an occasion for manifesting their wrath, inasmuch as they do not
attain to region

rush to thy aid.
things,

O

Sairindhri,

and
the

it

is

for this that
in

thou art ignorant of the timeliness of thou weepest as an actress, besides interRetire.
thee.

rupting

play of dice
will

Matsya's court.
is

O Sairindhri
And
him
they
that

;

the
will

Gandharvas
surely

do what
thy woe

agreeable

to

display
thee.

and

take

the

life

of

hath

wronged

whom
eldest

I

am

the

wedded wife
all
is

Hearing these words the Sairindhri replied, 'They of And as the are, I ween, extremely kind.
addicted to dice, they are liable to be oppressed

of

them

by

all."

Vaisampayana continued, "And having said this, the fair-hipped Krishna with dishevelled hair and eyes red in anger, ran towards the
apartments of Sudhesna. And in consequence of having wept long her face looked beautiful like the lunar disc in the firmament, emerged from the clouds. And beholding her in that condition, Sudeshna asked,

'Who, O beauteous lady, hath insulted thee ? Why, O amiable damsel, dost thou weep ? Who, O gentle one, hath done thee wrong ? Whence Thus addressed, Draupadi said, 'As I went to bring is this thy grief ?' wine for thee, Kichaka struck me in the court in the very presence of the king, as if in the midst of a solitary wood. Hearing this, Sudeshna 'O thou of tresses ending in beautiful curls, as Kichaka, maddened said,
by lust hath insulted thee that art incapable of being possessed by him, I shall cause him to be slain if thou wishest it. Thereupon Drauptdi 'Even others will slay him. even they whom he hath answered,

wronged.

I

think

it
!'

is
'

clear

that he

will

have to go

to

the abode of

Yama

this

very day

Thus ends the sixteenth section
Virata Parva.

in the

Kichaka-badha Parva of the

SECTION XVII
(Kichaka-badha Parva continued)

Vaisampayana

said,

"Thus

insulted by the

Suta's son, that illus-

trious princess, the beautiful Krishna, eagerly wishing for the destrucAnd Drupada's daughter tion of Virata's general, went to her quarters.
of

dark hue and slender waist then performed her ablutions. And washing her body and cloths with water Krishna began to ponder weepAnd she reflected, saying, ingly on the means of dispelling her grief. Whither shall I go ? How can my purpose be I to do ? 'What am effected ?' And while she was thinking thus, she remembered Bhima, and said to herself. 'There is none else, save Bhima, that can today accomplish the purpose

on which

my

heart

is

set

!'

And

afflicted

with great

grief, the large-eyed and intelligent Krishna possessed of powerful protectors then rose up at night, and leaving her bed speedily proceeded

towards the quarters of Bhimasena, desirous of beholding her lord. And possessed of great intelligence, the daughter of Drupada entered her
husband's quarters, saying,

commander

of

Virata's

'How canst thou forces, who is my foe,
''

sleep while that wretched

yet liveth, having perpe-

trated to-day that (foul act)

?'

Vaisampayana continued,
breathing hard

'Then the chamber where Bhima

slept,

like a lion, being filled

with the beauty of Drupada's

daughter and of the high-souled Bhima, blazed forth in splendour. And Krishna of sweet smiles, finding Bhimasena in the cooking apartments,

approached him with the eagerness of a three-year old cow brought up in the woods, approaching a powerful bull, in her first season, or of a
she-crane living by the water-side
season.

approaching her mate

in the pairing

Pandu, even as of the Gomati.
forest.

embraced the second son of embraces a huge and mighty Sala on the banks And embracing him with her arms, Krishna of faultless features awaked him as a lioness awaketh a sleeping lion in a trackless
a creeper

And

the Princess of Panchala then

And embracing Bhimasena even

as a she-elephant

embraceth her

mighty mate, the faultless Panchali addressed him in voice sweet as the sound of a stringed instrument emitting Qandhara note. And she said,
'Arise,

arise!

Why
is

dost

thou,

O

Surely, he that

not dead, never suffereth
to live.'

Bhimasena, lie down as one dead ? a wicked wretch that hath
the princess,

disgraced his wife,

And awakened by

Bhima

of

mighty arms, then rose up, and sat upon his couch overlaid with a rich bed. And he of the Kuru race then addressed the princess his beloved 'For what purpose hast thou come hither in such a hurry ? wife, saying,

Thy
thing

colour

is

gone and thou lookest lean and
I

in detail.

must know the truth.
tell

Whether
all.

painful, agreeable or disagreeable,

me

everybe pleasurable or Having heard everything,
pale.
it

Tell

me

VIRATA PARVA
I shall

38

apply the remedy.
in all

I

alone,

O

Krishna,

am

entitled to thy confi-

dence
again
is
!

things,

for

it is I

who

deliver thee from perils again and

in

quickly what is thy wish, and what is the purpose that and return thou to thy bed before othars awake." thy view, Thus ends the seventeenth section in the Kichaka-badha Parva
Tell

me

of the Virata Parva.

SECTION XVIII
(Kichaka-badha Parva continued)
''Draupadi
for her
said,
?

'What

grief hath she not

who

hath Yudhishthira

husband

Knowing

all

my

griefs,

why

dost thou ask

me

?

The

Pratikamin
courtiers,

dragged
calling

me to the court in me a slave. That grief,

the midst of an assembly of

O

Bharata, consumeth me.

What
as the
else

other princess, save Draupadi, would live having suffered such intense misery 1 else, save myself, could bear such second insult

Who

wicked Saindhava offered

me

while residing

in

the forest

?

Who

save myself, could live, having been kicked by Kichaka in the very sight of the wicked king of the Matsyas ? Of what value is life, O Bharata, when thou, O son of Kunti, dost not think me
of
position,

my

miserable, although

I

am

afflicted

with such woes

?

That

vile

and wicked

name of Kichaka, who is the brotherin-law of king Virata and the commander of his forces, every day, O tiger among men, addresses me who am residing in the palace as a Sam'nDo thou become my wife. Thus solicited, O slayer of foes, dhri, saying,
wretch,
Bharata,
the

O

known by

by that wretch deserving to be slain, my heart is bursting like a fruit ripened in season. Censure thou that elder brother of thine addicted to
execrable dice, through whose act
alone
I

have been

afflicted with

such

desperate gambler, would play, giving up kingdom and everything including even myself, in order to lead a If he had gambled morning and evening for many life in the woods ?

woe-

Who

else, sa,ve

him that

is

a

years together, staking nishkas by thousand and other kinds of substantial
still his silver, and gold, and robes, andjvehicles. and teams, and goats, and sheep, and multitudes of steeds and mares and mules would not have sustained any diminution. But now deprived of prosperity by the rivalry of dice, he sits dumb like a fool, reflecting on his own misJeeds. Alas, he who, while sojourning, was followed by ten thousand elephants adorned with golden garlands now supports himself

wealth,

That Yudhishthira who at Indraprastha was adored by incomparable prowess by hundreds of thousands, that mighty monarch in whose kitchen a hundred thousand maid-servants, plate in
by casting dice.
kings of

34

MAHABHAKATA

of liberal

hand, used every day to feed numerous guests day and night, that best men, who gave (every day) a thousand nisH/cas, alas, even he

overwhelmed with woe
all evil,

in consequence of gambling which is the root of supporteth himself by casting dice. Bards and encomiasts by thousands decked with ear-rings set with brilliant gems, and gifted with melodious voice, used to pay him homage morning and evening.

now

Alas, that Yudhishthira,
of ascetic merit,
as his courtiers,

versed

daily waited upon by a thousand sages the Vedas and having every desire gratified, that Yudhishthira who maintained eighty-eight thouin

who was

sands of domestic Snatakas with thirty maid-servants assigned unto each, as also ten thousand yotis not accepting anything in gift and with vital

drawn up, alas, even that mighty king now liveth in such guise. That YuJhishthira who is without malice, who is full of kindness, and
seed

giveth every creature his due, who hath all these excellent attrieven he now liveth in such guise- Possessed of firmness butes, alas

who

and unbaffled prowess, with heart disposed
due, king Yudhishthira,
his

to give

every creature
parentless and

his

moved by compassion,

constantly maintained in
all

kingdom the
a

blind,

the old, the helpless, the

others in his dominions in such distress.

Alas, that Yudhishthira be-

coming
court,
prastha,

now

dependant and a servant of Matsya, a caster of dice in his calls himself Kanka. He unto whom while residing at Indrathe rulers of earth used to pay timely tribute,
alas,

all

even he

now

begs for subsistence at another's hands.
alas,

He

to

whom

the kings of

the earth were in subjection,

even that king having
is

lost his liberty,

liveth in subjection 'to others.

Having dazzled the

entire earth

like

the sun by his energy, that Yudhishthira, alas,

now

a courtier of king

Virata.
in

O

Pandu's son, that Pandava

court by kings and

sages, behold him

who was respectfully waited upon now waiting upon another.

Alas, beholding Yudhishthira a courtier sitting beside another and breathing adulatory speeches to the other, who can help being afflicted with grief ? And beholding the highly wise and virtuous Yudhishthira,

undeserving as he is of serving others, actually serving another for sustenance, who can help being afflicted with grief ? And, O hero,
that Bharata

who was worshipped in court by the entire earth, do thou now behold him worshipping another. Why then O Bharata, dost thou
not regard

me

as

one

afflicted

with diverse miseries, like one forlorn
in the

and immersed

in a sea of

sorrow ?"

Thus ends the eighteenth section
the Virata Parva.

Kichaka-badha Parva of

SECTION XIX
(Kichaka-badha Parva continued)

'Draupadi said, "This, O Bharata, that I am going to tell thee is another great grief of mine. Thou shouldst not blame me, for I tell thee
this

from sadness

of heart.

Who

is

there whose grief

is

not enhanced at
office

sight of thee,

O

bull of

the Bharata race, engaged in the ignoble

of a cook, so entirely

caste

?

What
Alas,

beneath thee and calling thyself as one of Vallava can be sadder than this, that people should know thee as

Virata's cook, Vallava by

name, and therefore one that
of the kitchen
is

is

sunk

in servi-

tude

?

when

thy

work

over, thou

humbly

sittest

beside

Vallava the cook, then despondency Virata, calling the king of kings in joy maketh thee fight with seizeth my heart. When elephants, and the women of the inner apartments (of the palace) laugh
thyself as

all

the while,

then

I

am

sorely distressed.

When

thou fightest

in

the

inner apartments with lions, tigers, and baffaloes, the princess Kaikeyi looking on, then I almost swoon away. And when Kaikeyi and those

maid-servants, leaving their
of
suffering

seats,

come

to assist
is

me and

find that instead

any injury

in

limbs

speaks unto her women, saying,

only a swoon, the princess "Surely, it is from affection and the

mine

duty begot of intercourse that this lady of sweet smiles grieveth for the exceedingly powerful cook when he fights with the beasts. Sairindhri
is

possessed of
of

great beauty
is

and Vallava

also

is

eminently handsome.
fancy, are deserving of

The heart

woman
is,

hard to know, and they,

I

each other.

It

therefore, likely that the Sairindhri invariably

weepeth
then,

(at such times) on account of her connection with her lover.

And

they both have entered this royal family at the same time. And speaking such words she always upbraideth me. And beholding me wroth at this, she suspects me to be attached to thee. When she
speaketh thus, great

O

Indeed, on beholding thee, with such calamity, sunk as I already am in grief on accout of Yudhishthira, I do not desire to live. That youth who on a single car had vanquished all celestials and men,
is

the grief that

I feel.

Bhima

of

terrible prowess,

afflicted

is

now,

alas, the

dancing-master of king Virata's daughter. That Pritha's
soul,

son of

immeasurable
is

who had

gratified

Agni

in

the

forest

of

Khandava,

now

living

in the inner

apartments (of a palace) like fire

hid in a well.

Alas, the bull
is

among men, Dhananjaya, who was ever

is despired by all. Alas, he whose mace-like arms have been cicatrized in consequence of the strokes of his bow-string, alas that Dhananjaya is passing the days in

the terror of foesi

now

living in a guise that

covering his wrists with bracelets of conches. Alas, that Dhananjaya the twang of whose bow-string and the sound of whose leathern
grief

38
fences

MAHABHAEATA

made every foe tremble, now entertains only gladdened women with his songs. Oh, that Dhananjaya whose head was formerly decked
with a diadem of solar splendour,
sightly
curls.
is

now wearing

braids ending in un-

O

now wearing

braids and in the

Bhima, beholding that terrible bowman, Arjuna, midst of women, my heart is stricken

with woe. That high-souled hero weapons, and who is the repository of
rings
(like

who
all

is

master of

all

the celestial
ear-

the sciences,

now weareth
kings of

one of the

fair sex).

That youth

whom

incom-

parable prowess could not overpower
the

in fight,

even as the waters of

mighty ocean cannot overleap the continents, is now the dancingmaster of king Virata's daughters and waits upon them in disguise. O
Bhima, that Arjuna the clatter of whose car-wheels caused the entire earth with her mountains and forests, her mobile and immobile things to tremble, and whose birth dispelled all the sorrows of Kunti,
younger brother of thine, O Bhimasena, him. Beholding him coming towards me, decked in golden ear-rings and other ornaments, and wearing on the wrists bracelets of conches, my heart is afflicted with despondency.
that

exalted

hero,

that

now maketh me weep

for

And Dhananjaya who
prowess,

hath not a
his

bowman
in

equal unto

him on earth

in

now

passeth

days

Beholding that son of Pritha

most admired
heart
is

in

the world,

who in now living

surrounded by women. virtue, heroism and truth, was the
singing,
in the

guise of

a

woman, my
by she-

afflicted

with sorrow.

When

I

behold, the godlike Partha in

the music-hall like an elephant with rent temples surrounded

elephants in the midst of females, waiting before Virata the king of the Matsyas, then I lose all sense of directions. Surely, my mother-in-law doth not know Dhananjaya to be afflicted with such extreme distress.

Nor doth

she

know

that

addicted to disastrous dice, to be sunk in misery.
the youngest of you
all,

descendant of the Kuru race, Ajatasatru, O Bharata beholding

of a cowherd,

I

grow

pale.

Sahadeva, superintending the kine, in the guise Always thinking of Sahadeva's plight, I

O Bhimasena, obtain sleep, what to speak you of the rest ? I do not know, O mighty-armed one, what sin Sahadeva may have committed for which that hero of unbaffbd prowess suffereth such misery.
cannot,

O

foremost

of

the

Bharatas,

beholding

that

beloved
in

brother

of

thine, that bull

among men, employed by Matsya
with woe.
living

looking after his

kine,

I

am

filled

Seeing
at the

that hero
his

of

proud disposition
in

gratifying Virata, by

head of

cow-herds, attired

robes dyed in red, I am attacked with fever. My mother-in-law always applauds the heroic Sahadeva as one possessed of nobility,
excellent behaviour,

and rectitude of conduct.
forest.

her sons,

the weeping Kunti stood, embracing

Ardantly attached to Sahadeva while he was

about to set out (with us) for the great

And

she addressed

me

VIRATA PARVA
saying
also

37

"Sahadeva

is

bashful and sweet-speeched, and virtuous.

He

is

day and night.

Yajnaseni, tend him in the forest Delicate and brave, devoted to the king, and always worshipping his elder brother, do thou. O Panchali, feed him thyself.
favourite child. Therefore,

my

O

Pandava, beholding that foremost of warriors, Sahadeva, engaged tending kine, and sleeping at night on calf-skins, how can I bear to live ? He again who is crowned with the three attributes of beauty, arms, and intelligence, is now the superintendent of Virata's steeds.
in

O

Behold the change brought on by time.
of

Granthika (Nakula),

at sight

whom

hostile hosts fled

from the

field of battle,

now

traineth horses

,

presence of the king, driving them with speed. Alas, I now see handsome youth wait upon the gorgeously decked and excellent Virata, the king of the Matsya, and display horses before him. O son of Pritha, afflicted as I am with all these hundred kinds of misery on account of Yudhishthira, why dost thou, O chastiser of foes, yet deem
in the

that

me happy ? Listen now to me, O son of Kunti as I tell thee of other woes far surpassing these. What can be sadder to me than miseries so
various as these should emaciate

me

while ye are alive."
in the

Thus ends the nineteenth section
the Virata Parva.

Kichaka-badha Parva of

SECTION XX
(Kichaka-badha Parva continued)

"Draupadi said, "Alas on account of that desperate gambler, I am now under Sudeshna's command, living in the palace in the guise of a Sairindhri. And, O chastiser of foes behold the plight of poignant woe which I, a princess, am now in. I am living in expectation of the close " of this stated period. 1 The extreme of misery, therefore, is mine. Success of purpose, victory, and defeat, as regards mortals, are transit

tory.

It is in this belief

that

I

am
I

living in expectation of the return of

prosperity

to

my
to

husbands.
belief that

Prosperity and adversity revolve like a

wheel.

It is in this

am

living in expectation of the return victory,

of prosperity

my

husbands.
I

That cause which bringeth on

may

bring defeat as well.
that

live in this hope.
I

Why

dost thou not,

O

Bhimasena, regard

may beg

:

me as one.dead ? they who slay may

have heard that persons that give be slain and that they who over;

1 What Draupadi means is that instead of passing her days in joy and happiness, instead of being able to wish time to be stationary with

her, she

is

obliged in consequence of her misery, to wish time to pass off

quickly.

T.

38

MAHABHABATA

throw others may themselves be overthrown by foes. Nothing is difficult for Destiny and none can over-ride Destiny. It is for this that I am awaiting the return of favourable fortune. As a tank once dried, is
filled

up once

again, so hoping

for a

change for the better,

I

await the

return of prosperity.
for
is

When

one's business that hath been well provided

seen to be frustrated, a truly wise person should never strive for bringing back good fortune. Plunged as I am in sorrow, asked or un-

shall tell

asked by thee to explain the purpose of these words spoken by me, I thee everything. Queen of the sons of Pandu and daughter of

Drupada, who else, save myself, would wish to live, having fallen into such a plight ? O represser of foes, the misery, therefore, that hath overtaken me. hath really humiliated tha entire Kuru race, the Panchalas, and the sons of Pandu. Surrounded by numerous brothers and father-in-law and sons, what other woman having such cause for joy,
save myself, would be afflicted with such woe ? Surely, I must, in my childhood, have committed act highly offensive to Dhatri through

whose displeasure, O bull of the Bharata race, I have been visited with such consequences. Mark, O son of Pandu, the pallour that hath come over my complexion which not even a life in the woods fraught as

was with extreme misery, could bring about. Thou, O Pritba's happiness, O Bhima, was formerly mine. Even, I, who was such have now sunk into servitude. Sorely distressed, I can That the mighty-armed and terrible bowman, Dhananjaya find no rest,
it

son, knowes,t what:

the son of Pritha, should

now
men

live like a fire that

hath been put out,
Surely,

maketh me think
Pritha,
it is

of all this as attributable to Destiny.
to

O

son of

impossible for

understand the destinies of creatures

(in this world).

that could not

that

think this downfall of yours as something I, therefore, be averted by forethought. Alas, she who hath you all, resemble Indra himself to attend to her comforts even she, so

chaste and exalted, hath

now

to attend

to the comforts of

others, of

others that are to her far inferior in rank.
plight.
It
is

Behold,
alive,

O

Pandava,

my

what

I

do not deserve.

Ye

are

yet behold this

inversion

She who had the whole Earth to the verge of the sea under her control, is now under the control of Sudeslina and living in fear of her. She who had dependants to walk
of

order' that

time hath brought.

both before and behind her,
Sudeshna. This,

alas,
is

now

herself walketh before

and behind

O

listen

to

it.

another grief of mine that is intolerable. Kaunteya, She who had never, save for Kunti, pounded unguents

O

even for her own
others).

use, now, good betide thee, poundeth sandal (for Kaunteya, behold these hands of mine which were not so before. Saying this she showed him her hands marked with corns. And she continued, 'She who had never feared Kunti herself nor

O

thee and thy brothers,

now standeth

in fear

before Virata as a slave,

VIEATA PAKVA
anxious of what that king of kings
1

89

may say unto her regarding the proper preparation of the unguents, for Matsya liketh not sandal pounded
'

by others.

Vaisampayana continued, "Relating her woes thus, O Bharata, unto Bhimasena, Krishna began to weep silently, casting her eyes on Bhima. And then, with words choked in tears, and sighing repeatedly,

Bhima in these words, powerfully stirring his heart, Bhima, must have been my offence of old unto the gods, for, 'Signal, unfortunate as I am, I am yet alive, when, O Pandava, I should die." Vaisampayana continued. "Then that slayer of hostile heroes,
she

addressed

O

Vrikodara, covering

his face

with those delicate hands of

his wife

marked

with corns, began to weep. And that mighty son of Kunti, holding the hands of Draupadi in his, shed copious tears. And afflicted with great

woe, he spoke these words." Thus ends the twentieth section
the Virata Parva.

in the

Kichaka-badha Parva of

SECTION XXI
(Kichaka-badha Parva continued)
'Fie on the might of my arms and fie on the Qandit'a said, inasmuch as thy hands, red before, now become covered Falguni, with corns. I would have caused a carnage in Virata's court but for

"Bhima

of

fact that Kunti's son eyed me (by way of forbidding it), or like a mighty elephant, I would, without ado, have crushed the head of Kichaka intoxicated with the pride of sovereignty. When, O Krishna

the

I

beheld thee kicked by Kichaka,

I

conceived at that instant

a wholesale

me by a glance, beauteous lady, understanding his intention I have kept quiet. That we have been deprived of our kingdom, that I have not yet slain the Kurus, that I have not yet taken the heads of Suyodhana and Kama,
slaughter of the Matsyas. Yudhishthira, however, forbade

and,

O

omissions,

and Suvala's son Sakuni, and the wicked Dussasana, these acts and O lady, are consuming every limb of mine. The thought of those abides in my heart like a javelin implanted in it. O thou of
graceful hips, do not sacrifice virtue and,

O

noble-hearted lady, subdue

If king Yudhishthira hear from thee such rebukes, he will put an end to his life. If also Dhananjaya and the twins hear And if these, O t-lenderthee speak thus, even they will renounce life. waisted maiden, give up life, I also shall not be able to bear my own.

thy wrath.

surely

In olden days Sarjati's daughter, the beautiful Sukanya, followed into the
forest

Chyavana

of

Bhrigu's

race,

whose mind was under complete
in ascetic

ontrol,

and over whom, while engaged

meditation, the ants

40

MAHABHARATA

had built a hill. Thou mayst have heard that Indrasena also who in beauty was like unto Nara^ani herself, followed her husband aged a thousand years. Thou mayst have heard that Janaka's daughter Sita, the
princess of Videha, followed her lord while living in dense woods. And that lady of graceful hips, Rama's beloved wife, afflicted with calamities

and persecuted by the Rakshasas,

at length regained the

company

of

Rama.

Lopamudra

also,

O

timid one, endued with youth and beauty,
all

followed Agastya, renouncing

by men.

And

the

intelligent "and faultless

the objects of enjoyment unattainable Savitri also followed the

heroic Satyavan, the son of Dyumatsena, alone into the world of Yama. Even like these chaste and beautiful ladies that I have named, thou blessed girl, bloomest with every virtue. Do thou spend a short while

O

more that
year
king.'
is

measured by even a half month. And when the thirteenth complete, thou wilt (again) become the Queen regnant of a Hearing these words, Draupadi said, 'Unable, O Bhima,
is

to
I

bear

my

griefs, it is

from

grief

alone that
is

I

have shed these

tears.

do not censure Yudhishthira.

Nor

there any use

in dwelling

on

the past.

O

Bhima
hour.

of

work
pains
to

of the

O

mighty strength, come quickly forward to the Bhima, Kaikeyi, jealous of my beauty, always
king from taking a fancy of hers, the wicked-souled

me by her endeavours to prevent the me. And understanding this disposition

Kichaka of immoral ways constantly solicits me himself. Angry with him for this, but then suppressing my wrath I answer that wretch deprived of sense by lust, saying, "O Kichaka, protect thyself. I am the beloved queen and wife of five Gandharvas. Those heroes in wrath will
slay

thee that art so rash."
saying,

Thus addressed, Kichaka
I will slay

of wicked

soul

replied unto me,

"I have not the least fear of the Gandharvas,
a

O Sairindhri
vas,

of sweet smiles.
in

encountering them

battle.

Therefore,

hundred thousand GandharO timid one, do thou

consent.
saying,

Hearing

all

this, I

again addressed the lust-afflicted Suta,

no match for those illustrious Gandharvas. Of respectable percentage and good disposition, I ever adhere to virtue and never wish for the death of any one. It is for this that thou I vest,
art

"Thou

At this, that wight of wicked soul burst out into a loud laughter. And it came to pass that Kaikeyi previously urged by Kichaka, and moved by affection for her brother, and desirous of doing him a good turn, despatched me to him. saying, "Do thou, O Sairindhri, fetch
Kichaka
!"

O

wine from Kichaka's quarters !" On beholding me the Suta's son at first addressed me in sweet words, and when that failed, he became exceedingly enraged, and intended to use violence. Understanding the purpose of the wicked Kichaka, I speedily rushed towards the place where the
king was.
Felling
of

me on

the ground

the wretch then kicked

me

in the

very presence

the king

himself and before the

eyes of

Kanka and

VIRATA PABVA
many
others, including charioteers,

41

and royal favourites, and elephant-

rebuked the king and Kanka again and again. The riders, king, however, neither prevented Kichaka, nor inflicted any chastisement on him. The principal ally of king Virata in war, the cruel
citizens.
I

and

Kichaka

reft of virtue

is

loved by both the king and the

queen.
all

O ex-

alted one, brave, proud, sinful, adulterous, and engrossed in

objects of

enjoyment, he earneth immense wealth (from the king), and robs the possessions of others even if they cry in distress. And he never walketh in the path of virtue, nor doth he any virtuous act. Of wicked
soul,

and vicious

by the shafts of

he

will

haughty and villainous, and always afflicted Kama, though repulsed repeatedly, if he sees me again, outrage me. I shall then surely renounce my life. Although
disposition,

striving to acquire virtue, (on

my

death) your highly meritorious acts will
pledge, ye will lose
offspring are protected, and

come
your

to naught.
wife.

Ye

that

are

now obeying your

By

protecting one's wife one's

by protecting one's offspring, one's own self is protected. And it is because one begets one's own self in one's wife that the wife is called

Jaya

1

by the wise.

The husband

also

should be protected by the wife,

thinking,

How

else will he take his birth in

my womb?

I

have heard

it

from Brahmanas expounding the duties of the several orders that a Kshatriya hath no other duty than subduing enemies. Alas Kichaka
kicked
thyself,

me

in the

very presence
the

of

Yudhishthira the Just, and also of
It

O Bhimasena of
me from

mighty strength.
terrible

didst deliver

Jatasura.

was thou, O Bhima, that It was thou also that

with thy brothers didst vanquish Jayadratha. Do thou now slay this wretch also who hath insulted me. Presuming upon his being a favourDo thoui ite of the king, Kichaka, O Bharata, hath enhanced my woe.
therefore,

smash
If,

this

lustful

wight even
mine,
I

like

an earthern pot dashed
mixing poison Kichaka. Far

upon a

stone.

O

Bharata, to-morrow's sun sheds his rays upon him

who

is

the source of

many
it

griefs of

I

shall, surely,

(with some drink), drink
better
it

up,
I

for

never
said

shall yield to

were,

O

Bhima, that

should die before thee.

Vaisampayana continued. face in Bhima's breast began
soled her to the best of
his

"Having
to weep.

this,

Krishna, hiding her
her, con-

And Bhima, embracing

that slender-waisted

power. And having abundantly consoled daughter of Drupada by means of words fraught

with grave reason and sense, he wiped with his hands her face flooded with tears. And thinking of Kichaka and licking with his tongue the
corners with his mouth, Bhima,
distressed lady."
filled

with wrath thus spake to that
in

Thus ends the twenty -first
the Virata Parva.

section

the

Kichaka-badha Prava

of

U

ay ate any as

j.

e.,

she from

whom

one

is

born

T.

SECTION XXII
(Kichaka-badha Parva continued.)
"Bhiraa said,
I will,

O

timid one, do even as thou saycst.
all his friends.

I will

presently slay Kichaka with

O

Yajnaseni of

sweet smiles,

to-morrow evening, renouncing sorrow and grief, manage to have a meeting with Kichaka. The dancing-hall that the king of the Matsya
hath caused to be erected
is

used by the girls for dancing during the

day. They repair, however, to their homes at night- There in that Even there I hall, is an excellent and well-placed wooden bed-stead. will make him see the spirits of his deceased grand-sires. But, O beautiful one, when thou boldest converse with him, thou must

manage it so that others may not espy thee. Vaisampayana continued, "Having thus conversed with others, and shed tears in grief, they waited for the dawn of that night with painAnd when the night had passed away, Kichaka, rising ful impatience. in the morning, went to the palace, and accosted Draupadi saying,
"Throwing thee down in the court 1 kicked thee in the presence of the king. Attacked by mighty self, thou couldst not obtain protection.
This Virata
forces of
thou.
is

in

name only
it is I

the king of the Matsyas.

Commanding

the

this

realm

who am

the real
I

lord of the Matsya.

Do

And.

shall become thy slave. O timid one, accept me cheerfully. O thou of graceful hips, I will immediately give thee a hundred

nishkat,

and engage a hundred male and a hundred female servants (to tend thee \ and will also bestow on thee cars yoked with she-mules.

our union take place. Draupadi replied, 'O know even this is my condition. Neither thy friends nor thy should know thy union with me, I am a terror of detection Promise me this, and I yield to thee. illustrious Gandharvsas.
lady, let
this
est.

O timid

Kichaka
brothers

by those

Kichaka

said

'I will.

O

thou of graceful

hips,

do even

as

Hearing thou say.

Afflicted

repair to

by the god of love, I will, thy abode for union with thee,
sun,

O beautious damsel, alone O thou of thighs round and
so

tapering like the trunks of the plantain,
effulgent as the

that
of

those
this

Gandharvas,
act of thine.

may not come

to

know

Draupadi said, 'Do thou, when it is dark, go to the dancing-hall erected by the .king of the Matsyas where the girls dance during the day, repairing to their respective homes at night. The Gandharvas do not know that place. We shall then without doubt, escape all censure."

Vaisampayana continued,

'Reflecting on
a

the subject of her con-

versation with Kichaka, that half

day seemed to Krishna as long as a whole month. And the stupid Kichaka also, not knowing that it was Death that bad assumed the form of a Sairindhri, returning home

VIEATA PABVA
experienced the greatest delight.

43

And deprived of sense by lust, Kichaka became speedily engaged in embellishing his person with unguents and garlands and ornaments. And while he was doing all this,
eyes,

thinking of that damset of large

the day seemed to

him
to

to be
for-

without an end.

And

the beauty of Kichaka,

who was about

sake his beauty for ever, seemed to highten, like the wick of a burning lamp about to expire. And reposing the fullest confidence in Draupadi,

Kichaka, deprived of his senses by lust and absorbed in the contemplation of the expected meeting, did not even perceive that the day had
departed. Meanwhile, the beautiful Draupadi approaching her husband Bhima of the Kuru race, stood before him in the kitchen. And that

then spake unto him, say'O chastiser of foes, even as thou hadst directed, I have given ing Kichaka to understand that our meeting will take place in the dancinglady with tresses ending in beautiful curls
hall.

Alone will he come at night to the empty hall. Slay him there, thou of mighty arms. Do thou, son of Kunti, repair to that dancing-hall, and take the life, Pandava, of Kichaka, that son of a

O

O

O

Suta intoxicated with vanity. From vanity alone, that son of a Suta best of smiters, lift him up from the slights the Gandharvas.

O

earth even as Krishna had lifted

Pandava, afflicted as
be thou, protect thy

I

up the Naga (Kaliya) from the Yamuna. am with grief, wipe thou my tears, and blessed
that of thy race."

own honour and

'Welcome, O beauteous lady. Except the glad tidings thou bringest me, I need, O thou of exceeding beauty, no other aid whatever. The delight that I feel, O thou of great beauty, on hearing

Bhima

said,

from thee about
1 felt in

my coming
I will

slaying Hidiinva.

I

and by morality, that
tial

encounter with Kichaka, is eqjal to what swear unto thee by Truth, by my brothers, slay Kichaka even as the lord of the celessecretly or openly,
I

slew Vritra.
if

Whether
I

I will

crush Kichaka,

and
ing

the Matsyas fi^ht for him, then
shall

will slay

them

too.

And

slay-

Duryodhana afterwards,

win back the earth.

Let Yudhish-

thira, the son of Kunti,

continue to pay homage unto the king of Matsya. Hearing these words of Bhima, Draupadi said, 'In order that, O lord, thou mayst not have to renounce the truth already pledged to me, do thou O hero, slay Kichaka in secret. Bhima assuring her said, 'Even toI

day

shall

slay

Kichaka together with

his friends

unknown

to other*

faultless lady, crush, even during the darkness of the night. I shall, as an elephant crusheth a vela fruit/ the head of the wicked Kichaka

O

who wisheth

for

what

is

unattainable by him

1'

Vaisampayana continued,

'Reparing

first

to the place of assigna-

1.
lifts

up

Some texts read, a vela fruit.'

Vilwam nagaviodharai.e.

%

'As an elephant

44
tion at night,
in

MAHABHARATA
Bhima
sat

down,

disguising himself.
a

And

he waited

there

expectation

of Kichaka, like

lion lying in wait for a deer.

And

Kichaka, having embellished his person as he chose, came to the dancingAnd hall at the appointed time in the hope of meeting Panchali.
thinking of the assignation, he entered the chamber. And having entered that hall enveloped in deep gloom, that wretch of wicked soul

came upon Bhima of incomparable prowess, who had come a little before and who was waiting in a corner. And as an insect approacheth
towards a flaming fire, or a puny animal towards a lion Kichaka approached Bhima, lying down in a bed and burning in anger at the thought And of the insult offered to Krishna, as if he were the Suta's Death.
t

soul filled with ecstacy smilingly said,

having approached Bhima, Kichaka possessed by lust, and his heart and 'O thou of pencilled eye-brows,

to thee I have already given many and various kinds of wealth from the stores earned by me, as well as hundred maids and many fine robes, and also a mansion with an inner apartment adorned with beauteous

and lovely and youthful maid-servants and embellished by every kind of And having set all those apart for thee, I sports and amusements. have speedily come hither. And all on a sudden, women have b^gun to
Hearing this, Bhima said, It is well that thou art handsome, and it is well thou praisest thyself. I think, however, that Thou hast an thou hadst never before this such pleasurable touch
/'
'

praise me, saying, in beauty and dress

There

is not

in this world any other person like unto thee

!

acute touch, and knowest the ways of gallantry.

Skilled in the art of

love-making, thou art a favourite with women.
in this

Tbere

is

none

like thee

world

!'

Vaisampayana continued, Say ing this, that son of Kunti, the mighty -armed Bhima of terrible prowess, suddenly rose up, and laughingly said,

'Thy

sister,

O
a

me
to

to the

ground, like

wretch, shall tod^y behold thee dragged by mighty elephant, huge as a mountain, dragged
Thyself slain Sairindhri will live in peace,
live in peace.
hairs of his head,

the ground

by a

lion.

and we, her hu>bands, will also Bhima seized Kichaka by the
witli garlands.

Saying this, the mighty which were adorned

And thus seized with force by the hair, that foremost of mighty persons, Kicnaka, quickly freed his hair and grapsed the arms of Bhima. And then between those lions among men, fired with wrath, between that chief of the Kichaka clan, and that best of men, there
ensued a hand-to-hand encounter, like that between two powerful elephants for a female elephant in the season of spring, or like that which days of yore between those lions among monkeys, the broAnd both equally infuriate and both eager for both those combatants raised their arms resembling snakes viciory, furnished with five hoods, and attacked each other with their nails and

happened

in

thers Vali and Sugriva.

VIBATA PABVA
teeth,

45

wrought up to frenzy of wrath. Impetuously assailed by the powerful Kichaka in that encounter, the resolute Bhima did not waver a single step. And locked in each other's embraces and dragging each other, they fought on like two mighty bulls. And having nails and teeth for their weapons, the encounter between them was fierce and terrible like that of two furious tigers. And felling each
they encountered each other like a couple of elephants with rent temples. And the mighty Bhima then seized Kichaka and Kichaka, that foremost of strong persons threw Bhima down
other in fury,

And as those mighty combatants fought on, the arms produced a loud noise that resembled the Then Vrikodara throwing Kichaka down clatter of splitting bamboos. by main force within the room, began to toss him about furiously even
with violence.
crash of
their

And attacked thus in battle by the Kichaka gtew weak and began to tremble. For all powerful Bhima, that, however, he tugged at the Pandava to the best of his power.
as a

hurricane tosseth a tree.

And attacking Bhima, and making him wave a little, the mighty Kichaka struck him with his knees and brought him down to the ground. And overthrown by the powerful Kichaka, Bhima quickly And thus that powerful like Yama himself with mace in hand.
the Pandava,

rose
Sttta

up and

intoxicated with strength and challenging

each other,

grappled with each other at midnight in that solitary place. And as they roared at each other in wrath, that excellent and strong edifice began to shake every moment. And slapped on the chest by the

mighty Bhima, Kichaka
bearing for a

fired

with wrath

moved

not a single pace.

And

moment

only

that onslaught

incapable of being born on

earth, the Suta,

overpowered by Bhima's might, became enfeebled. And seeing him waning weak, Bhima endued with great strength forcibly And drew Kichaka towards his breast, and began to press hard. hard again and again in wrath, that best of victors. Vrikodara, breathing
forcibly seized

Kichaka by the

hair.

And having

seized Kichaka, the

mighty Bhima began to roar like a hungry tiger that hath killed a large And finding him exceedingly exhausted, Vrikodara bound him And then Bhima fast with his arms, as one binds a beast with a cord.
animal.

began for

a long while, to whirl the senseless
1

Kichaka,

who began

to roar

And in order to pacify Krishna's broken trumpet. wrath Vrikodara grasped Kichaks's throat with his arms and began to squeeze it. And assailing with his knees the waist of that worst of the Kichakas, all the limbs of whose body had been broken into fragments
frightfully like a

and whose eye-lids were closed, Vrikodara slew him,

as

one would slay a

1 Veri means both a kettle-drum and a ever conveys a better meaning here. T.

trumpet.

The

latter

how-

46
beast.

MAHABHAEATA

And beholding Kichaka entirely motionless, the son of Pandu began to roll him about on the ground. And Bhima then said, Slaying this thorn in the side of this wretch who intended to violate our wife, I a m freed from the debt I owed to my brothers, and have Sairindhri,
attained perfect
peace.

having said this, that foremost of men, with eyes red in wrath, relinquished his hold of Kichaka, whose dress and ornaments had been thrown off his person, whose eyes were rolling,

And

and whose body was yet trembling. And that foremost of mighty parsons, squeezing his own hands, and biting his lips in rage, again attacked his adversary and thrust his arms and legs and neck and head into his body like the wielder of the Pinaka reducing into shapless mass the deer, which form Sacrifice had assumed in order to escape his ire. And having crushed all his limbs, and reduced him into a ball of flesh,
the

mighty Bhimasena showed him unto Krishna. And endued with mighty energy that hero then addressed Draupadi, that foremost of all women, saying 'Come princess of Panchala, and see what hath beof that lustful

come
ess

prowAnd began to press with his feet the body lighting a torch then and showing Draupadi the body of Kichaka, that hero addressed her, saying, 'O thou of tresses ending in beautiful curls, those that sulicit thee, endued as thou art with an excellent disposition
!*

wretch

And

saying

this,

Bhima

of terrible

of

that wicked wight.

and every virue,
timid one.

will be slain by

me even

as this

Kichaka hath been,

O

accomplished that difficult task so highly having indeed slain Kicliaka and thereby pacified his wrath, Bhima bade farewell to Krishna, the daughter of Drupada, and quickly went back to the kitchen. And Draupadi also, that best of
having
agreeable to Krishna

And

women, having caused Kichaka
experienced
the greatest

to

be slain

had her

grief

remove and

delight.

dancing

hall, she said.

'Come

addressing the keepers of the ye and behold Kichaka who had violated

And

after other people's wives

lieth

down

here, slain by

my

Gandliarva

husbands.

And hearing these words' the guards of the dancing-hall soon came by thousands to that spot, torches in hand. And repairing to that room, they beheld the lifeless Kichaka thrown on the ground,
drenched with blood. were filled with grief.

with amazement. throw of Kichaka, they said, 'Where is his neck, and where are his And beholding him in this plight they all concluded that he had legs ?' been killed by a Gandharva." Thus ends the twenty-second section in the Kichaka-badha Parva
of the Virata Parva.

And beholding him without arms and legs, they And as they gazed at Kichaka, they were struck And seeing that super-human act, viz., the over-

SECTION XXIII
(KichaJca.badha Parva continued)

Vaisampayana

said,

"Then

all

the

relatives of Kichaka, arriving

at that place, beheld

him on

all sides.

him there and began to wail aloud, surrounding And beholding Kichaka with every limb mangled,

and lying like a tortoise dragged to dry ground from the water, all of them were overcome with exceeding fright, and the bristles of their
bodies stood on end.
a

And seeing him crushed Danava by Indra, they proceeded to take him

all

over by Bhima,

like

outside, for performing

And then those persons of the Suta clan thus his funeral obsequies. assembled together espied Krishna of faultless limbs hard by, who stood
reclining

on

a pillar.

'Let this unchaste
his life.

And all the Kichak-is assembled there, exclaimed, woman be slain for whom Kichaka hath himself lost

Or, without slaying her here, let us cremate her with him had lusted after her, for it behoveth us to accomplish in every that way what is agreeable to that deceased son of Sula. And then they
addressed Virata, saying,
life.

'It is for her sake that Kichaka hath lost his Let him, therefore, be cremated along with her. It behoveth thee to grant this permission. Thus addressed by them, king Virata, O monarch, knowing fully well the prowess of the Suta gave his assent to Sairindhri being burnt along with the Suta'a son. And at this, the

Kichakas approaching the frightened and stupefied Krishna of lotus-like And binding that damsel of slendereyes, seized her with violence*
waist and placing her

towards the cemetary.

upon the bier, they set out with great energy And, O king, while thus forcibly carried towards

the cemetary by those sons of the Suta tribe, the blameless and chaste

under the protections of her lords, then wailed aloud for 'Oh, let Jaya, and Jayanta, and Vijaya the help of her husbands, saying, and Jayatsena, and Jayadvala listen to my words. The Sutaa are taking me away. Let those illustrious Gandharvas endued with speed of hand,

KrUhna

living

loud and the twang of whose bowstrings in the midst of the mighty conflict are heard like the roar of thunder, the Sutaa are taking me away 1" listen to my words. continued, "Hearing those sorrowful words and Vaisampayana
the clatter of whose
car's is

lamentations of Krishna, Bhima, without a moment's reflection started up from his bed and said, 'I have heard, O Sairindhri, the words thou
hast spoken.

Thou

hast, therefore,

O

timid lady, no more fear at the
the

hands of the Sutaa"

Vaisampayana continued.

"Having

said

this,

mighty-armed

Bhima

desirous of slaying the Kichakas, began to swell his body.
attire, he went out of the palace by a wrong

And
egress.

carefully changing his

And climbing over

a

wall by

the aid of a

tree, he

proceeded towards

48

MAEABEARATA

the ceractary whither the Kichakas had gone. And having leapt over the wall, and gone out of the excellent city, Bhima impetuously rushed to

where the Sutaa were. And,
and withered top.
it

pyre he beheld a large tree, And that slayer of foes grasping with his arms that tree measuring ten Vyamas, uprooted it, even like an elephant, and

monarch, proceeding towards the funeral tall as palmyra- palm, with gigantic shoulders

O

upon his shoulders. And taking up that tree with trunk and branches and measuring ten Vyamas, that mighty hero rushed towards the Suias, like Yama himself, mace in hand. And by the impetus of 1 banians and peepals and Kinsukas, falling down on earth lay bis rush And beholding that Gandharva approach them like a lion in clusters. in fury, all the Sutaa trembling with fear and greatly distressed, became
placed
panic-struck.
ful in

And

Gandharva cometh
hand.
free.

they addressed each other, saying, 'Lo, the powerhither, filled with rage, and with an upraised tree

Let Sairindhri, therefore, from

whom

this

danger of ours hath

beholding the tree that had been uprooted by Bhimasena, they set Draupadi free and ran breathlessly towards the city.
arisen, be set

And

them run away, Bhima, that mighty son of the Wind-god, despatched, O foremost of kings, by means of that tree, a hundred and five of them unto the abode of Yama, like the wielder of the thunderAnd setting Draupadi free from her bonds, bolt slaying the Danavas. he then, O king comforted her. And that mighty-armed and irrepressiseeing
ble Vrikodara, the son of

And

Pandu, then addressed the distressed princess

of Patichala with face bathed in tears, saying,

"Thus

Krishna, to the they slain that wrong thee without cause. Return. I myself will go to the Virata's city. Thou hast no longer any fear
;

O O

timid one, are

kitchen by another route." Vaisampayana continued

"It

was
slain.

thus,

O

Bharata, that a hundred
their

and

corpses lay on the ground, making the place look like a great forest overspread with uprooted trees after a hurricane. Thus fell those hundred and five

five of those

Kichakas were

And

Kichakas.

And

including Virata's general slain before, the slaughtered
six.

Sutas numbered one hundred and

wonderful feat, men and women that with astonishment. And the power of

beholding that exceedingly assembled together, were filled
speech,

And

O

Bharata, was suspen-

ded

every one." Thus ends the twenty-third section
in

in

the

Kichaka-badha Parva of

the Virata Parva.

I

Lit, force of his thighs

T.

SECTION XXIV
(Kichaka.badha Parva continued)

Vaisampayana said, And beholding the Sutas slain, the citizens went to the king, and represented unto him what had happened, saying, 'O king, those mighty sons of the Sutas have all been slain by the Gandharvas. Indeed they lie scattered on the earth like huge peaks of mountains riven by thunder. Sairindhri also, having been set free, returneth
to thy

palace in the city.

Alas,

O king, if

Sairindhri

cometh, thy entire
;

kingdom will be endangered. SairindHri is endued with great beauty the Gandharvas also here exceedingly powerful. Men again, without
doubt, are naturally sexual.
that in

Devise, therefore,

O king,

without delay,

such means consequence of wrongs done to Sairindhri, thy kingdom may not meet with destruction. Hearing those words of theirs, Virata, that lord of hosts, said unto them, 'Do ye perform the last rites of the Sutas. Let all the Kichakas be burnt, in one blazing pyre with gems

and fragrant unguents in profusion,' And filled with fear, the king then addressed his queen Sudeshna, saying, When SairmdKri comes back,

do thou
alarmed,

tell

her these words from me,

"Blessed be thou,
likest.

O

fair-faced

Sairindfm.

Go

thou withersoever thou

The

king hath been

O

the hand of
I

thou of graceful hips, at the defeat already experienced at the Gandharvas. Protected as thou art by the Gandharvas,

woman, however, cannot dare not personally say all this to thee. " and it is for this that I tell thee all this through a woman ;' offend,
Vaisampayana continued,
from
all

A

"Thus delivered by Bliimasena
in

after

the slaughter of the Sutas, the intelligent and youthful Krishna relieved

her fears, washed her limbs and clothes

water, and proceeded
her,
in all

towards the city, like a doe frightened by a tiger. And beholding the citizens, king, afflicted with the fear of the Gandharvas fled

O

directions.

And some

of

them went

so far

as to shut their eyes.

And

then,

O king,

at the gate of
like

the kitchen,

the princess of Panchala saw

Bhimasena staying,

an infuriate elephant of gigantic proportions.

And looking upon him with wonder-expanded eyes. Draupaoi by means 'I bow unto that prince of the of words intelligible to them alone, said, Gandharvas, who hath rescued me. At these words of her, Bhima said,
'Hearing these words of hers in obedience to whom those persons were hitherto living in the city, they will henceforth range here, regarding

themselves

as freed

from the debt.' "*

Vaisampayana continued,
I

"Then

she beheld

the

mighty-armed

Then Gandharvas, your husbands, are 1 What Bhima says is this. If they have been able to do thee a service, always obedient to thee they have only repaid a debt. T.

60

MAHABHABATA
in the

Dhananjaya.
dancing.

And

issuing

dancing-hall instructing king Virata's Daughters in with Arjuna from the dancing-hall, all those

damsels came to Krishna who had anived there, and who had been persecuted so sorely, all innocent though she was. And they said 'By good luck also it is, O Sairindhri, tnat thou hast been delivered from thy
dangers.

By gooJ luck
ic
is

it is

that thou hast returned safe.

luck also

that those

Sutas have

been

slain that

And by good had wronged thee,

innocent thouih thou art. Hearing this, Vrihannala said, 'How hast thou. O Sairindhri been delivered ? And how have those sinful wretches

been

slain ?

I

wish to

l<^arn

all this

from thee exactly

as

it

occurred.

Vrihannala always passing thy days in the apartments of the girls, what concern hast thou with happily Sairindhri 's fate to say ? Thou hast no grief to bear that Sairindhri hath It is for this, that thou askest me thus, distressed as I am in to bear
Sairindhri
replied,

'O

blessed

!

ridicule.'

Thereat Vrihannala said, unparalleled sorrows of her own.
dost not,

O

blessed one, Vrihannala also hath

Thou

O

girl

She hath become as low as a brute. understand this. I have lived with thee, and thou

too hast lived with us.

When,

who

is it

that will not,

O

therefore, thou art afflicted with misery, thou of beautiful hips, feel it ? But no one

can completely read another's heart. that thou knowest not my heart !'
'

Therefore

it is,

O

amiable one,

girls

And command of the king, saying
soever thou
likest.

"ThenDraupadi, accompanied by those entered the royal abode, desirous of appearing before Sudeshna. when she came before the queen, Virata's wife addressed her at the
Vaisampayana continued,

The

Sairindhri, speedily go whitherbetide thee, hath been filled with king, good

'Do thou,

O

hands of the Gandharvas. Thou art! O thou of graceful eye-brows, young and unparalleled on earth in beauty. Thou art, besides, an object of desire with men. The Gandharvas again,
fear at this discomfiture at the

are exceedingly wrathful.
let the king suffer

Thereat Sairindhri

said,

'O beauteous lady

me

to live here for only thirteen days more.

With-

out doubt, the Gandharvas also will be highly obliged at this. They will then convey me hence and do what would be agreeable to Virata. Without doubt, the king, by doing
"
this,

with

his

friends, will reap

great

benefit.'

Thus ends the twenty-fourth section
of the Virata Parva.

in the

Kichaka-badha Parva

SECTION xxv
(

Kichaka-badha Parva continued)
said,

Vaisampayana
people,

'At the slaughter of Kichaka and brothers,

filled with surprise. and the provinces it was generally bruited about that city 'for bravery the king's Vallava and Kichaka were both mighty warriors. The wicked Kichaka, however, had been an oppressor of men and a dishonourer of other peoples' wives. And it was for this that wicked And it was thus, O of sinful soul had been slain by the Gandharvas.' to speaki from province to province of the king, that people began

O king,

thinking of this terrible feat, were

And

in the

invincible Kichaka, that slayer of hostile ranks.

"Meanwhile, the spies employed by Dhritarashtra's son, having searched various villages and towns and kingdoms and done all that they
had been commanded to do and completed their examination,
in the

manner

directed, of the countries indicated in their orders, returned to
gratified with at least

Nagarupa,
his court

one thing that they had learnt. 1
of the

And

Duryodhana and Kama and Kripa, with the high-souled Bhishma, his own brothers, and those great warriors the Trigartas, they addressed him, saying, 'O lord of men, great hath been the care always bestowed by us in the search after the sons of Pandu in that mighty forest. Searched have we through the solitary wilderness abounding with deer and other animals and overgrown with trees and creepers of diverse kind. Searched have we also in arbours of matted woods and plants and creepers of every species, but we have failed in discovering that track by which Pritha's son of irrepressible energy may have gone. Searched have we in these and other places for their foot-prints. Searched have we closely, O king, on mountain tops and in inaccessible fastnesses, in various kingdoms and provinces teeming with people, in encampments and cities. No trace have yet been foun>.l of the sons of Pandu. Good betkle thee, O bull among men. it seems that they have
seated in

seeing Dhritarashtra's son King

Kuru race

with Drona

foremast of warriors, perished without leaving a mark behind. besr of men, we followed in the track of those warriors, yet. although

O

O

we soon

lost their

O

lord of

foot-prims ami do nor know men, for some time we followed

their present residence.
in

the

wake

of

their

Nil?kantha explains this to m*-an 'imagining them1 Krita-krita selves to have achieved success in their mission" for having learnt of Kichaka's death, they could readily guess the presence of the Pandavns there. This is too far-fetched and does not at all agree with the spirit of their report to Duryodhana below. And then the same word occurs I take it that in both places the in the very last line of the Section. word has been used in the same sense T.

52

MAHABHABATA

charioteers. And making our inquiries duly, we truly ascertained what we desired to know. O slayer of foes, the charioteers reached Dwaravati without the sons ot Pritha among them. O king, neither

the sons ot Paniu,

O

bull

of the

Bharata race,

nor the chaste Krishna, are in that city of Yadavas. we have not been able to discover either
Salutations to thee, they are gone with the disposition of the sons of Pandu
It

their tr.ick

or thdir present abode.

for good.

We

are acquainted
of

and know something
therefore,

the feats achieved by them.

behoveth thee,

men, to give us instructions, O monarch, as to what we should next do in the search after the sons of Pandu. O hero,
of
also to

O lord

these agreeable words of ours, promising great good to King Matsya's commander, Kichaka of wicked soul, by whom the Trigartas, O monarch, were repeatedly vanquished and slain with mighty force, now lieth low on the ground with all his brothers, slain, O monarch, by invisible Gandharvas during the hours of darkness, O thou of unfading glory. Having heard this delightful news about the discomfiture of our enemies, we have been exceedingly gratified, O Kauravya. Do thou now ordain what should next be done/' Thus ends the twenty-fifth section in the Kichaka-badha Parva of
listen

thee.

the Virata Parva.

SECTION XXVI
(Qo.harana Parva)

Vaisampayana

said,

"Having

listened to these

words

of his spies,

king Duryodhana reflected inwardly for some time and then addressed his courtiers, saying, 'It is difficult to ascertain the course of events definitely.

Discern ye

all,

therefore whither

the sons of

Pandu have

gone,

year which they are to pass undiscovered by us all, the greater part hath already expired. What remains is by much the smaller. If, indeed, the sons of Pandu can pass undiscovered what
of
this thirteenth

remains of
then have

this year,

devoted to the

vow

of truth as they are,

they will

then return like mighty elephants with temporal juice trickling down, or like snakes of virulent poison. Filled with wrath, they will, without doubt, be inflicters of terrible chastisement on the Kurus. It behoveth ye, therefore, to make
fulfilled their pledge.

They

will

time as may induce the sons of Pandu, acquainted as they are with the proprieties of time, and staying as they now are in painful disguise, to re-enter the woods suppressing their rage. Indeed, adopt ye such means as may remove all causes of quarrel and
loss

such efforts without

of

anxiety from the kingdom, making

it

tranquil

and

foeless

and incapable

VIBATA PABVA
of sustaining a

68

Duryodhana,

Kama

diminution of territory.' Hearing these words of 'Let other spies, abler and more cunning, and said,

capable of accomplishing their object, quickly go hence,
well disguised,

O

Bharata. Let

wander through swelling kingdoms and populous them, provinces, prying into assemblies of the learned and delightful retreats of provinces. In the inner apartments of palaces, in shrines and holy in mines and diverse other regions, the sons of Pandu should be spots, searched after with well-directed eagerness. Let the sons of Pandu who
are living in disguise be searched after by well-skilled spies in large numbers, devoted to their work, themselves well-disguisedi and all well acquainted with the objects of their search. Let the search be made on the banks of rivers, in holy regions, in villages and towns, in retreats
of ascetics, in delightful mountains

ceased,

and mountain caves.' When Kama Duryodhana's second brother Dussasana, wedded to a sinful 'O monarch, disposition, then addressed his eldest brother and said,

men, let those spies only in whom we have confidence, receiving their rewards in advance, once more go after the search, This and what else hath been said by Kama have our fullest approval. Let all the spies engage themselves in the search according to the directions already given. Let these and others engage in the search from province
to province according to approved rules. It is my belief, however, that the track the Pandavas have followed or their present abode or

O lord of

occupation will not be discovered. Perhaps they are closely concealed perhaps, they have gone to the other side of the ocean. Or, perhaps, proud as they are of their strength and courage, they have been devoured by wild beasts ; or perhaps, having been overtaken by some
;

unusual danger, they have perished for eternity.
of the

Therefore,
'

O

prince

Kuru

race, dispelling all

anxieties from

thy heart, achieve

what

thou

wilt,

always acting according to thy energy.'
in the

Thus ends the twenty-second section
the Virata Parva.

Go-harana Parva of

SECTION XXVII
(Go.harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana said, "Endued with mighty energy and possessed of great discernment, Drona then said, Persons like the sons of Pandu never
nor undergo discomfiture. Brave and skilled in every science, intelligent and with senses under control, virtuous and grateful and obedient to the virtuous Yudhishthira, ever following in the wake of
perish
their

eldest brother

and virtue and

who is conversant with the profit, who is attached to them

conclusions of policy
as a father,

and who

54
strictly

MAHABHAEATA
adhereth to virtue and
is

firm in truth,

are thus devoted to their illustrious and royal brother,

persons like them that who gifted with
in his

great intelligence, never injureth any body

and who
in this

turn himself

obeyeth

his

younger brothers, never perish

way.

Why,

then,

should not (Yudhishthira) the son of Pritha possessing a knowledge of policy, be able to restore the prosperity of his brothers who are so obedient and devoted and high-souled ? It is for this that they are
carefully

waiting\for the

arrival

of

their opportunity.

Men

such as

these never perish.

This

quickly and without loss
reflection.

And

let also

is what I see by my intellect. Do, therefore, of time, what should now be done, after proper the abode which the sons of Pandu with souls

under control as regards every purpose of life, are to occupy, be now settled. Heroic and sinless and possessed of ascetic merit, the Pandavas are difficult to be discovered (within the period of non-discovery).
Intelligent
in

the principles of policy, endued with purity and
of

and possessed of every virtue, devoted to truth and versed holiness, and the
immeasurable energy, the son of Pritha
is

embodiment

capable of

consuming (his foes) by a glance alone of his eyes. Knowing all this, do what is proper. Let us, therefore, once more search after them, sending Brahmanas and Charanas, ascetics crowned with success, and others of " this kind who may have a knowledge of those heroes I'

Thus ends the twenty-seventh
the Virata Parva,

section in the Go-harana

Parva of

SECTION XXVIII
(Oo.harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana
proprieties of time

said,

"Then

that grandsire of the Bharatas,

Bhishma

the son of Santanu, conversant with the

Vedas, acquainted with the

and place, and possessing a knowledge of every duty applauded the words of the preceptor and spake unto the Bharatas for their benefit, these words consistent with virtue, expressive of his attachment to the virof morality, after the conclusion of Drona's speech,

tuous Yudhishthira, rarely spoken by men that are dishonest, and always meeting with the approbation of the honest. And the words that

Bhishma spake were thoroughly impartial and worshipped hy the wise. And the grandsire of the Kurus said, The words that the regenerate Drona acquainted with the truth of every affair hath uttered, are approved by me. I have no hesitation in saying so. Endued with
every auspicious mark, observant of virtuous vows, possessed of Vedic lore, devoted to religious observances, conversant with various sciences,
obedient to the counsels of the aged, adhering to the

vow

of truth,

VIEATA PABVA

55

acquainted with the proprieties of time, observant of the pledge they have given (in respect of their exile), pure in their behaviour, ever
high-souled,

adhering to the duties of the Kshatriya order, always obedient to Kesava, possessed of great strength, and ever bearing the burthens
of the wise, those heroic ones

can never wither under misfortune. Aided

by their

own
in

energy, sons of

Pandu who

are

now

leading a

life of

con-

obedience to virtue, will surely never perish. It is even this surmiseth. Therefore, O Bharata, lam for employing the aid of honest counsel in our behaviour towards the sons of Pandu. It

cealment
that

my mind

would noc be the policy of any wise man to cause them to be discovered now by means of spies, 1 what we should do unto the sons of Pandu, I
shall say, reflecting

with the aid of the
to thee.

intellect.

Know

that

I

shall say

nothing from ill will counsels to him that

should never give such I would is dishonest, for only counsels (like those give) should be offered unto them that are honest. Counsels, however, that are evil, should under no circumstances be offered. He, child, that
People like

me

O

is

devoted

to truth

and obedient to the aged,
if

he, indeed, that
all

is

wise,

while

speaking in

the midst of an assembly, should under
the

circums-

tances speak the truth,

acquisition of
that
I

him.

I

should, therefore, say

virtue be an object with think differently from all those

people here, in respect of the abode of Yudhishthira the Just in this the thirteenth year of his exile. The ruler, O child, of the city or the

province where king Yudhishthira resides cannot have any misfortune. Charitable and liberal and humble and modest must the people be of the country where king Yudhishthira resides. Agreeable in speech, with

under control, observant of truth, cheerful, healthy, pure in conduct, and skilful in work must the people be of the country where king Yudhishthira resides. The people of the place, where Yudhishthira
passions
is,

cannot be envious or malicious, or vain, or proud, but must all adhere to their respective duties. Indeed, in the place where Yudhishthira resides, Vedic hymns will be chanted all around, sacrifices will be per8 always be poured, and gifts to Brahmanas will always be in profusion. There the clouds, withoubt doubt, pour abundant rain, and furnished with good harvest the country will

formed, the

last

full

libations

will

ever be without fear. There the paddy will not be without grain, fruits

very difficult sloka. I am not sure that I have underBoth Nilakantha and Arjuna Misra are silent. Instead of depending, however, on my own intelligence, I have consulted several The grammatical friends who have read the "Mahabharata" throughly.
1 This
it is

a

stood

aright.

structure

The only difficulty consists in the second half of the is easy. sloka. The meaning, however, I have given is consistent with the tenour of Bhishma's advice. T.
2 Indicating the unobstructed completion of the
sacrifice.

T.

66
will not

MAHABHABATA
be bereft of juice,
floral garlands will

not be without fragrance,

and the conversation of men will always be full of agreeable words. There where king Yudhishthira resides, the breezes will be delicious, the meetings of men will always be friendly, and cause of fear there will

There kine will be plentiful, without any of them being leanfleshed or weak, and milk and curds and butter will all be savoury and There where king Yudhishthira resides every kind of corn nutritious. There where will be full of nutrition and every edible full of flavour.
be none.
taste, touch, king Yudhishthira resides, the objects of all the senses, viz*, and hearing, will be endued with excellent attributes- There smell,

where king Yudhishthira
ing.

resides, the sights

and scenes

will be gladden-

And the regenerate ones of that place will be virtuous and steady observing their respective duties. Indeed, in the country where the sons of Pandu may have taken up their abode during this thirteenth
in

year of their exile, the people will be contented and cheerful, pure in conduct and without misery of any kind. Devoted to gods and guests

and the worship of these with their whole soul, they will be fond of giving away, and filled with great energy, they will all be observant of eternal virtue. There where king Yudhishthira resides, the people,
eschewing all that is evil, will be desirous of achieving only what is good. Always observant of sacrifices and pure vows, and hating untruth in
speech, the people of the place

where king Yudhishthira may reside

will

always be desirous of obtaining what is good, auspicious and beneficial. There where Yudhishthira resides, the people will certainly be desirous
of

achieving what
their

is

good, and their hearts will always incline towards

virtue, and
in

vows being agreeable they themselves are ever engaged

the

whom
a love

chrld, that son of Pritha in acquisition of religious merit. are intelligence and charity, the highest tranquility and undoubt-

O

ed forgiveness, modesty
for
all

creatures,

hath concealed himself)

and prosperity, and fame and great energy and is incapable of being found out (now that he even by Brahmanas, let alone ordinary persons.

characteristics

is living in close disguise in regions whose have described. Regarding his excellent mode of life, I dare not say anything more. Reflecting well upon all this, do without loss of time what thou mayst think to be beneficial, O prince of the

The

wise Yudhishthira
I

Kuru

race, if indeed, thou hast any faith in me. Thus ends the twenty-third section in the Go-harana Parva of the

Virata Parva.

SECTION XXIX
(Qo-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana

said

"Then Saradwata's
and

son,

Kripa
is

said,

'What

the aged Bhishraa hath said concerning the Pandavas
to the occasion, consistent with virtue
profit,

reasonable, suited

aggreable to the ear,

fraught with sound reason, and worthy of him.

Listen also to what

I

behoveth thee to ascertain the track they have followed and their abode also by means of spies 1 and to adopt that policy which may bring about thy welfare. O child, he that is solicitous, of his welfare should not disregard even an ordinary foe. What shall
this subject.
It
,

would say on

I say, then, O child, of the Pandavas who are thorough masters of all weapons in battle. When, therefore, the time cometh for the reappearance of the high-souled Pandavas, who, having entered the forest 8 are
,

now

passing their days in

close

disguise,
in

strength both in thy

own kingdom and

thou shouldst ascertain thy those of other kings. With-

out doubt, the return of the Pandavas is at hand. When their promised term of exile is over, the illustrious and mighty sons of Pritha,

endued with immeasurable prowess,
energy.

will

come

hither bursting with

in order tcT conclude an advantageous have recourse to sound policy and address thyself to increase thy forces and improve thy treasury. O child, ascertaining all these, reckon thou thy own strength in respect of all thy allies weak and 8 Ascertaining the efficiency, and weakness, and indifference of strong thy forces, as also who amongst them are well affected and who are dis-

Do

thou therefore,

treaty with them,

.

affected,

we should

either fight the foe or

make

treaty with him.

Having

recourse to the arts of conciliation, disunion, chastisement, bribery,

behaviour, attack thy foes and subdue the weak by and win over thy allies and troops by soft speeches. When thou might, hast (by these means) strengthened thy army and filled thy treasury, When thou hast done all this, thou wilt be entire success will be thine. able to fight with powerful enemies that may present themselves, let
presents and fair
1 The word tirtha here means, as Nilakantha rightly explains spies and not holy spots. T. 2 Sattam is explained by Nilakantha to mean here 'false disguise.' I think, however, such an interpretation to be far-fetched. If evidently means "forest," the use of 'pravisteshu' in connection with it almost
settles the point.

T.

8 This sloka is not correctly printed in any of the texts that I have seen. The reading that I adopt is that the second word is the participle of the root 'budh' and not the instrumental of 'budhi' ; the last word again of the second line is a con pourd of 'valavatsu' and 'nvales-nu' instead of (as printed in n any books) 'vslavatswavalesl u.' Aiyotler

reading would certainly te incorrect.
text

I

T
8

have not consulted the Ecn bay

58

MAHABHABATA
in

alone the sons of Pandu deficient

troops and animals of their own.

By adopting
thou wilt,

all

O

these expedients according to the customs of thy order, foremost of men, attain enduring happiness in due time I"
section
in the

Thus ends the twenty-nineth
Virata Parva.

Go-harana Parva of the

SECTION XXX
(Go-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana

said,

''Discomfited

before,

O

monarch,

many

a

time and oft by Matsya's Suta Kichaka aided by the Matsyas and the Salyas, the mighty king of the Trigartas, Susarman, who owned in-

opportunity to be a favourable one, then spoke the following words without losing a moment. And, O monarch, forcibly vanquished along with his relatives by the mighty Kichaka, king
cars, regarding the

numberable

Susarman, eyeing Kama in askance, spoke these words unto Duryodhana "My kingdom hath many a time been forcibly invaded by the
:

king of the Matsyas. The mighty Kichaka was that king's generalissimo. Crooked and wrathful and of wicked soul, of prowess famed over all the world, sinful in deeds and highly cruel that wretch, however hath been
slain

by the Gandharvas. Kichaka being dead, king Virata, shorn of pride imagine, lose all courage. I think we ought now to invade that kingdom, if it pleases thee, O sinless one, as also the ilustrious Kama and all the Kauravas. The accident that hath happened is, I imagine, a favourable one for us. Let us, therefore, repair to
and
his refuge gone, will, I

will appropriate his gems and Virata's kingdom abounding in corn. other wealth of diverse kinds, and let us go to share with each other as

We

Or invading his city by force, let us carry off by thousands his excellent kine of various species. Uniting, king, the forces of the Kauravas and the Trigartas, let us lift his cattle
regards his villages and kingdom.

O

power by Or, destroying his entire host, we will bfingMatsya under subjection. Having brought him under subjection by just means, we will live in our kingdom happily, while thy power also will, without doubt, be enhanced. Hearing these words of Susarhis

in droves.

Or

uniting our forces

well,

we

will

check

forcing

him

to sue for peace,

man,
fore,

Kama
if it

addressed the king
is

the opportunity

saying, 'Susarman hath spoken well favourable and promises to be profitable to us. There;

pleases thee,

O

sinless one, let

us,

battle array and marshalling

them

in divisions, speedily set out.

drawing up our forces Or,

in
let

the expedition be managed as Saradwata's son Kripa, the preceptor Drona, and the wise and aged grandsire of the Kurus may think. Con-

VIRATA PABVA
lulting with each other, let
us,

69
speedily set

O

lord

of

earth,

out to

have we with tute as they are of wealth, might, and prowess appeared for good or have gone to the abode
attain our end.

What

business

the sons of
?

Pandu, destihave either disThey

of

Yama

?

We

will,

O

king, repair without

anxiety to Virata's city, and

plunder his cattle

and other wealth of diverse kinds.

Vaisampayana continued, "Accepting these words of Kama, the son of Surya, king Duryodhana speedily commanded his brother Dussasana, born immediately after him and always obedient to his wishes, saying,

'Consulting with the elders, array without delay, our forces. with all the Kauravas, go to the appointed place. Let also the mighty will, warrior, King Susarman, accompanied by a sufficient force with vehicles

We

and animals, set out with the Trigartas for the dominions of Matsyas. And let Susarman proceed first, carefully concealing his intention. Following in their wake, we will set out the day after in close array, for the prosperous dominions of king Matsya. Let the Trigartas, however, suddenly repair to the city of Virata, and coming upon the cowherds, seize that immense' wealth (of kine). We also marching in two divisions,
will seize

thousands of excellent kine furnished with auspicious marks."
of earth, those warriors,
terrible

Vaisampayana continued, "Then, O lord the Trigartas, accompanied by their infantry of

prowess,

mar-

ched towards the south-eastern direction, intending to wage hostilities with Virata from the desire of seizing his kine. And Susarman set out

on the seventh day of the dark fortnight for seizing the kine. And then O king, on the eighth day following of the dark fortnight, the Kauravas began to seize the kine by also, accompanied by all their troops,
thousands.

Thus ends the
Virata Parva.

thirtieth

section

in

the Go-harana Parva of the

SECTION XXXI
(Go-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana said, "O mighty king, entering into king Virata's service, and dwelling in disguise in his excellent city, the high-souled Pandavas of immeasurable prowess, completed the promised period of
non-discovery.

And

after

heroes, the mighty king

Kichaka had been slain, that slayer of hostile Virata began to rest his hopes on the sons of

was on the expiry of the thirteenth year of their exile, Susarman seixed Virata's cattle by thousands. And O when the cattle had been seized, the herdsman of Virata came with great speed to the city, and saw his sovereign, the king of Matsyas, seated on
Kunti.
it

And

Bharata, that

the throne in the midst of

wise

councillors,

and those

bulls

among

60

MAHABHAKATA

men. the sons of Pandu, and surrounded by brave warriors decked with ear-rings and bracelets. And appearing before that enhancer of his dominion king Virata seated in court the herdsman bowed down
unto him, and addressed him, saying, 'O foremost of kings, defeating and humiliating us in battle along with our friends the Trigartas are seizing thy cattle by hundreds and by thousands. Do thou, therefore,
speedily rescue them.

Oh,

see that they are not lost to
for battle

thee.'

Hearing

these words, the king arrayed
in cars

the Matsya force abounding

and elephants and horses and infantry and standards.
1
,

And

kings

their shining and princes speedily put on, each in its proper place and beautiful armour worthy of being worn by heroes. And Virata's beloved brother, Satanika, put on a coat of mail made of adamantine

adorned with burnished gold. And Madirakshya, next in birth to 9 Satanika, put on a strong coat of mail plated with gold and capable
steel,

every weapon. And the coat of mail that the king himself of the Matsyas put on was invulnerable and decked with a hundred
of resisting
suns, a

hundred

circles, a

hundred

spots,

and a hundred

eyes.

And

the

8 coat of mail that Suryadatta put on was bright as the sun, plated with

gold,

and broad

as a

hundred

lotuses of the

fragrant (Kahlara)

species.

put on was impenetrable and made of burnisned steel, and decked with a hundred eyes of gold. And it was thus that those god-like and mighty warriors by hundreds, furnished with weapons, and eager for battle, each donned his corselet, And then they yoked unto their excellent cars of white hue steeds equipped in mail. And then was hoisted Matsya's
glorious standard

And

the coat of mail that

Virata's eldest

son, the heroic Sanksha,

on

his

excellent car decked
its

with gold and resembling
other Kshatriya warriors

the sun or the
also

moon

in

effulgence.

And

on their respective cars gold-decked standards of various and devices. And king Matsya then addressed his brother Satashapes nika born immediately after him, saying, 'Kanka and Vallava and Tantripala and Damagranthi of great energy will, as it appears to me
raised
fight,

without doubt. Give thou unto them cars furnished with banners
let

and

them

case

their

persons in beautiful

coats

of

mail

that

and easy to wear. And let them also have weapons. Bearing such martial forms and possessed of arms resembling the trunk of mighty elephants, I can never persuade myself that they can not fight. Hearing these words of the king, Satanika, O monarch, imme-

should be both invulnerable

1 'Bhagasas' lit, each in its proper place. ding to their respective divisions." T.

It

may

also

mean, "accor-

2 Kalyana-patalam pattachchaditam' T.
8

is

explained by Nilakantha to

mean 'suvarna

One

of the generals of

Virata

T.

VIRATA PABVA
diately ordered cars for those sons

81
the royal

of Pritha,

.,

Yudhish-

thira, and Bhima, and Nakula, and Sahadeva, and commanded by the king, the charioteers, with cheerful hearts and keeping loyalty in view,

foes then

very soon got cars ready (for the Pandavas). And those repressors of donned those beautiful coats of mail, invulnerable and easy to

wear, that Virata had ordered for those Heroes of spotless fame. And mounted on cars yoked with good steeJs, those smiters of hostile ranks,
those foremost of men, the sons of Pritha, set out

with cheerful hearts.

Indeed, those mighty warriors skilled in fight, those bulls of the Kuru race and sons of Pandu, those four heroic brothers possessed of prowess

incapable of being baffled, mounting on cars decked with gold, together And infuriate elephants of terrible set out, following Virata's wake.
mien,
full sixty

juice trickling

down and
hills.

years of age, with shapely tusks and rent temples and looking (on that account) like cloud pouring
skilled in fight, followed

rain and
like

mounted by trained warriors

the king

unto moving

And

the

principal

warriors of Matsya
bull

who
ele-

cheerfully followed

the king

had eight

thousand cars, a thousand

And, among Bharatas, marched forth marking the footprints And on its march that foreof the cattle looked exceedingly beautiful. most of armies owned by Virata, crowded with soldiers armed with strong weapons, and abounding in elephants, horses and cars, looked
phants and sixty thousand horses.
the
that force of Virata,

O

O

king, as

it

really splendid."

Thus ends
Virata Parva.

the thirty-first section in the Go-harana

Parva

of the

SECTION XXXII
(Go-harana Parva continued.)

Vaisampayana

said,

"Marching out
meridian.

of

the city, those heroic

smiters, the Matsyas, arrayed in order of battle,

when the sun had passed

the

And

overtook the Trigartas both excited to fury and

both desirous of having the king, the mighty Trigartas and the Matsyas, And then the terrible and irrepressible in battle, sent up loud roars.
infuriate elephants ridden
sides

O

over by the skilful combatants of the both were urged on with spiked clubs and hooks. And the encounter, king, that took place when the sun was low in the horizon, between the

like

and cavalry and chariots and elephants of both parties, was unto that of old between the gods and the Asurat, terrible and fierce and sufficient for making one's hair stand on end and calculated
infantry

to increase the population of

Yama's kingdom.

And

as the

combatants

rushed against one another, smiting and slashing, thick clouds of dust

69

MAHABHARATA
rise, so

began to

that nothing could be discovered. And covered with the dust raised by the contending armies, birds began to drop down on
the earth.

And And

the sun himself disappeared

behind the thick cloud of
if

arrows shot, and the firmanent looked bright as
fireflies.

with

shifting

their

bows,

the staves of which

myriads of the were decked

with gold, from one hand to another, those heroes began to strike each other down, discharging their arrows right and left. And cars encounte%red cars, and foot-soldiers fought with foot-soldiers, and horsemen with horsemen, and elephants with mighty elephants. And they furiously

encountered one another with swords and axes, bearded darts and javelins, and iron clubs, And although, O king, those mighty-armed warriors
furiously assailed one another in that conflict, yet neither party succeed-

ed in prevailing over the other- And severed heads, some with beautiful noses, some with upper lips deeply gashed, some decked with earrings, and some divided with wounds about the well-trimmed hair, were
seen rolling on the ground covered with dust. And soon the field of battle was overspread with the limbs of Kshatriya warriors, cut off by means of arrows and lying like trunks of Sala trees. And scattered

over with heads decked
like the

and sandal-besmeared arms looking battle became exceedingly of And as cars encountered cars, and horsemen encountered beautiful. horsemen, and foot-soldiers fought with foot-soldiers, and elephants met with elephants, the frightful dust soon became drenched with And some amongst the combatants began to swoon torrents of blood. away, and the warriors began to fight reckless of consideration of humanity, friendship and relationship. And both their course and sight obstructed by the arrowy shower, vultures began to alight on the ground. But although those strong-armed combatants furiously fought
in ear-rings,

bodies of

snakes, the field

with one another, yet the heroes
their

antagonists.

enemy

of neither party succeeded in routing Satanika having slain a full hundred of the and Visalaksha full four hundred, both those mighty warriors

And

penetrated into the heart of the great Trigarta host. And having entered into the thick of the Trigarta host, those famous and mighty
heroes began to deprive
closer

by causing a which the combatants seized one another by the hair and tore one another with their nails, 1 And eyeing the point where the cars of the Trigartas had been mustered
antagonists of
conflict,

their
in

their senses

conflict

to

set

a

in

strong numbers, those heroes at last directed their attack towards it. And that foremost of car warrior, king Virata also, with Suryadatta
in

Some differences of reading are noticeable here, for Yasaswinau texts read Manaswinau, and for Vahusamravdhau-Vahusanramboat; and for Nakha-nakhi Ratha-rathi T.
1

some

VIBATA PABVA
in his

68

van and Madiraksha in his rear, having destroyed in that conflict 6ve hundred cars, eight hundred horses, and five warriors on great cars, displayed various skilful manoeuvres on his car on that field of battle. And at last the king came upon the ruler of the Trigartas mounted on a golden chariot. And those high-souled and powerful warriors, desirous of fighting, rushed roaring against each other like two bulls in a cow-pen. Then that bull among men, irrespressible in battle, Susarman, the king of the Trigartas, challenged Matsya to a single combat on car. Then
^

each other on their cars shower their arrows upon each other like clouds pouring and began to 1 And enraged with each other, those fierce warriors, torrents of rain.
those warriors excited to fury rushed against

both skilled in weapons, both wielding swords and darts and maces, then moved about (on the field of battle) assailing each other with whetted arrows- Then king Virata pierced Susarman with ten shafts and each
of his four horses also

with five shafts.
fatal

And Susarman

also,

irresisti-

weapons, pierced king of Matsya with fifty whetted shafts. And then, O mighty monarch, in consequence of the dust on the field of battle, the soldiers of both Susarman and
ble in battle

and conversant with

Matsya's king could not distinguish one another. Thus ends the thirty-second section in the Go-harana Parva of the
Virata Parva.

SECTION XXXIII
(Qo-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana said, "Then, veloped in dust and the gloom of
out

O

Bharata, when

the world was en-

night, the warriors of both sides, with-

3 And then, breaking the order of battle, desisted for a while. the darkness the moon arose illumining the night and gladdispelling

dening the hearts of the Kshatriya warriors. And when everything became visible, the battle once more began. And it raged on so furiously that the combatants could not distinguish one another. And then Trigarta's lord,
his cars,
his younger brother, and accompanied by all towards the king of Matsya. And descending from rushed

Susarman with

their cars, those bulls

among Kshatriyas, the (rbyal) brothers, mace in hand, rushed furiously towards the cars of the foe. And the hostile hosts fiercely assailed each other with maces and swords and scimitars,

The latter is Ghanarva. 1 Some texts read Ghanabiva for unquestionably better in form. T. 2 The word in the original is Muhurta equal to 48 minutes. Nilakantha points out very ingeniously that the night being the seventh of the dark fortnight, the moon would not rise till after 14 Dandas from the hour of sunset, a Danda being equal to 24 minutes. Muhurta, T. therefore, implies, not 48 minutes exactly, but some time.

A

64

MAHABHARATA
points of excellent

battle-axes and bearded darts with keen edges and

king energy oppressed and defeated the whole army of the Matsyas, impetuously rushed towards Virata himself endued with great energy. And
the two brothers having
charioteer,
as
also

temper.

And

Susarman, the lord of the Trigartas having by his

severally
soldiers

slain

Virata's

two steeds and
rear,

his

those

that

protected his

took him

Then afflcting him sorely, like a lustful man afflicting a defenceless damsel, Susarman placed Virata on And when tl>e powerhis own car, and speedily rushed out of the field.
captive alive,

when deprived

of his car.

ful

Virata,

deprived of his

car,

was taken

captive,

the Matsyas,
all

harrassed solely by the Trigartas, began

to flee in fear in

directions.

And

beholding them panic-striken, Kunti's son, Yudhishthira, addressed

that subduer of foes, the -mighty-armed

Bhima

saying.

"The king

of

by the Trigartas. Do thou, O mightyarmed one, rescue him, so that he may not fall under the power ot the enemy. As we have lived happily in Virata's city, having every desire
the M-itsyas hath been taken
of ours gratified,
it

b^hoveth

(by liberating the king).

thee, O Bhimasena, to discharge that debt Thereat Bhimasena replied, 'I will liberate

him,

O

king, at thy

command.

Mark

the feat

I

achieve (to-day) in

battling with rhe foe, relying solely

on the might of my arms. Do thou, O king, stay aside, along with pur brothers and witness my prowess today. Uprooting this mighty tree of huge trunk looking like a mace, I will rout the enemy."

Vaisampayana continued,
tree like a

mad

elephant, the horoic

unto

his

brother, saying,

"Beholding Bhima casting his eyes on that king Yudhishthira the just spake 'Do not, O Bhima, commit such a rash act.

Let the tree stand there. Thou mu<t not achieve such feats in a superhuman manner by means of that tree, for if thou dost, the people. O Bharata, will recognise thee and say, This is Bhima. Take thou, therefore,

some human weapon such

as a

bow (and

arrows), or

a

dart, or a

Bhima, some weapon that is human, liberate thou the king without giving anybody the means of knowing thee truly. The twins endued with great strength will defend thv wheels. Fighting together, O child, liberate the king of the
taking therefore.

sword, or a battle-axe.

And

O

Matsyas

1"

Vaisampayana continued, 'Thus addressed, the mighty Bhima. sena endued with great speed, quickly took up an excellent bow and impetuously shot from it a shower of arrows, thick as the down-pour of a rain-charged cloud. And Bhima then rushed furiously towards Susarman
of tetrible deeds, and assuring Virata

with the words

O

goad king.}*

I Some Vikshyainam. Nilakamba explains Sarra as a word spoken by Bhima for assuring the captive "Virata, sod Vikshya as "assuring" or consoling by a glance." Perhaps this is right, -T

VIRATA PABVA
said unto the lord of

65
Stay
!

the Trigartas,

Stay

\

Seeing

Bhima

like

unto Yaina himself in his rear, saying, Stay I Stay ! Do thou witness this mighty feat, this combat that is at hand ! the bull among warriors,

Susarman, seriously considered (the situation), and taking up his bow turned back, along with his brothers. Within the twinkling of an eye,

Bhima destroyed those cars that sought to oppose him. And soon again hundreds of thousands of cars and elephants and horses and horsemen

bowmen were overthrown by Bhima in the very And the hostile infantry also began to be slaughtered sight of Virata. by the illustrious Bhima, mace in hand. And beholding that terrible
and brave and
fierce

onslaught, Susarman, irrepressible in fight, thought within himself

'My

brother seems to have already succumbed in the midst of his mighty host. Is my army going to be annihilated ? And drawing his bow-string to his

Susarman then turned back and began to shoot keen-edged shafts And seeing the Pandavas return to the charge on their car, warriors of migty host, urging on their steeds, shot exthe Matsya
ear
incessantly.

cellent

weapons

for grinding theTrigarta soldiers.

And

Virata's son also,

exceedingly exasperated, began to perform prodigious feats of valour. And Kunti's son Yudhisthira slew a thousand (of the foe), and Bbima

showed the abode of Yama unto seven thousand, And Nakula sent seven hundred (to their last account) by means of his shafts. And powerful Sahadeva also, commanded by Yudhisthira, slew three
having slain such numbers, that fierce and mighty warrior, Yudhishthira, with weapons upraised, rushed against Susarman. And rushing impetuously at Susarman, that foremost of car-warriorsiking Yudhishthira assailed him with vollies of shafts.

hundred brave warriors.

And

,

And Susarman
Kunti's son
his steeds.

also, in

great

rage,

quickly pierced Yudhishthira with

nine arrows, and each of his four steeds with four arrows. Then,

O

king,

Bhima

quick movements, approaching Susarman crushed And having slain also those soldiers that protected his rear,
of

seeing the king of Trigarta's car without a

he dragged from the car his antagonist's charioteer to the ground. And driver, the defender of his

car-wheels, the famous and brave

And

thereat,

Madirakha speedily came to his aid. leaping down from Susarman's car, and securing the latter's

mace the powerful Virata ran in pursuit of him. And though old, he moved on the field, mace in hand, even like a lusty youth. And beholdind Susarman flee Bhima addressed him, Saying, 'Desisti O prince
I

This flight of thine

is

not proper

!

With

this

prowess

of thine,
also,

how

couldst thou wish to carry off the

cattle by force ?
?'

How

forsaking

thy follower, dost thou droop so amidst foes

Thus addressed by

Pritha's son, the mighty Susarman, that lord of countless cars saying

unto Bhima,

'Stay

!

Stay

!

suddenly turned round and rushed at him.

Then Bhima,
9

the son of Pandu, leaping

down from

his car,

as he

alone

66
could do, 1

MAHABHABATA
rushed forward with
great coolness, desirous of taking

Susarman's

And desirous of seizing Trigarta's king advancing life. towards him, the mighty Bnimasena rushed impetuously towards him, even like a lion rushing at a small deer. And advancing impetuously, the mighty-armed Bhima seized Susarman by the hair, and lifting him
up
crying in agony, the mighty-armed Bhima kicked him at the head, and placing his knee on his breast dealt him severe blows. And sorely afflicted with
in wrath,

dashed him down on the ground.

And

as he lay

that kicking, the king of Trigaftas became senseless.
of his

And when

the

car, had been seized thus, the king of the Trigartas, deprived whole Trigarta army striken with panic, broke and fled in all directions,

and the mighty sons of Pandu, endued with modesty and observant of vows and relying on the might of their own arms, after having
vanquished Susarman, and rescued the kine as well as other kinds of wealth and having thus dispelled Virata's anxiety, stood together before This wretch given to that monarch. And Bhimasena then said,

can

wicked deeds doth not deserve I do ? The king is so lenient

to
!

And

escape me with life. But what then taking Susarman by the

neck as he was lying on the ground insensible and covered with dust, and binding him fast, Pritha's son Vrikodara placed him on his car, and went to where Yudhishthira was staying in the midst of the field. And Bhima then showed Susarman unto the monarch. And beholding Susar-

man
men

in

that

plight, that tiger

among men king Yudhishthira
saying,

smilingly

addressed Bhima
be set free.
'If,

that ornament of battle,

'Let this worst of

Thus addressed, Bhima spoke unto the mighty Susar-

man, saying
of mine.
tlave.
is

O wretch,
say in

thou wishest

to

live, listen

to those,
of

words
/

Thou must
this

every court and assembly

men,

am

a

condition only I will grant thee thy life. Verily, this the law about the vanquished.' Thereupon his elder brother affectionthis

On

ately addressed

liberate

Bhima, saying, 'If thou regardest us as an authority, wicked wight. He hath already become king Virata's

slave. And turning then to 'Susarman, he said, Thou art freed. Go thou a free man, and never act again in this way." Thus ends the thirty-third section in the Go-harana Parva of the Virata Parva.

1

The adjective Bhima sankasas

this sense,

as explained by Nilakantha quoting the celebrated simile of Valmiki.

is

in

SECTION XXXIV
(Qo-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana said, "Thus addressed by Yudhishthira Susarman was overwhelmed with shame and hung down his head. And liberated (from slavery), he went to king Virata, and having saluted
the monarch, took his departure. And the Pandavas also relying on the might of their own arms, and endued with modesty and observant of vows, having slain their enemies and liberated Susarman,
field of battle. And Virata gratified mighty warriors, the sons of Kunti, possessed of super-human prowess with wealth and honours, And Virata said, 'All these gems of

passed that night happily on the

those

mine are now
live here

as

much mine

as yours.

Do

ye according to your pleasure

happily. ye smiter of foes in battle, I will bestow on you damsels decked with ornaments, wealth in plenty, and other things that ye may like. Delivered from perils to-day by your prowess, I am

And

now crowned with
Matsyas."

victory.

Do

ye

all

become

the

lords

of

the

Vaisampayana continued "And when the king of the Matsyas had addressed them thus, those descendants of the Kurus with Yudhishthira at their head, joining their hands, severally
ing,

replied unto

him

say-

thou sayest, O monarch. We, however have been much gratified that thou hast to-day been freed from thy foes." Thus answered, that foremost of kings, Virata the lord of

'We

are well-pleased with all.that

the Matsyas, again addressed Yudhishthira,

saying,

And install thee in sovereignty of the Matsyas. on thee things that are rare on earth and are objects of desire, for thou deservest everything at our hands. O foremost of Brahmanas of the Vaiyaghra order I will bestow on thee gems and kine and gold and rubies
and
pearls.
I

'Come, we will we will also bestow

bow unto

thee.

It

is

owing to thee that

I

once more

behold to-day my sons and kingdom. Afflicted and threatened as I had been with disaster and danger, it is through thy prowess that I have not

succumbed
saying,

Then Yudhishthira again addressed the Matsyas, to the foe. 'Well-pleased are we with the delightful words that thou hast spoken. Mayst thou be ever happy, always practising humanity towards Let messengers now, at thy command, speedily repair all creatures. into the city, in order to communicate the glad tidings to our friends, and proclaim thy victory. Hearing these words of him, king Matsya ordered the messengers, saying 'Do ye repair to the city and proclaim my victory in battle. And let damsels and courtezens, decked in ornaments, come out of the city with every kind of musical instruments. Hearing this command uttered by the king of Matsyas, the men, laying the mandate on their head, all departed with cheerful hearts. And having repaired to the city that very night, thev proclaimed at the hour of sunrise the victory of the king about the city gates.

Thus ends the thirty-fourth section in the Go-harana Parva of the Virata Parva,

SECTION XXXV
(Go.harana Parva continued)
the king of the Matsyas, anxious of out in pursuit of theTrigartas.Duryodhana recovering the kine, had set with his counsellors invaded the dominions of Virata. And Bhishma,

Vaisampayana

said,

"When

and Drona, and Kama, and Kripa acquainted with the best of weapons, Aswathaman, and Suvala's son, and Dussasana, O lord of men, and Vivingsati and Vikarna and Chitrasena endued with great energy, and

Durmukha and Dussaha,

these and

many

other great warriors, coming

cowherds of king Virata upon the Matsya dominion speedily drove and forcibly took away the kine. And theKauravas, surrounding all sides with a multitude of cars, seized sixty thousands of kine. And loud was the yell of woe set up by the cowherds smitten by those warriors in that
off the
terrible conflict.

And

speedily
affliction.

mounted on

the chief of the cowherds, greatly affrighted a chariot and set out for the city, bewailing in

And entering the city of the king, he proceeded to the palace, and speedily alighiting from the chariot, got in for relating (what had proud son of Matsya, named happened). And beholding the Bhuminjaya, he told him everything about the seizure of the royal kine.

And

he

said,

the Kauravas are taking

away

sixty

thousand kine.

Rise,

therefore,
cattle.
set
left

O

enhancer of the kingdom's glory, for bringing back thy prince, if thou art desirous of achieving (the kingdom's) good,

O

out thyself without loss of time.
thee in the empty city.

The king (thy
unto me,
is

Indeed the king of the Matsyas father) boasteth of thee
a
is a hero and is the supporter warrior skilled in arrows and

in court, saying.

'My

son, equal

of (the glory of)

my

race.

My
!

son

always possessed of great courage'. Oh, let the words O chief of herd-owners, bring thou back of that lord of men be true the kine after vanquishing the Kurus, and consume thou their troops
is

weapons and

with the terrific energy of thy arrows. Do thou like a leader of elephants rushing at a herd, pierce the ranks of the foe with straight arrows of
golden wings, discharged from
Vina.
Its
;

chord
notes.

thy bow. Thy bow is even like a two ends represent the ivory pillows its string, the main its staff, the finger-board; and the arrows shot from it musical Do thou strike in the midst of the foe that Vina of musical
;

sound. 1

Let thy steeds,

O

lord, of silvery hue,

be yoked unto thy car,

the comparison would require in the reader a of the mechanism of the Indian Vina. Briefly, the Vina consists of a bomboo of about 3 cubits attached to two gourds towards

1

To understand

knowledge
its

of the instrument. The wires rest towards their ends on two pieces ivory called Upadhanas in Sanskrit or Swaris in Urdu. T,

ends. Along the bamboo which serves the purpose of a finger-board, the main chord and several thinner wires. All these pass over a number of frets, two and a half heptachords, representing the total compass
is

of

VIBATA PABVA
and
let

69

thy standard be hoisted, bearing the

emblem

of the

golden lion.

Let thy keen-edged arrows endued
quishing

with wings of gold, shot by thy strong

arms, obstruct the path of those kings and eclipse the very sun. Vanall the Kurus in battle like unto the wielder of the thunderbolt defeating the Aauraa, return thou again to the city having achieved

great renown.

Son of Matsya's king, thou

art

the sole

refuge of this

kingdom, as that foremost of virtous warriors, Arjuna is of the sons of Pandu. Even like Arjuna of his brothers, thou art without doubt,
the refuge of
those dwelling

within these dominions.
in thee."

Indeed, we, the

subjects of this realm,

have our protector

Vaisampayana continued,

Thus addressed by

the cowherd in the

presence of the females, in words breathing courage, the prince induling in self commendation within the female apartments, spoke these words." Thus ends the thirty-fifth section in the Go-harana Parva of the

Virata Parva.

SECTION XXXVI
(Qo-harana Parva continued)

bow, I would set out this very day in the track of the kine if only some one skilled in the management of horses becomes my charioteer. I do not, however,
"Uttara said
'Firm as
I

am

in the use of the

know

the

man who may

be

my
me

charioteer.

Look

ye,

therefore,

without delay for

a charioteer for

that

am

My own

charioteer was slain in

the great battle that

starting. prepared was fought from

for

day to day for a whole month or at least for eight and twenty nights. As soon as I get another person conversant with the management of

immediately set out, hoisting high my own standard. Penetrating into the midst of the hostile army abounding with elephants and horses aud chariots, I will bring back the kine, having vanquished
the steeds,
I

will

the Kurus

who

are feeble in strength and

weak

in

weapons.

Like a
bring

second wielder of the thunderbolt terrifying the Danavas,
back the kine
this

I will

very moment, affrighting in battle Duryodhana and Bhishma and Kama and Kripa and Drona with his son, and other mighty

bowmen

assembled for
the kine.

fight,

taking away

What

Finding none (to oppose), the Kurus are can I do when I am not there ? The

assembled Kurus shall witness

my

prowess today.
is

And

they shall say
?'

unto one another,
the prince, Arjuna

'Is it

Arjuna himself who
acquainted with
in

opposing us

Vaisampayana continued
fully

"Having heard
private

these words spoken by

the import of everything,

after a little while cheerfully spake

unto his dear wife of

faultless beauty, Krishna, the princess of

Panchala, Drupada's daughter of slender make, sprung from the (sacrificial) fire and endued with

TO

MAHABHARATA
honesty and
ever attentive
thou,
to the

the virtues of truthfulnes and
of her husbands.

good
at

And

the hero said,

"Do

O beautious one,

my

"This Vrihannala was formerly the accomplished resolute charioteer of Pandu's son (Arjuna). Tried in many a great battle, even he will be thy charioteer."
request say unto Uttara without delay,

Vaisampayana continued

prince over and over again in the midst of the not quietly bear those allusions to Vibhatsu.

Hearing these words uttered by the women, Panchali could

And

out from

among

the

women,

the poor princess of

bashfully stepping Panchala gently spake

'The handsome youth, looking like a mighty the name of Vrihannala, was formerly the A disciple of that illustrious warrior, and incharioteer of Arjuna. ferior to none in use of the bow, he was known to me while I was living with the Pandavas. It vas by him that the reins were held of Arjuna's
elephant and

unto him these words

known by

excellent steeds

when Agni consumed

the forest of Khandava.

with him as charioteer that Partha conquered all creatures at vaprastha. In fact, there is no charioteer equal unto him,'
"Uttara
said,

It was Khanda-

Thou

knowest,

O

Sairindhri,

this

knowest what this one of the neuter sex
however,
of

may

or

may

youth. Thou not be, I connot,

O blessed one,

myself request Vrihannala to told the reins

my

horses."

Draupadi said, 'Vrihannala, O hero, will without doubt, obey the words of thy younger sister 1 that damsel of graceful hips. If he consents to be thy
charioteer, thou wilt without doubt, return, having vanquished the Kurus and rescued thy kine.' "Thus addressed by the Sairindhri, Uttara spake unto his sister, 'Go thyself, O thou of faultless beauty, and bring Vrihannala hither ?' And

despatched by her brother, she hastily repaired to the dancing-hall where that strong-armed son of Pandu was staying in disguise."

Thus ends
Virata Parva.

the

thirty-sixth section in

the Go-harana Parva of the

SECTION XXXVII
(Go-harana Parva continued)

"Thus despached by her elder brother, the far-famed daughter of king Matsya, adorned with a golden necklace, ever obedient to her brother and possessed of a waist slender as that of the

Vaisampayana

said,

1 Some read kaniasi mean the same thing. T.

for vaviasi,

Both words are the same, and

YIBATA PABVA
,

71

8 1 wasp endued with the splendour of Lakshmi herself, decked with the plumes of the peacock of slender make and graceful limbs, her hips encircled by a zone of pearls, her eye-lashes slightly curved, and her form endued with every grace, hastily repaired to the dancing-hall like

a flash of lightning rushing
faultless

towards a mass

of

dark clouds. 3

And

the

and auspicious daughter of Virata, of fine teeth and slender uato each other and each like the trunk of an her person embellished with an excellent garland, sought the elephant, son of Pritha like a she-elephant seeking her mate. And like unto a
waist, of thighs close

precious gem or the very embodiment of prosperity of Indra, of exceeding beauty and largeyes, that charming and adored and celebrated damsel saluted Arjuna. And saluted by her, Partha asked that

maiden
hurry,

of close thighs

and golden complexion saying,
in a necklace of gold ?
?

'What

brings thee

hither, a

damsel decked
gazelle-eyed
?

O

maiden

Why

is

thy
!'

Why art thou in such a face, O beauteous lady, so

cheerless

Tell

me

all this

without delay

"Beholding, O king, his friend, the princess of large-eyes (in that plight), her friend (Arjuna) cheerfully enquired of her (in these words) the cause of her arrival there and then.

Vaisampayana continued,

having approached that bull among men, the princess, standing in the midst of her female attendants, and displaying proper modesty/ addressed him, saying, The kine of this realm, O Vrihannala.are being driven away by the Kurus, and it is to conquer them that my brother
will set

And

out

bow

in

hand.
is

Not long ago

his

own

charioteer was slain

in battle,

and there

brother's charioteer.
Sairindhri,
of steeds.

none equal unto the one slain that can act as my And unto him striving to obtain a charioteer,

Vrihannala, hath spoken about thy skill in the management Thou wert formerly the favourite charioteer of Arjuna, and
in
in

O

1 Vedi-Vilagna madhya Vedi and not, as explained by Mallinatha

this connection his commentary

means
of the

a

wasp

Sambhava, a sacrificial platform. I would remark in passing of the most poetic and striking adjectives in both the Eaghu and the Kumara Sambhava of Kalidasa are borrowed unblushingly from the

Kumar that many

Ramayana and the Mahabharata, T, 2 Padma patrabha-nibha may also mean "of the splendour of the gem called Marakata." Nilakantha, however, shows that this would
militate against the adjective

Kankojwalatwacham below.

T.

3 The princess being of the complexion of burnished gold and Arjuna dark as a mass of clouds, the comparison is exceedingly appropriate. The Vaishnava poets of Bengal never tire of this simile in speaking of Radha and Krishna in the groves ot Vrindavana.

4 The words in the original is pranayam, lit, love. Nilakantha, however, explains it as meaning modesty, humility, I think Nilakantht The relations between Arjuna and the princess were like those is right. between father and daughter. T.

78
it

MAHABHAEATA
of

was with thee that that bull among the sons subjugated the whole earth. Do thou, therefore,

Pandu had alone
Vrihannala, act as

O

the charioteer of

my

brother.

(By

this

time) our kine have surely

been driven away by the Kurus to a great distance. Bequested by me if thou dost not act up to my words, I who am asking this service of thee out of affection, will give up ray life !" Thus addressed by his
friend of graceful

endued with imthat oppressor of foes, hips, measurable prowess, went into the prince's presence. And like unto a she-elephant running after her young one, the princess possessed of large eyes followed that hero advancing with hasty steps like unto an elephant
with rent temples.
himself said

With

beholding him from a distance, the prince thee as his charioteer, Dhananjaya the son of Kunti

And

had gratified Agni at the Khandava forest and subjugated the whole The Sairindhri hath spoken of thee to me, She knoweth the world Padavas. Do thou, therefore, O Vrihannala, hold, as thou didst, the
1

reins of

cuing

my steeds, desirous as I am of fighting with the Kurus and resmy bovine wealth. Thou wert formerly the beloved charioteer
it

of Arjuna and

was with thee that that bull among the sons of Pandu

had alone subjugated the whole earth !' Thus addressed, Vrihannala 'What ability have I to act as a charioreplied unto the prince, saying,
teer in the field of battle ?

or such other things,
skill for

I

If it is song or dance of musical instruments can entertain thee therewith, but where is my

becoming a charioteer ?' "Uttara said, 'O Vrihannala, be thou a singer or a dancer, hold thou (for the present), witnout loss of time, the reins of my excellent

mounting upon my car Vaisampayana continued, Although that oppressor of foes, the son of Pandu, was acquainted with everything, yet in the presence of Uttara,
steeds,
!'

he began to make

sake of fun. And when he sought to put the coat <3f mail on his body by raising it upwards, the large-eyed maidens, beholding it, burst out into a loud laughter. And

many mistakes

for the

seeing

him quite ignorant of putting on armour, Uttara himself equipped Vrihannala with a costly coat of mail. And casing his own person
an excellent armour of solar effulgence,

in

and hoisting
his reins,

his

standard
his

bearing the figure of a lion, the prince caused Vrihannala to
charioteer.

become
set

And

with Vrihannala to hold
costly

the

hero
of

out,

taking with him
arrows.

many

bows and a large number
said

beautiful

And

his friend,

Uttara and her maidens then

unto Vrihan-

'Do thou, Vrihannala, bring for our dolls (when thou comest nala, back) various kinds of good and fine cloths after vanquishing the Kurus
assembled for battle of

O

whom

Bhishma and Drona

are foremost
as the
If,

!'

Thus addressed, Partha the

son of Pandu, in a voice

deep

roar of

the clouds, smilingly said unto that bevy of fair maidens,

this

Uttara

VIBATA PABVA
can vanquish those mighty warriors
excellent and beautiful cloths.'
in

73
I

battle,

will

certainly bring

Vaisampayana continued, "Having said these words, the heroic Arjuna urged the steeds towards the Kuru army over which floated innumerable flags. Just, however, as they were starting elderly dames and maidens, and Brahmanas of rigid vows, beholding Uttara seated on his excellent car with Vrihannala as charioteer and under that great banner hoisted on high, walked round the car to bless the hero. And the

women said, 'Let the victory that Arjuna treading like a bull had achieved of old on the occasion of burning the forest of Khandava, be
thine, Vrihannala, when thou encounterest the Kurus today with prince Uttara.' Thus ends the thirty-seventh section in the Go-harana Parva of

O

the Virata Parva.

SECTION XXXVIII
(Go-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana
dauntless son of

said

"Having

issued
his

forth

from

the

city,

the

Virata addressed

charioteer,

saying,

"Proceed

Defeating the assembled Kurus who have come from desire of victory, and quickly rescuing my kine from them, hither At these words of the prince, the son of I will return to the capital.

whither the Kurus are.

Pandu urged those excellent steeds. And endued with the speed of the wind and decked with necklaces of gold, those steeds, urged by that lion among men, seemed to fly through the air. And they had not proceeded
Dhanahjaya and the son of Matsya, sightKurus. And proceeding towards the came upon the Kurus and beheld their army arrayed in cemetery, they
far
ers
f

when those smi

foes,

ed the army of the powerful

order of battle. 1
vast
sky.

And
forest

that
of

large

army

of

theirs

looked

like

the

sea

or

a

innumerable

trees

moving

through

the

O best among the Kurus, the dust raised by which reached the sky and obstructed the sight of all that moving army And beholding that mighty host abounding in elephants, creatures. horses and chariots, and protected by Kama and Duryodhana and Kripa and Santanu's son, and that intelligent and great bowman Drona, with his son (Aswathaman), the son of Virata, agitated with fear and the
And
then was seen,
not correctly printed in any of the texts that I have read tat-samim. This I think, is correct, but then asasada in the singular when the other verbs are all dual seems The poet must have used some other verb in the dual to be correct. T. for asasada.
1 This sloka
is

seen.

The Burdwan Pundits

74
bristles
'I

MAHABHAEATA

on his body standing on their ends, thus spake unto Partha, dare not fight with the Kurus. See, the bristles on my body have stood on their ends. I am incapable of battling with this countless host

of the Kurus, abounding in the heroic warriors, that are extremely fierce

and
ble

difficult

of

being vanquished

even by the

celestials.

I

do not
terri-

venture
soldiers

to penetrate into the

army

of the Bharatas consisting of

bowmen and abounding

in horses

and elephants and cars and foot-

and banners. My mind is too much perturbed by the very sight of the foe on the field of battle on which stand Drona and Bhishma, and Kripa, and Kama, and Vivingsati.and Aswathaman andVikarna, and Saumadatti, and Vahlika, and the heroic king Duryodhana also that
foremost of car warriors, and
battle.

many

other splendid

bowmen,

all skilled in

My

hairs have stood on

their ends,

at the
battle.

very sight of these smiters,

and I am fainting with fear the Kurus arrayed in order of

Vaisampayana continued, And the low-minded and foolish Uttara out of folly alone, began to bewail (his fate) in the presence of the highsprited (Arjuna) disguised (as his charioteer) in these words, 'My
father hath gone out to meet the Trigartas taking with him his whole army, leaving me in the empty city. There are no troops to assist me. Alme and a mere boy who has not undergone much exercise in arms, I am unable to encounter these innumerable warriors all skilled in weapons. Do thou, therefore, O Vrihannala cease to advance !"

"Vrihannala said, 'Why dost thou look so pale through fear and enhance the joy of thy foes ? As yet thou hast done nothing on the It was thou that hadst ordered me, field of battle with the enemy. Take me towards the Kauravaa. I will therefore, take thee, saying,
thither where those innumerable flags are.
I will

certainly

take thee,
to

O

mighty-armed one, into the midst

of

the hostile Kurus, prepared
for meat.
I

fight as they are for the kine like
if I

hawks

would do

this,

even

regarded them to have come hither for battling for a much higher stake such as the sovereignty of the earth. Having, at the time of sett-

why wouldst thou

men and women so highly of thy manliness, from the fight ? If thou shouldst return home without recapturing the kine, brave men and even women, when they meet together! will laugh at thee (in derision). As regards myself, I cannot return to the city without having rescued the kine, applauded as I have been so highly by the Sairindhri in respect of my skill in driving
ing out, talked before

both

desist

by the Sairindhri and for those words of have come). Why should I not, therefore, give battle to the Kurus ? (As regards thyself), be thou still.' "Uttara said, 'Let the Kurus rob the Matsyas off all their wealth. Let men and women, O Vrihannala, laugh at me. Let my kine
cars.
It is for those praises
I

thine also (that

VIRATA PABVA
perish, let the city be a desert.
Still

75

Let

me

stand exposed before

my

father.

there

is

no need

of battle."

Vaisampayana continued, "Saying this, that much affrighted prince decked in ear-ring jumped down from his car, and throwing down his bow and arrows began to flee, sacrificing honour and pride.
Vrihannala, however, exclaimed,
this flight of a Kshatriya
is

'This

is

from the
that

field of battle.

not the practice of the brave, Even death in battle

better than flight from fear'

Having

said this,

Dhananjaya, the son
after

of Kunti,

coming down from

excellent car ran

that

prince

thus running away, his
in the air.

own

long braid and pure red garments fluttering

was Arjuna who was thus running with his braid fluttering in the air, burst out into laughter at the sight. And beholding him thus running, the Kurus began to
soldiers,

And some

not knowing that

it

argue,

'Who

is

this person,

thus disguised like

fire

concealed

in ashes

?

He

is

partly a

man and

partly a

woman.

Although

bearing a

neuter

form, he yet resembleth Arjuna. His are the same head and neck, and his the same arms like unto a couple of maces. And this one's gait also
is
is

like

unto

his.

He

can be none

else
is

than Dhananjaya.

As Indra
else in this

among

the celestials, so

Dhananjaya

among men.

Who

world than Dhananjaya, would alone come against us ? Virata left a single son of his in the empty city. He hath come out from childishness

and not from true heroism. It it Uttara who must have come out of the city, having without doubt, made as a charioteer Arjuna, the son of It seems that he is now flying away in Pritha, now living in disguise.
panic at sight of our army. after him to bring him back.
the Kauravas,
could not

And without doubt Dhananjaya runneth

Vaisampayana continued,

O

"Beholding the disguised son of Pandu, Bharata, began to indugle in these surmises, but they

come

to

any definite conclusion.

Meanwhile, Dhananjaya,

hastily pursuing the retreating Uttara, seized him by the hair within a hundred steps. And seized by Arjuna, the son of Virata began to lament

hannala,

most woefully like one in great affliction, and said, 'Listen, O good VriO thou of handsome waist. Turn thou quickly the course of I will give thee a the car. He that liveth meeteth with prosperity.

hundred coins of pure gold and eight lapis lazuli of great brightness set with gold, and one chariot furnished with a golden flagstaff and drawn by excellent steeds, and also ten elephants of infuriate prowess. Do thou

O

Vrihannala, set

me

free."

Vaisampayana continued,
laughingly

dragged Uttara who was

"Thus addressed, that tiger among men almost deprived of his senses and

uttering these words of lamenation towards the car. And the son of Pritha then addressed the affrighted prince who had nearly lost his senses, saying. 'If, O chastiser of foes, thou dost not venture to fight

who was

76

MAHABHABATA

the foe.

with enemy, come thou and hold the reins of the steeds as I fight with Protected by the might of my arms, penetrate thou yon formidable and invincible array of cars guarded by heroic and mighty
warriors. Fear not.

mosc of royal

O chastiser of foes, thou art a Kshalriya and Wny dost thou, O tiger among men, princes.
the foe
?
I

the fore-

succumb

in the miJst of

shall surely fi^ht

with the Kurus and recover

the kme, penetrating into this formidable and inaccessible array of cars. Be thou my charioteer, O best of men, I will fight with the Kurus. Thus speaking unto Uttara, the son of Virata, Vibhatsu, heretofore unconquered in battle, for a while comforted him. And then the son of Pritha, that foremost ot smiters, raised on the car that fainting and reluctant

prince striken with fear !" Thus ends the thirty-eighth

section in the

Go-harana Parva

of

the Virata Parva.

SECTION XXXIX
(Go.harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana
tree,

said,

"Beholding that bull among men seated on

the car in the habit of a person of the third sex, driving toward the

Sami

having taken (the flying) Uttara up. all the great car-warriors of the Kurus with Bhishma and Drona at their head, became affrighted at
heart, suspecting the
dispirited

comer

to be

Dhananjaya.

And

seeing

them

so

and marking

also the

many wonderful

portents, that foremost

of all wielders of arms, the preceptor

Drona, son of Bharadwaja, said

'Violent and hot are the winds that blow, showering gravels in profusion. The sky also is overcast with a gloom of ashy hue. The clouds present

the strange sight of being dry and waterless. Our weapons also of various kinds are coming out of their cases. The jackals are yelling hideously 1 affrighted at the conflagrations on all sides. The horses too are shedding
tears,

and our banners are trembling though moved by none.
Protect ye your

Such

being the inauspicious indications seen, a great

ye with vigilance. in order of battle.

own

selves

danger is at hand. Stay and array the troops

Stand ye, expecting a terrible slaughter, and guard ye well the kine. This mighty bowman, this foremost of all wielders of weapons, this hero that hath come in the habit of a person of the third
sex,
is

the son of Pritha. There

is

shma, the preceptor continued,
a

no doubt of this.' Then addressing Bhi'O offspring of the Ganges, apparelled as

woman, this is Kiriti called after a tree, the son of the enemy of the mountains, and having on his banner the sign of devastator of the gardens of Lanka's lord. Vanquishing us he will surely take away

U) Some

texts read Diptasya for

Diptayam

T,

V1BATA PABVA
the kine to-day
1
I

ft

This chastiser of foes

is

the valiant son of Pritha sur-

named SavyashacMn. He doth not desist from conflict even with the gods and demons combind. Put to great hardship in the forest he cometh in wrath. Taught by even Indra himself, he is like unto Indra in battle.
Therefore, ye Kauravas, I do not see any hero who can withstand him. It is said that the lord Mahadeva himself, disguised in the attire
of a hunter,
tains of

was

gratified

Himavat.'

by this son of Pritha Hearing these words, Kama

in battle

on the moun-

said,

'You always cen-

sure us by speaking of the virtues of Falguna.

not equal to

even
said,

a full sixteenth part of myself or
'If

Duryodhana
already been

fulfilled,

Arjuna, however, is Duryodhana!' And this be Partha, O Radheya, then my purpose hath for then, O king, if traced out, the Pandavas shall
Or,
if

have

to

wander

for twelve years again.
I

person in a

eunuch's garb,

will soon prostrate

one be any other him on the earth with
this

keen-edged arrows."
of foes,
all

Vaisampayana continued, "The son of jDhritarashtra, O chastiser having said this, Bhishma and Drona and Kripa and Drona's son
his

applauded

manliness

I"

Thus ends the thirty-nineth
Virata Parva.

section in the

Go-harana Parva of the

SECTION XL
(Qo-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana
battle,
ly take

said

"Having reached that Sami

tree,

and having

ascertained Virata's son to be exceedingly delicate and inexperienced in

Partha addressed him, saying,

down (from

this tree)

'Enjoined by me, O Uttara quicksome bows that are there. For these bows
strength,

of thine are unable to bear

my

my heavy

weight when

I

shall
I

grind

down

horses and elephants, and the stretch of

my arms when

seek to vanquish the foe.

Therefore,

tree of thick foliage, for in this

Bhuminjaya, climb thou up this tree are tied the bows and arrows and
viz.

O

banners and excellent coats of mail of the heroic sons of Pandu,

This is a typical illus(2) This sloka does not occur in every text. tration of the round about way, frequently adopted by Sanskrit writers, of expressing a simple truth. The excuse in the present instance consists in Drona's unwillingness to identify the solitary hero with Arjuna, in the midst of all his hearers. Nadiji is an exclamation referring to Bhishma, the son of the river Ganga. Lankesa-vanari-ketu is simply "ape-bannered," or as rendered in the text, having the devastator of the gardens of Lanka's lord for the sign of his banner.*' Nagahvaya is "named after tree" for Arjuna is the name of an Indian tree. Nagri-sunu is "Indra's son," Indra being the foe of mountain, for formerly it was he who cut off the wings of all mountains and compelled them to be stationary. He failed only in the case of Mainaka, the son of Himavat, T,

78

MAHABHABATA
There also
is
is

Yudhishthira and Bhima and Vibhatsu and the twins.

that

equal to bow of great energy, the Qandiva of Arjuna, which singly the many thousands of other bows and which is capable of extending

Large like a palmyra tree, able to bear the of obstructing the foe, greatest stress, the largest of all weapons, capable without a knot, and adorned with handsome, and smooth, and broad, the heaviest weight. gold, it is stiff and beautiful in make and beareth And the other bows also that are there, of Yudhishthira and Bhima and
limits of
a

kingdom.

Vibhatsu and the twins, are equally mighty and tough." Thus ends the fortieth section in the Go-harana Parva of the
Virata Parva.

SECTION XLI
(Go.harana Parva continued)

"Uttara
tree.

said,
I,

How can
?

hath been hard by us that a corpse is tied in therefore, being a prince by birth, touch it with
'It

this

my

and the son of a great king, and observant of mantras and vows, it is not becoming of me to always touch it. Why shouldst thou, O Vrihannala, make me a polluted and unclean bearer of corpses, by compelling me to come in contact with a
hands

Born

in the Kshatriya order,

corpse

?'

Vrihannala

said.

"Thou

shalt,

O king

of king,

remain clean and

not fear, there are only bows in this tree and not unpolluted. cropscs. Heir to the king of the Matsyas, and born in a noble family,

Do

why

should

I,

O

prince,

make

thee do such a reproachable deed

"
?'

"Thus addressed by Partha, Virata's son, from the car, and climbed up that Sami And staying on the car, Dhananjaya, that slayer of tree reluctantly. enemies, said unto him, 'Speedily bring thou down those bows from the top of the tree. And cutting off their wrappings first and then the ropes with which they were tied, the prince beheld the Qandiva there along with four other bows. And as they were united, the splendour of those bows radiant as the sun, began to shine with great effulgence
Vaisampayana
in ear-rings,

said,

decked

alighted

like

unto that of the planets about the time of their rising. And beholding the forms of those bows, so like unto sighing snakes, he became aflicted with fear and in a moment the bristles of his body stood on their
ends.

And

touching those large bows of great splendour, Virata's son,
'

O king,

thus spake unto Arjuna
forty-first

!'

Thus ends the
Virata Parva.

section in the Go-harana

Parva

of the

SECTION XLII
(Go.harana Parva continued)

"Uttara said, "To what warrior of fame doth this excellent bow belong, on which are a hundred golden bosses and which hath such

on the

Whose is this excellent bow of good sides and easy hold, which shine golden elephants of such brightness ? Whose l is this excellent bow, adorned with three scores of Indragopakas of pure gold, placed on the back of the staff at proper intervals ? Whose is this
radiant ends
?

staff of

excellent bow,

furnished with three
?

golden suns of great effulgence,

blazing forth with such brilliancy
is

Whose

is

this beautiful

bow which

variegated with gold and gems, and on which are golden insects set with beautiful stones ? Whose are these arrows furnished with wing

around, numbering a thousand, having golden heads, and cased in golden quivers ? Who owneth these large shafts, so thick, furnished with vulturine wings whetted on stone,
of tigers,

yellowish
?

in

hue,
is

sharp-pointed, wellthis

tempered, and entirely made of iron
bearing five images

Whose
?

sable quiver,*

which holdeth shafts intermined with

boar-eared arrows altogether numbering ten

Whose

are

these

seven

hundred arrows, long and thick, capable of drinking (the enemy's) blood, and looking like the crescent-shaped moon? 3 Whose are these goldcrested arrows whetted on stones, the lower halves of which are wellfurnished with wings of the hue of
halves, of well-tempered
tible,

parrots'
is

feather and

the upper
irresisit,

steels ?*

Whose

this excellent of

sword

and terrible to adversaries, with the mark
5

a toad

on

and

Cased in variegated sheath of tiger-skin, pointed like a toad's head ? whose is this large sword of excellent blade and variegated with gold and
furnished with tinkling bells?
polished blade

Whose

is

this

handsome scimitar of

and golden hilt ? Manufactured in the country of the Niahadhas, irresistible, incapable of being broken, whose is this sword of
polished blade in a scabbard of cow-skin ? Whose is this beautiful and long sword, sable in hue as the sky, mounted with gold, well-tempered,

and cased

in a sheath of goat-skin

?

Who

owneth
T.

this

heavy, well-tem-

(1) Indian insects of a particular kind.

(2) Most editions read chapas which is evidently wrong, The correct reading is avapaa, meaning quiver. The Burdwan Pandits give this T, latter reading The correct reading is (3) Some read chandrargha-darsanas. chandrardha-darsanas. T.

(4)

plural

;

Most editions read the correct reading
T.

hema-punkha and
is

silasita in the

their

nominative plural forms.

instrumental T.

(5)

Sayaka means here,

as explained

by Nilakantha, a sword, and

not a shaf t.

80

MAHABHAEATA
thirty fingers,
in

pered, and broad sword, just longer than the breadth of

polished by constant clash with others' weapons and kept
of gold, bright as
fire ?

a case
sable

Whose

is

this

beautiful

scimitar

of

blade covered with golden bosses, capable of cutting through the bodies of adversaries, whose touch is as fatal as that of a venomous snake which
is

irresistible

nala,

and exciteth the terror of do thou answer me truly. Great
'

foes.
is

Asked by me, wonder at the my

O

Vrihanall

sight of

these excellent objects-'

Thus ends the forty-second
Virata Parva.

section in the

Go-harana Parva

of

the

SECTION
Vrihannala
said,

XLIII

(Go.harana Parva continued)

"That about which thou hast first enquired is Arjuna's bow, of world-wide fame, called Oandiva, capable of devastating Embellished with gold, this Qandiva, the highest and hostile hosts.

weapons belonged to Arjuna. Alone equal unto a hundred thousand weapons, and always capable of extending the confines of kingdoms, it is with this that Partha vanquisheth in battle both men and
largest of all

by the gods, the Danavas and the with excellent colours, this large and smooth bow is without a knot or stain anywhere. Shiva held it first Afterwards Prajapati held it for five hundred for a thousand years. After that Sakra, for five and eighty years. And and three years.
celestials.

Worshipped

ever

Qandharvas and

variegated

then
it

Soma

held

it

for five

hundred

years.

And

after that

Varana held

1 fora hundred years. And finally Partha, surnamed Swetavahana, 3 Endued with great energy and hath held it for five and sixty years.

of high celestial origin, this

is

the best of

all

bows.

Adored among gods
this beautiful

and men, it from Varuna.

hath a

handsome form.

Partha obtained

bow

This other

bow

of

Bhima's with which that son of

and golden handle is Pritha, that chastiser of foes, had consides
of

handsome

quered the whole of the eastern regions. This other excellent bow beautiful shape, adorned with images of Indragopakas, belongeth,
Virata's son,
to

O

king Yudhishthira.

This other weapon with golden

suns

of

blazing splendour

belongeth to Nakula. And insects and set also with gems and stones, belongeth to that son of Madri
1

shedding a dazzling effulgence around, this bow adorned with golden images of

From

the colour of his steeds.

T.

2 Nilakantha spends much learning and ingenuity in making out that sixty five years in this connection means thirty-two years of ordinary human computation. T.

N
VIBATA PABVA
who
is

81

called

Sahadeva.

sharp as razors

These winged arrows, thousand in number, and destructive as the poison of snakes, belong, O

Virata's son, to Arjuna.

When

shooting them in battle against
brilliantly

foes,

these swift arrows blaze forth
ble.

more

and become inexhausti-

And

these long and thick shafts resembling the lunar crescent in

shape, keen-edged and capable of thinning the enemy's ranks, belong to Bhima. And this quiver bearing five images of tigers, full of yellow-

whetted on stone and furnished with golden wings belong to is the quiver of the intelligent son of Madri, with which he had conquered in battle the whole of the western regions. And these
ish shafts

Nakula.

This

arrows, all effulgent as the sun, painted all over with various colours, and capable of destroying enemies by thousands are those of Sahadeva. And these short and well-tempered and thick shafts, furnished with
long feathers and golden heads, and consisting of three knots, belong to

sword with blade long and carved with the image of a toad and head shaped as a toad's mouth, strong and irCased in a sheath of tiger-skin, of long resistible, belongeth to Arjuna. blade, handsome and irresistible, and terrible to adversaries, this sword belongeth to Bhimasena. Of excellent blade and cased in a well-painted
king Yudhishthira.
this

And

shearh, and furnished with a golden hilt, this
to the wise

handsome sword belongeth

And this sword of strong and intended for various excellent modes of fight and blade, cased in a sheath of goat-skin, balongeth to Nakula. And this huge scimitar, cased in a sheath of cow-skin, strong and irresistible belongeth
Kaurava
Yudhishthira the
Just.

irresistible

to Sahadeva.'

"

Thus enJs the forty-third section
Virata Parva.

in

the Go-harana Parva of the

SECTION XLIV
(Qo.hjrana Parva continued)

weapons adorned with gold, belonging and high-souled Partha, look exceedingly beautiful. to the lik>ht-handed But where are tint Arjuna, the son of Pritha, and Yudliishthira of the Kuru race, and Nakula and Sahadeva, and Bhimasena, the sons of Pandu ?
Uttara
said,

'Indeed, these

Having

kingdom at dice, tlie high-souled PanJavas, capable of are no longer heard of. Where also is Draupadi the destroying princess of PancKala, famed as the gem among women, who followed the
lost their
all foes,

sons of

Pandu

after their defeat at dice to the forest ?
'I

Arjuna, cal'ed also Partha. Thy father's courand thy father's cook Vallava is Bhimasena, the tier Yudhishthira, groom of horses is Nakula, and Sahadeva is in the cow-pen. And know thou that the SjirmJHri is Draupadi, for whose sake the Kichakas have been slain."

Arjuna

said,

am

is

11

89 Utrara
said,
I

MAHABHABATA

would believe all this if thou canst enumerate the ten names Partha, previously heard by me Aijuna said, 'I will, O SJQ of Virata, tell thee my ten names. Listen thou and compare them with what thou hadst heard before. Listen to them with close attention and concentrated mind. They arc
ot
I'

Arjuna. Fu^una. Jis/mu, Kmtin, Stvetavahaua, Vibhatsu, Vjjaya,
SaiOMJtichin and Dhananjjya.'

Krishna,

Swetavahana.

and why Arjuna and Falguna and Jishnu and Kiritin and Vibhatsu, and for what art thou Dnananjaya and SavyasaC >in ? I have heard before about the origin of the sever*! names of that hero, and can put faith in thy words if thou
Uttara
said.

'Tell

me

truly

why

art thou called Vijaya,

Why

art

thou named Krishna and why

canst

tell

me

all

about them.'

'They called me Dhananjaya because I lived in the Aijuna midst of wealth, having subjugated all the countries and taking away their treasure*. They called me Vijaya because when I go out to battle
>aid,

never return (tiom the field) without vanquishSwetavahana because when battling with the foe, w lite horses decked in golden armour are always yoked unto my car. They call me Falguna because I was born on the breast of the Hnnavat on a day when the constellation Uttara Fulguna was on the ascendant.
with invincible king?,
I
I

ing them.

am

called

am named Kintin fr.>m a diadem, resplendent like the sun, having been my head by Indra during my encounter with the powerful Danavas. I am known as Vibhatsu among gods and men, for my
I

placed of old on

never having committed a detestable deed on the battle field. And since both of my hands are capable of drawing the Qandiva, 1 am known as Savyasachin am >ng gods and men. They call me Arjuna because my complex on is very rare within the four boundaries of the earth and
because also

my acts are always stainless. I am known among human and celestial-, by the name of Jishnu. because I am unapproachable beings and incapable of being kept down, and a tamer of adversaries and son of the >layer of Paka. And Krishna, my tenth appellation, was given to me by my father out of affection towards his black-skinned boy of great
purity."

Vaisampiyana continued, nearer saluted Partha and said.
called Uttara.
It is

"The son of Virata then, approaching 'My name is Bhuminjaya, and I am also by good luck, O Pan ha, that I behold thee. Thou

art welcome,

Dhananjaya. O thou with red eyes, and arms that are mighty and each like unto the trunk of an elephant, it behoveth thee to pardon what I said unto thee from ignoiance. And as wonderful and difficult have been the feats achieved by thee before, my fears have been dispelled, and indeed the love I bear to thee is great."

O

Thus ends the forty-fourth section in the Go-harana Parva of the Virata Paiva.

SECTION XLV
(Go-harana Parva continued)

Uttara

said,

'O
I

hero,

mounting on

this

large car
1

with myself as
?

driver, which division of

the (hostile)

army wouldst thou penetrate

Commanded by
Arjuna

thee,
'I

would drive thee thither.

said,

am
I

pleased with thee,

O

tiger

among men.

Thou

hast no cause of fear.

will rout all thy foes in battle,
ease.

O

great warrior.

Ami,

O

thou of mighty arms, be at thy
in the melee,
I

terrible feats

will fight

with thy foes.

Accomplishing great and Tie quickly all
those) a sword of polish-

those quivers to my car, and take (from ed blade and adorned with gold.

among

cast off all inactivity.

"Hearing these words of Arjuna, Uttara he speedily alighted from the tree, bringing with him Arjuna's weapons. Then Arju ta addressed him, saying, 'Yes, I will fight with the Kurus and recover thy kine. Protected by me, the

Vaisampayana continued,

And

top of this car will be to thee as a citadel. The passages and alleys and other divisions of this car will be the streets and edifices of that fortified
city.

pole and
foe.

thase

my arms will be its ramparts and gate-ways. This treble my quiver will constitute defensive works inaccessible to the This my banner single and grand will it not alone be equal unto Tnis my bow-string will constitute the catapults of thy city ?
These

and cannmsfor vomiting forth missiles on Hie besiezing ghost. My excited wrath will make that fortress formidable, and the clatter of my car-wheels will it not resemble the kettle-drums of thy capital ? Ridden
by myself wielding the Qindiva this car wi'l be incapable of being van* quished by the hostile host. O son of Virata, let thy fear be dispelled." "Uctara said 'I am no longer afraid of these. I know thy steadiness in battle, which is even like unto that of Kesava or Indra himself.
t

But reflecting on

this,

I

am
at

continually bewildered.
certain
conclusion.

Foolish as

I

am.

I

am

incapable of arriving

circumstances could a person

become deprived of manKood

/

By what distressful of such handsome limbs and auspicious signs Indeed, thou seemest to me to be Maha-

deva, or Indra, or the chief of the Gandharvas, dwelling in the guise

only of one of the third sex." "Arjuna said, 'I tell thee truly that
for a
of

I

whole
of

year agreeable to the
I

behest of

am only observing my elder brother.
I

this

vow

mighty arms,

am

not truly one of the neuter sex, but
to

O thou have adopted

this

vow
vow.'

eunuchism from subservience

another's will and from
to

desire of religious merit.

O

prince,

know me now

have completed

my

"Uttara

said,

'Thou hast conferred a great favour on me to-day.

84
for
I

MAHABHARATA
now 6nd
that

suspicion was not altogether unfounded. Indeed, best of men, cannot be of the neuter sex. I sucn a person as thou, have now an ally in battle. I can now fight with the celestials them-

my

O

selves.

My

fears

have been

di>pelled.

Wnat

shall

I

do

?

Command

me now.

Trained in driving cars by a learned preceptor

I will,

O

bull

men. holJ the reins of thy horses that are capable of breaking the of hostile cars. Know me, O bull among men, to be as competent ranks a charioteer as Daruka of Vasudeva, or Matali of Sakra. The horse that is yoked uuto the right-hand pole (of thy car) and whose hoofs as they
light

amog

on the ground are scarcely
left pole,
is, I

of Krishna.

visible when running, is like untoSugriua This other handsome horse, the foremost of his race, that is

equal in speed to Meghapushpa* This (third) beautiful horse, clad in golden mail, yoked unto the rear-

yoked unto the

regard

pole on the
strength.
is

left,

is,

And

this

I regard, Sivya equal in speed to but superior in (fourth) horse, yoked to the rear-pole on the right,

regarded as superior to Valahaka in speed and strength.
of

This car

is

worthy
also art

bearing on

the

field of

battle a

bowman

like

thee, and thou

worthy of fighting on this car. This is what I think I" Vaisampayana continued, "Then Arjuna, endued with great energy, took off the bracelets from his arms and wore on his hands a pair of beautiful gloves embroidered with gold. And he then tied his black and curling locks with a piece of white cloth. And seated on that excellent car with face turned to the east, the mighty-armed hero,
purifying his body and concentrating his soul, recalled to his
his

mind

all

of

O

And all the weapons came, and addressing the royal son Partha, said, 'We are here, O illustrious one. We are thy servants, son of Indra. And bowing unto them, Partha received them unto his
weapons.

hands and replied unto them, saying, Dwell ye all in my memory.' And obtaining all his weapons, the hero looked cheerful. And quickly stringing his bow, the Qandiua, he twanged it. And the twang of that

bow was
on

as loud as the collision
filled

was the sound that

of two mighty bulls. And dreadful the earth, and violent was the wind that blew

all sides. And thick was the shower of fallen meteors 1 and all sides were enveloped in gloom. And the birds began to totter in the skies and large trees began to shake. 8 And loud as the burst of the thunder, the Kurus knew from that sound that it was Arjuna that drew with his hands the string of his best of bows from his car. And Uttara said,

Some texts read. "One large meteor fell." T. 2 In some editions read,-Bharata dwijam, and maha-drumam. The meaning would then be,-' TheMaha-hardam for banner s(o? the t0 tremble ln the Sky and Iarge ^es were agita'

J

VIEATA PABVA
Thou, many.

85

O best
How

of

wilt

Pandavas, art alone. These mighty car-warriors arc thou vanquish in battle all these that are skilled in
?

every kind of weapons
that
I

Thou,

O

son of Kunti, art without a follower,

while the Kauravas have many.
stay

It is for this,

beside thee,

stricken

with fear.

thou of mighty arms, Bursting out into loud

O

laughter, Partha said unto him.

'Be not afraid.

O

hero,

what friendly

while fighting with the mighty Qandharvas on the occasion Who was my ally while engaged in the terrific of the Ghoshayatra ?
follower had
I

Kkandiva against so many celestials and Danavas ? Who was my ally when I fought, on behalf of the lord of the celestials against And who was my ally, the mighty Nivatakavachas and the Pauiamas ?
conflict

at

O child, while
vara to the

I

encountered

in battle
?

princess of

Panchala

innumerable kings at the SwayamTrained in arms by the preceptor

Drona, by Sakra, and Vaisravana, and Yama, and Varuna, and Agni, and
Kripa, and Krishna of Madhu's race, and by the wielder of the Pinafea Drive thou my car speedily, (Siva), why shall I not fight with these ? fever be dispelled.' and let thy heart's
'

Thus ends the
Virata Parva.

forty-fifth

section in the

Go-harana Parva

of the

SECTION XLVI
(Cjo harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana
with him.

said.

bulating the Sami tree,

the son of

"Making Uttara his charioteer, and circumPandu set out taking all his weapons

mighty car-warrior set out with Uttara as the driver of his car, having taken down that banner with the lion's figure and deposited it at the foot of the Sami tree. And he hoisted on that
that

And

car his

golden banner bearing the figure of an ape with a lion's tail, celestial illusion contrived by Viswakarman himself. For as he had thought of that gift of Agni, than the latter as soon, indeed, knowing his wish, ordered those superhuman creatures (that usually sat

own

which was a

there) to take their place in that banner.
ful flag of

And

furnished with a beautito
it,

handsome make, with quivers attached

and adored with

gold, that

excellent flag-staff of celestial beauty then

1 the firmament on his car.

And
it

car, the hero

circumbulated

quickly fell from beholding that banner arrived on his (respectfully). And then the ape-bannered

Vibhatsu, the son of Kunti, called also Swetavahana, with fingers cased

deed,

Some texts read Maharatham (incorrectly) for hiranmayan. InMaharatham would give no meaning in this connection. The incomplete edition of the Rny Press under the auspices of the Principal
1

and misprints

of the Calcutta Sanskrit College abounds with such incorrect readings T.

68
in
set

MAHABHARATA
leathern fences of the Iguana skin, and taking up his

bow and arrows
thundering

out

in a

northernly

direction.

And

that grinder of foes, possessed

of great strength, then forcibly

blew

his large conch-shell, of

sound, capable of making the bristles of foes to stand on their ends. And at the sound of that conch, those steeds endued with swiftness

dropped down on the ground on their knees. And Uttara H!<O, greatly And thereupon the son of Kunti took affrighted, sat down on the car. the reins himself and raising the steeds, placed them in their proper
'Fear not,

Uttara. he encouraged him also, saying, foremost of princes, thou art, chastiser of foes, a birth. tiger among men dost thou become so Why, Kshatriya by dispkited in the midst of foes* Thou must have heard before the blare
positions.

And embracing

O

O

O

of

many conches and the note of many trumpets, and many elephants in the midst of ranks arrayed for battle.
conch, as
if

the roar also of

Why

art thou,
this

therefore, ss dispirited

and agitated and thou wert an ordinary person

terrified
?*

by the blare of

a

"Uttara said 'Heard have I the blare of many a conch and many trumpet and the roar of many an elephant stationed in battle-array, but never have I heard before the blare of such conch. Nor have I ever seen a banner like this. Never before have I heard also the twang

of a

bow such
this

as this.

Truly,

sir,

with the blare of

this conch,

the

twang of
this

bow, the superhuman cries of the creatures stationed on banner, and the rattle of this car, my mind is greatly bewilJered.
is

My

perceptions of the directions also
afflicted.

confused, and
to

fully

The whole firmament seemeth

my heart is painme to have been

covered by

this

banner, and everything seemeth to be hidden from

my

have been deafened by the twang of the Gundiva J* 1 "Arjuna said 'Firmly stand thoa on the car, pressing thy feet on and tightly catch hold of the bridles, for I will blow the conch again. it, Vaisampayana said 'Arjuna then blew his conch again, that conch which filled foes with grief and enhanced the joy of friends. And the
view
1

My

ears also

1

sound was so loud that it seemed to split hills and mountains, and pierce mountain caves and the cardinal points. And Uttara once again sat

down on
and the
earth

the car, clinging to
rattle of

it

in fear.

And with

the blare of the conch

the car wheels, and the twang of the Gandiva, the seemed to tremble. And beholding Uttara's fight, Dhananjaya began to comfort him again." "Meanwhile, Drona said, 'From the rattle of the car, and from the manner in which the clouds have enveloped the sky and the earth itself trembles, this warrior can be none else than Savyasachin. Our
itself

weapons do not
like

shine,

our steeds are dispirited, and our
line

fires,

though fed

1 The Roy Press edition adds here a an interpolation T.

which looks very much

VIRATA PABVA
with
fuel,

8T

do not blare up. All this is ominous. All our animals are setting up a frightful howl, gazing towards the sun. The crows are perching on our banners. All this is ominous. Yon vultures and kites on our right

That jackal also, running through our ranks, hath escaped unstruck. All this portends a dismally. Lo, heavy calamity. The bristles also of ye all are on their ends. Surely, this forebodes a great destruction of Kslmriyasin battle. Things endued with light are all pale beasts and birds look fierce and there are to be
portend
a

great danger.

waileth

it

;

;

witnessed
triyas.

many

terrific portents indicative of

the destruction of Ksha-

omens forebode great havoc among ourselves. O seem to be confounded by these blazing meteors, and thy animals look dispirited and seem to be weeping. Vultures and kites are wheeling all around thy troops. Thou shalt have to repent upon

And

these

king, thy ranks

beholding

thy

army

afflicted

by

Partha's arrows.

Indeed, our ranks

have been already vanquished, for none is eager to go to nght. All our warriors are of pale fac=?, and almost deprived of their senses. Sending the kine ahead we should stand here, ready to strike, wit-h a^l our warriors arrayed in order of bitcle.' Thus ends the forty-sixth section in the Go-harana Parva of the

seem

to

Virata Parva.

SECTION XLVII
(Qo-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana
said

said,

'King

Dunodhana
that

then, on the field of battle
tiger

unto Bhishma, and unto Drona

among
:

unto

Knpa

that mighty

car-warrior,

these words
1

warriors, and Both myself and

Kama
for
I

had said this unto

tlie

preceptors.'

I refer to

the subject again,

am

of the sons of

not satisfied with having said it once. Even this was the pledge Pandu that if defeated (at dice) they would reside to our
in countries

and woods for twelve years, and one more year That thirteenth year, instead of being over, is yet unknown running. Vibhatsu, therefore, who is still to live undiscovered hath appeared before us. And if Vibhatsu h ith come before the term of exile is at end, the Pandavas shall have to pass another twelve years in knowledge
to us.

the woods.

by desire

of

due to forgetfulness (on their part) induced dominion, or whether it is a mistake of ours, it behoveth
it
is

Whether

Bh^hma

to calculate the

shortness or excess (of the

When

an object of desire

may

or

may

promised period). not be attained, a doubt necess-

1 The true reading is Acharya in the duel number, meaning Drona and Knpa. Some texts read the word in the singular form. Nilakantha notices both these reading, but prefers the dual to the singular. T.

88
arily attaches to

MAHABHAEATA
one of the alternatives, and what
1

is

decided in one

way
with
If,

often ends differently.

Even

moralists are puzzled in judging of their

own
the

acts.*

As
it is

regards, ourselves,
to seize

we have come

hither

to fight

Matsyas and

their kine

stationed towards the north.

Arjuna that hath come, what fault can attach to us ? We have come hither to fight against the Matsyas on behalf of the Trigartas and as numerous were the acts represented unto us of the oppressions committed by the Matsyas, it was for this that we promised And it was agreed aid to the Trigartas who were overcome with fear. us that they should first seize, on the afternoon of the seventh between lunar day, the enormous wealth of kine that the Matsyas have, and that
meanwhile,
;

we should, at sunrise of the eighth day of the moon, seize these kine when the king of the Matsyas would be pursuing those first seized. It may be that the Trigartas are now bringing way the kine, or being
defeated, are

coming towards us

for negotiating

with the king of the

off, the king Matsya. Or, it may of the Matsyas, at the head of this people and his whole army of fierce warriors, appeareth on the scene and advanceth to make night-attacks

be, that having driven the Trigartas

upon

us.

It

may be
is

that

some one leader among them, endued with

mighty energy,
king himself of
or Vibhatsu,

advancing for vanquishing us, or, it may be that the the Matsyas is come. But be it the king of the Matsyas
all

we must

figut

him.

Why

are

all

these of foremost car-warriors.

Knpa and Vikarna and
stricken ?
fore,

Drona's son,

hath been our pledge* Bhishma and Drona and now sitting on their cars, panicthis

Even

At present there is make up your minds. If for

notliing

better than

fighting.

There-

the cattU

we have

seized, an

encounter

takes place with the divine wielder himself of the thunder-bolt or even

1 The meaning is rather doubtful. Duryodhana seems to say that "the hostile appearance of Arjuna rns been an acr of im prudence on The Pandavas, nfrer the expiry of the thirteenth \ear, would his part. claim their kingdom. I, Duryodhana. may or may not accede to their demand. When, therefore, it was not certain that Arjuna would be refused by me, his hostile appearance is unwise. He has come sure of victory, but he may yet be defeated." T.

2 The sense seems to be that when moralists even are puzzled in judging of the propriety or otherwise of their acts, it can easily be imagined that the Pandavas, however virtuous, have, in the matter of this their appearance, acted wrongly, for after all, the thirteenth year may not have really been over as believed by them. Or, it may mean, that, as regards our presence here, we have not acted imprudently when even moralists cannot always arrive at right conclusion. It seems that for this Duryodhana proceeds to justify that presence in the following T. entences

VIRATA PABVA
with Yama,

89

be liable to reach Hastinapur ? Pierced by the shafts (of the foe), how will the foot-soldiers, in flying through the deep forest with their backs on the field, escape with life, when escape foi the cavalry is doubtful ? Hearing these words of
is

who

there

that will

Duryodhana,
ments.

Kama

said,

'Disregarding the preceptor,
the
affection for

make
is

all

arrange-

He knowth

well
I

intentions of the Pandavas and striketh

terror in our hearts.

see that his

Arjuna

very great.

Seeing him only coming, he chanteth his praises. Make ye such arrangements that our troops may not break. Everything is in confusion for

Drona's having only heard the neigh of (Arjuna's) steeds- Make ye such arrangements that these troops, come to a distant land in this hot season

and

in the

midst of

this

mighty
selfish

forest,

may

not

fall

into confusion

and be

subjugated by the foe. The of the preceptor.
us.

The Pandavas

are always the special favourites

Pandavas have stationed Drona amongst

would ever Indeed, he betrayeth himself by his speech. extol a person upon hearing the neigh only of his steeds ? Horses
always neigh, whether walking or standing the winds blow at all times j and Indra also always showereth rain. The roar of the clouds may
;

Who

frequently be heard. What hath Partha to do with these, and why is he to be praised for these ? All this (on Drona's partj, therefore, is due
only to either the desire of doing good to Arjuna or to his wrath

and

Preceptors are wise, and sinless, and very kind to all creatures. They, however, should never be consulted at times of peril* It is in luxurious palaces, and assemblies and pleasure-gardens, that

hatred towards

us.

learned men, capable of making

speeches,

seem to be

in their place.

Performing many
learned
their

men

wonderful things, in the assembly, it is there that find their place, or even there where sacrificial utensils and

proper placing and washing are needed. In a knowledge of the lapses of others, in studying the characters of men, in the science of horses and elephants and cars, in treating the diseases of asses and camels

and goats and sheep and kine, in planning buildings and gateways, and in pointing out the defects of food and drink, the learned are truly in their

own sphere. Disregarding learned men that extol the heroism of the foe, make ye such arrangments that the foe may be destroyed. Placing the
kine securely, array the troops in order of battle. Place guards in proper places so that we may fight the foe.'
'

Thus ends the forty-seventh section
the Virata Parva.

in

the

Go-harana Parva of

12

SECTION XL VIII
(Qo-harana Parva continued)

"Kama

said,

'I

behold

all

these blessed ones, looking as

if

alarm-

ed and panic-struck and unresolved and unwilling to fight. If he that is come is the king of the Matsyas or Vibhatsu, even I will resist him as the banks resist the swelling sea. Shot from my bow these straight and Discharged by flying arrows, like gliding snakes, are all sure of aim.

my

light hands,

these keen-edged
all

arrows furnished with golden wings
a tree.

shall

cover Partha

over, like locusts shrouding

Strongly

arrows, the bow-string will cause these my pressed by leathern fences to produce sounds that will be heard to resemble those
these winged

of a couple of kettle-drums.
for the (last) eight
in this conflict,

Having been engaged

in ascetic austerities

me but mildly and the son of Kunti having become a Brahmana endued with good qualities, hath thus become a fit person to quietly receive This mighty bowman is indeed, shafts by thousands shot by me. celebrated over the three worlds. I, too, am, by no means, inferior to Arjuna, that foremost of human beings. With golden arrows furnished with vulturine wings shot on all sides, let the firmament seem today to
and
five years,

Vibhatsu will strike

swarm with
that debt,

fire-flies-

Slaying Arjuna in battle,

difficult

of

discharge today repayments, but promised of old by me unto

I will

Dhritarashtra's son. What man is there, even amongst all the gods and the Asuras, that will endure to stand in the teeth of the straight arrows

Let my flying arrows, winged and depressed at the ? the spectacle of the coursing of the fire-flies through the middle, present welkin. Hard though he be as Indra's thunder-bolt and possessed of
shot from
the energy of the chief of the celestials,
as
I will

my bow

surely grind Partha, even

an elephant by means of burning brands. A heroic and car-warrior as he is, and the foremost of all wielders of weapons mighty I shall seize the unresisting Partha, even like Gadura seizing a snake. Irresistible like fire, and fed by the fuel of swords, darts, and arrows,

one

afflicts

the blazing

Pandava

fire

that consumeth foes, will be extinguished even

by myself who am like unto a mighty cloud incessantly dropping an arrowy shower, the multitude of cars (I will lead) constituting its thunder, and the speed of my horses, the wind in advance. Discharged

from my bow,

my

arrows

like

venomous snakes
hill.

will

pierce Partha's

body, like serpent penetrating through an ant

Pierced with well-

tempered and straight

shafts endued with golden wings and great behold ye today the son of Kunti decked like a hill covered with energy,

Kamikara
ascetics

flowers.

Having

obtained
I

weapons from that best of

the son of Jamadagni,

would, relying on their energy, fight

VIBATA PABVA
with even the
bis
celestials.

91

my javelin, the ape stationed on day on the ground, uttering terrible The firmament will today be filled with the cries of the (supercries. human) creatures stationed in the flagstaff of the foe, and afflicted by
Struck with
to

banner-top

shall fall

down

I shall today pluck up by the Duryodhana's heart by throwing Arjuna down from his car. The Kauravas will today behold Partha with his car broken, his horses killed, his valour gone, and himself sighing like a snake. Let the Kauravas, following their own will go away taking this

me, they will

fly

away

in all directions. in

roots the long-existing dart

wealth of kine

;

or,

if

they wish,

let

them

stay

on

their cars

and witness

my

'

combat.'

Thus ends

the forty-eighth section

in

the Go-harana Parva of

the Virata Parva.

SECTION XLIX
(Qo-harana Parva continued)

"Kripa
war.
into

said,

Thou knowest not

'O Radheya, thy crooked heart always inclineth to the true nature of things nor dost thou take
;

account their after-consequences.

There

are various kinds of

expedients inferrable from the scriptures. Of these, a battle hath been regarded by those acquainted with the past, as the most sinful. It is
place are favourable that military operations can In the present instance, however, the time being unfavourable, no good results will be derived. display of prowess in

only
lead

when time and
to

success.

A

proper time and place becometh beneficial. It is by the favourableness or otherwise (of time and place) that the opportuneness of an act is determined.

Learned men can never act according
all this,

to

the ideas of a Car-

maker.
for us.

is not advisible Considering lie saved the Kurus (from the Qandharvas), and alone he satiated Agni. Alone he led the life of a Brahmacharin for five years

an encounter with Partha

Alone

Taking up Subhadra on his car, alone he combat. Alone he fought with Rudra who challenged Krishna stood before him as a forester. It was in this very forest that Partha rescued Krishna while she was being taken away (by Jayadratha). It is
(on the breast of Himavat).
to single

he alone that hath, for five years, studied the science of weapons under Indra. Alone vanquishing all foes he hath spread the fame of the Kurus. Alone that chastiser of foes vanquished in battle Chitrasena, the king of the Qandharvas and in a moment his invincible troops also. Alone he
overthrew in battle the fierce Nivatakavachas and the Kalakhanchas, that were both incapable of being slain by the gods themselves. What, however, O Kama, hath been achieved by thee single-handed like any of the sons of Pandu, each of whom had alone subjugated many lords of
earth
?

Even Indra

himself

is

unfit

to

encounter Partha in

battle.

92

MAHABHABATA
therefore,

He,

sedative.

snake of
ing thy
ride

an

with Arjuna should take a take out the fangs of an angry As to thyself, thou desirest to virulent poison by stretching forth thy right hand and extendOr, wandering alone in the forest thou desirest to forefinger. infurate elephant and go to a boar without a hook in hand.
that desireth to
fight

Or, rubbed over with clarified butter and dressed in silken robes, thou desirest to pass through the midst of a blazing fire fed with fat and
tallow and clarified butter. Who is there that would, binding his own hands and feet and tying a huge stone unto his neck, cross the ocean swimming with his bare arms ? What manliness is there in such an
act
?

O Kama,

he

is

a fool that would,

without

skill in

weapons and

without strength, desire to fight with Partha who is so mighty and Dishonestly deceived by us and liberated from skilled in weapons ?
thirteen years'
exile,

will

not the

illustrious

hero annihilate

us ?

Having ignorantly come to a place where Partha lay concealed like fire hidden in a well, we have, indeed, been exposed to a great danger. But irresistible though he be in battle, we should fight against him.
Let, therefore, our troops, clad in mail, stand here arrayed in ranks and

ready to strike. Let Drona and Duryodhana and Bhishma and thyself and Drona's son and ourselves, all fight with the son of Pritha. Do not

O

Kama, act so rashly as to fight alone. If we six car-warriors, be united/ we can then be a match for and fight with that son of Pritha who is resolved to fight and who is as fierce as the wielder of the
thunder-bolt.

Aided by our troops arrayed in ranks, ourselves great bowmen standing carefully will fight with Arjuna even as the Danavas encounter Vasava in battle.' Thus ends the forty-ninth section in the Go-harana Parva of the
'

Virata Parva.

SECTION L
(Qo-harana Parva continued)

"Aswathaman

said,

The

kine,

O

Kama, have not

yet been won,

nor have they yet crossed the boundary (of their owner's dominions.)

nor have they yet reached Hastinapura.
boast of thyself
?

Why

dost thou,

therefore,

wealth,

Having won numerous battles, and acquired enormous and vanquished hostile hosts, men of true heroism speak not a
Fire burneth mutely and mutely doth the sun doth the Earth bear creatures, both mobile and The Self-existent hath sanctioned such offices for the four
also

word
shine.

of their prowess.

Mutely

immobile.

orders that having recourse to them each

may

acquire wealth without

being censurable.

perform sacrifices a Kshatriya, depending upon the bow, should perform sacrifices himself

Brahmana having studied the Vedas, should himself, and officiate at the sacrifices of others. And
1

A

VIBATA PABVA
9
but should never officiate at the sacrifices of others.

93

And

of Vaisya,

having earned wealth, should cause the rites enjoined in the Vedas to be performed for himself. A Sudra should always wait upon and serve
the other three orders.
profession of fowlers

As regards those that live by practising the and vendors of meat, they may earn wealth by expedients fraught with deceit and fraud. Always acting according to

the dictates of the scriptures, the exalted sons of Pandu acquired the and they always act respectfully sovereignty of the whole earth,

towards their superiors, even
Kshatriya
is

if

the latter prove hostile to them.

What

there that expressess delight at having obtained a kingdom by means of dice, like this wicked and shameless son of Dhritarashtra ?

of meat,

Having acquired wealth in this way by deceit and fraud like a vendor who that is wise boast of it ? In what single combat didst

thou vanquish Dhananjaya, or Nakula, or Sahadeva, although thou hast robbed them of their wealth ? In what battle didst thou defear Yudhishthirai or Bhima that foremost of strong men ? In what battle

was Indraprastha conquered by thee ? What thou hast done, however, O thou of wicked deeds, is to drag that princess to court while she was Thou hast cut the mighty root, delicate ill and had but one raiment on Actuated by desire of wealth, as the sandal, of the Pandava tree. when thou madest the Pandavas act as slaves, rememberest thou what Vidura said ? We see that men and others, even insects and ants, show
!

forgiveness according to their

power
the

of endurance.

The son

of

Pandu,

however, Dhananjaya cometh here
is

incapable of forgiving the sufferings of
for

Draupadi. Surely, destruction of the sons of Dhrita-

is true, affecting great wisdom, thou art for making speeches but will not Vibhatsu, that slayer of foes, exterminate us all ? If it be gods, or Qandharvas or Aswras, or Rakshasas, will Dhananjaya the son of

rashtra, It

Kunti, desist to fight from panic ? Inflamed with wrath upon whomsoever he will fall, even him he will overthrow like a tree under the weight
of

Gadura
is

1

Supeior to thee

in

prowess, in

bowmanship equal unto
Vasudeva
?

the

lord himself of the celestials, and in battle equal unto

himself,

who

there that would not praise Partha

weapons with celestial, and human match for Arjuna ? Those acquainted with the scriptures declare that a disciple is no way inferior to a son, and it is for this that the son of Pandu is a favourite of Drona. Employ thou the means now which thou hadst adopted in the match at dice, the same means, viz., by which thou hadst subjugated Indraprastha, and the same means by which
thou hadst dragged Krishna to the assembly This thy wise uncle, fully conversant with the duties of the Kshatrya order this deceitful gambler
!

Counter-acting celestial weapons with human, what man is a

The Qandiva, howSakuni, the prince of Gandhara, let him fight now ever, doth not cast dice such as the Krita or the Dwapara, but it
1

94

MAHABHABATA

shooteth upon foes blazing and keen-edged shafts by myriads. The fierce arrows shot from the Qandiva, endued with great energy and furnished with vulturine wings, can pierce even mountains. The destroyer of all, named Yama, and Vayu, and the horse-faced Agni, leave some remnant behind, but Dhananjaya inflamed with wrath never doth so. As thou

by thy uncle, played a dice in the assembly so do fight in protected by Suvala's son. Let the preceptor, if he chooses We are to fight I shall not however, fight with Dhananjaya. fight in the track of the with the king of the Matsyas if, indeed he cometh
hadst, aided
this battle
;

!_

kme.

Thus ends
Parva.

the fiftieth section in the

Go-harana Parva

of the Virata

SECTION
"Bhishma
observeth
said

LI and Kripa,

(Go-harana Parva continued)
'Drona's son

observeth

well,

too

rightly.

of the Kshatriya

As for Kama, it is only out of regard for the duties order that he desireth to fight. No man of wisdom

can blame the preceptor. I, however, am of opinion that fight we must, considering both the time and the place. Why should not that man be
bewildered who hath five adversaries effulgent as five suns, heroic combatants and who have just emerged from adversity
those conversant with morality are bewildered in
interests. It is for this

who
?

are

respect of their

Even own

O king
The

that

I

tell

thee

this,

acceptable to

you or not.

What Kama
As

said unto

whether my words be thee was only for

raising our (drooping) courage.

regards thyselfi
is

O

preceptor's son,

forgive everything.

business at hand

very grave-

When

the

son

Kunti hath come, this is not the time for quarrel. Everything should now be forgiven by thyself and the preceptor Kripa. Like light
of

weapons doth reside in you. As beauty is never separated from Chandramas, so are the Vedas and the Brahma weapon both estabished in you. It is often seen that the four Vedas dwell in one object and Kshatriya attributes in another. We have never heard of these two dwelling together in any other person than the preceptor of the Bharata race and his son. Even this is what I think. In the Vedantas, in the Puranas, and in old histories, who save Jamadagni, O king, would be Drona's superior ? A combination of the Brahma
in the sun, the

mastery of

all

weapon with
ceptor's son,
of us,

the Vedas, this is never to be seen anywhere else. O predo thou forgive. This is not the time for disunion. Let all uniting, fight with Indra's son who hath come. Of all the calamities
befall an
is

that

may

the worst

disunion

army that have been enumerated by men of wisdom, among the leaders. Aswatthaman said, 'O bull
just observations,

among men,

these thy

need not be uttered

in

our

VIEATA PAEVA
presence
;

95

the preceptor, however, filled with wrath, had spoken of Arjuna's virtues. The virtues of even an enemy should be admitted, while the faults of even one's preceptor may be pointed out therefore,
;

one should, to the best of
disciple."

his

power, declare the

merits of a son or a

"Duryodhana said, 'Let the preceptor grant his forgiveness and peace be restored. If the preceptor be at one with us, whatever should be done (in view of the present emergency) would seem to have
let

been already done."

by

Kama

Vaisampayana continued, "Then, O Bharata, Duryodhana assisted and Kripa, and the high-souled Bhishma pacified Drona. Drona said, 'Appeased I have already been at the words first

spoken by Bhishma, the son of Santanu. Let such arrangements be made that Partha may not be able to approach Duryodhana in battle. And let such arrangements be made that king Duryodhana may not be captured

by the

consequence either of his rashness or want of judgment. Arjuna hath not, to be sure, revealed himself before the expiry of the term of exile, Nor will he pardon this act (of ours) today, having only
foe, in

recovered the kine.

Let such arrangements, therefore, be made that he

not succeed in attacking Dhritarashtra's son and defeating our troops. Like myself (who am doubtful of the completion of period of

may

Duryodhana also had said so beforei Bearing it in mind, it behoveth the son of Ganga to say what is true.' Thus ends the fifty-first section in the Go-harana Parva of the
exile)
'

Virata Parva-

SECTION
''Bhishma said,

LII

(Qo-harana Parva continued)

"The wheel of time revolves with

its divisions, viz.,

with Kolas and Kasthas and Muhartas and days and fortnights and

months and constellations and planets and seasons and years. In consequence of their fractional excesses and the deviations of also of the heavenly bodies, there is an increase of two months in every five years. It seems to me that calculating this wise, there would be an excess of five months and twelve nights in thirteen years. Everythingi therefore that the sons of Pandu had promised, hath been exactly fulfilled by
them.

Knowing

this to

be certain, Vibhatsu hath made his appearance.

All of them are high-souled and fully conversant with the meanings of

from virtue that have Yudhishthira for their guide ? The sons of Kunti do not yield to temptation. They have achieved a difficult feat. If they had coveted
the scriptures.

How

would they deviate

the possession of their kingdom by unfair means, then those descendants of the Kuru race would have sought to display their prowess at the

96

MAHABHABATA

time of the match at dice. Bound in bonds of virtue, they did not deviate from the duties of the Kshatriya order. He that will regard them to have behaved falsely will surely meet with defeat. The sons of Pritha would prefer death to falsehood. When the time, however, comes, those bulls among men the Pandavas endued with energy like that of Sakra, would not give up what is theirs even if it is defended by the wielder himself of the thunderbolt. We shall have to oppose in battle
the foremost of
all

wielders of ^weapons.

tageous arrangements as

such advanand the honest have the sanction of the good

Therefore,

let

be

now made without

loss of

time so that our possessions

may

not be

appropriated by

king of kings, O Kaurava, I have never seen a battle in which one of the parties could say, tve are sure to win.
the foe.

O

When

be victory or defeat, prosperity or adversity. Without doubt, a party to a battle must have either of the two. Therefore, O king of kings, whether a battle be now proper or
a battle occurs,

there must

not consistent with virtue or not,
is

make

thy arrangements soon, for

Dhananjaya "Duryodhana said 'I will not, O grandsire, give back the Pandavas their kingdom. Let every preparation, therefore, for battle be made
without delay,

at hand*

"Bhishma
I

said

'Listen to
is

what

I

regard as proper,

if it

pleases thee.
to-

should always say what
capital,

for thy good,

O

Kaurava. Proceed thou

wards the

without
let

of the army.

And

loss of time, taking with thee a fourth part another fourth march, escorting the kine- With

half the troops

we will fight the Pandava. Myself and Drona, and Kama and Aswathaman and Kripa will resolutely withstand Vibhatsu, or the king of the Matsyas, or Indra himself, if he approaches. Indeed, we will
withstand any of these like the bank withstanding the surging sea.' Vaisampayana continued "These words spoken by the high-souled
'

Bhishma were acceptable
accordingly

to them, and the king of the Kauravas acted without delay. And having sent away the king and then the kine, Bhishma began to array the soldiers in order of battle. And addressing the preceptor, he said, 'O preceptor, stand thou in the centre, and let Aswathaman stand on the left, and let the wise Kripa,

son of Saradwata, defend the right wing, and let Kama of the Suta casts, clad in mail, stand in the van. I will stand in the rear of the whole

army, protecting it from that point.'* Thus ends the fifty-second section in the Go-harana Parva of the Virata Parva.

SECTION
Vaisampayana
said

LIII

(Qo-harana Part/a continued)

"After the Kauravas,
air

O Bharata,

had taken

Arjuna, filling the his car, advanced quickly towards them. of
their stand in this order,

with the rattle and din
the Kurus beheld his

And

banner-top and heard the rattle and din of his car as also the twang of the Qandiva stretched repeatedly by him. And noting all this, and seeing that great car-warrior the wielder of the Qandiva come, Drona

spoke thus,
tance,

''That
this
is

is

the banner-top of Partha which shineth
is

at a dis-

and

the noise of his car, and that

the ape that roareth

Indeed, the ape striketh terror in the troops. And there stationed on that excellent car, the foremost of car-warrior draweth that
frightfully.

best of bows,

the Qandiva, whose twang
shafts

is

as

loud as the thunder.

Be-

hold, these
off barely

two

coming together

fall at

my feet, and two others pass

touching my ears. Completing the period of exile and having achieved many wonderful feats, Partha saluteth me and whispereth in my
ears.

Endued with wisdom and beloved

of his relatives, this Dhananjaya,

is. indeed, beheld by us after a long time, blazing with beauty and grace. Possessed of car and arrows, furnished with handsome fences and quiver and conch and banner and coat of mail, decked

the son of Pandu,

with diadem and scimitar and bow, the son of Pritha shineth like the blazing (Homa) fire surrounded with sacrificial ladles and fed with
sacrificial butter."

Vaisampayana continued "Beholding the Kurus ready for battle, Arjuna addressing Matsya's son in words suitable to the occasion said, 'O charioteer, restrain thou the steeds at such a point whence my arrows may reach the enemy. Meanwhile let me see wherei in the midst of this army, is that vile wretch of the Kuru race. Disregarding all these, and singling out that vainest of princes I will fall upon his head, for
upon the defeat of that wretch the others will regard themselves as And defeated. There standeth Drona, and there after him his son. there are those great bowmen Bhishma and Kripa and Kama. I do not
see,

however, the king there.

I

suspect that anxious to save his

life,

he

retreateth by the southern road, taking away with him the kine. Leaving this array of car-warriors, proceed to the spot where Suyodhana is. There will I fight, O son of Virata, for there the battle will not be fruitless. Defeating him I will come back, taking away the
kine.

"Thus addressed, the son of Virata resthem by a pull at the bridle from the spot where those bulls of the Kuru race were, and urged them on towards the place where Duryodhana was. And as Arjuna went away

Vaisampayana continued,

trained the steeds with an effort and turned

13

98

MAHABHAEATA

leaving that thick array of cars, Kripa, guessing his intention, addressed 'This Vibhatsu desireth not to take up his his own comrades, saying,

stand at a spot remote from the king. Let us quickly fall upon the When inflamed with wrath, none else, flanks of the advancing hero.
unassisted, can encounter

him

in

battle save

the deity of a thousand
use
to us

eyes, or Krishna the son of Devaki.

Of what

would the kine

be or this vast wealth
the ocean of Partha.
division of

also, if Duryodhana were to sink, like a boat, in Meanwhile Vibhatsu, having proceeded towards that the army, announced himself speedily by name, and covered

the troops with his arrows thick as locusts.
countless shafts shot by
thing, the earth itself

And covered

with those

And
that

the soldiers

Partha, the hostile warriors could not see anyand the sky becoming overwhelmed therewith. who had been ready for the fight were so confounded
flee
all

none could even
of

from the

field.
it

And

beholding the light-

handedness

Partha they

applauded

mentally.

And Arjuna

then

blew

conch which always made the bristles of the foe stand erect. his best of bows, he urged the creatures on his flagstaff to roar more frightfully. And at the blare of his conch and the rattle of
his

And twanging

his car-wheels,

human
tremble.

creatures

and the twang of the Qandiva, and the roar of the superstationed on his flagstaff, the earth itself began to

And shaking their upraised tails and lowing together, the kine " turned back, proceeding along the southern road.' Thus ends the fifty-third section in the Go-harana Parva of the
Virata Parva.

SECTION LIV
(Qo-Karana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana said, 'Having disorganised the hostile host by force and having recovered the kine, that foremost of bowmen, desirous of fighting again, proceeded towards Duryodhana. And beholding the kine running wild towards the city of the Matsyas, the foremost warriors of
the Kurus regarded Kiritin to have already achieved success. And all on a sudden they fell upon Arjuna who was advancing towards Duryo-

dhana.

And

beholding their countless divisions firmly arrayed in order

of battle with countless banners

waving over them, that
Matsyas, said

slayer of foes, ad-

dressing the son of the king of the

'Urge on, to the best

of their speed

by this road, these white steeds decked with golden bridles. Strive thou well, for I would approach this crowd of Kuru lions. Like an elephant desiring an encounter with another, the Suta's son of

who hath grown

wicked soul eagerly desireth a battle with me. Take me, O prince, so proud under the patronage of Duryodhana.

to

him Thus

VIRATA PABVA
addressed, the son of Virata by

99

means

of those large steeds

endued with

golden armour, broke that array of cars and took the Pandava into the midst of the battle-Held. And seeing this those mighty car-warriors, Chitrasena and Sangramajit
the speed of the wind and furnished with

and Satrusaha and Jaya, desirous of aiding Kama, rushed with arrows and long shafts, towards the advancing hero of Bharata's race. Then that foremost of men, inflamed with wrath, began to consume by means of fiery arrows shot from his bow, that array of cars belonging to those
bulls

among

the Kurus, like a

tremendous conflagration consuming

a

forest.

Then, when

the battle began to rage furiously, the

Kuru

hero,

Vikarna, mounted on his car, approached that foremost of car-warriors, Partha, the younger brother of Bhima, showering upon him terrible
shafts thick

and

long.

Then

cutting Vikarna's

bow furnished with
speedily took
to
ire,

a

tough string And Vikarna, beholding

and horns overlaid with
his flagstaff

gold, Arjuna cut off his flagstaff.

cut

off,

flight.

And
to

after Vikarna's flight, Satruntapa, unable to repress his

began

super-human means of a perfect shower of arrows. And drowned, as it feats, by were, in the midst of the Kuru-array, Arjuna, pierced by that mighty
afflict

Partha, that obstructer of foes and achiever of

car-warrior,

and then slew

king Satruntapa pierced the latter in return with five his car-driver with ten shafts, and pierced by that bull of

the Bharata race with an
mail,

Satruntapa

fell

arrow capable of cleaving the thickest coat of dead on the field of battle, like a tree from a

mountain-top torn up by the wind. And those brave bulls among men, mangled in battle by that braver bull among men, began to waver and tremble like mighty forests shaken by the violence of the wind that
blows at the time of the universal dissolution.

And

struck in battle by

Partha, the son of Vasava, those well-dressed heroes
givers of

among men

those

Vasava defeated and deprived of life, began to measure their lengths on the ground, like fullgrown Himalayan elephants clad in mails of black steel decked with
wealth endued with the energy
of

gold.

And

like

summer,

that

unto a raging fire consuming a forest at the close of foremost of men. wielding the Qandiva, ranged the
slaying his foes in battle thus.

field in all directions,

And

as the

wind

rangeth at will, scattering masses of clouds and fallen leaves in the season of spring, so did that foremost of car-warriors Kiritin ranged in
that battle, scattering
steeds yoked unto
all his

foes before him.

And

soon slaying the red

the car of Sangramajit, the brother of Vikartana's son,

that hero decked in diadem and
his antagonist's

was

slain,

endued with great vigour then cut off head by a crescent-shaped arrow. And when his brother Vikartana's son of the Suta caste, mustering all his prowess,

rushed at Arjuna,
like a tiger at a

huge elephant with out-stretched tusks, or mighty bull. And the son of Vikarna quickly pierced
like

a

100
the son of
of

MAHABHABATA
Pandu with twelve
shafts

and

all

his steeds also in

every part

their bodies and Virata's son too in his hand.

And

rushing impeagainst him,

tuously against Vikarna's son

who was suddenly advancing

Gadura of variegated plumage Kiritin attacked him fiercely like swooping down upon a snake. And both of them were foremost of bowmeni and both were endued with great strengthi and both were capable of slaying foes. And seeing that an encounter was imminent between
them, the Kauravas, anxious to witness it, stood aloof as lookers on. And beholding the offender Kama, the son of Pandu, excited to fury,

and glad

also at

car-driver invisible

having him, soon made him, his horses, his car, and by means of a frightful shower of countless arrows.

And

the warriors of the Bharatas headed by Bhishma, with their horses,

elephants, and cars, pierced by Kiritin and rendered invisible by
of his shafts,
in grief.

means

and broken, began to wail aloud and heroic Kama, however counteracting with numberless arrows of his own those shafts by Arjuna's hand, soon burst forth in view with bow and arrows like a blazing fire. And then there arose the sound of loud clapping of hands, with the blare of conches and
their ranks also scattered
illustrious

The

trumpets and kettle-drums made by the Kurus while they applauded Vikartana's son who filled the atmosphere with the sound of his bowagainst his fence. And beholding Kiritin filling the air with the twang of the Qandiva and the upraised tail of the monkey that constituted his flag and that terrible creature yelling furiously from the
string flapping

top of his

flagstaff,

Kama

sent forth a loud roar.

And

afflicting

by means

of his shafts,

Vikartana's son along with his steeds, car and car-driver, Kiritin impetuously poured an arrowy shower on him, casting his eyes

on the grandsire and Drona and Kripa. And Vikartana's son also poured upon Partha a heavy shower of arrows like a rain-charged cloud. And the diadem-decked Arjuna also covered Kama with a thick downpour
of

keen-edged shafts.

And

the two heroes stationed on their cars,

creating clouds of keen-edged arrows in a combat carried on by means

and weapons, appeared to the spectators like the sun and the moon covered by clouds, and the light-handed Kama, unable to bear the sight of the foe, pierced the four horses of the diadem-decked hero with whetted arrows, and then struck his car-driver with three shafts, and his flagstaff also with three. Thus struck, that grinder of
of countless shafts

Kuru race, Jishnu wielding the awaked from slumber, furiously attacked Kama by means of straight-going arrows. And afflicted by the arrowy shower (of Kama), that illustrious achiever of super-human deeds soon displayed a thick shower of arrows in return. And he covered Kama's car with
all

adversaries in battle, that bull of the

Qandiva, like a lion

countless shafts like the sun covering the different worlds with rays. And like a lion attacked by an elephant, Arjuna, taking some keen

crescent-shaped arrows from out of his quiver and drawing his bow to his ear, pierced the Suta's son on every part of his body. And that
grinder of foes pierced Kama's arms and thighs and head and forehead and neck and other principal parts of his body with whetted shafts endued with the impetuosity of the thunderbolt and shot from the Oandiva in battle. And mangled and afflicted by the arrows shot by Partha the son of Pandu, Vikartana's son, quitted the van of battle, and quickly took to flight, like one elephant vanquished by another.' Thus ends the fifty-fourth section in the Go-harana Parva of the
'

Virata Parva.

SECTION LV
(Go-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana
field,

said,

"After the son

of

Radha had

fled

from the

other warriors headed by Duryodhana, one after another, fell upon the son of Pandu with their respective divisions. And like the sore

of that

withstanding the fury of the surging sea, that warrior withstood the rage countless host rushing towards him, arrayed in order of battle

and showering clouds of arrows. And that foremost of car-warriors, Kunti's son Vibhatsu of white steeds, rushed towards the foe, discharging celestial

weapons

all

the while.

Partha soon covered

all

the points

arrows shot from the Oandiva, like the sun And amongst those that the whole earth with his rays. covering fought on cars and horses and elephants, and amongst the mail-clad
of the horizon with countless
foot-soldiers,
fingers'

there was none that had on his body a space of even two breadth unwounded with sharp arrows. And for his dexterity in applying celestial weapons, and for the training of the steeds and the
skill of

Uttara, and for the coursing of
the

his

weapons, and

his

prowess and
all

light-handedness, people began to regard Arjuna as the fire that blazeth

forth during

time of the universal dissolution for consuming

created things.

And none amongst

the foe could cast his eyes on

Arjuna who shone like a blazing fire of great effulgence. And mangled by the arrows of Arjuna. the hostile ranks looked like newly-risen clouds on the breast of a hill reflecting the solar rays, or like groves of Asoka trees resplendant with clusters of flowers. Indeed, afflicted by the arrows of Partha, the soldiers looked like these, or like a beautiful garland whose flowers gradually wither and drop away. And the allpervading wind bore on its wings in the sky the torn flags and umbrellas

havoc amongst their own ranks, the steeds fled in all directions, freed from their yokes by means of Partha's arrows and dragging after them broken portions of cars and elephants, struck on their ears and ribs and tusks and nether-lips and
of the
hostile host.

And

affrighted at the

102

MAHABHABATA
down on
the battle-field.
the earth,

other delicate parts of the body, began to drop

time with the corpses of elephants to the Kauravas, looked like the sky overcast with masses of belonging
in a short

And

bestrewn
as

black

clouds.

And
all

that

fire

of

blazing

flames at the end of the

Yuya consumeth
the energy of his

perishable tilings of

the world, both mobile
all

and

immobile, so did Partha,

O king,

consumeth
of

foes in battle.

And by

weapons and the twang

his

bow, and the preter-

natural yells of the creatures stationed on his flagstaff, and the terrible

roar of the monkey, and by the blast of his conch, that mighty grinder of foes, Vibhatsu, struck terror into the hearts of all the troops of

Duryodhana.
it

And

the

strength of every hostile warrior seemed, as
the dust at the very sight of Arjuna.
act of sin

were, to be levelled to

And

defenceless,

them that were the daring Arjuna suddenly fell back and attacked the army from behind by means of clouds of keen-edged arrows proceeding towards their aims like hawks let off by fowlers. And he soon covered the entire welunwilling to commit
of slaying

kin with clusters of blood-drinking arrows.
the powerful sun, entering a small vessel,

And

as the (infinite) rays of
it

are contracted within

for

Arjuna could not find space for their expansion even within the vast welkin. Foes were able to behold when near, only once, for immediately after, they were Arjuna'scar, with their horses, sent to the other world. And as his arrows unobstructed by the bodies of foes always passed through them, so his car, unim-

want

of space, so the countless shafts of

peded by hostile ranks, always passed through the latter. And, indeed, he began to toss about and agitate the hostile troops with great violence like the thousand-headed Vasuki sporting in the great ocean. And as
Kiritin incessantly shot his shafts, the noise of the bow-string, transcending every sound,

was

so loud that the

like of

it

had never been heard

before by
like

field, their bodies pierced with (blazing) arrows with small intervals between looked

created beings.

And

the elephants crowding the

black clounds coruscated with solar rays.

And

ranging in

all

directo

tions

and shooting (arrows) right and

left,

Arjuna's

bow was always

be seen drawn to a perfect circle, And the arrows of the wielder of the Oandiva never fell upon anything except the aim, even as the eye never dwelleth on anything that is not beautiful. And as the track of a herd
of elephants

marching through the forest
itself

is

made

of itself,

so

was the

track was made of

for the car of Kiritin.

And struck and mangled

Partha, the hostile warriors thought that
also regarded Vijaya,

Verily,

by Indra himself, desirous

of Partha' 8 victory, accompanied by all the immortals

who was making

is slaying us ! And they a terrible slaughter around, to be

none else than Death himself who having assumed the form of Arjuna, was slaying all creatures. And the troops of the Kurus, struck by Partha, were so mangled and shattered that the scene looked like the

VIEATA PABVA

103

else

achievement of Partha himself and could be compared with nothing save what was observable in Partha's combats. And he severed
the heads of foes,

evea

as

reapers cut off the tops of deciduous herbs.

And And

the Kurus

all lost

their

energy owing to the terror begot of Arjuna.

tossed and mangled by the Arjuna-gale, the forest of Arjuna's foes

reddened the earth with purple secretions.

And

the

dust mixed with

blood, uplifted by the wind, made the very rays of the sun redder still. And soon the sun-decked sky became so red that it looked very much
like the
sets,

evening. Indeed, the sun ceaseth to shed his rays as soon as he but the son of Pandu ceased not to shoot his shafts. And that hero of

inconceivable energy overwhelmed, by means of all celestial weapons, all the great bowmen of the enemy, although they were possessed of great prowess. And Arjuna then shot three and seventy arrows of

sharp points at Drona, and ten at Dussaha and eight at Drona's son, and twelve at Dussasana, and three at Kripa, the son of Saradwat. And that slayer of foes pierced Bhishma, the son of Santanu, with arrows, and
king Duryodhana with a hundred.
ear with a bearded shaft.
in all

And,

lastly,

he pierced

Kama

in the

And when

that great

bowman Karna,

skilled

weapons, was thus pierced, and
all

his horses

and car and car-driver

were
of

destroyed, the troops that supported him began to break.

And

beholding those soldiers break and give way,

the son of Virata desirous

knowing Partha's purpose, addressed him on the field of battle, and 'O Partha, standing on this beautiful car, with myself as chariosaid, For, commanded by thee, I teer, towards which division shall I go ? would soon take thee thither.'
"Arjuna replied.^'O Uttara, yonder auspicious warrior whom thou seest cased in coat of tiger skin and stationed on his car furnished with a blue-flag and drawn by red steeds, is Kripa. There is to be seen the van of Kripa's divison. Take me thither. I shall show that great bowman my swift-handedness in archery. And that warrior whose flag beareth the device of an elegant water-pot worked in gold, is the precepthat foremost of all wielders of weapons. He is always an tor Drona of regard with me, as also with all bearers of arms. Do thou, object circumbulate that great hero cheerfully. Let us bend our therefore, If Drona strikes my body heads there, for that is the eternal virtue. first, then I shall strike him, for then he will not be able to resent it. There, close to Drona, that warrior whose flag beareth the device of a
bow,
is

the preceptor's son, the great car-warrior Aswatthaman,

who

is

always an object of regard with me as also with every bearer of arms* Do thou, therefore, stop again and again, while thou comest by his car.
There, that warrior

who stayeth on

his car,

cased in

golden

mail and

surrounded by a third part of the army consisting of the most efficient troops, and whose flag beareth the device of an elephant in a ground of

104
gold,
is

MAHABHABATA
the illustrious king Duryodhana, the

son of Dhritarashtra.

O

hero, take before
cars.

him

this

thy car that

is

capable of grinding hostile

This king

is

difficult of

of grinding

all foes.

He

is

being vanquished in battle and is capable regarded as the first of all Drona's disciples
in battle,

in lightness of hand. in archery.

I shall,

show him my superior
flag

swiftness

There, that warrior whose
is

beareth the device of a
the son of

stout chord for binding elephants,

Kama,

Vikartanai

thou comest before that wicked son of be thou very careful, for he always challengeth me to an enRadha, counter. And that warrior whose flag is blue and breareth the device of five stars with a sun (in the centre), and who endued with great energy stayeth on his car holding a huge bow in hand and wearing excellent fences, and over whose head is an umbrella of pure white, who stancieth
to thee. at the

already known

When

head

of a multitudinous array of cars with various flags

and bann-

and whose mail of gold looks bright as the sun or the moon, and who with his helmet of gold striketh terror into my heart, is Bhishma, the son of Santanu and the grandsire of us all. Entertained with regal splendour by Duryodhana, he is very partial and well-affected towards that prince. Let
ers like the sun in
of black clouds,

advance of masses

him be approched last of all, for he may, even now, be an obstacle to me. While fighting with me, do thou carefully guide the steeds. Thus

O king, guided Savyasachin's car with towards the spot where Kripa stood anxious to fight. great alacrity Thus ends the fifty-fifth section in the Go-harana Parva of the
addressed by him, Virata's son,

Virata Parva.

SECTION LVI
(Qo-harana Parva continued)

"Vaisampayana

said,

"And

the ranks of those fierce bowmen, the

Kurus, looked like masses of clouds in the rainy season drifting before a gentle wind- And close (to those ranks of foot-soldiers) stood the

enemy's horses ridden by terrible warriors.

And there were also elephants of terrible mien, looking resplendent in beautiful armour, ridden by skilled combatants and urged on with iron crows and hooks. And,

Sakra came there accompanied by And crowded with gods, Yakshas. Qandharvas and Nagas, the firmament looked as resplendent as it does when bespangled with the planetary constellation in a cloudless night.
king,
a beautiful car,

O

mounted on

the celestials,

the Viswas and Maruts.

And the celestials came there, each on his own car, desirousof beholding the efficacy of their weapons in human warfare, and for witnessing also the fierce and mighty combat that would take place when Bhishma and
Arjuna would meet.

And

embellished with gems of every kind and

VIEATA PABVA

105

capable of going everywhere at the will of the rider, the heavenly car of
the lord of the celestials, whose roof was upheld by a hundred thousand
pillars of gold

with

(a

central) one

made

entirely of

was conspicuous

in the clear sky-

And

there

jewels and gems, appeared on the scene

three and thirty gods with Vasava (at their head), and (many) QandHarvas and Rakshasas and Nagas and Pirn's, together with the great Rishis.

And

seated on the car of the lord of the celestials, appeared the

efful-

Vasumanas and Valakshas and Supratarddana, and Ashtaka and Sivi and Yayati and Nahusha and Gaya and Manu and Puru and Raghu and Bhanu and Krisaswa and Sagara and Nala. And there shone in a splendid array, each in its proper place the cars of Agni and Isa and Soma and Varuna and Prajapati and Dhatriand Vidhatri and Kuvera and Yama, and Alamvusha and Ugrasena and others, and of the Qandharva Tumburu. And all the celestials and the Siddhas, and
gent persons of king,
all

And the sacred fragrance of celestial garlands the air like that of blossoming woods at the advent of spring. And the red and reddish umbrellas and robes and garlands and chamaras of the godsi as they were stationed there, looked exceedingly beautiful. And
filled

the foremost of sages Arjuna and the Kurus.

came there

to behold that

encounter between

the dust of the earth soon disappeared and (celestial)

effulgence

lit

up

everything.

redolent of divine perfumes, the breeze began to soothe the combatants. And the firmament seemed ablaze and exceedingly
beautiful, decked with already arrived

And

and arriving cars of handsome and various make, all illumined with diverse sorts of jewels, and brought thither by the foremost of the celestials. And surrounded by the celestials,

and wearing

a garland of lotuses

and

lilies

the thunder-bolt looked exceedingly beautiful on his car.
of Vala, although he steadfastly gazed at his

the powerful wielder of And the slayer
field of battle,

son on the

was not

satiated with such gazing."

Thus ends
Virata Parva.

the fifty-sixth section in the Go-harana

Parva

of

the

SECTION LVII
(

Go-harana Parva continued.

)

Vaisampayana
Virata's son, said,

said,

"Beholding the army of the Kurus arrayed in

order of battle, that descendant of the

Kuru

race,

Partha, addressing

Saradwat,

is

'Do thou proceed to the spot where Kripa, the son of by the southern side of that car whose flag is seen to going

bear the device of a golden altar."

Vaisampayana continued,
very hue decked
14
in

"Hearing these words

of

Dhananjaya,
sil-

the son of Virata urged, without a moment's delay, those steeds of

golden armour.

And making them

adopt, one after

106

MAHABHARATA
moon
in colour.

another, every kind of the swifter paces, he urged those fiery steeds

And versed in horse-lore, Uttara, having turned back those steeds endued with the approached the Kuru host, speed of the wind. And skilled in guiding vehicles, the prince of Matsya, sometimes wheeling about, and sometimes proceeding in circular mazes, and sometimes turning to the left, began to bewilder the Kurus. And
resembling the

wheeling round, the intrepid and mighty son of Virata at last approached the car of Kripa, and stood confronting him. Then announcing his own name, Arjuna powerfully blew that best of conches called Dcvadatta, of

loud blare.

And blown on

the field of battle

by the mighty

Jishnu, the blare of that conch was heard like the splitting of a mountain.

And seeing that the conch did not break into a hundred fragments when blown by Arjuna, the Kurus with all their warriors began to applaud it

And having reached the very heavens, that sound coining back was heard even like the crash of the thunder-bolt hurled by Maghavat on the mountain breast. Thereupon that heroic and intrepid and mighty car-warrior, Saradwat's son Kripa, endued with strength and prowess, waxing wroth at Arjuna, and unable to bear that sound and eager for
highly.
fight,
filling

took up his own sea-begotten conch and blew it vehemently. And the three worlds with that sound, that foremost of car- warriors

took up a large
other, shone like

bow and twanged
two masses
of

the

bow-string

powerfully.

And

those mighty car-warriors, equal unto

two suns, standing opposed to each autumnal clouds. Then Saradwat's son
vitals.

quickly pierced Partha, that slayer of hostile heroes, with ten swift and

whetted arrows capable of entering into the very
son also, on his part, drawing that foremost of
penetrating into the very

And
the
all

Pritha's

weapons,

celebrated over the world, shot innumerable iron arrows,

Gandiva, capable of

means

of

whetted

shafts,

core of the body. Thereupon Kripa, by cut into hundreds and thousands of fragments,

those blood-drinking arrows of Partha before they could come up. Then that mighty car-wan iors, Partha also, in wrath displaying various

manoevres, covered all sides with a shower of arrows. And covering the entire welkin with his shafts, that mighty warrior of immeasurable soul, the son of Pritha, enveloped Kripa with hundred of shafts. And sorely afflicted by those whetted arrows resembling flames of fire, Kripa waxed wroth and quickly afflicting the high-souled Partha of immeasurable
prowess with ten thousand shafts, set up on the
roar.
field of battle a loud the heroic Arjuna quickly pierced the four steeds of his adversary with four fatal arrows shot from the Oandiva, sharp and straight, and furnished with golden wings. And means of

Then

pierced by

those whetted arrows resembling flames of

those steeds suddenly reared themselves, and in consequence Kripa reeled off his And place. seeing Gautama thrown off his place, the slayer of hostile heroes, the
fire

VIEATA PAKVA

107

descendant of the Kuru race, out of regard for his opponent's dignity, ceased to discharge his shafts at him. Then regaining his proper place,

Gautama quickly pierced Savyasachin with ten arrows furnished with Kanka bird. Then with a crescent-shaped arrow of keen And soon Partha edge, Partha cut off Kripa's bow and leathern fences. cut off Kripa's coat of mail also by means of arrows capable of penetrafeathers of the
ting the very vitals, but he did not
his

wound

bis person.

And

divested of

coat of mail, his body resembled that
its

of a serpent
his

season cast off
Partha,
of
of

slough.

And

as soon as

which hath in bow had been cut off by

strange to say, that

Gautama took up another and stringed it in a trice. And bow of him was also cut off by Kunti's son, by means straight shafts- And in this way that slayer of hostile heroes, the son
Pandu, cut off other bows
as soon

as they
all

another, by Saradwat's son.
that mighty hero hurled,

And when
his car, at

were taken up, one after his bows were thus cut off,
like

from

Pandu's son, a javelin
a

unto

the blazing thunder-bolt.

Thereupon,

as the gold-decked

javelin

came

meteor, Arjuna cut it off by means of ten arrows. And beholding his dart thus cut off by the intelligent Arjuna, Kripa quickly took up another bow and almost
simultaneously shot a
quickly cut them

whizzing through the air with the flash of

number

of crescent-shaped arrows.

Partha,

how-

ever, keen-edged shafts, and endued with great energy, the son of Pritha then, inflamed with wrath on the field of battle, discharged three and ten arrows whetted on stone and resembling flames of fire. And with one of these he cut off the yoke of his adversary's car, and with four pierced his four steeds, and with the sixth he severed the head of his antagonist's car-driver from off his body. And with three that mighty car-warrior pierced, in that encounter,
its

into fragments by

means

of ten

the

triple

bamboo

pole of Kripa's car

and with two,

wheels.

And

with the twelfth arrow he cut off Kripa's flagstaff.

And
his

with the thirteenth Falguni,
derision,

who was

like

Indra himself as
his

if

smiling in
off,

pierced Kripa in the breast.
slain, his

Then with

bow

cut

car broken, his steeds

car-driver killed, Kripa leapt down and taking up a mace quickly hurled it at Arjuna. But that heavy and polished mace hurled by Kripa was sent back along its course, struck by

means

of Arjuna's arrows.

And

desirous of rescuing wrathful son of Saradwat
all sides

then the warriors (of Kripa's division), encountered Partha from

and covered him with their arrows.

Then the son

of

Virata,

turning the steed to the left began to perform circuitous evolution called Yamaka and thus withstood all those warriors. And those illustrious
bulls
car,

among men, taking Kripa with them who had been deprived of his led him away from the vicinity of Dhananjaya, the son of Kunti."
Thus ends the fifty-seventh section
in

the Go-harana Parva of

the Virata Parva.

SECTION

LVIII

(Qo-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana said, "After Kripa had thus been taken away, the invincible Drona of red steeds, taking up his bow to which he had already stringed an arrow, rushed towards Arjuna of white steeds. And beholding at no great distance from him the preceptor advancing on his golden car, Arjuna, that foremost of victorious warriors, addressing
Uttara, said,
'Blessed be thou,

O

friend, carry

me

before that warrior

on whose high banner-top is seen a golden altar resembling a long flame of 6re and decked with numerous flags placed around, and whose car is drawn by steeds that are red and large, exceedingly handsome and
highly trained, of face pleasant and of quiet mien, and like
in

unto corals

colour and with faces of coppery hue, for that warrior is Drona with whom I desire to 6ght. Of long arms and endued with mighty energy

beauty of person, celebrated over all the resembling Usanas himself in intelligence and prowess, Vrihaspati in knowledge of morality, he is conversant with the four Vedas and devoted to the practice of Bra/imacharya virtues. O friend,
possessed of strength and

worlds for

his

the use of the celestial

weapons together with the mysteries

of their with-

drawal and the entire science of weapons, always reside in him. Forgiveness, self-control, truth, abstention from injury, rectitude of conduct, these and countless other virtues always dwell in that regenerate one. I desire to fight with that highly blessed one on the field. Therefore,
take

me

before the preceptor and carry

me

thither,

O

1

'

Uttara.

"Thus addressed by Arjuna, Virata's son decked with gold towards the car of Bharadwaja's son. And Drona also rushed towards the impetously advancing Partha, the son of Pandu, that foremost of car-warriors, like an infuriate elephant rushing towards an infuriate compeer. And the son of Bharadwaja then blew his conch whose blare resembled that of a hundred trumpets. And at that sound the whole army became agitated like the sea in a tempest.

Vaisampayana continued
his steeds

urged

And

beholding those excellent steeds red in hue mingling in battle with Arjuna's steeds of swan-like whiteness endued with the speed of the

mind,
Partha

all

the spectators

were

filled

with wonder.

And

seeing

on the

field of battle

those car-warriors

the preceptor

Drona and

his disciple

both endued with prowess, both invincible, both well-trained, both possessed of great energy and great strength, engaged with each other, that mighty host of the Bharatas began to tremble frequently. And that mighty car-warrior Partha, possessed of great prowess and filled with joy upon reaching Drona's car on his own, saluted the precepAnd that slayer of hostile heroes, the mighty armed son of Kunti, tor.

VIBATA PAEVA
then addressed Drona in an humble and sweet tone, saying,

109

'Having

completed our
wrongs. Even angry with us.

exile in the

woods, we
I

are
it

now

desirous of avenging our

invincible in battle,

O

sinless one,

will not strike thee unless

doth not behove thee to be thou strikest

me

first.

choosest.

arrows.

It behoveth thee to act as thou this is my intention. Thus addressed Drona discharged at him more than twenty But the light-handed Partha cut them off before they could

Even

reach him.

And

at this,

the mighty Drona, displaying his lightness of

hand
soul,

in

arrows.

the use of weapons, covered Partha's car with a thousand And desirous of angering, Partha, that hero of immeasurable

then covered his steeds of silvery whiteness with arrows whetted on stone and winged with the feathers of the Kanka bird. And when
the

battle

between Drona and Kiritin thus commenced, both

of

them

discharging in the encounter arrows of blazing splendour, both well-

known

achievements, both equal to the wind itself in speed, both conversant with celestial weapons, and both endued with mighty energy, began shooting clouds of arrows to bewilder the royal Kshafor their
triyas.

And

all

the warriors that were assembled there were

filled

with

admired Drona who quickly they Well done shot clouds of arrows exclaiming, Well done Indeed, who else save Falguna, is worthy of fighting with Drona in battle 1 Surely the

wonder

at sight of all this.

And

all

I

!

duties of a Kshatriya are stern, for
tor

Arjuna

fighteth

with even his

own

precpsaid

/And

it

was thus that they who stood on

the field of battle

mighty-armed heroes standing before each other, and each incapable of overcoming the other, covered each other with arrowy showers. And Bharadwaja's son, waxing wroth, drew his large and unconquerable bow plated on the back with gold, and pierced Falguna with his arrows. And discharging at Arjuna's car innumerable whetted arrows possessed of solar effulgence,
fire,

unto one another.

And

inflamed with

those

he entirely shrouded the

light of the sun.

And

that

great car-warrior

of mighty arms, violently pierced

Pritha's son with

keen-edged shafts

even as the clouds shower upon a mountain. Then taking up that foremost of bows, the Oandiva, destructive of foes and capable of withstandimpetuous son of Pandu cheerfully discharged countless shafts of various kinds adorned with gold, and that powerful warrior also baffled in a moment Drona's arrowy shower by means of those shafts shot from his own bow. And at this the spectators wondered greatly. And the handsome Dhananjaya, the son of Pritha,
ing the greatest strain, the

And

ranging on his car, displayed his weapons on all sides at the same time." the entire welkin covered with his arrows, became one wide

expanse of shade.

And at this Drona became invisible like the sun enveloped in mist. And shrouded by those excellent arrows on all sides, Drona looked like a mountain on fire. And beholding his own car

110

MAHABHABATA

completely enveloped by the arrows of Pritha's son, Drona that ornament of battle, bent his terrible and foremost of bows whose noise was
as loud as that of the clouds.

And drawing

that first of weapons,
a

which

was

shafts.

keen-edged fire, he discharged then there were heard on the field loud sounds like the And that warrior of immeasurable splitting of bamboos set on fire. soul, shooting from his bow arrows furnished with golden wings, covered
like

unto a circle of

cloud of

And

all sides,

shrouding the very light of the sun. And those arrows with knots well peeled off, and furnished with golden wings, looked like

And the arrows discharged by Drona from touching one another at the wings, appeared like one endless And those heroes, thus discharging their arrows decked line in the sky.
flocks of birds in the sky.

his bow,

with gold, seemed to cover the sky with showers of meteors. And furnished with feathers of the Kanka bird, those arrows looked like rows

And the fierce and terrible of cranes ranging in the autumnal sky. encounter that took place between the illustrious Drona and Arjuna
resembled that between Virata and Vasava of old.

And

discharging

arrows at each other from bows drawn at their fullest stretchi they resembled two elephants assailing each other with their tusks. And
those wrathful warriors

those

ornaments

of

battle

fighting strictly

according to established usage, displayed in that conflict various celestial

weapons in due order. Then that foremost of victorious men, Arjuna, by means of his keen shafts resisted the whetted arrows shot by that And displaying before the spectators various weabest of preceptors. pons, that hero of terrible prowess covered the sky .with various kinds And beholding that tiger among men, Arjuna, endued with of arrows.
fierce

energy and intent upon

striking him,

that foremost of warriors
to fight

with him playfully and best of preceptors (from affection) began by means of smooth and straight arrows. And Bharadwaja's son fought on with Falguna, resisting with his own the celestial weapons shot by
the former.

And the fight that took place between those enraged lions men, incapable of bearing each other, was like unto the encounamong ter between the And the son of Pandu gods and the Danavas.
repeatedly baffled with his own, the Aindra, the Vayavya and the Agneya weapons that were shot by Drona. And discharging keen shafts, those
t

mighty bowmeni by their arrowy showers completely covered the sky and made a wide expanse of shade. And then the arrows shot by
Arjuna, falling on the bodies of hostile warriors, produced the crash of O king, elephants, cars, and horses, bathed in blood, looked like Kinsuka trees crowned with flowers. And in that encounter
thunder-bolt.

between Drona and Arjuna, beholding the field covered with arms decked with bangles, and gorgeously-attired car-warriors, and coats of mail variegated with gold, and with banners lying scattered all about,

VIRATA PARVA
and with warriors
slain

111

by means of Partha's arrows, the Kuru host

became

panic-stricken.

And

much

strain,

those combatants began to shroud and

shaking their bows capable of bearing weaken each other

with their shafts.

And,

O

bull of the

Bharata race, the encounter that

took place between Drona and Kunti's son was dreadful in the extreme and resembled that between Vali and Vasava. And staking their very
lives,

fully-stretched bowstrings.
ing

they began to pierce each other straight arrows shot from their And a voice was heard in the sky applaud-

Drona, and saying, 'Difficult is the feat performed by Drona, inasmuch as he fighteth with Arjuna, that grinder of foes, that warrior endued with mighty energy, of firm grasp, and invincible in battle,
that conqueror of both celestials and
warriors.'

Daityas,

that foremost of all car-

And

beholding Partha's infallibility, training, fleetness of hand,
also of

and the range

O

Arjuna's arrows, Drona became amazed. And, bull of the Bharata race, lifting up his excellent bow, the Oandiva

the unforbearing Partha

drew

it

now with one hand and now with
beholding that shower resembling

another shot an arrowy shower.
a flight of locusts, the spectators
'Excellent'
!

And

'Excellent'
air

!

And

wondering applauded him exclaiming, so ceaselessly did he shoot his arrows

And the to penetrate the thick array. could not perceive any interval between the taking up of the spectators arrows and letting them off. And in that fierce encounter characterthat the

very

was unable

ised

by lightness of band

in the

discharge of weapons, Partha began to

shoot his arrows more quickly than before.

And

then

all

at

once

hundreds and thousands of straight arrows fell upon Drona's car. And, O bull of the Bharata race, beholding Drona completely covered by the wielder of the Oandiva with his arrows, the Kuru army set up exclama-

0h r and 'Alas' ! And Maghavat, together with those Qandharvas and Apsaras that have come there, applauded the fleetness And that mighty car-warrior, the preceptor's son, of Partha's hand.
tion

I

of

then resisted the Pandava with a mighty array of cars. And although enraged with Arjuna, yet Aswatthaman mentally admired that feat of the high-souled son of Pritha. And waxing wroth, he rushed towards
Partha, and discharged at him an arrowy shower like a heavy downpour by the cloud. And turning his steeds towards Drona's son, Partha

gave Drona an opportunity to leave the

field.

And thereupon

the

latter, wounded in that terrible encounter, and his mail and banner gone sped away by the aid of swift horses. Thus ends the fifty-eighth section in the Go-harana Parva of

the Virata Parva.

SECTION LIX
(Qo-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana
conflict
like

said,

"Then!

O

mighty king, Drona's son rushed to

an encounter with A rjuna
Pritha's son received

in battle.

And

beholding his rush to the
rain-charged cloud

a hurricane, showering shafts like a

him with a cloud of arrows. And terrible was the encounter between them, like that between the gods and the Danavas. And they shot arrows at each other like Virata and Vasava. And the
welkin being enveloped on
hidden,
all

sides with arrows, the sun

was completely

conqueror of hostile cities, as they assailed and struck each other, loud sounds arose as of bamboos on fire. And, O king, Aswatthaman's horses being sorely
air itself

and the

was hushed.

And,

O

by Arjuna> they became bewildered and could not ascertain which way to go. And as Pritha's son ranged on the field, the powerful son of Drona finding an opportunity, cut off the string of the
afflicted

Qandiva with an arrow furnished with a horse-shoe head.
ing that extraordinary feat of
his,
!'

And

behold-

the
'well

celestials

applauded him highly.

And

exclaiming

"Well done

done
all

!'

Drona and Bhishma, and
of

Kama, and
greatly.
his
shafts,

the mighty warrior Kripa,

applauded that feat

his

And

the son of Drona, drawing his excellent bow, pierced with furnished with the feathers of the KanTca bird, the breast of

Partha, that bull

among

warriors.

the mighty-armed son of Pritha attached a strong

Thereupon, with a loud laughter, and fresh string to
'

bow-string with the sweat that stood on his forehead resembling the crescent moon, Pritha's son advanced towards his adversary, even as an infuriated leader of a herd of
Qandiva.

And

moistening

his

elephants rusheth at another elephant. And the encounter that took place between those two matchless heroes on the field of battle was

exceedingly fierce and made the bristles of the spectators stand on their ends. And as those heroes endued with mighty energy fought on, the

two mighty elephants, the Kurus beheld them with wonder. And those brave bulls among men assailed each other with arrows of snaky forms
and resembling blazing fires. And as the couple of quivers belonging to the Pandava was inexhaustible, that hero was able to remain on the

And as Aswatthaman's arrows, in field immovable as a mountain. consequence of his ceaseless discharge in that conflict, were quickly exhausted, it was for this that Arjuna prevailed over his adversary. Then Kama, drawing his large bow with great force twanged the bowstring.

And thereupon

arose

loud exclamation of

And

Pritha's son, casting his eyes towards the

Oh spot where

\

and Alaa
that

l

j'

bow was

twanged, beheld before him the son of Radha. And at that sight his wrath was greatly excited. And inflamed with ire and desirous of slay-

VIEATA PABVA
ing

113

race stared at him with rolling eyes. And, O king, beholding Partha turn away from Aswatthaman's side, the Kuru warriors discharged thousands of arrows on Arjuna. And the

Kama,

that bull of the

Kuru

all

mighty-armed Dhananjaya, that conqueror of foes, leaving Drona's son, on a sudden rushed towards Kama. And rushing towards Kama,

with eyes reddened in anger the son of Kunti, desirous of a single combat with him, said these words."

Thus ends the
Virata Parva,

fifty-ninth

section in the

Go-harana Parva

of the

SECTION LX
(Go'harana Parva continued.)

"Arjuna

said,

"The

time,

O

Kama, hath now come

for

making

good thy loquacious boast in the midst of the assembly, viz, that there is none equal to thee in fight. Today, O Kama, contending with me in

thou shalt know thy own strength, and shalt no longer disregard others. Abandoning good breeding, thou hadst uttered many harsh words, but this that thou endeavourest to do, is, I think, exceeterrible conflict,

dingly difficult.

sight of the Kurus,

of

myself.'
in

Radha's son, contending with me in the make good what thou hadst said before in disregard Thou who hadst witnessed Panchala's princess outraged by

Do

thou now,

O

villains

act of thine.

the court, do thou now reap the fruit of that Fettered by the bonds of morality before, I desisted from vengeance then. Behold now, O son of Radha, the fruit of that wrath

the midst of

in conflict at hand.

O

that forest for full

twelve years.

wicked wight, we have suffered much misery in Reap thou today the fruits of our

concentrated vengeance.
words,

Come,

O

Kama, cope with me

in

battle.

Let these thy Kaurava warriors witness the conflict. Hearing these Kama replied, 'Do thou, O Partha, accomplish in deed what thou sayst in words. The world knows that thy words verily exceed thy deed. That thou hadst foreborne formerly was owing to thy inIf we witness thy prowess even now, we may ability to do anything. acknowledge its truth. If thy past forbearance was due to thy having been bound by the bonds of morality, truly thou art equally bound now

Having as thou sayst, passed thy woods in strict accordance with thy pledge and being therefore weakened by practising an ascetic course of life, how canst thou desire a combat with me now. O Pritha's son, if Sakra himself fight on thy side, still I would feel no anxiety in putting forth my prowess. Thy wish, O son of Kunti, is about to be gratified. Do thou fight with me
although thou regardest thyself free.
exile
in the

now, and behold

O

my strength. Hearing this, Arjuna said, 'Even now, Radha's son, thou hadst fled from battle with me, and it is for this
15

114

MAHABHABATA

that thou livest although thy younger brother hath been slain. What other person, save tliee, having beheld his younger brother slain in battle would himself fly from the field, and boast as thou dost, amid

good and true

men

'

?'

Vaisampayana continued,
the invincible Vibhatsu rushed at

"Having said these words unto Kama, him and charged a volley of shafts

capable of penetrating through a coat of mail. But that mighty carwarrior, Kama, received with great alacrity that discharge with an

arrowy shower of
steeds

his

own, heavy

as the

that fierce volley of arrows covered

all sides

down-pour of the clouds. And and severally pierced the

and arms and leathern fences of the combatants. And incapable of putting up with that assault. Arjuna cut off the strings of Kama's quiver by means of a straight and sharp arrow. Thereupon taking out

from

his

quiver another arrow,
off

Kama

pierced the
into

Pandava

in the

hand

at which the latter's hold of

the

bow was

loosened.

mighty-armed Partha cut
replied

Kama's bow

And then the fragments. And Kama

by hurling a dart at his adversary, but Arjuna cut it off by means of his arrows. And then the warriors that followed the son of Radha rushed in crowds at Arjuna, but Partha sent them all to the abode of Yama by means of arrows shot from the Qandiva. And Vibhatsu slew the steeds of Kama by means of sharp and tough arrows shot from the bow-string drawn to the ear, and deprived of life they dropped down on the ground. And taking another sharp and blazing arrow endued with great energy the mighty son of Kunti pierced the breast of Kama.
(

And And

that arrow, cleaving through his mail, penetrated into his body. at this, Kama's vision was obscured and bis senses left him. And

regaining consciousness, he felt a great pain, and leaving the combat fled in a northerly direction. And at this the mighty car-warrior Arjuna,

and Uttara, both began to address him contumely." Thus ends the sixtieth section in the Go-harana Parva of the
Virata Parva.

SECTION LXI
(Qo.harana Parva continued.)

Vaisampayana
said

said,

"Having defeated Vikartana's

son,

Arjuna
where,

unto the son

of Virata,

Take me towards

that

division

younder device of a golden palmyra is seen. There our grandfather, Santanu's son, like unto a celestial, waiteth, desirous of an encounter with me.' Thereupon, beholding that mighty host thronged with cars

and horses and elephants, Uttara. sorely pierced with arrows, said, 'O hero, I am no longer able to guide thy excellent steeds. My spirits droop and my mind is exceedingly bewildered. All the directions seem

VIEATA PABVA
to be whirling before
tial

115

my eyes in consequence of the energy of the celesused by thee and the Kurus. I have been deprived of my weapons senses by the stench of fat and blood and flesh. Beholding all this, from
terror

my mind

is,

as it were, cleft in twain.

Never before had

I

be-

held such a muster of heroes in battle.

And

at the flapping of fences,

and the blare of conches, the leonine roars made by the warriors and the shrieks of elephants, and the twang of the Qandiva resembling the thunder, I have, O hero, been so stupefied that I have been deprived of both hearing and memory. And, O hero, beholding thee incessantly
drawing to a
circle, in
fire,

bleth a circle of

course of the conflict, the Qandiva which resemmy sight faileth me and my heart is rent asunder.

And

seeing thy

fierce

form

in

battle, like

that of the wielder of the

Pinaka while inflamed with wrath, and looking also at the terrible arrows
shot by thee,
I

am

filled

with fear.

I fail

to see

when thou

takest

up

thy excellent arrows, when thou fixest them on the bow-string, and when thou lettest them off. And though all this is done before my eyes, My spirits are drooping yet, deprived of my senses, I do not see it.

seems to be swimming before me. I have no strength to hold the whip and the reins. Hearing these words, Arjuna said, 'Do thou not fear. Assure thyself. Thou also hast, on the field of battle performed, O bull among men, wonderful feats. Blessed be thou, thou

and earth

itself

art a prince

and born in the

illustrious line of

Matsyas.

It

behoveth

thee not to feel dispirited in chastising thy foes. Therefore, prince, stationed on my car, muster all thy fortitude and hold the reins of my
steeds,

O

once more become engaged in battle.' Vaisampayana continued, "Having said this unto Virata's son, that best of men and foremost of car-warriors, the mighty-armed Arjuna,
foes,
I

O slayer of

when

'

again addressed the son of Virata, saying,
the van
battle.

Take me without delay to
very bow-string
in the

of Bhishma's division.

I

will cut off his

Thou

shalt behold today the celestial weapons of blazing beauty,
like flashes of lightning disporting

shot by
the sky.

me, look

amid the clouds

in

The Kauravas

shall

behold the gold-decked back of

my

Qandiva today, and assembled together the foe shall dispute, saying, By which hand of hie, the right or the left, doth he shoot ? And I shall cause a
dreadful river (of death)
to flow today towards the other world with
its

blood for
diles.

its

waters and cars for
today, with
feet

eddies,

and elephants

for its croco-

I shall

my

straight arrows, extirpate the

Kuru

forest
of

having hands and
its

and heads and backs and arms for the branches

Alone, bow in hand, vanquishing the Kuru host, a hundred shall open before me like those of a forest in conaflagration. Struck paths by me thou shalt today behold the Kuru army moving round and round
trees.

like a

excellent

wheel (unable to fly off the field). I shall show thee today my training in arrows and weapons. Stay thou on my car firmly,

116

MAHABHABATA

whether the ground be smooth or uneven. I can pierce with ray winged arrows even the mountain of Sumerw that stands touching the very heavens. I slew of old, at Indra's command, hundreds and thousands and Kalakhanjas in battle. I have obtained my firmness of from Brahman, and I have grasp from Indra, and my lightness of hand of fierce attack and defence amid crowds of foes learnt various modes
of Paulomas

vanquished, on the other side of the great ocean, sixty thousands of car-warriors all fierce archers residing in HiranyapuraBehold, now I defeat the multitudinous host of the Kurus, like a tempest

from

Prajapati.

I

scattering a heap of cotton.
the Kuru-forest to
for its shrubsi
fire,

With my
its

fiery

arrows

I shall

today set

having banners for

its trees,

the foot-soldiers

and the car-warriors for

beasts of prey. Like unto the
I shalli

wielder of the

thunder-bolt overthrowing the Danavas, alone

with my straight arrows, bring down from the chambers of their cars the mighty warrior of the Kuru army stationed therein and struggling
in the

conflict

to the best of their power.

I

have obtained from Rudra

the RaudVa, from

Vanma

the Varuna, from Agni the Agneya, from the

god of

Wind
I

the Vayava,

and from Sakra the thunderbolt and other
Therefore,

weapons.
let

shall

certainly exterminate the fierce Dfiartarashtra-forest

though protected by many leonine warriors. thy fears be dispelled.
1
'

O

Virata's son

Vaisampayana continued,

"Thus assured by Savyasachin,

the son

of Virata penetrated into that fierce array of cars protected

by Bhishma.

The

son of Ganga, however, of fierce deeds, cheerfully withstood the

mighty-armed hero advancing from desire of vanquishing the heroes in battle. Jishnu, then, confronting Bhishma, cut off his standard clean off at the roots by shooting a gold-decked arrow pierced by which it fell to

And at this, four mighty warriors, Dussasana and Vikarna and Dussaha and Vivingsati, skilled in weapons and endued with great energy, and all decked with handsome garlands and ornaments, rushed towards that terrible bowman. And advancing towards Vibhatsu that fierce archer, these all encompassed him around. Then the heroic
the ground.

Dussasana pierced the son of Virata with a crescent-shaped arrow and he pierced Arjuna with another arrow in the breast. And Jisunu, confronting Dussasana, cut off by

means

of a sharp-edged

with vulturine wings

his

adversary's

bow

plaited with gold,

arrow furnished and then

pierced his person in the breast by means of five arrows. And afflicted by the arrows of Partha, Dussasana fled, leaving the combat. Then Vikarna, the son of Dhritarashtra, pierced Arjuna that slayer of hostile
heroes,

by means of sharp and straight arrows furnished with vulturine But the son of Kunti within a moment hit him also in the forehead with straight shafts. And pierced by Arjuna, he fell down from
wings.
his car.

And

at this, Dussaha,

supported by Vivingsati, covered Arjuna

VIRATA PABVA
with
a

brother.
of

cloud of sharp arrows, impelled by the desire of rescuing his Dhananjaya, however, without the least anxiety, pierced both
at

them almost

the

same instant by means

of couple of keen-edged

arrows and then slew the steeds of both.

And

thereupon both those

sons of Dhritarashtra, deprived of their steeds and their bodies mangled,

were taken away by the warrior behind them who had rushed forward with other cars. Then the unvanquished Vibhatsu, the mighty son of Kunti, decked with diadem and sure of aim, simultaneously attacked all sides with his arrows."

Thus ends the
Virata Parva.

sixty-first section in

the Go-harana Parva of

the

SECTION LXII
(Go-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana

said,

"Then,

O

thou of the Bharata race,

all

the

great car-warriors of the Kurus, united together, began to assail
to the best of their might
soul

from
all

all sides.

But that hero

of

Arjuna immeasurable

completely covered

those

mighty car-warriors with clouds of

And the roars of huge and conches, mingling together, produced a loud uproar. And elephants penetrating through the bodies of elephants and horses as also through steel coats of mail, the arrows shot by Partha fell by thousands. And
arrows, even as the mist covereth the mountains.
shooting shafts with the utmost celerity, the son of Pandu seemed in that contest to resemble the blazing sun of an autumnal midday. And

with fear, the car-warriors began to leap down from their cars and the horse-soldiers from horse-back, while the foot-soldiers began to And loud was the clatter made by Arjuna's shafts fly in all directions.
afflicted

mail belonging to mighty warriors, made of And the field was soon covered with the steel, silver, and copper. corpses of warriors mounted on elephants and horses, all mangled by the
as they cleft

the coats of

shafts

impetuousity like unto sighing snakes. And then it seemed Dhananjaya, bow in hand, was dancing on the field of battle. And sorely affrighted at the twang of the Gandiva resembling
of

Partha

of great

as

if

the noise of the thunder,
terrible conflict.

many were
field of

the combatants that fled from that
battle

And

the

was bestrewn with severed

heads decked with turbans, ear-rings and necklaces of gold, and the earth looked beautiful by being scattered all over with human trunks mangled by shafts, and arms having bows in their grasp and hands decked with

ornaments.

And,

O

bull of the Bharata race, in
shafts ceaselessly
falling

cut off by whetted
as
if

consequence of heads on the ground, it seemed

a shower of stones fell

from the skyfierceness,

able prowess, displaying his

And that Partha of formidnow ranged the field of battle,

118

MAHABHAEATA
fire of his

pouring the terrible

wrath upon the sons
in the

of Dhritarashtra.

And

beholding the fierce
host,

prowess of Arjuna who thus scorched the

hostile

the

Kuru

warriors,

very presence of Duryodhana,

became

dispirited and ceased

to fight.

And

O

Bharata,

having struck

terror into that

host and routed those mighty car-warriors, that forefield.

most of victors, ranged on the
on the
field of

And

the son of

Pandu then created

dreadful river of blood, with waving billows, like unto the river of death that is created by Time at the end of the
battle a

floating

Fuga, having the dishevelled hair of the dead and the dying for its moss and straw, with bows and arrows for its boats, fierce in the

extreme and having flesh and animal juices for its mire. And coats of mail and turbans floated thick on its surface. And elephants constituted And marrow and fat and blood its alligators and the cars its rafts.
constituted
its

currents.

And

it

was calculated

to strike

terror into

the hearts of the spectators.
the extreme, and resounding

And

dreadful to behold, and fearful in

with the yells of "ferocious beasts, keenedged weapons constituted its crocodiles. And Rakshasas and other cannibals haunted it from one end to the other. And strings of pearls constituted its ripples, and various excellent ornaments, its bubbles.

And

having swarms of arrows for

its fierce

eddies and

steeds for

its

tortoises, it

warriors constituted

was incapable of being crossed. And the mighty carits large island, and it resounded with the blare of

conches and the sound of drums.
created was incapable of being

And

the river of blood

that Partha

crossed.

Indeed, so swift-handed was

Arjuna that the spectators could not perceive any interval between his taking up an arrow, and fixing it on the bow-string, and letting it off by a stretch of the Qandiva"

Thus ends the sixty-second section
Virata Parva.

in the

Go-harana Parva of the

Ai

Li
SECTION.JLXIl
(Go-harana Parva continued)

jf

Vaisampayana said, "Then while a great havoc was being made among the Kurus, Santanu's son, Bhishma, and grandsire of the Bharatas rushed at Arjuna, taking up an excellent bow adorned with gold, and many arrows also of keen points and capable of piercing into the very vitals of the foe and afflicting him sorely. And in consequence of a
white umbrella being held over his head, that tiger among men looked beautiful like unto a hill at sun-rise. And the son of Ganga, blowing his conch cheered the sons of Dhritarashtra, and wheeling along his right came upon Vibhatsu and impeded his course. And that slayer of
hostile heroes, the son of Kunti,

beholding him approach, received him

VIEATA PABVA
with a glad heart, like a
hill

119

receiving a rain-charged cloud.

And

Bhishma, endued with great energy, pierced Partha's flag-staff with The arrows reaching the flag-staff of Pandu's son, struck eight arrows.

and those creatures also stationed in the banner-top. then the son of Pandu, with a mighty javelin of sharp-edge cut off Bhishma's umbrella which instantly fell on the ground. And then the
the blazing ape

And

light-handed son of Kunti struck his adversary's flag-staff also with
shafts,

many

and then the couple of drivers that protected Bhishma's flanks. And unable to bear this, Bhishma though cognisant of the Pandava's mighti covered Dhananjaya with a powerful celestial
his steeds

and then

weapon.

And

the son of Pandu, of immeasurable soul, hurling in return
at

a celestial

weapon

receiving a deep mass of clouds.
their troops stood as lookers on.

Bhishma, received that from Bhisma like a hill And the encounter that took place
fierce

between Partha and Bhishma, was

And

in the conflict

and the Kaurava warriors with between Bhishma
in the air like

and the son
fireflies in

of

Pandu, shafts striking against shafts shone

king in consequence of Partha's arrows with both his right and left hands, the bent Qandiva shooting seemed like a continuous circle of fire. And the son of Kunti then

the season of rains. And,

O

covered Bhishma with hundreds of sharp and keen-edged arrows, like a cloud covering the mountain breast with its heavy downpour. And Bhishma baffled with his own arrows that arrowy shower, like the bank
resisting the swelling sea,

and covered the son of Pandu
pieces in
battle,

in return.

And
the

those warriors, cut into a thousand
vicinity
of

fell

fast

in

then there was a downpour, from the car of Pandu's son, of arrows furnished with golden wing, and raining
Falguna's car.

And

through the sky like a flight of locusts. And Bhishma again repelled that arrowy shower with hundreds of whetted shafts shot by him. And
then the Kauravas exclaimed

Excellent

hath performed an exceedingly fought with Arjuna. Dhananjaya

and swift of hand.

Who
is

else,

Indeed, Bhishma inasmuch as he hath is mighty and youthful, and dexterous save Bhishma, the son of Santanu,
1

Excellent
feat

1

difficult

or Krishna, the son of Devaki, or the

mighty son of Bharadwaja, the
?

foremost of preceptors,

able to bear the impetus of Partha in battle

And repelling weapons with weapons, those two bulls of the Bharata race, both endued with great might, fought on playfully and infatuated the eyes of all created beings. And those illustrious warriors ranged on the field of battle, using the celestial weapons obtained from Prajapati, and Indra, and Agni and the fierce Rudra, and Kuvera, and Varuna, and Yama, and Vayu. And all beings were greatly surprised, upon beholding those warriors engaged in combat. And they all exclaimed, Bravo Partha of long arms I Bravo Bhishma ! Indeed, this application of -celestial weapons that is being witnessed in the combat between Bhishma and Paitha is rare among human beings."

120

MAHABHABATA

Vaisampayana continued "Thus raged that conflict with weapons between those warriors conversant with all weapons. And when that
conflict of celestial

weapons ceased, then commenced a
his

conflict

with

arrows.

And

Jishnu approaching

opponent, cut off with an arrow

sharp like a razor the gold-decked bow of Bhishma. Within the twinkling of the eye, however, Bhishma, that mighty-armed and great
car-warrior, took up another bow and stringed it. And inflamed with wrath, he showered upon Dhanarijaya a cloud of arrows. And Arjuna, too, endued with great energy, rained upon Bhishma innumerable sharp-

pointed and keen-edged arrows.

upon Pandu's

son.

And Bhishma also shot clouds of arrows And conversant with celestial weapons and engaged
arrows of keen points, no distinction,

in shooting, at each other,

O

king,

could then be preceived between those illustrious warriors. And that mighty car-warrior, Kunti's son, covered with a diadem, and the heroic
son of Santanu. obscured the ten directions with their arrows.

And

the

Pandava covered Bhishma, and Bhishma also covered the Pandava, with clouds of shafts. And, O king, wonderful was this combat that
took place in this world of men.
ted Bhishma's

And

the heroic warriors that protecfell

can

slain

by the son of Pandu,

prostrate,

O monarch,

beside the car of Kunti's son.

And
all

shot fron the Gandiva,

fell

in

the feathery arrows of Setavahana, directions as if with the object of

making
swans

a wholesale slaughter of the foe.

And

issuing forth from his car

those blazing arrows furnished with golden wings looked like
in

rows of

the sky.

And

all

the celestials with Indra, stationed in the

firmament, gazed with wonder upon another celestial weapon hurled with great force by that wonderful archer Arjuna. And beholding that

wonderful weapon of great beauty, the mighty Gandiva, Chitrasena,
highly pleased,

addressed the lord of celestials, saying,
in

'Behold these
line.
!

arrows shot by Partha coursing through the sky

one continuous

Wonderful

Human

the dexterity of Jishnu in evolving this celestial weapon beings are incapable of shooting such a weapon, for it does not
is

How wonderful again is this concourse of mighty exist among men. weapons existing from days of old! No interval can be preceived between his taking up the arrows, fixing them on the bow-string, and The soldiers are incapable letting them off by stretching the Gandiva.
of

even looking at the son of Pandu, who is like unto the midday sun blazing in the sky. So also none ventures to look at Bhishma, the son
of

Ganga-

fierce prowess. of being

Both are famous for their achievements, and both are of Both are equal in feats of heroism, and both are difficult
in battle,"

vanquished

"Thus addressed by the Gandharva about that combat between Partha and Bhishma, the lord of the celestials, O Bharata, paid proper respect unto both by a shower of celestial flowers. Meanwhile Bhisma

VIEATA PARVA
the son of Santanu, assailed
of the

121

at this

Arjuna on the left side, while that drawer was on the point of piercing him. And Vibhatsu, laughing aloud, cut off with an arrow of keen edge and

bow with

either hands

furnished with vulturine wings, the

bow

of Bhishma,

that hero of solar

then Dhananjaya, the son of Kunti, pierced Bhishma effulgence. in the breast with ten shafts although the latter was contending with
all

And

his prowess.

And

sorely

afflicted

arms and
of his car.
his

irresistible in battle, stood for a long

with pain Ganga's son of mighty time leaning on the pole

beholding him deprived of consciousness the driver of car-steeds, calling to mind the instructions about protecting the

And

warriors

when in a swoon, led him away Thus ends the sixty-third section

for safety."
in the

Go-harana Parva

of the

Virata Parva.

SECTION LXIV
(Go-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana

said,

"After Bhishma had

fled,

leaving the van of

Dhritarashtra hoisting high flag approached Arjuna, bow in hand and setting up a loud roar. And with a spearheaded shaft shot from his bow stretched to the ear, he pierced on the

battle, the illustrious son of

forehead of that terrrible

bowman

of fierce prowess,

Dhananjaya, ranging

amidst the

pierced with that keen shaft of golden point on the forehead, that hero of famous deeds looked resplendent, O king, like
foes.

And
hill

unto a beautiful

with a single peak.

And

cut by that arrow, the

warm

from the wound. And the blood down his body shone beautifully like a wreath of golden flowers. trickling And struck by Duryodhana with the shaft, the swift-handed Arjuna of
life-blood gushed out profusely

unfailing strength, swelling with rage, pierced the king in return, taking

up arrows that were endued with the energy of snakes of virulent poison. And Duryodhana of formidable energy attacked Partha, and
Partha also, that foremost of heroes, attacked Duryodhana.

And

it

was

that those foremost of men, both born in the race of Ajamida,

struck

each other alike in the combat.
elephant huge
as a

And

then (seated) on an infuriate
cars,

mountain and supported by four

Vikarna rushed

And beholding that huge elephant, of Kunti. advancing with speed, Dhananjaya struck him on the head between the temples with an iron arrow of great impetus shot from the bow-string stretched to the ear. And like the thunder-bolt hurled by Indra splitting a mountain, that arrow furnished with vulturine wings, shot by
against Jishnu, the son

phant huge
16

Partha, penetrated, up to the very feathers, into the body of that eleAnd sorely afflicted by the shaft, that lord of the as a hill.

elephant species began to tremble, and deprived of strength

fell

down

122

MAHABHABATA
in intense anguish,

on the ground
thunder.

like the

And

that best of elephants

falling

peak of mountain riven by down on the earth,

Vikarna suddenly alighting in great terror, ran back full eight hundred paces and ascended on the car of Vivinsati. And having slain with that thunder-like arrow that elephant huge as a mighty hill and looking like a mass of clouds, the son of Pritha smote Duryodhana in the breast with another arrow of the same kind. And both the elephant and the king having thus been wounded, and Vikarna having broken and fled along
with the supporters of the king's car, the other warriors, smitten with the arrows shot from the Oandiva, fled from the field in panic. And
beholding the elephant slain by Partha, and all the other warriors running away, Duryodhan*, the foremost of the Kurus, turning away his
car precipitately fled in that direction where Partha was not.

And when

Duryodhana was

fast

running away

in

alarm, pierced by that arrow and

vomitting forth blood, Kiritin, still eager for battle and capable of enduring every enemy, thus censured him from wrath, 'Sacrificing thy great fame and glory, why dost thou fly away, turning thy back ? Why
are not those trumpets sounded now, as they were

when thou tadst

set

out from thy kingdom ? Lo, I am an obedient servant of Yudhishthira, myself being the third son of Pritha, standing here for battle. Turn
back, show

me thy

face,

O

son of Dhritarashtra,

and bear

in thy

mind
before

the behaviour of kings.
is

The name Duryodhana bestowed on thee

thou runnest away, leaving the Neither do I behold thy ? O Duryodhana, before nor behind. O foremost of men, body-guards, fly thou away and save thy life which is dear from the hands of Pandu's
hereby rendered meaningless.
battle,

When

where

is

thy persistence in battle

son."

Thus ends the sixty-fourth
Virata Parva.

section in

the Go-harana Parva of the

.

SECTION LXV
(Go-harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana
infuriate

said,

hero, Dhritarashtra's son

"Thus summoned to battle by the illustrious turned back stung by those censures, like an

and mighty elephant pricked by a hook. And stung by and unable to bear them, that mighty and brave carwarrior endued with great swiftness, turned back on his car, like a snake that is trampled under foot. And beholding Duryodhana turn back with his wounds, Kama, that hero among men, decked with a golden
those reproaches

necklace, stopped the king on the way and soothing him, himself proceeded along the north of Duryodhana's car to meet Partha in battle. And
the

steeds decked with gold,

mighty-armed Bhishma also, the son of Santanu, turning back his enormous in size, and of tawny hue, rushed bow

VIEATA PAEVA

128

in hand, for protecting Duryodhana from Partha's hand. And Drona and Kripa and Vivinsati and Dussasana and others also, quickly turning back, rushed forward with speed with drawn bows and arrows fixed on

the bowstrings,

for

protecting Duryodhana.

And
them

beholding those
like a crane rush-

divisions advance towards

him

like

the swelling

surges of the ocean,

Dhananjaya, the son
they completely
all

of Pritha, quickly rushed at

ing at a descending cloud.

And

with celestial weapons in their hands,

surrounded the son of Pritha and rained on him from shower of shafts, like clouds showering on the mountain breast a heavy downpour of rain. And warding off with weapons,
sides a perfect
all

the weapons of those

bulls

among the Kurus,
all foes,

the wielder of the
irresistible

Qandiva

who was capable

of

enduring

evolved another

weapon obtained from Indra, called Sanmohana. And entirely covering the cardinal and other directions with sharp and keen-edged arrows
furnished with beautiful feathers, that mighty
senses with the

hero stupefied their

twang

of the Qandiva,

And

once more, taking up with

both his hands that large conch of loud blare, Partha, that slayer of foes, blew it with force and filled the cardinal and other points, the whole
earth, and sky, with that noise.

And
still,

those foremost of the

Kuru heroes

were

all

deprived of their

senses by the sound

Partha.

And

all

of

them stood

blown by their bows, from which they were
of that conch

never separated, dropping down from their hands. And when the Kuru army became insensible, Partha calling to mind the words of Uttara,
addressed the son of the Matsya king, saying,

among
of

the Kurus, so long as they remain insensible,

'O best of men, go thou and bring away the

white garments of Drona and Kripa, and the yellow and handsome ones Kama, as also the blue ones of the king and Drona's son. Methinks, Bhishuia is not stupefied, for he knoweth how to counteract this weapon
of mine.

So, pass thou on, keeping his steeds to thy left

;

for those that
illus-

are

sensible should

thus be avoided.
giving

Hearing these words, the

jumped down from the car and taking off the garments of the warriors, came back to And the son of Virata then urged the four handsome steeds his place.
trious son of Matsya,

up

the reins of the steeds,

on, took Arjuna

with flanks adorned with golden armours. And those white steeds, urged away from the midst of batttle-field and beyond the

array of the infantry bearing standards in their hands. beholding that best of men thus going away, struck

And
his

Partha,

too,

having slain Bhishma's steeds,

And, Bhishma, him with arrows. pierced him with ten

shafts.

abandoning Bhishma on the field of battle, having first slain car-driver, Arjuna with a good-looking bow in hand came out of that

And

multitude of cars, like the sun emerging from the clouds. And Dhritarashtra's son, that foremost of heroes among the Kurus, recovering his senses, saw the son of Pritha standing like the lord of the celestials, alone

124

MAHABHAEATA
battle-field.

on the
this

And he
?

said in a hurry (unto Bhishma),

one escaped from thee
not escape.'

Do

thou

afflict

him

in

such a

'How way

hath
that

he

may

And

at this, Santanu's son,

smiling, said unto him,

'Where had been this sense of thine, and where had been thy prowess too, when thou hadst been in a state of unconsiousness renouncing thy arrows and handsome bow ? Vibhatsu is not addicted to the commisson
of atrocious deeds
his principles
;

nor

is

his soul

inclined to sin.

He

renounceth not

even for the sake of the three worlds. It is for this only that all of us have not been slain in this battle. O thou foremost of Kuru heroes, go back to the city of the Kurus, and let Partha also go away, having conquered the kine. Do thou never foolishly throw away thy own good. Indeed, that which leadeth to one's welfare ought to be
accomplished."

Vaisampayana continued.

'Having listened to the words

of

the

Grandsire that tended to his own welfare, the wrathful king Duryodhana no longer eager for battle, drew a deep sigh and became silent. And reflecting that the advice of Bhishma was beneficial and seeing that the

Pandavas gaining in strength, the other warriors also, desirous of protecting Duryodhana, resolved to return. And beholding those foremost of Kuru heroes departing for their city, Dhananjaya, the son of
Pritha, with a cheerful

heart followed them for a while, desirous of

addressing and worshipping

them.

And

having worshipped the aged

grandsire the son of Santanu, as also the preceptor Drona, and having saluted with beautiful arrows Drona's son and Kripa and other venerable

ones

among the Kurus, the son of Pritha broke into fragments Duryodhana's crown decked with precious gems, with another arrow. And
-

having saluted all the venerable and brave warriors thus, he filled the three worlds with the twang of the Gandiva. And suddenly blowing
his

conch called Devadatta, the hero pierced the hearts of all his foes. having humbled the hostile host, he looked resplendent on his car decked with a handsome flag. And beholding the Kurus depart, Kiritin

And

cheerfully said unto Matsya's son,

been recovered
city

;

the foe

is

'Turn back thy steeds thy kine have going away and do thou also return to thy
;

with a cheerful heart.'

that most wonderful

And the celestials also, having witnessed encounter between Falguna and the Kurus, were

highly delighted, and went to their respective abodes, reflecting upon
Partha's feats."

Thus ends the
the Virata Parva.

sixty-fifth

section

in

the

Go-harana Parva

of

SECTION LXVI
(Go.harana Parva continued)

Vaisampayana
one with eyes
of Virata.

said,

"Having vanquished the Kurus

in battle, that

like those of a bull

brought back that profuse cattle wealth

while the Dhartarashtras, after their rout, were going away, a large number of Kuru-soldiers issuing out of the deep forest appeared with slow steps before Partha, their hearts afflicted with fear.

And

And they stood before him with joined palms and with hair dishevelled. And fatigued with hunger and thirst, arrived in a foreign land, insensible
with terror, and confused in mind, they
Pritha and said,
all

bowed down unto the son

of

We

are thy tlaves.

"Arjuna said, 'Welcome, blessed be ye. Go ye away. Ye have no cause of fear. I will not take the lives of them that are afflicted. Ye ' have my assurance of protection/ Vaisampayana continued, "Hearing these words of assurance, the
assembled warriors greeted him with benedictions in praise of his achievements and fame and wishing him long life. And the Kauravas

were unable

to confront Arjuna while after routing the foe he proceeded towards the city of Virata, like an elephant with rent temples. And having routed the whole army of the Kuru like a violent wind scattering

the clouds, that slayer of foes, Partha, regardfully addressing the prince
of Matsya,
said,
all
'It is

known

to thee alone,

O

childi

that the sons of

Pritha are

living with

thy

father

?

Do

not eulogise them

upon

entering the city, for then the king of the Matsyas may hide himself in On the other hand, entering the city, do thou proclaim in the fear.

thy own, saying, By me hath the army of the Kurus been vanquished and by me have the kine been recovered
presence of thy father that the deed
the foe
!'

is

from
I

beyond my power. do not possess the ability to achieve it. I shall not, however, O Savyasachin, discover thee to my father, as long as thou wilt not tell me to
"Uttara
said,

'The feat thou hast achieved

is

do

j

.

*

"

it.

Vaisampayana continued.
and wrested the whole
of the

"Having vanquished

the hostile

army

from the Kurus, Jishnu returned again to the cemetery and having approached the same Sami tree stood there with body mangled by the arrows of the enemy. Then that
cattle wealth

terrible

monkey

blazing like fire ascended into

the sky with those other

creatures in the flag-staff.

And the illusion created (by Viswakarman) melted away and Uttara's own banner bearing the device of a lion was And having replaced the arrows and quivers set up on the car again,
foremost of the Kuru princes, and also that other weapon the

of those

126

MAHABHABATA

(Qandiva) which enhances the fierceness of a battle, the illustrious prince of Matsya set out for the city with a glad heart, having Kiritin And having achieved an exceedingly mighty feat and as his charioteer.
slain the foe,

Partha

also, that slayer of foes,

as before, took the reins

from Uttara' s

binding his hair into a braid hands- And that illustrious hero
rehabiliating

entered the city of Virata, with a cheerful heart as Vrihannala, the car-driver of Uttara.'

himself

Vaisampayana continued,

"When

all

the Kauravas utterly routed

and vanquished, set out in a dejected mood for Hastinapura, Falguna, on his way back, addressed Uttara, saying, 'O prince, O hero of mighty
arms, seeing the kine escorted in advance of us by the cowherds, we shall enter Virata's metropolis in the afternoon, having tended the
steeds with drink

and a

bath.

speedily
victory.*

repair to the city with
' '

Let the cowherds, despatched by thee, the good news and proclaim thy

Agreeable to Arjuna's words, Uttara ordered the messengers, saying, "Go ye and proclaim the king's speedily victory. The foe hath been routed, and the kine have been recovered.

Vaisampayana continued.

And the Matsya and the Bharata princes having thus consulted together re-approached the same Sami tree. And gratified with the victory they had won, and arrived at the foot of the Sami tree, they wore on their persons and took up on their car the ornaments and robes they had left
there.

And having vanquished

the whole hostile

army and recovered

the whole of the wealth from the Kurus, the heroic son of Virata returned to the city with Vrihannala as his car-driver."

Thus ends

the sixty-sixth

section in

the Go-harana Parva

of

the Virata Parva.

SECTION LXVII
(

Go-harana Parva continued

)

Vaisampayana said. "Having speedily recovered his wealth Virata owning a large army entered his city with a cheerful heart, accompanied
by the four Pandavas. And having vanquished the Trigartas in battle and recovered all the kine, that mighty monarch, along with the sons of
Pritha, looked resplendent

and blazed forth in beauty. And as the brave king, that enhancer of the joys of friends, was seated on his throne, all his subjects headed by the Brahmanas stood before him. And wor-

shipped by them, the king of the Matsyas, at the head of his army, saluted the Brahmanas and his subjects in return and dismissed them

And Virata, the king of Matsyas owning a large army, cheerfully. enquired after Uttara, saying, 'Where hath Uttara gone ?' And the women and the maidens of the palace and the other females living in the

VIEATA PABVA

127

inner apartments joyfully said unto him 'Our kine having been seized by the Kurus, Bhuminjaya incensed at this and from excess of bravery hath
issued forth alone with only

Vrihannala as

his second,

for vanquishing

the six mighty car-warriors, Bhishma the son of Santanu, and Kripa, and

Kama, and Duryodhana, and Drona, and Drona's son who have with the Kuru army. Vaisampayana continued. "Then king Virata, hearing

all

come
his

that

brave son had gone forth with only one car and with Vrihannala as his car-driver, became filled with grief, and addressing his chief counsellers, 'Without doubt, the Kauravas and other lords of earth, learning said, the defeat of the Trigartas, will never keep their ground. Therefore, let those of my warriors that have not been wounded by the Trigartas go
out,

accompanied by

a mighty force, for the protection of Uttara.'
for the sake of his son,

And
horses

saying this,

the king speedily despatched,

and elephants and cars and a large number of foot-soldiers, equipped and decked with various kinds of weapons and ornaments. And it was thus that Virata, the king of the Matsyas, owning a large army, quickly ordered out a large division consisting of four kinds of troops. And having done this, he said, 'Learn ye, without loss of time whether the prince
I myself think that he liveth still or not " neuter sex for his car-driver is not alive.'
!

who hath

got a person of the

Vaisampayana

continued.

"Then king Yudhishthira the
king Virata,
'If,

just,

smilingly said unto the afflicted

O

monarch, Vrihanwill

nala hath been his charioteer,

the foe will never

be able to take away

thy kine today.

Protected by

that charioteer, thy son

be able to

earth allied with the Kurus, indeed, vanquish the gods and the Asuras and the Siddhas and the Yakthaa together.' even Vaisampayana continued. ''Meanwhile, the swift-footed messengers
in battle all the lords of

despatched by Uttara, having reached Virata's city, gave tidings of the victory. And the minister-in-chief then informed the king of everything viz the great victory that had been won, the defeat of the Kurus, and
,

the expected arrival of Uttara.

And

he

said,

'All the kine

have been

brought back, the Kurus have been defeated, and Uttara, that slayer of Then Yudhishthira said, 'By good foes, is well with his car-driver.' luck it is that the kine have been recovered and the Kurus routed. I

do not, however, regard
the Kurus, for his
'

it

victory

strange that thy son should have vanquished is assured that hath Vrihannala for his

charioteer.'

Vaisampayana continued. "Hearing of the victory of his son possessed of immeasurable might, King Virata became so glad that the And having made presents of raiments bristles of his body stood erect.
unto the messengers, he ordered ways be decorated with flags, and
his

ministers, saying,

'Let the high-

let all

the gods and goddesses be wor-

128

MAHABHABATA
And
in
let

shipped with flowery offerings.

princes and brave warriors,

and musicians and harlots decked
son.

my And let the bellman, speedily riding an intoxicated elephant, proclaim my victory at places where four roads meet. And let Uttara,
and surrounded by virgins and chanters of eulogo forth to receive

ornaments, march out to receive

too, in gorgeous attire
gies,

my

'

son.'

Vaisampayana continued
king,
all

"Having

listened to these

words

of the

many amongst them with cymbals and trumpets and conches, and beautiful women attired in gorgeous robes, and reciters of auspicious and sacred hymns, accompanied by encomiasts and ministrels, and drummers and other kinds of musicians issued forth from the city of the mighty Virata to welcome Uttara of immeasurable prowess. And having despatched troops and maidens and courtezans decked in ornaments, the wise king 'O Sairindhri, fetch the of the Matsyas cheerfully said these words The son of Pandu dice. And, O Kanka, let the play commence.' 'We have heard it said that one whose heart is filled replied, saying,
:

the citizens with auspicious things in hand, and

with joy should not play with a cunning gambler. I do not, therefore, dare gamble with thee that are so transported with joy. I am ever
desirous of doing what
if it

is

for thy good.

Let the play, however, commencei

pleases thee.*

'Virata said,

'My female

slaves and kine,

my

gold and whatsoever

other wealth

have, nothing of all this shalt thou be able to protect today even if I do not gamble.' Kanka said in reply, 'O monarch, O bestower of honours, what business hast thou with gamble which is attenI

ded with numerous evils
should,
therefore,
of Yudhishthira, the son of

?

be shunned.

Gambling is fraught with many evils it Thou mayst have seen or at least heard
;

Pandu. He lost his extensive and prosperous kingdom and his god-like brothers at dice. For this, I am averse to gambling. But if thou likest, O king, I will play.'
'

Vaisampayana continued.
said unto the

son of Pandu,

"While the play was going on, Matsya 'Lo, the Kauravas that are so formidable
by

have been vanquished
King Yudhishthira
nala for his charioteer

in battle

my

son.

Upon

this,

the illustrious

said.
?*

'Why

should not he conquer that hath Vrihan-

King Matsya became angry and said unto Pandu's son, Thou wretch of a Brahmana, dost thou compare one of the neuter sex with my son ! Hast thou no knowledge of what is proper

"Thus addressed,

and what improper for one to say ? Without doubt, thou disregadest me. Why should not my son vanquish all those with Bhishma and Drona as their leaders ? O Brahmana, for friendship only I pardon thee
this thy offence.

Thou must

not, however,

say so again

if

thou wishest

to

live.'

VIBATA PABVA

129

"Yudhishthira said, There where Bhishma and Drona and Drona's the son of Vikartana and Kripa and king Duryodhana and other royal and mighty car-warriors are assembled, or there where Indra
son and
himself
is

can

fight,

surrounded by the Maruts, what other person than Vrihannala encountering them all None hath been, none will be, his equal
!

Vrihannala only whose heart is filled with joy at sight of a terrible conflict. It is he who had vanquished the celestials and the Asuras and human beings fighting together. With such a one for his ally, why should not thy son conquer the foe ?' Virata
in strength of

arms

!

Indeed,

it is

said,

'Repeatedly forbidden by me, thou dost not yet restrain thy
If

none to punish, no one would practise virtue.' "Saying this, the king inflamed with Vaisampayana continued struck Yudhishthira in the face with a dice, and reproaanger forcibly ched him angrily, saying, 'Let it not occur again I* And having been violently struck, blood began to flow from his nose. But the son of
tongue.
there
is

'

before it fell on the ground. And the virtuthen glanced at Draupadi who was standing by his ous Yudhishthira Ever obedient to the wishes of her lord, the faultless Draupadi, side.

Pritha held

it

in his hands

understanding his meaning, and bringing a golden vessel filled with Meanwhile, water, received the blood that flowed from his nose. Uttara, entertained with sweet perfumes of diverse kinds and decked

with

floral chaplets,

slowly entered

the city, received with respect by

the citizens, the

women, and

the people of the provinces.

And

approa-

ching the gate of the palace he sent the news of his arrival to his father. And the porter then, approaching the king, said, 'Thy son Uttara,

waiteth at the gate with

Matsya
both, as

king,
I

with a cheerful heart, said unto him,

Vrihannala as his companion. And the 'Do thou usher

very anxious to see them ?' Then Yudhishthira. the king 'Let Uttara of the Kurus, gently whispered unto the ears of the warder, enter alone Vrihannala must not come in. Such is the vow of that
;

am

mighty arms that whoever causeth a wound on my person or sheddeth my blood except in battle, shall not live. Inflamed with rage he will never bear patiently to see me bleeding, but will slay Virata even " now with his counsellors and troops and steeds.'
hero of

Thus ends the sixty-seventh section
Virata Parva.

in the

Go-harana Parva

of the

SECTION ^XVIir
(Qo-Karana Parva continued.)

Vaisampayana said, "Then Bhuminjaya, the eldest son of the king, entered, and having worshipped the feet of his father approached Kanka. And he beheld Kanka covered with blood, and seated on the ground at
one end of the court, and waited upon by the Sairindhri.
17

And

seeing

130
this,

MAHABHABATA
Uttara asked
"Virata said,
his father in a hurry,

this

one been struck.

By

whom

saying 'By whom, king hath hath this sinful act been perpetrated ?'

O

He

"This crooked Brahmana hath been struck by medeserveth even more than this. When I was praising thee, he praised
"Uttara
said,

that person of the third sex.'

Do thou

O king, committed an improper act. him so that the virulent poison of a Brahspeedily propitiate mana's curse may not consume thee to thy roots Vaisampayana continued, Having heard the words of his son,
Thou
hast,
!'

Virata, that enhancer of the

limits of

his

kingdom, began to soothe

Kunti's son,
giveness.

who was

like

unto

a fire hid in ashes, for obtaining his for-

unto the king desirous of obtaining his pardon the Pandava replied, 'O king, I have long ago forgiven it. Anger I have
none. Had this blood from my nostrils fallen on the ground, then, without doubt, thou, O monarch, wouldst have been destroyed with thy kingdom. I do not, however, blame thee, O kingi for having struck an

And

innocent person. For, king, they that are powerful generally act with unreasoning severity.' Vaisampayana continued. "When the bleeding had stopped, Vrihannala entered (the council-room) and having saluted both Virata

O

and Kanka, stood
the Kurus,

silent.

And And

the king,

began

to praise, in

returned from the battle.

having appeased the chief of Savyasachin's hearing, Uttara who had the king said, 'O enhancer of the joys
I

of Kekaya's princess, in thee

have
!

truly a son

!

I

never had

nor

shall

have, a son that

is

equal to thee

How,

indeed,

co'uldst thou,

O child, O

encounter that

Kama who

leaveth not a single mark unhit amongst

even
child,

a thousand that he

encounter that

may aim at all at once ? Bhishma who hath no equal

How
in the

couldst thou,

whole world of

encounter Drona, that foremost of all wielders of weapons, that preceptor of the Vrishnis and Kauravas, twice-born one who may be regarded as the preceptor of all the Ksha?

men

How

also couldst thou,

O child,

triyas

?

How couldst

thou meet in battle the celebrated Aswatthaman

?

encounter that Duryodhana, the prince who with his mighty arrows ? My is capable of piercing even a mountain A delicious breeze seems to blow around foes have all been thrashed. me. And since thou hast recovered in battle the whole of my wealth that had been seized by the Kurus, it seems that all those mighty warcouldst thou,

How

O child,

were struck with panic. Without doubt, thou, O men, hast routed the foe and snatched away from them " kine, like his prey from a tiger.'
riors

bull

amongst
wealth of

my

Thus ends
Virata Parva.

the sixty-eighth section in the Go-harana Parva of the

SECTION LXIX
(Qo-harana Parva continued)
'The kine have not been recovered by me. nor have the foe been vanquished by me. All that hath been accomplished by

"Uttara said,

of celestial origin,

Capable of striking like a thunder-bolt, that youth me running away in fear, stopped me and It was by him that the kine have been himself mounted on my car. recovered and the Kauravas vanquished. The deed, O father, is that
the son of a deity.

beholding

hero's and not mine. It was he that repulsed with arrows Kripa and Drona and Drona's son of powerful energy, and the Sutas son and Bhishma. That mighty hero then spoke unto the affrighted prince Duryodhana who was running away like the leader of a head of elephants, these words O prince of the Kuru race, I do not see that thou
art safe

forth

thy

by any means even at Hastinapura. might. Thou shalt not escape
thy mind
if

Protect thy

life

by putting
Therefore,

me

by

flight.

make up

for fight.
slain,

If

victorious, the sovereignty of the earth
itself will

will be thine, or

heaven

be thine.'
that tiger

among men surrounded by his counsellors, sighing on his car like a snake turned back, showered arrows endued with the speed and force of thunder-bolts. Beholding all this, venerable sire, my thighs began to quake. Then that celestial youth pierced with his arrows the Kuru army consisting of
Thus addressed, king Duryodhana
leonine warriors.

And having

pierced and afflicted that crowd of cars,

that youth, stout as the lion,

laughed at them and robbed them of their

clothes and attires. Indeed, the six great car-warriors of the

Kurus were
in the

vanquished by that hero alone, even like herds of animals ranging
forest by a single tiger in rage.'

'Where is that mighty-armed and famous youth of that hero who recovered in battle my wealth that had celestial origin, been seized by the Kurus ? I am anxious to behold and worship that
"Virata
said,

mighty warrior of
also.'

celestial origin

who hath saved

thee and

my

kine

'Uttara

replied,
'

and then.

I

think, however, that he will

'That mighty son of a deity disappeared there show himself either to-morrow

or the day after.'

"Virata, that owner of a large army, remained ignorant of the son of Pandu who was thus described unto him

Vaisampayana continued.

by Uttara, and who was living in the palace in disguise. And permitted by the high-souled Virata, Partha presented with his own hands the garments he had brought, unto Virata's daughter. And the beautiful Uttara, obtaining those new and costly clothes of diverse kinds, became
highly glad, along with the son of the

Matsya king." Thus ends the sixty-ninth section in the Go-harana Parva

of

the

Virata Parva.

SECTION LXX
(Vaivahika Parva)

Vaisampayana said, "Then, on the third day, attired in white robes after a bath, and decked in ornaments of all kinds, those great carwarriors, the five Pandava brothers, having accomplished their vow, and with Yudhishthira at their head, looked resplendent as they entered
the palace-gate like five intoxicated elephants. And having entered the council-hall of Virata, they took their seats on the thrones reserved for
kings,

and shone brilliantly like fires on the sacrificial altar. And after Pandavas had taken their seats, Virata, that lord of earth, came there for holding his council and dischargingother royal offices. And beholding the illustrious Pandavas blazing like fires, the king reflected for a moment. And then, filled with wrath, the Matsya king spoke unto Kanka seated there like a celestial and looking like the lord of celestials surrounded by the Maruts. And he said, 'A player at dice thou
wert employed by

me

as

a courtier

!

How

couldst thou occupy the
"
?'

royal seat, thus attired in handsome robes and ornaments

Vaisampayana continued, "Hearing these words of Virata, Oking! and desirous of jesting with him, Arjuna smilingly said in reply, "This person, O king, deserveth to occupy the same seat with Indra himself.

Devoted

Brahmanas, acquainted with the Vedas, indifferent to luxury and carnal enjoyments, habitually performing sacrifices, steady The forein vows, this one, indeed, is the very embodiment of virtue. most of all persons endued with energy and superior to every body on earth in intelligence, devoted to asceticism, he is conversant with various
to the

weapons.
pons.

No

other person

among the mobile and immobile

creatures of

the three worlds possesseth or will ever possess such knowledge of wea-

none even amongst the gods, or Asuras, or men, or Yaksha chiefs, or Kinnaras or mighty Endued with great foresight and energy, Uragcu, who is like him. beloved by the citizens and inhabitants of the provinces, he is the mightithere
is

And

Rakskasas, or Gandharvas, or

est of

sacrifices,
t

the sons of Pandu. A performer of and of subdued passions, like unto a great Rihi this royal sage is celebrated over all the worlds. Possessed of great strength and great intelligence, able and truthful, he hath all his senses under complete control. Equal unto Indra in wealth and Kuvera
car-warriors amongst

devoted

to morality,

he is the protector of the worlds like unto Manu himself of mighty prowess. Endued with great might, he is even such. Kind unto all creatures he is no other than the bull of the Kuru race, King Yudhisbthira the just. The achievements of this king resemble the sun
in hoarding,

himself of blazing effulgence.
tions like the rays of

And

his

fame hath

travelled in all directhe rays

that luminary.

And

like

following the

VIKATA PABVA
risen sun of blazing effulgence,

188

him,

O

king,

when he dwelt among

ten thousand swift elephants followed the Kurus. And, king, thirty

O

thousand cars decked in gold and drawn by the best steeds, also used to follow him then. And full eight hundred bards adorned with ear-rings
set

with shining gems, and accompanied by ministrels, recited

his praises

in those days, like the ttithia adoring Indra.

and other lords of celestials upon Kuvera.
sun,

And, O earth always waited upon him
pay tribute unto him

king, the

Kauravas
as the

like slaves,

This eminent king, resembling the bright-rayed
like persons of the

made

all

lords of earth

agricultural class-

And

eighty-eight thousands of high-souled Snatakas

depended for

their subsistence upon this king practising excellent vows. This illustrious lord protected the aged and the helpless, the maimed and the blind, as his sons, and he ruled over his subjects virtuously.

Steady in morality and self-control, capable of restraining his anger, bountiful, devoted to the Brahmanas, and truthful, this one is the son
of

Pandu. The prosperity and prowess of this one afflict king Suyodhana with his followers including Kama and Suvala's son- And, O lord of men, the virtues of this one are incapable of being enumerated. This son of Pandu is devoted to morality and always abstains from
injury.

Possessed of such attributes, doth not this bull

among
"
?'

kings,

this son of

Pandu, deserve,

O

monarch, to occupy a royal seat
of the

Thus ends the seventieth section
Virata Parva.

Vaivahika Parva of the

SECTION LXXI
(Vaivahika Parva continued)

"Virata

said,

'If this

one,

indeed, be the

Kuru king Yudhishthira

the son of Kunti, which amongst these
the mighty Bhima.

Which

of these
?

is

is his brother Arjuna, and which, Nakula, and which Sahadeva and

where

is

the celebrated Draupadi

After their defeat at dice, the sons
'

of Pritha

have not been heard of by any one.'
said,
is

"Arjuna
is

thy cook,

that

furious impetus. It
tains of

this one, O king, who is called Vallava and Bhima of mighty arms and terrible prowess and was he who slew the furious Rakshasas on the moun-

'Even

Qandhamadana, and procured for Krishna celestial flowers of great fragrance. Even he is that Oandharva who slew the Kichaka of wicked soul and it was he who killed tigers and bears and boars in the inner apartment of thy palace- He who had been the keeper of thy horse is that slayer of foes called Nakula, and this one is Sahadeva, the keeper of thy kine. Both these sons of Madri are great car-warriors, These two bulls of the possessed of great fame and beauty of person. Bharata race, attired in handsome robes and decked in excellent ornaments, are a match for a thousand great car-warriors.

And even

this

134
lady of eyes like lotus

MAHABHABATA
petals and

sjender

waist and sweet smiles

is

Drupada's daughter, Kichakas were slain.
hast heard,
!

thy wife's
I

is

that son of

whose sake, O king, the am, O king, Arjuna who, it is evident, thou Pritha, who is Bhima's junior and the senior of
Sairindhri, for
'

the twins have, king, happily passed in thy abode the period of non-discovery, like infants in the womb !' Vaisampayana continued, 'After Arjuna had pointed out those

We

O

heroes

the five Pandavasi the son of Virata then spoke of Arjuna' s prowess. And Uttara once again identified the sons of Pritha. And the prince said. That one whose complexion is bright like that of pure gold
so prominent, whose broad and of coppery And behold, that one whose tread is like hue. is the king of the Kurus. that of an infuriate elephant, whose complexion is like that of heated gold, whose shoulders are broad and expanded, and whose arms are long
is

who

stout like a

full-grown lion, whose nose

is

eyes are large and expansive, and whose face

is

And he who stands by his side, that youth of unto a leader of a herd of elephants, whose shoulders are broad like those of a lion, whose tread is like that of a
and
thick,
is

Vrikodara.
is

darkish hue,

who

like

leaves,

mighty elephant, and whose eyes are large and expansive like lotusAnd lo, close to the king, is Arjuna that foremost of bowmen.
like

are those foremost of men, the twins,

who have no
our.
like

equals, in the world of

And

close

men, by them, behold, standeth Krishna, beautiful as
in beauty, might,

unto Vishnu and Indra, and and behavigold,

unto the very embodiment of light, possessing the complexion of the blue lotus, like unto a celestial damsel, and resembling the living embodi-

ment

of

Lakshmi

'

herself.'

Vaisampayana continued,
the prowess of Arjuna, saying,
like

"Then
'Even

Virata's son began to describe

this

one

is

he that slew the foe,

unto a lion devastating a flock of deer. Even he ranged through, crowds of hostile cars, slaying their best of car-warriors. By him was
slain a huge, infuriate

him, that huge beast having
fell

elephant by means of a single arrow. Pierced by its flanks adorned with an armour of gold,

down piercing the earth with his tusks. By him have the kine been recovered and the Kauravas vanquished in battle. My ears have been deafened by the blare of his conch. It was by this hero of fierce deeds that Bhishma and Drona, along with Duryodhana, were vanquished.
That achievement
is

his

and not mine.'

'

Vaisampayana continued, "Hearing these words of his, the mighty king of the Matsyas, considering himself guilty of having offended
Yudhishthira, said unto Uttara
for
in reply,
'I

think the time hath

come

me

to propitiate the sons of

Pandu. And,

if

thou

likest,

I

shall

bestow

my

daughter Uttara upon Arjuna. "Uttara said, 'Worthy of our adorations and worship and respect,

VIBATA PAEVA
the time hath

135

come

for worshipping the illustrious sons of
us.

Pandu who

deserve to be worshipped by

it

brought under the foe's subjection in battle, was Bhimasena that rescued me. My kine also have been recovered

"Virata said
It is

"When

through the might of their arms that we have obtained victory in battle. Such being the case, all of us, with our counsellors, shall propitiate Yudhishthira the son of Kunti. Blessed be thou, with all

by Arjuna.

thy brothers.
said or

O

bull

among the
in

sons of Pandu.
'

If,

O

king,

done anything

ignorance to offend thee,
is

it

we have ever behoveth thee to

forgive us.

The son

of

Pandu

virtuous.'

Vaisampayana continued, "Then the high-souled Virata, delightapproached king Yudhishthira and made an alliance with and offered him his whole kingdom together with the sceptre and him, treasury and metropolis. And addressing all the Pandavas, and especially
ed
greatly,

Dhananjaya, the mighty king of the Matsyas 'repeatedly said, 'By good luck it is that I see you. And having again and again embraced Yudhishthira and Bhima and the sons of Madri, and smelt their head?,
Virata,

that

them.

And

army, was not satiated with gazing at being highly pleased, he said unto king Yudhishthira, 'By
of a large

owner

it is that I see you safe from woods. By good luck it is that have accomplished with difficulty the period of exile, undiscovered by ye those wicked wights. I make over my entire kingdom to the sons of Pritha, and what else I have. Let the sons of Pandu accept these without the slightest hesitation. And let Dhananjaya, called also Savyasachin, accept the hand of Uttara for that best of men is fit to be her

good luck

:

Thus addressed, king Yudhishthira the just cast a look upon Dhananjaya, the son of Pritha. And looked at by his brother, Arjuna said unto the Matsya king, O monarch, I accept thy daughter as my daughter-in-law. And alliance of this kind between the Matsya and
lord.
'

the Bharatas

is,

indeed, desirable.'
seventy-first section in the

Thus ends the
Virata Parva.

Vaivahika Parva of the

SECTION LXXII
(

Vaivahika Parva continued')

"Virata

said,

'Why,

O
my

best

among

the Pandavas, dost thou not
I

wish to accept as wife this

daughter that

"Arjuna

said,

'Residing in thy inner apartments,

bestow upon thee ?" I had occasion

always to behold thy daughter, and she too, alone or in company, trusted me as her father. Well versed in singing and dancing, I was liked and

136

MAHABHABATA

regarded by her, andi indeed, thy daughter always regardeth me as her protector. king, I lived for one whole year with her though she

O

had attained the age of puberty. Under these circumstances, thyself or other men may not without reason, entertain suspicions against her or me- Therefore, O king, myself who am pure, and have my senses
under control, beg to thee, O monarch, thy daughter as my daughterThere is no difference between a in-law. Thus do I attest her purity. daughter-in-law and a daughter, as also between a son and son's ownself.

By adopting

this course,

therefore, her purity
accusations.
I

will be proved.

I

am

afraid of slanderous

and

false

accept, therefore,

O
in

king, thy

daughter Uttara
of

as

my

daughter-in-law.

Surpassing

all

knowledge

the mighty-armed

weapons, resembling a celestial youth in beauty, my son, Abhimanyuis the favourite nephew of Vasudeva, the

wielder of the discus.

He,

O

king,

is fit

to

be thy son-in-law and the

husband

of thy daughter.
said,
'It
is

"Virata
son of Kunti,

behoveth the best

of the

who

so virtuous

and wise, to say

Kurus, Dhananjaya, the this. O son of Pritha,

that

do thou carry out what thou thinkest should be done after this. He hath Arjuna for the father of his son-in-law, hath all his desires
"

gratified.'

Vaisampayana

continued,

"The

monarch

having

said

this,

Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, gave his assent to what was thus agreed Bharata, the son of upon between the Matsya king and Arjuna. And,

O

Kunti sent invitations to

Vasudeva and

to

all his

friends and relatives,
of the thirof Virata's

and Virata also did the same.

And

then, after the expiry

teenth year, the five Pandavas took

up

their abode

in

one

towns called Upaplavya, and Vibhatsu, the son of Pandu, brought over Abhimanyu and Janardana, and also many people of the Dasarha race from the Anarta country. And the king of Kasi, and also Saivya, being
very friendly to Yudhishthira, arrived there, each accompanied by an Akshavhini of troops. And the mighty Drupada, also, with the heroic
sons of Draupadi and the unvanquished Sikhandi, and that foremost of

Dhrishtadyumna came there with another Akshauhini of troops. And all the kings that came were not only lords of Akahauhinies, but performers of sacrifices with gifts in
wielder of weapons, the invincible
profusion

endued with them arrived, that beholding foremost of virtuous men, the king of the Matsyas, adored them duly, and entertained their troops and servants and carriers of burdens. And he was highly pleased to bestow his daughter upon Abhimanyu. And after the kings had come there from different parts of the country, there came Vasudeva decked in floral garlands, and Halayudha, and Kritavarman, the son of Hridika, and Yuyudhana, the son of Satyaki,
to

Brahmanas,

conversant with the

Faefcw,

heroism, and ready to die in battle.

And

VIEATA PAEVA
and Anadhristi and Akrura, and Samva and Nisatha.
repressers of foes

187

And

these

came
there,

there bringing

mother.

And

Indrasena and others,

Abhimanyu and his having lived at Dwaraka for one

with them

whole year, came
the Pandavas.

bringing with them the well-adorned cars of

came also ten thousand elephants and ten and hundred millions of horses and hundred billions of foot soldiers, and innumerable Vrishni and Andhaka and Bhoja warriors of great energy, in the train of that tiger among the Vrishnis, Vasudeva
there

And

thousand

cars,

of great effulgence.
of

And

Pandu numerous female
festival set in

Krishna gave unto each of the illustrious sons slaves, and gems and robes. And then the
of the

nuptial

between the families

Matsya king and the

Pandavas.

And then conches and cymbals and horns and drums and

other musical instruments appointed by the Pandavas, began to play in the palace of Virata. And deer of various kinds and clean animals by
slain. And wines of various kinds, and intoxicating were profusely collected. And mimes and bards and encomiasts, versed in singing and legendary lore, waited upon the kings, and chanted their praises and genealogies. And the matrons of the Matsyas of symmetrical bodies and limbs, and wearing ear-rings of pearls and gems, headed by Sudeshna, came to the palace where the marriage knot was to be tied. And amongst those beautiful females of fair complexion and excellent ornaments, Krishna was the foremost in beauty and fame and splendour. And they all came there, leading forth the princess Uttara decked in every ornament and resembling the daughter

hundreds were

juices of trees

the great Indra himself. And then Dhananjaya, the son of Kunti, accepted Virata's daughter of faultless limbs on behalf of his son by Subhadra. And that great king, Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, who
of

stood there like Indra, also accepted her as his daughter-in-law.

And

having accepted her, the son of Pritha, with Janardana before him, caused the nuptial ceremonies to be performed of the illustrious son of

And Virata then gave him (as dowry) seven thousand steeds endued with the speed of the wind and two hundred elephants of the best kind and much wealth also, And having duly poured libations of clarified butter on the blazing fire, and paid homage unto the twice-born ones, Virata offered to the Pandavas his kingdom, army, treasury, and his own self. And after the marriage had taken place, Yudhishthira, the son of Dharma, gave away unto the Brahmanas all the wealth that had been brought by Krishna of unfading glory. And he also gave away thousands of kine, and diverse kinds of robes, and various excellent ornaments, and vehicles, and beds, delicious viands of various kinds, and cardinal drinks of diverse species. And the king also made gifts of land unto the Brahmanas with due rites, and also cattle by thousands. And he also gave away thousands of steeds and much gold and much
Subhadra.

138

MAHABHAEATA

wealth of other kinds, unto persons of all ages. And, Bharata race, the city of the Matsya king, thronged with

O

bull of the

men

cheerful

and well-fed, shone brightly like a great festival.'

Thus ends the seventy-second
the Virata Parva.

section in the Vaivahika Parva of

FINIS

VIRATA PARVA

THE MAHABHARATA
UDYOGA PARVA
SECTION
I

(Sainyodyoga Parvd)

Om

!

Having bowed down

to

exalted of male beings, and also to the goddess Saraswati, must the ]aya be uttered.

Narayana, and Nara the most word
descendants of Kuru,
joyfully cele-

Vaisampayana

said,

Then

those valiant

who belonged

to the

same party (with Virata), having

brated of Abhimanyu and rested themselves that night, presented themselves at dawn, well pleased, in the court of Virata.
the nuptials

And

the

chamber

of the

variegated with choice
cally arranged,

king of the Matsya was full of riches, and gems and precious stones, with seats methodi-

adorned with garlands, and filled with fragrance. And mighty monarchs of men all came to that place. And on the seats in front sat the two king Virata and Drupada. And the revered and aged rulers of the earth, and Valarama and Krishna along with their
those
father, all sat there.

And

close to the king of Panchala

was seated the

with the son of Rohini. And side by side with the king of the Matsya sat Krishna and Yudhishthira, and all the sons of king Drupada, and Bhima and Arjuna, and the two
great hero of the race
of Sini, together

sons of Madri, and

Pradyumna and Samba, both valiant

in battle,

and

Abhimanyu with
rivalling their

Virata's sons.

And

those princes, the sons of Draupadi,

fathers in valour, strength, grace, and prowess, sat

upon

excellent seats inlaid with gold.

those mighty heroes wearing shining ornaments and robes had set themselves down, that gorgeous assembly of kings looked beautiful like the firmament spangled with

And when

having conversed with one another upon various topics, remained for some time in a pensive mood, with their eyes fixed upon Krishna. And at the end
of their talk, Krishna

resplendent stars.

And

those valiant men, assembled together,

drew

their attention to the affairs of the Pandavas.

powerful kings together listened to Krishna's speech, pregnant and lofty. And Krishna said. 'It is known to you all, how this Yudhishthira was deceitfully defeated at dice by the son of Suvala, and how he was robbed of his kingdom and how a stipulation was made
those

And

by him concerning
of

his

exile in

the forest.

And

capable as they were

their plighted

conquering the earth by force, the sons of Pandu remained firm in And accordingly for six and seven years these faith.

incomparable

men accomplished

And
1

this last, the thirteenth year,

the cruel task imposed upon them. was exceedingly hard for them to pass.

2

MAHABHABATA
it,

Yet unrecognised by any one they have passed
suffering unendurable hardships of various kinds.
all.

as

This

is

known to you, known to you

spent the thirteenth year, employed in This being so, it is for you to consider menial service what will be for the good of both Yudhishthira and Duryodhana, and what, as regards the Kurus and the Pandavas, will be consistent with

These

illustrious

men have

of others.

the

rules of

righteousness and propriety
of
all.

and what

will

the approbation

The virtuous

king Yudhishthira

meet with would not
the sons of

unrighteously covet even the celestial kingdom. would accept the rule even of a single village.

But righteously he

How

Dhritarashtra fraudulently robbed him of his paternal kingdom, and

how

he hath passed a

life

of unendurable hardships, are

known

to all the

Dhritarashtra are incapable of overcoming by strength Arjuna, the son of Pritha. Nevertheless, king Yudhishthira and his friends have no other desire than the good of
kings assembled here.

The

sons of

Dhritarashtra's son.

These brave sons of Kunti, and the two sons

of

Madri, ask for only what they themselves, achieving victory in battle, had won from the defeated kings. You, no doubt, know full well how
those enemies of the
of the kingdom,

Pandavas with the object of possessing themselves endeavoured by various means to destroy them, when they were yet mere boys. So wicked and rancorous they were. Consider, how grasping they are and how virtuous Yudhishthira is. Consider also the relationship that exists between them. I beseech you all to consult together and also think separately. The Pandavas have always had a regard for truth. They have fulfilled their promise to the very letter. If now treated wrongfully by the sons of Dhritarashtra, they would slay them all though banded together. They have friends who, on being informed of their unworthy treatment at the hands of others, would stand by them, engaged in fight with their persecutors, and willingly slay them even if they should lose their own lives for it. If you suppose them to be too few to be capable of winning a victory over their enemies, you must know that united together and followed by their friends, they would, no doubt, try their utmost to destroy those enemies. What Duryodhana thinks is not exactly known, nor what he may do. When the mind of the other side is not known, what opinion can be formed by you as to what is best to be done ? Therefore, let a person, virtuous and honest and of respectable birth, and wary, an able ambassador, set out to beseech them mildly for inducing them to give half the kingdom to Yudhishthira. Having listened to the speech of Krishna, marked by prudence and a regard for virtue and showing a pacific and impartial spirit, his elder brother then addressed the
assembly
brother."

bestowing high encomiums on the words of

the

younger

SECTION
"Valadeva
said,

II

You have

all

listened to the speech of
it is

him who

is

the elder brother of Gada, characterised as

by a sense of virtue and and salutary alike to Yudhishthira and king Duryodhana. prudence, These valiant sons of Kunti are ready to give up half their kingdom, and they make this sacrifice for the sake of Duryodhana. The sons of

should give up half of the kingdom, and therefore, and be exceedingly happy with us that the quarrel can rejoice be so satisfactorily settled. These mighty persons having obtained the kingdom would, no doubt, be pacified and happy, provided the opposite party behave well. For them to be pacified will redound to the welfare
Dhritarashtra,

should

men. And I should be well pleased if somebody from here, with the view of pacifying both the Kurus and the Pandavas, should undertake a journey and ascertain what is the mind of Duryodhana and explain the views of Yudhishthira. Let him respectfully salute Bhishma the heroic scion of Kuru's race, and the magnanimous son of Vichitravirya, and Drona along with his son, and Vidura and Kripa, and the king of Gandhara, along with the Sutas son. Let him also pay his respects to all the other sons of Dhritarashtra, to all who are renowned for strength and learning, devoted to their proper duties, heroic, and conversant with When all these persons are gathered together and signs of the times. when also the elderly citizens are assembled, let him speak words full
of

of humility

and

likely

to serve

the interests of Yudhishthira.
for they

At

all

events, let

them not be provoked,

kingdom with a strong hand.
of his

When

have taken possession of the Yudhishthira had his throne, he

forgot himself by being engaged in gambling

kingdom.

and was dispossessed by them This valiant Kuru, this descendant of Ajamida, Yudhi-

shthira,

though not skilled in dice and though dissuaded by all his friends, challenged the son of the king of Gandhara, an adept at dice, There were then at that place thousands of dice-players to the match.
Yudhishthira could defeat in a match.
challenged Suvala's son of all

Taking however, no men to the game, notice of any of them, he and so he lost. And although the dice constantly went against him, he would still have Sakuni alone for his opponent. Competing with Sakuni For this, no blame can in the play, he sustained a crushing defeat. make use of words characterised attach to Sakuni. Let the messenger by humility, words intended to conciliate Vichitravirya's son. The messenger may thus bring round Dhritarashtra's son to his own views. Do not seek war with the Kurus address Duryodhana in only a
;

whom

conciliatory tone.

The

object

may

possibly

fail to

be gained by war,
also
it

but

it

may

be gained by conciliation, and by this

means

may be

gained enduringly."

4

MAHABHARATA

Vaisampayana continued, "While that valiant scion of Madhu's race was even continuing his speech, the gallant son of the race of Sini suddenly rose up and indignantly condemned the words of the former by
these words of his."

SECTION
"Satyaki said.
art speaking in

III
!

'Even as a man's heart is, so doth he speak strict conformity with the nature of thy heart.

Thou
There
be

are brave

men, and likewise those that are cowards.

Men may

divided into these two well-defined classes.
there

As upon

a single large tree

may be two boughs one

of

which beareth fruits while the other
of progenitors

doth not, so from the self-same
that are imbecile as well as

line

may

spring persons
strength.

those that are endowed with great

thou bearing the sign of a plough on thy banner, I do not, in sooth, condemn the words thou hast spoken, but I simply condemn those, O son of Madhu, who are listening to thy words How, indeed, can he
I

O

who unblushingly dares attach even the slightest blame in the virtuous king Yudhishthira be permitted to speak at all in the midst of the assembly ? Persons clever in the game of dice challenged the magnanimous Yudhishthira unskilled as he is in play, and confiding in them he Can such persons be said to have virtuously won the was defeated If they had come to Yudhishthira while playing in this house ? game with his brothers and defeated him there, then what they would have won would have been righteously won. But they challenged Yudhishthira who was bound in conscience to follow the rules observed by the military caste, and they won by a trick. What is there in this conduct
!

of

righteous ? And how can this Yudhishthira here, having performed to the utmost the stipulations entered into by way of stakes in the play, freed from the promise of a sojourn in the forest, and
theirs that
is

therefore

entitled to his ancestral

throne,

humble himself

?

Even

if

Yudhishthira coveted other people's possessions, still it would not behove How can they be said to be righteous and not intent on him to beg
!

usurping the throne when, although the Pandavas have lived out their sojourn of concealment unrecognised, they still say that the latter

had been

recognised

?

They were besought by

Bhishma and the

magnanimous Drona, but they would not yet consent to give back to
the Pandavas the throne
that beinngeth to them by right of birth. The means with which I would beseech them would be sharp arrows. I shall fight and with a strong hand force them to prostrate themselves at the feet of the illustrious son of Kunti. If, however, they do not bow feet of the wise Yudhishthira, then they and their partisans at the must go to the regions of Yama. When Yuyudhana (myself) is enraged

UDYOGA PABVA
and resolved to
fight,

6
to withstand
his

they,

to be surei

are unequal

impetus, as mountains are unable to resist that of the thunder-bolt. Who can withstand Arjuna in fight, or him who hath the discus for his
chable

weapon in battle, or myself as well ? Who can withstand the unapproaBhima ? And who. having regard for his life, would come near
the twin brothers

bows and resemble the deathwould approach Dhrishtadyumna, .the son of Drupada, or these five sons of the Pandavas who have added lustre to Draupadi's name, rivalling their fathers in valour, equal to them in every respect and full of martial pride, or him of the powerful bow, Subhadra's son, irresistible by even the gods themselves or Gada,
firmly grasp their

who

dealing

Yama

in intelligence ?

Who

;

or Pradyumna, or Samva, resembling

Yama

or the thunderbolt or fire

?

We shall
place the

slay Dhritarashtra's son and Sakuni and

Kama

in battle,

Pandava on the throne. There is no sin in that are bent on slaying us but to be a beggar before foes is both impious and infamous. I ask you to be diligent in doing that which is
:

and slaying them

heartily desired by Yudhishthira. Let Pandu's son get back the

kingdom
the earth

resigned by Dhritarashtra

!

Either Yudhishthira should get back his
all

kingdom
slain

this

very day or

our enemies shall

lie

down on

by

me

I"

SECTION IV
"Drupada
said,

'O mighty-armed one,
!

it

will,

without doubt,

Never will Duryodhana give up the kingdom by peaceful means, and Dhritarashtra, who dotes on his son, And so will Bhishma and Drona from will follow him in his wish. and Kama and Sakuni from folly. The words of Valadeva imbecility,
be even as thou hast said

command

themselves to

should, indeed, be followed by a

my judgment the course man who desires
;

pointed out by him
peaceful settlement.

But Duryodhana should never be addressed in mild words. Vicious by nature, he, I believe cannot be brought to reason by mildness. In but in respect of animals of the respect of an ass, mildness is in place
;

bovine species, severity should be resorted to. If any one were to speak mild words to Duryodhana, vicious by nature that wicked wight would consider the speaker to be an imbecile person. If a mild course is

adopted towards him, the fool will think that he has won. Let us do even this, let us make preparations; let us send word to our friends that they may collect an army for us. Let speedy messengers go to Salya,

and Dhrishtaketu,

Duryodhana also, minded persons, however, respond
beseech them.

and Jayatsena, and the prince of the Kekayas. on his part, will send word to all the kings. Rightto

the request of those that

first

Therefore,

I

ask you to

make

haste

in first

preferring

6

MAHABHARATA
us.

Meseems that a great undertaking send word to Salya, and to the kings under him, awaiting Quickly and to king Bhagadatta of immeasurable valour residing on the eastern
your suit to these rulers of men.
is

and Ahuka, and the king of the Mallas and Rochamana. Let Vrihanta be summoned and king Senavindu, and Vahlika and Mudjakesa and the ruler of the and also Chedis, and Suparsva, Suvahu and that great hero, Paurava the kings of the Sakas, the Pahlavas, and the Daradas, and Surari, and Nadija, and king Karnavest, and Nila, and the valiant king Viradharman and Durjaya, and Dantavakra, and Rukmi, and Janamejaya and Ashada and Vayuvega, and king Purvapali and Bhuritejas, and Devaka, and Ekalaya with his sons and also the kings of the Krausha race, and the valiant Kshemamurti, and the kings of the Kamboja and the Richika and Jayatsena and the king of Kashi, tribes, and of the western sea-coast and the rulers of the land of the five rivers, and the proud son of Kratha, and the rulers of the mountain regions, and Janaki, and Susarman and Maniman, and Potimatsyaka, and the valiant Dhrishtaketu, and the ruler of the kingdom of Pansu and Paundra, and Dandadhara, and the brave Vrihatsena and Aparajita, and Nishada and Srenimat and Vasumat and Vrihadvala of great strength, and Vahu the conqueror of hostile cities; and the warlike king Samudrasena with his son; and
sea-coast,

and

to fierce Hardikya,

of powerful understanding,

;

:

:

;

;

;

;

;

:

;

Uddhava, and Kshemaka and king Vatadhana and Srutayus, and Dridhayus, and the gallant son of Salwa and the king of the Kalingas, and Kumara, unconquerable in battle. Speedily send word to these. This is what recommends itself to me. And let this my priest, a learned Brahmana, be sent, O king, to Dhirtarashtra. Tell him the words he is to say and what Duryodhana should be told and how Bhishma is to be addressed, and how Drona, that best of car-warriors
;

;

;

'

I'

SECTION V
'Krishna said, "These words are worthy of the chief of the Somaka and are calculated to promote the interests of Pandu's son of immeasurable strength. As we are desirous of adopting a politic course this is, no doubt, our first duty a man acting otherwise would be a great fool. But our relationship to both the Kurus and the Pandus is
tribe,
;

equal,

howsoever these two parties may behave with each other. Both you and we have been invited here on the occasion of a marriage. The

marriage having now been celebrated, let us go home well-pleased. are the foremost of kings, both in years and learning and here we all, no doubt are as if your pupils. Dhritarashtra has always entertained

You

;

a great respect for

you
I,

:

and you are also a friend of the

Drona and Kripa.

therefore, ask

you

to send a

preceptors message (to the Kurus)

UDYOGA PAEVA
in

7

the interests of the Pandavas.

We

all

you should
should

send a message unto them.

If

resolve even upon this that that chief of the Kuru race

make peace on equitable terms, then the brotherly feelings between the Kurus and the Pandus will sustain no injury. If on the other hand, the son of Dhritarashtra should wax haughty and from folly
refuse to

make

peace, then,

having

summoned

others,

summon
will

us too.

The holder of Oandiva then
"
fate.'

will be fired

with wrath and the dull-headed

and wicked Duryodhana, with

his partisans

and

friends,

meet

his

Vaisampayana said, "King Virata, then having honoured'Krishna, sent him home with his followers and relatives. And after Krishna had set out for Dwaraka, Yudhishthira and his followers, with king Virata, began to make preparations for war. And Virata and his relatives sent word to all the monarchs, and king Drupada also did the same. And at the request of those lions of the Kuru race, as also of the two kings of the Matsyas and the Panchalas, many lords of the earth possessed of great strength, came to the place with cheerful hearts. And when the sons of Dhritarashtra heard that the Pandavas had collected a large
army, they also assembled many rulers of the earth. And, O king, at that time the whole land became thronged with the rulers of the earth who were marching to espouse the cause of either the Kurus or the Pandavas. And the land was full of military bands composed of four
kinds of forces.

the goddess

And from all sides the forces began to pour in. And Earth with her mountains and forests seemed to tremble

beneath their tread.

And

the king of the Panchalas, having consulted

the wishes of Yudhishthira, despatched to the
'

Kurus

his

own

priest,

who

was old both

in years

and understanding.'

SECTION VI
"Drupada said, 'Of beings those that are endowed with life are Of living beings those that are endowed with intelligence are superior. Of intelligent creatures men are superior. Of men the twice-born are superior. Of the twice-born, students of the Veda are superior. Of students of the Veda those of cultured understanding are superior. Of cultured men practical persons are superior. And finally,
superior.

knowing the Supreme Being are superior. You, it seems to me, are at the very top of those that are of cultured understanding. You are distinguished both for age and learning. You are equal in intellect to either Sukra or Vrihaspati, the son of Angiras. You know what kind of man the chief of the Kuru race is, and what kind of man also is Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti. It was with Dhritarashtra's knowledge that the Pandavas were deceived by their' opponents.
of

practical

men

those

8

MAHABHABATA

instructed by Vidura he yet follows his son ! Sakuni advisedly challenged Yudhishthira to a gambling match although the latter

Though
was

gambling while the former was an adept in it. Unskilled in play, Yudhishthira was guileless and firm in following the rules of the military order. Having thus cheated the virtuous king Yudhishthira, they will, by no means, voluntarily yield up the
unskilled
in

you speak words of righteousness unto Dhritarashtra, you will certainly gain the hearts of his fighting men. Vidura also will make use of those words of yours and will thus alienate the hearts When the officers of of Bhishma, and Drona, and Kripa, and others.
kingdom.
If

state are alienated

and

fighting

men

are backward, the task of the

enemy

In the meantime the Pandavas will, will be to gain back their hearts. with their whole hearts, address themselves in preparwith ease and
ing the

army and

in collecting stores.

And when

the enemy's adherents

are estranged, and while you

not be able to make

are hanging about them, they will surely adequate preparations for war. This course seems

expedient in this wise. ble that Dhritarashtra

your meeting with Dhritarashtra it is possimay do what you say. And as you are virtuous,

On

you must therefore act virtuously towards them. And to the compassionate, you must descant upon the various hardships that the Pandavas have endured. And you must estrange the hearts of the aged persons by discoursing upon the family usages which were followed by their I do not entertain the slightest doubt in this matter. Nor forefathers.
need you be apprehensive of any danger from them, for you are a Brahmana, versed in the Vedas and you are going thither as an ambassador, and more specially, you are an aged man. Therefore, I ask you to set out without delay towards the Kauravas with the object of pro;

(astrological)
called Jaya.'

moting the interests of the Pandavas, timing your departure under the combination called Pushya and at that part of the day
"

Vaisampayana continued, "Thus instructed by the magnanimous Drupada, the virtuous priest set out for Hastinapur (the city called
after the elephant).
of the

And

that learned

man, well-versed

in the principles
'

science of politics,

started with a following of disciples towards

the Kurus for the sake of promoting the welfare of Pandu's sons.'

SECTION
Vaisampayana
countries.
said,

VII
priest
to the city

"Having despatched the
they sent messengers to

called after the elephant

And

the kings of various having sent messengers to other places, the Kuru hero

Dhananjaya, that bull among men and son of Kunti, himself set out for Dwaraka. And after Krishna and Valadeva, the descendants of Madhu,

UDYOGA PABVA

9

had both departed for Dwaraka with all the Vrishnis, the Andhakas, and the Bhojas, by hundreds, the royal son of Dhritarashtra had, by sending
secret emissaries,

furnished himself with information of

of the Pandavas.

And

all the doings learning that Krishna was on his way, the prince

went

to the

speed of the

Dwaraka by means wind, and taking with him a
city of

of

fine horses

possessing the
of troops.

small

number

And

on that very day the son of Kunti and Pandu, Dhananjaya, also speedily arrived at the beautiful city of the Anarta land. And the two scions
of the Kuru race, those tigers among men, on arriving there saw that Krishna was asleep, and drew near him as he lay down. And as Krishna was sleeping, Duryodhana entered the room, and sat down on a fine

seat at the

head of the bed.

And

after

him entered that wearer

of the

diadem

the

magnanimous Arjuna.
his hands.
first

And

bowing and joining
Krishna awoke, he

And

stood at the back of the bed, when the descendant of Vrishni,

cast his

eyes on Arjuna.

And having
fitly

asked

them

as to the safety

of their journey,

and having

bestowed his

greetings

upon them, the
visit.

occasion of their

questioned them as to the Then Duryodhana addressed Krishna, with a
slayer

of

Madhu

cheerful countenance,
in the

'It behoveth you to lend me your help saying, war. Arjuna and myself are both equally your friends. impending And, O descendant of Madhu, you also bear the same relationship to

both of

us.

And

todayi

O

slayer

of

Madhu,

I

have been the

first

to

come
comes

to you.
first

Right-minded persons take up the cause of him who to them. This is how the ancients acted. And, O Krishna,
I

you stand at the very top of
are always respected.

all right-minded persons in the world, and ask you to follow the rule of conduct observed

by right-minded men.' Thereat Krishna replied, 'That you have come But, O king, the son of first, O king, I do not in the least doubt. Kunti, Dhananjaya, has been first beheld by me. On account of your
first arrival,

and on account

of

my having

beheld Arjuna
to both.

first, I shall,
it is

no

doubt, lend
those

my

assistance,

O Suyodhana,

But

said

that

are junior in years should have the first choice. Therefore, Dhananjaya, the son of Kunti, is entitled to first choice. There is a
large body and known

who

of battle.

you, and

I

cowherds numbering ten crores, rivalling me in strength Narayanas, all of whom are able to fight in the thick These soldiers, irresistible in battle, shall be sent to one of alone, resolved not to fight on the field, and laying down my
of as the

arms, will go to the other.

You may, O
itself to
'

son of Kunti,

first select

which-

ever

of these

two commends

you.

For, according to law, you

have the

right to the first choice.'

Vaisampayana continued.
field,

"Thus addressed by Krishna, Dhananjaya

the son of Kunti selected Kesava

who was

not to fight

on the battle-

even Narayana himself, the slayer
2

of foes, increate, born

among

10

MAHABHABATA
at his

men

own

will,

the foremost of

all

Kshatriyas and above
selected for

all thfe

gods and the Danavas.
entire

And Duryodhana
of

himself that

And, O descendant of Bharata, having obtained those troops numbering thousands upon thousands, he was exceedingly delighted, although he knew that Krishna was not on his side. And having secured that army possessed of terrible prowess, Duryodhana went to the son of Rohini of great strength, and

army (composed

the Narayanas).

explained to him, the object of his visit. The descendant of Sura in "Thou reply -addressed the following words to Dhritarashtra's son.
shouldst

remember,
I

ceremony celebrated by Virata.
for thy sake

all that I said at the marriage thou delighter of the race of Kuru, then contradicted Krishna and spoke against his opinions.

O

tiger

among men,

O

And again and again I alluded to the equality of our relationship to both the parties. But Krishna did not adopt the views I then expressed nor can I separate myself from Krishna for even a single moment.
;
.

And

seeing that

I

cannot act against Krishna, even
that
I will fight

this

is

resolution

neither for Kunti's sons nor for you. formed by me, vis., And, O bull of the Btiaratas, born as thou art in Bharata's race that is

honoured by
'

all

the kings, go and fight in accordance with the rules of

propriety.'

Vaisampayana continued,

"Thus addressed, Duryodhana embraced

that hero wielding a plough for his weapon of battle, and although knowing that Krishna had been taken away from his side, he yet regarded Arjuna as already vanquished. And the royal son of Dhritarashtra

then

went to Kritavarman.
to behold,

troops numbering an Akshauhini.
terrible

And Kritavarman And surrounded
forth

gave him a body of by that military host,
delighting his friends.

the

Kaurava marched

Duryodhana had departed, Krishna, the Creator of the world, 'For what reason is it that you have selected me who will not fight at all ?' "Thereupon Arjuna answered, 'I question not that you are able to them all. I also am alone capable of slaying them, O best of men. slay But you are an illustrious person in the world and this renown will accompany you. I also am a suitor for fame therefore, you have been selected by me. It hath been always my desire to have you for driving
after

And

clad in yellow attire, addressed Kiritin, saying,

'

;

;

my

car.

I,

therefore,

ask you to

fulfil

my

desire cherished for a long

time."

son, that
let

"Vasudeva's son thereupon said, 'It beseems thee well, O Kunti's thou measurest thyself with me. I will act as thy charioteer " thy wish be fulfilled.'
;

Vaisampayana continued, "Then with a glad heart, Kunti's son, accompanied by Krishna as well as by the flower of the Dasarha race, came back to Yudhishthira."

Vaisampayana said, having learnt the news from the Salya, accompanied by a large body of troops and by his sons, all of whom were mighty in battle, was coming to the Pandavas. His encampment covered an area of one and a half Yo/ana, so large was the force owned by that best of men. He was the master, O king, of an Akshauhini and had great prowess and valour. And there were in his army heroes bearing armour of various colours, with diverse kinds of banners and bows and ornaments and cars and animals, all wearing excellent garlands, and various robes and ornaments. And hundreds and thousands of foremost of Kshatriyas were the leaders of his troops, dressed and decorated in the manner of their native land. And he
niessengers,

SECTION "O king,

Vlli

proceeded by slow marches, giving rest to

his troops,

towards the place

where the Pandava was.
and' the

And

the

creatures of the earth felt oppressed

his troops. And King Duryodhana, hearing that magnanimous and mighty hero was on his way, hastened towards him and paid him honours, O best of the Bharata race and caused finely decorated places of entertainment to be constructed at different spots for his reception, on beautiful sites, and whither many artists were directed to entertain the guests. And those pavilions contained garlands and meat and the choicest viands and drinks, and wells of various forms, capable of refreshing the heart, and And tanks of various forms, and edibles, and roomy apartments. at those pavilions, and waited upon like a very god by the arriving servants of Duryodhana located at different spots, Salya reached another

earth trembled

under the tread of

house of entertainment resplendent as a retreat of the celestials- And there, greeted with choice creature-comforts fit for beings superior to

man, he deemed himself superior even to the lord himself of the gods and thought meanly of Indra as compared with himself. And that
foremost of Kshatriyas, well-pleased, asked the servants, saying Where are those men of Yudhishthira, who have prepared these places of refreshment ? Let those men who made these be brought to me.

I'deem them worthy of being rewarded by me. I must reward them, The servants, surprised, submitted let it so please the son of Kunti !' the whole matter to Duryodhana. And when Salya was exceedingly pleased and ready to grant even his life, Duryodhana, who had remained concealed, came forward and showed himself to his maternal uncle.

And the king of the Madras saw him and understood that it was Duryodhana who had taken all the trouble to receive him. And Salya embraced Duryodhana and said, 'Accept something that you may
de-sire.'

18

MAHABHAEATA
"Duryodhana thereupon said,

be true, grant

me

a boon.

I

'O thou auspicious one, let thy word ask thee to be the leader of all my army."
!

Vaisampayana continued, 'And hearing this, Salya said Be it so What else is to be done ?' And the son of Gandhari repeated again and again. 'It is done.' And Salya said, 'O Duryodhana, O best of
men, go to thy own city. I shall proceed to pay a visit to Yudhishthira, the subduer of foes. O king, I shall speedily come back, O ruler of men. That best of men, Pandu's son Yudhishthira, must, by all means, be visited by me.' And hearing this Duryodhana said, 'O king, O
ruler of the earth,

having seen the Pandava, come speedily back. I depend entirely upon thee, O king of kings. Remember the boon that thou hast granted me. And Salya answered, 'Good betide
!

thee

I shall

come

speedily back.

Repair to thy own

city,

O

protector

of men.'

And then those two kings Salya and Duryodhana embraced each other. And having thus greeted Salya Duryodhana came back to his own city. And Salya went to inform the sons of Kunti of that proceeding of his. And having reached Upalavya, and entered the encampment, Salya saw there all the sons of Pandu. And the mightyarmed Salya having met the
washing
his feet,

sons of Pandu,

and the customary

gifts of

accepted as usual water for honour including a cow.
first

And

the king of the Madras, that slayer of foes,

asked them

how

they were, and then with great delight embraced Yudhishthira, and Bhima, and Arjuna, and the sons of his sister the two twin-brothers.

had sat down, Salya spoke to Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, saying, 'O tiger among kings, O thou delighter of the race of Kuru, is it all well with thee ? O best of victors, how fortunately hast thou spent the term of thy residence in the wilderness. O king, O lord of monarchs, it was an exceedingly hard task that thou hast
all

And when

performed by dwelling in the wilderness together with thy brothers and this noble lady here. And awfully difficult task again was that sojourn of thine, the period of concealment, which task also thou hast performed, O descendant of Bharata for one pulled down from a throne it is nothing but hardship that awaits him. O king, where
;

there any happiness for him. O afflicter of thy foes, in compensation for all this vast misery wrought by Dhritarashtra's son, thou wilt attain to proportional happiness after having killed thy foes. great king, lord of men, the ways of the world are known to thee. Therefore,
is

O

my son, thou art never guided by avarice in any of thy dealings. descendant of Bharata, do thou tread on the foot-prints of ancient
saintly kings.

O O O

My son, Yudhishthira, be steady in the path of liberality, and self-abnegation, and truth. And, O royal Yudhisbthira, mercy and self-control, and truth and universal sympathy, and everything wonderful in this world, are to be found in thee. Thou art mild,

UDYOGA PABVA
munificent, religious, and liberal, and thou regardest virtue as
highest good.

18
the

O

king,

many

are the

rules of

virtue that prevail
son,

amongst men, and all those are known to thee. of foes, thou knowest in fact everything relating

O my

O

afflicter

to this world.

O

king

!

O best of Bharata's race,
difficulty of thine.

how lucky
lucky,

it is

that thou hast

come out

of this

How
I

O

king,

O

foremost of monarchs,
soul, a
'

O

lord,

it

is

that

see thee,

so

virtuous a

treasure-house of

righteousness, freed with thy followers

from

this.'

Vaisampayana continued, "Then, O descendant of Bharata, the his meeting with Duryodhana and gave a detailed account that promise of his and that boon granted by himself. And regarding Yudhishthira said, 'O valiant king, it has been well done by thee that
king spoke of

good betide
king,

being pleased at heart thou hast plighted thy truth to Duryodhana. But thee, O ruler of the earth, I ask thee to do one thing only.

O best of
When,

men, thou

wilt

have to do

it

solely

for

my

sake,

though it may not be proper to be done. O valiant one, hear what 1 submit to thee. O great king, thou art equal to Krishna on the field of

combat between Kama and have no doubt thou wilt have to drive Karnas Arjuna On that occasion, if thou art inclined to do good to me, thou must car. protect Arjuna. O king, thou must likewise so act that the Suta'g son Kama may be dispirited and the victory may be ours. Improper it no doubt is but, O my uncle, for all that thou must do it. Salya said,
battle.

O best

of kings, the single
I

will take place,

;

'Good betide thee. Listen,
shall

O

son of Pandu.

Thou

tellest

me

to so

act that the vile son of the Suta

may

be his charioteer on the

field,

be dispirited in fight. for he always considers
I

To be sure, I me equal to
speak to him,

Krishna.

O

tiger like

descendant of Kuru,

shall certainly

when

desirous of fighting on the field of battle, words contradictory and

fraught with
to do

harm
by

to him, so that bereft of pride

and valour, he

may

be easily slain
it,

his antagonist.

This

I tell

be able to bring about,

determined to do, O I shall do for were suffered by thee together with Draupadi on the occasion of the game at dice, the rude inhuman words uttered by the Svta's son, the misery inflicted by the Asura jata and by Kichaka, O illustrious one, all
this I

am

Asked by thee my son. Whatever else I may thy good. Whatever troubles
thee truly.

the miseries experienced by Draupadi, like those formerly

experienced
and,

by Damayanti,
aggrieved at this

will
;

all,

O hero,
is

end

in

joy.

Thou
in
this

shouldst not be

for Destiny

all-powerful

world

;

O

Yudhishthira, high-minded persons have to endure miseries of various kinds, nay, even the gods themselves, king, have suffered misfortunes. king, O descendant of Bharata, it is narrated that the high-

O

O

minded Indra, the chief
his

of the celestials,
"

had to endure together with

wife very great misery, indeed.'

SECTION IX
"Yudhishthira
it

said,

*O foremost

of monarchs, I wish to

know how
'

was that great and unparalleled misery had to be endured by the trious Indra together with his queen."
"Salya said,
'Listen,

illus-

the events of former days,

O king, to me as I relate this ancient story of how, O descendant of Bharata, misery befell

Indra and

his wife.

most of

celestials,

Once Twashtri, the lord of creatures and the forewas engaged in practising rigid austerities. And it is
he created a son having three heads. form possessed of great lustre hankered possessed of th6se three awful faces resembling
to Indra

said that

from antipathy

And

that being of universal

after Indra' s seat.

And

the sun, the moon, and the fire, he read the Vedas with one mouth, drank wine with another, and looked with the third as if he would absorb And given to the practice of austerities, and all the cardinal points.
self-controlled, he was intent upon a life of religious and austerities. Arid his practice of austerities, O subduer of practices foes, was rigid and terrible and of an exceedingly severe character. And* beholding the austerities, 'courage, and truthfulness of this one possessed of immeasurable energy, Indra became anxious, fearing lest that being

mild being and

should take his place.

And

Indra

reflected
;

How may
he be

he be

made

to

addict himself to sensual enjoyments

how may

made

to cease his

practice of such rigid' austerities ? For were the three-headed being to wax strong, he would absorb the whole universe. And it was thus that

Indra pondered in his mind and, best of Bharata's race, endued with he ordered the celestial nymphs to tempt the son of Twashintelligence,
;

O

1

Be quick, and go without delay, saying, and so tempt him that the three-headed being may plunge himself into' sensual enjoyment to the utmost extent. Furnished with captivating hips, array yourselves in voluptuous attires, and decking yourselves in charming necklaces, do ye display gestures and blandishments of love. Endued with loveliness, do ye tempt him and alleviate my dread. I feel restless hi my heart, O lovely damsels. Avert ye, ladies, this awful Good betide you.' peril that hangs over me.
tri.

And

he

commanded them,

Then

the

nymphs

said,

O

Indra,

O

slayer of Vala,

we

shall

so

endeavour to allure him that thou wilt have nothing to fear at his hands. That very receptacle of austerities, sitting now as if scorching
everything with his eyes,
shall

try to bring
'

O god, we are going together to tempt- We him under our control, and to put an end to your

fears

"Salya continued, 'Commanded by Indra, they then went to the three-headed being. And -arriving there, those lovely damsels tempted him with various gestures of love, displaying their fine figures. Bat

UDYOGA PABVA

16

engaged in the practice of exceedingly severe austerities, although he looked at them, yet he was not influenced by desire. Of subdued senses,
he was like the ocean, full to the brim,
after

un

gravity.

And

the nymphs,

having tried their best, came back to Indra. And they all with joined hands spoke to the lord of the celestials, saying, O that unhighly approachable being is incapable of being disturbed by us.

O

gifted being,

high-minded
reflecting,

thou mayst do what now may seem proper to thee. The Indra honoured the nymphs and then dismissed them
solely

O Yudhishthira,

upon other means

of destroying his foe.

with intelligence, he fixed upon a contrivance for destroyAnd he said, Let me today hurl my ing the three-headed being. thunderbolt at him. By this means he will speedily be killed. Even a
strong person

And endued

may

be.

And

should not overlook a rising foe, contemptible though he thus reflecting upon the lessons inculcated in treatises of

he was. firmly resolved upon slaying that being. Then Indra, enraged, hurled at the three-headed being his thunderbolt which looked
learning,
like
fire

and was

terrible

to behold,

forcibly struck by that thunderbolt, he was on the earth the loosened summit of a hill.

and which inspired dread. And slain and fell down, as falls

And

down huge as a hill, found no peace, and felt as if scorched by the effulgent appearance of for though slain, he had a blazing and effulgent appearance the dead and looked like one alive. And, strange to say, though lifeless, his heads seemed to be alive as they were beheld lying low on the field. And
the thunder-bolt, and lying
;

beholding him slain by the chief of the celestials

exceedingly afraid of that lustre, Indra remained plunged in thought. And at that time, O great king, bearing an axe on his shoulder, a car-

penter came to the forest and approached the spot where lay that being. And Indra, the lord of Sachi, who was afraid, saw the carpenter come there by chance. And the chastiser of Paka said unto him immediately.

Do

this

my

behest.

thereupon

said,

Quickly cut off this one's heads. The carpenter His shoulders are broad this axe will not be able to cut
:

them

off.

not fear, quickly do what I say; At my command thy axe shall equal the thunderbolt. The carpenter said, am I to take thee to be who hast done this frightful deed today ?
persons.

Nor shall I be And Indra saicj,

able to do

what

is

condemned by righteous

Do

Whom
This
I

wish to learn,
I

tell

me

the exact truth.
of the gods.

And
this

Indra said,

O

car-

penter,

am

Indra,

the chief
I

Let

be

known

to thee.

Do

thou act just as
said,

have

told thee.

Do
is it

not hesitate,

O

carpentei.

The carpenter this thy inhuman
I shall

O

Indra,
it

how
is

that thou art not

ashmed of
Indra said,

act

?.

How

that thou hast no dread of the sin of of a saint ?

slaying a Brahmana,

after having slain this son

afterwards perform some religious ceremony of a rigorous kind to purify myself from this taint. This was a powerful enemy of mine

16

MAHABHABATA
I

whom

have
;

killed with

my

thunderbolt.

Even now

I

am

uneasy,

O
the

carpenter I, indeed, dread him even now. Do thou quickly cut off his In sacrifices, men will I shall bestow my favour upon thee. heads.
give thee the head of the sacrificial

beast as thy share.

This

is
*

thou quickly perform what I desire. "Salya said, 'Hearing this, the carpenter, at the request of the great Indra, immediately severed the heads of the three-headed one with his axe. And when the hea Js were-cut off. out flew therefrom a number

favour

I

confer on thee.

Do

of birds,

viz.,

partridges, quails
to recite

wherewith he used

the Vedas

and sparrows. And from the mouth and to drink the Soma juice,

son of Pandu, king, partridges in quick succession. And, with which he used to look at the cardinal points as if from the mouth

came out

O

O

absorbing them all, a number of quails came forth. And from that mouth of the three-headed being which used to drink wine, out flew a

number

of

sparrows and hawks.

And
to

Indra was freed from

his trepidation,

the heads having been cut off and went to heaven, glad at heart.
his house.

And

the carpenter also

went back

And

the slayer of

considered his object gained. Now when the lord of creatures, Twashtri, heard that his son had been slain by
Asuras, having killed his foe,
Indra, his eyes

became red with

Since Indra hath killed

my

and he spoke the following words: son who had committed no offence at all,
ire,

who was

constantly engaged in

the practice of

austerities,

who was

merciful, possessed of self-control,

for the destruction of Indra,

I

will

subdued passions, therefore, create Vritra. Let the worlds behold
of
!

and

and how mighty is the practice of austerities Let that inhuman, wicked-minded lord of the gods also witness the And saying this, that enraged one, famous for his austerities, same washed his mouth with water, made offerings on the fire, created the O destined slayar of Indra, terrible Vritra, and spake to him, saying, in might even from the strength of my austere rites. And that grow

what power
!

I possess,

Asura grew in might, towering towards the firmament, and resembling the sun of fire. And he asked, Risen like the doomsday sun, what am was the reply. And then he departed towards the I to do? Kill Indra
celestial

regions.

And

next ensued a great fight between Vritra and

Indra, both fired with wrath.

And
the

there took

place a terrible combat,

O

best of

Kuru's race.
a

And

heroic Vritra seized the celestial lord

hundred sacrifices. And filled with wrath, he whirled Indra and threw him into his mouth. And when Indra was

who had performed

swallowed up by Vritra, the terrified senior gods, possessed
might, created Jrimbhika to
kill

of great

Vritra.

And

as Vritra

yawned and

his

mouth opened
parts

the slayer of the Asura

Vala contracted the different

of his body,

and came out
attaches

thenceforth the

yawn

itself to

from within Virata's mouth. And the living breath of animated

beings in three worlds.

And

the gods rejoiced at the egress of

Indra.

And
both
race.

once again commenced the terrible fight between Vritra and Indra,
full of ire.

And it was waged for a And when Vritra, inspired with

long while,

O best

of Bharata's

the mighty spirit of Twashtri

and himself endowed with strength, got the upper hand in fight, Indra turned back. And on his retreat, the gods became exceedingly distressed. And all of them together with Indra were overpowered by the might of Twashtri. And they all consulted with the saints, O descendant of
they deliberated as to what was proper to be done, and were overwhelmed with dread. And seated on the top of the Mandara
Bharata.

And

mountain, and bent on

killing Vritra,
'

they only bethought themselves

of Vishnu, the indestructible One.'

SECTION X
"Indra said, This whole indestructible universe, O gods, hath been pervaded by Vritra. There is nothing that can be equal to the task of opposing him. I was capable of yore, but now I am incapable. What good betide you, can I do ? I believe him to be unapproachable. Powerful and magnanimous, possessing immeasurable strength in fight, he would be able to swallow up all the three worlds with the gods, the Aswras, and the men. Therefore, hear ye dwellers of heaven, this is my resolution. Proceeding to the abode of Vishnu, in company with that high-souled Being must we consult, and ascertain the means of slaying
'

this ruthless

wretch.
'Indra having thus spoken, the gods with that
to the

"Salya continued,
host of Rishis repaired

mighty god Vishnu to place themselves

under the protection of that protector of all. And afflicted with the dread of Vritra, they said unto the Supreme Lord of the deities Thou hadst in former times covered the three worlds with three steps. Thou
hadst procured the ambrosial food,
in battle.

Thou
is

O Vishnu, and destroyed the Asuras bind the great Asura Vali and hadst raised Indra didst
Thou
thee.

to the throne of heaven.

art the lord of the gods, and this entire

Thou art the God, the mighty Deity, pervaded by Be thou the refuge of all the celestials together saluted by all persons. with Indra, O best of gods. The whole universe, O slayer of Asuras, hath been pervaded by Vritra. And Vishnu said, I am no doubt bound
universe

do what is for your good. I shall, therefore, tell you of a contrivance whereby he may be annihilated. Do ye with the Rishis and the Qandharvas repair to the place where Vritra that bearer of a universal form is
to
in

and adopt towards him a conciliatory policy. You will thus succeed overthrowing him. By virtue of my power, victory, ye gods, will be

won by
3

Indra, for,

remaining invisible,

I

shall enter

into his thunder-

II
bolt,

MAHABHABATA
that best of weapons.

Rishis

and the Qandharvas. between Indra and Vritra,

foremost of gods, depart ye with the Let there be no delay in effecting a peace
*

O

"Salya continued, "When he had thus spoken, the Rishis and the celestials placed Indra at their head, and uniting together, went away.

Approaching Indra they beheld Vritra glowing and resplendent as if scorching the ten points, and swallowing all the three worlds, and resembling the sun or the moon. And then the Rishis, came up to
thou unconVritra and spoke to him in conciliatory terms, saying, the whole of this universe hath been pervaded by thy querable being,
energy.

O

Thou

art

not able however to overpower Indra,

O

best

of

period hath now elapsed since you began to fight. All beings, with the gods and the Asums and men, are suffering from the effects of the fight. Let there be eternal friendship between thee

mighty beings.

A long

be happy and shall dwell eternally in Indra's And the mighty Vritra having heard the words of the saints, regions. bowed his head unto them. And the Asura (thus) spoke What you,

and Indra.

Thou

shalt

O highly-gifted

beings,

and

also all

these Qandharvas are saying, I

have

heard. Ye stainless beings, hear also what I have got to say. How can there be peace between us two, Indra and myself ? * How can there be
friendship, ye gods, between

two

hostile

powers

?

The

Rishis

said,
It is

righteous persons happens at a single meeting. Friendship Thereafter will happen what is fated to be. a desirable object.

among

The

opportunity of forming friendship with
sacrificed.

a righteous person

should not be

Therefore, the friendship of the righteous should be sought.
is

The

friendship of the righteous

(like) excellent wealth, for he that

is

wise would give advice

when

it is

needed.
a wise

The

friendship

of a good

person
kill

is

of great use

;

therefore,

a righteous one. Indra is refuge of magnanimous persons, being veracious, and unblameable, and knows what virtue is, and is possessed of a refined judgment. Let there

person should not desire to honoured by the righteous, and is the

be eternal friendship between thee and Indra, as described above. In let not thy heart be have faith Cm him) this way, differently
;

'

inclined.

"Salya said, 'Hearing these words of the great Rishis, the illustrious Asura spoke to them, No doubt, the Rishis, endued with supernatural powers, are to be respected by me. Let what I am going to say, ye gods,

be performed in
best of

its

entirety

;

then

I shall

do everything that (these)
lords of the

Brahmanas have

said to

me.

Ye

Brahmana

race,

ordain so that Indra himself or the gods do not kill me by what is dry, or wet by stone, or by wood by a weapon fit for close fight, or by a missile in the day time, or at night. On those terms eternal peace
;
; ;

with Indra would be acceptable to me.

Very good

!

was what the

UDTOGA PABVA
Rishia told him,

19

O

best of Bharata race.

cluded, Vritra was very

much

pleased.

And

Thus peace having been conIndra also became pleased

though constantly occupied with the thought of killing Vritra. And the chief of the deities passed his time in search of a loophole, uneasy (in
mind). And on a certain day when it was evening and the hour awful, Indra caught sight of the mighty Asura on the coast of the sea. And he

bethought himself of the boon that was granted to the illustrious Asura, This is the awful evening time it is neither day, nor night saying, and this Vritra, my enemy, who hath stripped me of my all, must un
;

;

doutedly be killed by me. If I do not kill Vritra, this great and mighty Asura of gigantic frame, even by deceit, it will not go well with me. And as Indra thought of all this, bearing Vishnu in mind he beheld at
that instant in the sea a mass of froth as large as a
hill.

And
hurl
it

he

said,

This

is

neither dry, nor wet, nor
will die

is it

a

weapon

;

let

me

at Vritra.

Without doubt, he

mass of froth blended

immediately. And he threw at Vritra that with the thunderbolt. And Vishnu, having

entered within that froth, put an end to the life of Vritra. Vritra was killed, the cardinal points were free from gloom
;

And when
;

and there

And also blew a pleasant breeze and all beings were much pleased. the deities with the Oandharvas and Yakshas and Rakahasas, with the
great snakes and saints, glorified the mighty Indra with various lauda-

words of encouragehis heart was glad as also that of every one of the gods ment to all. for having killed the foe. And knowing the nature of virtue, he worshipped Vishnu, the most praiseworthy of all objects in the world. Now when the mighty Vritra, terrible to the gods, was killed, Indra became and he was overpowered by falsehoodi and he became exceedingly sad
tory hymns.
saluted by
all

And And

beings, Indra spoke

;

Brahmanicide on account of having killed the three-headed son of Twashtri. And he betook himself to the conalso

overpowered by the

sin of

fines of the worlds,

and became bereft
his

of

his

senses and consciousness.

And overpowered by

own

sins,

he could not be recognised.

And he
the

lay concealed in water, just like a writhing snake.
of celestials, oppressed

And when

lord

from

sight,

with the dread of Brahmanicide, had vanished the earth looked as if a havoc had passed over it. And it

became
tress

treeless,
;

and

its

woods withered
lost all

interrupted

and the reservoirs

and the course of rivers was their water and there was dis;

;

among animals on account

of cessation of
;

rains.

And

the deities

and

all

the great Riihis were in exceeding fear

and was overtaken by disasters. heaven, separated from the chief of the gods, became terrified, and wondered who was to be their king. And nobody had any inclinaking,
saints in
"

and the world had no Then the deities and the divine

tion to act as the king of the gods.'

SECTION XI
"Salya said,

'Then

all

the Rishii

and the superior gods

said,

Let

the handsome Nahusha be crowned as king of the gods. He is powerful and renowned, and devoted to virtue ever more. And they all went And Nahusha and said to him, O lord of the earth, be thou our king intent on his welfare, spoke to those gods and saints accompanied by the

progenitors (of mankind),

I

it is a powerful person hath always been possessed of strength. And all the gods, led by the Aided by the virtue of our austerities, rule saints, spoke again to him,

you

;

am feeble who should
;

I

not capable of protecting it is Indra who be your king
;

am

thou the kingdom of heaven. There is no doubt that we have all our respective fears. Be crowned, O lord of monarchs, as the king of heaven. Whatever being may stand within thy sight, whether he be a god, an
Asura, a Yaksha, a saint, a Pitri, or a Gandharva, thou shalt

absorb his

power and (thereby) wax strong. Always placing virtue before (all other things), be thou the ruler of the worlds. Protect also the Brahlord of marsis (Brahmana saints) and the gods in heaven. Then, monarchs, Nahusha was crowned king in heaven. And placing virtue

O

before (everything else), he became the ruler of

all

the worlds.

And

though always of a virtuous disposition, yet when he obtained that precious boon and the kingdom of heaven, Nahusha assumed a sensual turn

And when Nahusha became the king of the gods, he surrounof mind. ded himself with celestial nymphs, and with damsels of celestial birth,
and took to enjoyments of various kinds, in the Nandana groves, on mount Kailasa, on the crest of Himavat, on Mandara, the White hill Sahya, Mahendra and Malaya, as also upon seas and rivers. And he listened
to various divine narratives that captivated both the ear and the heart, and to the play of musical instruments of different sorts, and to sweet vocal strains. And Viswavasu and Narada and bevies of celestial nymphs and bands of Gandharvas and the six Seasons in living shapes, atten-

ded upon the king of the gods. And fragrant breezes, refreshingly cool, blew round him. And while that wretch was thus enjoying himself, on

one occasion the goddess who was the favourite queen of Indra came
his sight.
courtiers,

in

And
the

that

vicious soul, having looked at her, said to the

doth not this goddess, the queen of Indra, attend upon monarch of the gods, and also the ruler of the worlds. ? Let Sachi make haste and visit me at my house. Saddened at hearing Protect me, O Brahmana, from this, the goddess said to Vrihaspati, I come to you as my refuge. this Nahusha. You always say, O Brah-

Why

me

I

am

mana, that

I

have got on

my
;

favourite of the divine king

person all the auspicious marks, being the that I am chaste, devoted to my lord, and

UDYOGA PABVA
destined never to
before.
lord,

31

become a widow. All this about me you have said Let your words be made true. O possessor of great powers, O you never spoke words that were vain. Therefore, O best of
this that

Brahmanas,
said to the

you have

said ought to be

true.

Then Vrihaspati

thou hast been told by
I

Indra who was beside herself through fear, What me will come to be true, be sure, O goddess. Thou shalt see Indra, the lord of the gods, who will soon come back here-

queen

of

thee truly, thou hast no fear from Nahusha I shall soon unite thee with Indra. Now Nahusha came to hear that Indra' s queen had taken
tell
;

refuge with Vrihaspati, the son of

Angiras.

And

at

this,

the

king

became highly enraged.'

'

SECTION

XII

"Salya said 'Seeing Nahusha enraged, the gods led by the saints spoke unto him, who was now their king of awful mien, O king of gods quit thy wrath. When thou art in wrath, O lord, the Universe, with its Asuras and Qandharvas, its Kinnarag, and great snakes, quaketh. Quit
this

selves out.
of

wrath, thou righteous being, Persons like thee do not put themThat goddess is another person's wife. Be pacified, O lord

gods

wife.

Turn back thy inclination from the sin of outraging another's Protect thy subThou art the king of gods, prosperity to thee
! !

jects in

all

righteousness
lust.

!

So addressed, he heeded not the saying

rendered senseless by
to Indra,

And

the king spoke to the gods, in allusion

Ahalya

of spotless fame, the wife of a saint, was outraged by

Indra while her husband was alive.

Why

did

ye not prevent him

?

inhumanity, of unrighteousness, of deceit, committed by Indra in former times. Why did ye not prevent him ? Let the goddess do my pleasure that would be her permament good.
;

Many were

the deeds of

And
as

so the

same

will

ever more rebound to your safety, ye gods

' !

"The gods said, shall bring to thee the queen of Indra even lord of heaven Quit this wrath, thou thou hast laid the command, " Be pacified, lord of gods ! valiant soul "Salya continued, 'Thus having spoken to him, the gods with the

We

O

!

!

O

saint

went

to inform Vrihaspati and the queen of Indra of the sad news.

And

foremost of Brahmanas, that the queen of Indra hath betaken herself to thy house, for protection, and that thou But we the gods hast promised her protection, O best of divine saints
they said,
I

We know, O
saints,

and Oandharvas and

beseech thee,

up the queen
effulgence,
is

of Indra to

Nahusha.

thou of great lustre, to give Nahusha, the king of gods, of great

O

superior to Indra.

Let her, that lady of choice figure and

complexion, choose him as her lord t Thus addressed, the goddess gave vent to tears; and sobbing audibly, she mourned in piteous accents. And

22

MAHABHARATA
I

she spoke to Vrihaspati, O best of divine saints, sha to be my lord. I have betaken myself to thy

do not desire Nahuprotection,

O

Brah-

mana

!

Deliver

me from
my

this great peril

!

'Vrihaspati said,
that hath sought

My

resolution

is this,

I

shall not

protection.

O

thou of unblamable

life, I

abandon one shall not
!

I do and of a truthful disposition as I am a Brahmana, knowing not desire to do an improper act, specially what righteousness is, having a regard for truth, and aware also of the precepts of virtue. I shall never do it. Go your ways, ye best of gods. Hear what hath formerly been sung by Brahma with regard to the matter at hand. He that delivereth up to a foe of a person terrified and asking for protection obtaineth no protection when he himself is in need of it. His seed doth not grow at seed-time and rain doth not come

abandon

thee, virtuous as thou art

to

him

in the season of rains.

He
is,

that delivereth up to a foe a person

terrified

and asking
;

for protection never succeedeth in anything that he

undertaketh
death and

senseless as he

the gods refuse offerings
his forefathers

made

he droppeth paralysed from heaven by him. His progeny die an untimely
;

always quarrel (among themselves). The gods with Indra at their head dart the thunderbolt at him. Know it to be so,
shall not deliver

I

up

this Sachi here, the

world

as

his

favourite

consort.
I

O

queen of Indra, famous in the ye best of gods, what may
Sachi
I

be for both her good and mine
deliver up

ask you to do.

shall

never

I'

Then the gods and the Gandharvas said these 'Salya continued, words to the preceptor of the gods, O Vrihaspati, deliberate upon something that may be conformable to sound policy Vrihaspati said
I

"Let
to

this goddess of auspicious looks ask for

time from Nahusha

in

order

make up her mind

to his proposal. This will

be for che good of Indra's

queen, and of us as well- Time, ye gods, may give rise ro many impediments. Time will send time onward. Nahusha is proud and powerful by virtue of the boon granted to him
' !

Salya continued.

'Vrihaspati having spoken

so,

then said,
all

Well

hast thou said,

O

Brahmana.
let this

This

is

the gods, delighted for the good of

the gods.

It is

no doubt

so.

Only,

goddess be propitiated.
all

Then

the assembled gods led by Agni, with a view to the welfare of

the worlds, spoke to Indra's queen in a quiet way. And the gods said, Thou art supporting the whole universe of things mobile and immobile.

Thou

art chaste

and true

:

go thou to Nahusha.
:

That vicious being,
goddess,
will

lustful after thee, will shortly fall

and Indra,

O

get

the

! Ascertaining this to be the result of that deliberation, Indra's queen, for attaining her end, went bashfully to Nahusha of awful mien. The vicious Nahusha also, rendered senseless by lust, saw how youthful and lovely she was. and became highly " pleased.'

sovereignty of the gods

SECTION
Salya said,

XIII

her and said,
worlds.
!

O

'Now then Nahusha, the king of the gods, looked at thou of sweet smiles, I am the Indra of all the three thou of beautiful things and fair complexion, accept me as

O

That chaste goddess, thus addressed by Nahusha, was territhy lord fied and quaked like a plantain-stalk at a breezy spot. She bowed her head to Brahma, and joining her hands spoke to Nahusha, the king
of the gods, of awful mien, said

Olord

of the

deities, I desire to obtain

time. It

is

not

known what hath become
I

of Indra, or
if,

where he

ing enquired into
of

the truth regarding him,
shall visit

O
I

lord, I

Havobtain no news
is.

him,

then

thee

;

this

tell

thee

for truth.

Thus
said,

addressed by Indra's

queen, Nahusha was pleased.
I

And Nahusha

Let

it

be

so,

O

lady of lovely hips, even as thou art telling me.

wilt comei after having ascertained the news.

hope thou wilt

Thou remem-

Dismissed by Nahusha, she of auspicious looks and that famous lady went to the abode of Vrihaspati. And, O best of kings, the gods with Agni at their head, when they heard her words, deliberated, intent upon what would promote the
ber thy plighted truth.

stepped out

;

interests of Indra.

And
to

they then

joined the powerful Vishnu, the
the gods, hath been

God
the

of

gods.

And
words

skilled in

making speeches, the uneasy gods spoke
all

following

him

Indra, the lord of

lord of the gods, art overpowered by the sin of Brahmanicide. Thou, the first-born, the ruler of the universe, and our refuge. Thou hadst

O

assumed the form of Vishnu for the protection of all beings. When Vritra was killed through thy energy, Indra was overhelmed by the O best of all the gods, prescribe the means of sin of Brahmanicide.
setting

him

free.

Having heard
me.

these words of the gods, Vishnu said,

Let Indra

offer sacrifice to

Even

I

shall purify

the holder of the

thunderbolt.

The

chastiser of Paka, having performed the holy horse-

sacrifice, will fearlessly

regain his dignity as lord of the gods.
will

And

the

wicked-minded Nahusha
For
a certain

be led

to destruction by his evil deeds.
patient, being vigilant at

periodi ye

gods, ye

must be

were and pleasant like ambrosia to their ears, the gods, with their pretrue, ceptor, and with the Rishis proceedeed to that spot where Indra was uneasy with fear. And there, O king, was performed a great horse-

the same time.

Having heard

these words of Vishnu, words that

sacrifice,

tion of the high-minded and great Indra.

capable of removing the sin of Brahmanicide, for the purificaAnd the lord of the gods, O

the sin of Brahmanicide among trees and rivers and mountains and the earth and women. And having distributed it thus among those beings and parted with it. Indra was free from fever.

Yudhisthira, divided

24

MAEABEARATA
rid of his
sin,

And

he came to himself.

And

at that place, the slayer

of the

Asura Vala, quaked when he looked at Nahusha, before whom all animated beings felt cowed, and who was unapproachable by virtue And the divine husband of of the boon the Rishis had granted to him. Sachi vanished from sight once again. And invisible to all beings, he wandered biding his time. And Indra having disappeared, Sachi fell
into grief.
If

And
my

exceedingly miserable, she bewailed,
a gift, or
if

Alas

!

O

Indra.

ever

I

have made

made
there

offering
is

to

the gods, or have
in

propitiated
that

spiritual guides,

any truth
I

me, then

I

pray

my

chastity

may remain

inviolate.

bow myself

to this goddess

Night, holy, pure, running her course during this the northern journey 1 let my desire be fulfilled. of the sun, Saying this, she, in a purified

condition of body and soul, worshipped the goddess Night.

And

in

the

name

of

she asked,

her chastity and truth she had recourse to divination.* And Show me the place where the king of the gods is. Let truth

be verified by truth.
1 '

And

it

was thus that she addressed the goddess

of Divination.

SECTION XIV
"Salya
said,

'Then the goddess of Divination stood near that

chaste and beautiful lady.

And having

beheld that goddess, youthful
art,

and
to

lovely, standing before her, Indra's queen, glad at heart, paid respects
said,
I

them and

desire to know
I

who thou

O thou of lovely face,
come near
I

And
thy

Divination

said,

am

Divination,

O

goddess,

thee.
in

Since thou art truthful,
sight.

therefore,

O

high-minded lady, do

appear

Since thou art devoted to thy lord, employed in controlling and engaged in the practice of religious rites, I shall show thee thyself, the god Indra, the slayer of Vritra- Quickly come after me, so may

Thou shalt see that best of gods- Then Divination good betide thee proceeded and the divine queen of Indra went after her. And she crossed the heavenly groves, and many mountains and then having crossed the Himavat mountains, she came to its northern side. And having reached the sea, extending over many yojana she came upon a
!
; t

large island covered with various trees

there she saw heavenly appearance, covered with birds, eight hundred miles in length, and as many in breadth. And upon it, O descendant of Bharata, were full-blown lotuses of heavenly appearance,
plants.

and

And

a beautiful

lake, of

of five colours,
in the

hummed

round by

middle of that lake,

and counting by thousands. And there was a large and beautiful assemblage
bees,

1

i. e.,

passage of the sun from the winter to the

summar

solistice.

T.
T.

2 Divination was practised by reference to the stars in the night

UDYOGA PABVA
of

95

stalk.

in its midst a large white lotus standing on a lofty penetrating into the lotus-stalk, along with Sachi. she saw Indra there who had entered into its fibres. And seeing her lord lying

lotuses having

And

there in a minute form, Sachi also assumed a

goddess of divination too.

And

Indra's

minute form, so did the queen began to glorify him by

reciting his celebrated deeds of yore. And thus glorified, the divine Purandara spoke to Sachi. For what purpose hast thou come ? How also have I been found out ? Then the goddess spoke of the acts of

Nahusha. And she said, O performer of a hundred sacrifices, having obtained the sovereignty of the three worlds, powerful and haughty and of a vicious soul, he hath commanded me to visit him, and the cruel
wretch hath even assigned me a definite time. If thou wilt not protect me, O lord, he will bring me under his power. For this reason, Indra,

O

have

I

terrible

come to thee in alarm. O thou of powerful arms, slay the Nahusha of vicious soul. Discover thyself, O slayer of Daityas

and DanavaSi

O

lord,

assume thy own strength and rule the

celestial

kingdom.-"

SECTION XV
'Thus addressed by Sachi, the illustrious god said to her again, This is not the time for putting forth valour. Nahusha is stronger than I am. O beautiful lady, he hath been strengthened by
"Salya
said,

O

the Rishis with the merits of offerings to the gods and the Pttris. I shall have recourse to policy now. Thou wilt have to carry it out, O goddess. lady, thou must do it secretly and must not disclose it to any person.

lady of a beautiful waist, going to
lord of the Universe, thou

must
I

visit

Nahusha in private, me mounted on a

tell

him,

O

nice vehicle

borne by
at

Rishis.

thy disposal.
to

be pleased and shall place myself This shouldst thou tell him. And thus addressed by
In that case
shall

the king of the gods,

went

his lotus-eyed consort expressed her consent and Nahusha. And Nahusha, having seen her, smilingly addressed I welcome thee, O lady of lovely thighs. What is thy her, saying, O thou of sweet smiles. Accept me, O lady of propitious pleasure,

looks,

1 shall

who am devoted to thee. What is thy will, O spirited dame. do thy wish, O lady of propitious looks and slender waist. Nor needst thou be bashful, O thou of lovely hip. Have trust in me. In
do thy bidding. 'Sachi said, O lord of Universe, I wanted the time that thou hast assigned to me. Thereafter, O lord of the gods, thou shalt be my husband. I have a wish. Attend and hear, O king of the go.ls. What
of truth I swear,

the

name

O

goddess, that

'

I shall

it is I

shall say,

O
I

indulgence that

thou mayst do what I like. This is an ask from thy love for me. If thou grantest it, I shall
king,
so that

90 be at thy disposal.

MAHABHAEATA
Indra had horses for carrying him, and elephants,

and cars. I want thee to have, O king of the gods, a novel vehcile, such as never belonged to Vishnu, or Rudra, or the Asuras, or the Rakshasas, O lord. Let a number of highly dignified RisHis, united together, bear
thee in a palanquin. This
is

what commends

itself to

me.

Thou

shouldst

not liken thyself to the Asuras or the gods- Thou absorbest the strength There is none of all by thy own strength as soon as they look at thee.
*

so strong as to be able to stand before thee.

"Salya continued,
pleaded.

"Thus addressed, Nahusha was very

much

And

the lord of the deities said to that lady of faultless features,

O lady of
hea.ni

the fairest complexion, thou hast spoken of a vehicle never
I

of before.

like

it

exceedingly,

O goddess.

O

rhou of lively face.
I

He cannot

be a feeble

Rjshis for bearing him.

have practised

am in thy power, person who employeth I austerities, and am mighty.
I

am
me.

the lord of the past, the
if I

would be no more

O

present, and the future. The Uuiverse were in rage. The whole Universe is established in thou of sweet smiles, the gods, the Asuras and QandHarvas, and

snakes, and RaJcsHasas
in rage.

are together
I

unable to cope with
I

me when

I

am

Whomsoever

gaze upon

divest

him

of his energy.

There-

fore, thy request I shall

no doubt fulfil, O goddess. The seven RisHis, and also the regenerate RisMs, shall carry me- See our greatness and

splendour,

O lady

of lovely

complexion.'

''Snlva
face,

continued.

'Having thus addressed that goddess of lovely

number
of

and having dismissed her thus, he harnessed to his heavenly car a of saints devoted to the practice of austerities. A disregarder Brahmans, endued with power and intoxicated with pride, capricious,
soul,

and of vicious

Meanwhile went to Vrihaspati and said, But little remaineth of the term assigned by Nahusha to me. But compassionate unto me who respect thee so, and quickly find out Indra,
he employed those saints to carry him.
dismissed by Nahusha, Sachi

'The illustrious Vrihaspati then said to her,
needst not,

Very good, thou
Surely, he shall

O

goddess, fear,

not long retain his power.
great saints to carry him.

Nahusha of The wretchi

vicious soul.
in fact,
is

already gone, being

regardless of virtue and because,

O

And

I shall

lovely dame, of his employing the perform a sacrifice for the des-

truction of this vicious wretch, and

not fear.
a

Fare thee well

And

I shall find out Indra. Thou needst Vrihaspati of great power then kindled

fire in the prescribed form, and put the very best offerings upon it in order to ascertain where the king of the gods was. And having put his offerings, O king, he said to the Fire, Search out Indra. And there

upon that revered

god, the eater of

burnt offerings, assumed

of his

own

accord a wonderful feminine form and vanished from sight at that vtry spot. And endued with speed of the mind, he searched everywhere*

UDSOGA PABVA
mountains and
in these places
forests,

17

earth and sky, and came back to Vribaspati

within the twinkling of the eye.

And Agni

said,

Vrihaspati,

nowhere
I

do
I

I

find the king of the gods.

The waters
I

alone remain

to be searched,

am always backward

in entering

the waters.

have

no ingress therein.
'

O

Brahmana what am

to

do for thee.

The

preceptor of the gods then said to him,
the water,

O illustrious god, O

do thou enter

'Agni said,
that awaits me.
I

I

cannot enter the water.

place myself in thy hand,
!

Therein it is extinction thou of great effulgence.

Fire rose from water, the military caste rose Mayst thou fare well from the priestly caste and iron had its origin in stone. The power of these, which can penetrate all other things, hath no operation upon the "
;

sources from which they spring.'

SECTION XVI
'Vrihaspati said,

Thou

art the mouth,

O

Agni, of

all

the gods.

Thou
again

art

the carrier of sacred offerings.

Thou,

like a witness, hast
call thee single,

access to the inner souls of all creatures.
three-fold.

The poets

and

O

eater of burnt offerings, abandoned by thee the

Universe would forthwith cease to be. The Brahmanas by bowing to thee, win with their wives and sons an eternal region, the reward of their

own

meritorious deeds.

O

Agni,

it is

thou who art the bearer of sacred
In a sacrificial

offerings.

Thou,
of

O

Agni, art thyself the best offering.

the supreme order, it is thee that they worship with bearer of offerings, having created the incessant gifts and offerings.

ceremony

O

three worlds, thou

unkindled form.
again,

when Thou art

the hour cometh,
the mother of the

consumeth them in thy whole Universe and thou
;

Agnii art its termination. The wise call thee identical with flames issuing from thee, support all the clouds and with the lightning All the waters are deposited in thee so is this entire world. creatures.
; ;

O

To

thee,

O

purifier, nothing

is

unknown
;

in the three worlds.

Every

do thou enter the waters without I shall render thee strong with the eternal hymns of the Veda. fear. Thus glorified, the bearer of burnt offerings, that best of poets, well I shall show pleased, spoke laudable words to Vrihaspati. And he said, Indra to thee. This I tell thee for truth.'

body taketh kindly to

his progenitor

"Salya continued,

'Then Agni entered the waters, including seas
to that reservoir where,

and tiny ponds, and came

O

best of Bharata's

race, while searching the lotus flowers,

within the fibres of a lotus-stalk. Vrihaspati how Indra had taken refuge

he saw the king of the gods lying And soon coming backi he informed
in the fibres of a lotus-stalk,
tfodf,

assuming a minute form.

Then

Vrihaspati. accompanied by the

98

MAHABHABATA
And
;

the saints and the Qa*dharva, went and glorified the slayer of Vala by
referring to his former deeds.

he

said,

O

Indra. the great Asura
also of terrible

Namuchi was
strength,
viz. t

killed

by

thee

and those two Asuras

Samvara

and Vala.

Wax

strong,

hundred sacrifices, and slay all thy foes. Rise, O are assembled the gods and the saints. O Indra, O great lord, by slaying Aauras, thou hast delivered the worlds* Having got the froth
!

performer of a Indra Behold, here

O

of waters, strengthened
Vritra.
is

with Vishnu's
all

energy,

Thou

art

the refuge of

creatures and art adorable.

thou formerly slew There
together

no being equal to thee.

All the creatures.

O

Indra, are supported by

thee.

Thou

didst build the greatness of the gods.

Deliver

all,

with the worlds by assuming thy strength, O great Indra. And thus and having assumed his own glorified, Indra increased little by little
;

form, he waxed strong and spoke to the proceptor Vrihaspati standing before. And he said, What business of yours yet remaineth the
;

great Aswaa, son of Twashtri, hath been killed

;

and Vritra
'

also,

whose

form was exceedingly
the throne of

big

and who destroyed the worlds.

'Vrihaspati said,

The human Nahusha, a king, having obtained heaven by virtue of the power of the divine saints, is
*

giving us exceeding trouble.

Indra said,
difficult to get ?

'How hath Nahusba obtained the throne

of

heaven,
is

What
!

austerities did he practise ?
*

How

great

his

power,

O

Vrihaspati

'Vrihaspati said,

king of heaven, for thou hadst given
ruler.

The gods having been frightened, wished for a up the high dignity of heaven's
universe, the saints, and the

Then the

gods, the Pitris of the
all

principal Oandharvaa,

met together,
;

O Indra,

and went to Nahusha
I

and

Be thou our king, and the defender of the Universe To them I am not able fill me with your said Nahusha, power and with the So told, the deities strengthened him, O virtue of your austerities
said.
!

king of the gods
strength, and

I

And thereupon Nahusha became

a person of terrible

the great saints in harness, and the wretch
to world.

becoming thus the ruler of the three worlds, he hath put is thus journeying from world Mayst thou never see Nahusha who is terrible. He emitteth

poison from his eyes, and absorbeth the energy of all. All the gods are they go about concealed and do not cast a exceedingly frightened
;

glance at him

'

I

"Salya continued,

While

that

best

of

Angira's race was thus

speaking, there came that guardian of the world, Kuvera, and alsoYama the *on of Surya, and the old god Soma. and Varuna. And arrived there

How lucky that the son of Twashtri hath and Vritra also How lucky, O Indra, that we are beholding thee safe and sound, while all thy enemies have been killed I
they said to the great Indra.

been

killed,

!

and with a glad heart greeted them in proper form with a view to requesting them in connection with Nahusha. And he said, Nahusha of terrible mien is the king of the gods therein lend me your assistance. They replied, Nahusha
Indra received
all

those guardians of the worlds,

;

is

of

awful mien

;

his sight is poison

;

we

are afraid of him,

O

god.

If

thou overthrowest Nahusha, then we shall be entitled to our shares of sacrificial offerings, O Indra. Indra said, Let it be so. You and the
ruler of the waters, and

Yama, and Kuvera
all

shall this
let

along with me.

Aided by
gaze.

the gods,

day be crowned us overthrow the foe
Indra.

Nahusha
share in

of terrible
sacrificial

Then Agni
I

also said to
shall lend

Give me
assistance.

a

offerings.

also

you

my

Indra said to
sacrifices,

Agni, thou also shalt get a share in great there will be a single share (in such) for both Indra and

him,

O

Agni
"Salya continued.
the sovereignty over

"Thus did the

illustrious lord Indra, the chasti-

ser of Paka, the giver of boons, bestow, after deliberation,

upon Kuvera

the Yakshas, and

all

the wealth of the
;

upon Yama, the sovereignty over
over the waters.'
"

the Pitris

world ; and upon Varuna, that

SECTION XVII
"Salya said,
deities

'Now when

the great Indra, the intelligent chief of

the gods, was deliberating with the
the venerable ascetic Agastya.

guardians of the world and other the means of slaying Nahusha, there appeared at that spot upon

And Agastya honoured

the lord of the

gods and

said,

How

fortunate that thou art flourishing after the desas also that of Vritra.

truction of

that being of universal form,

And

how
all

fortunate,

O

Purandara, Nahusha hath been hurled from the throne
fortunate,
'

of heaven.

How

O

slayer of Vala, that I behold

thee with

thy enemies killed "Indra said,

Hath thy journey hither been pleasant, O great saint. I am delighted to see thee. Accept from me water for washing thy feet and face, as also the Arghya and the cow,
'

"Salya continued,

'Indra, well-pleased,

best of saints and greatest of

began to question that Brahmanas when he was seated on a seat

after receiving due honours, thus,
nas,
I

O

revered saint,

O

best of

Brahma-

wish to have

it

recited
'

by thee how Nahusha of vicious soul was

hurled from heaven.

Indra to the pleasant narrative how the wicked and vicious Nahusha, intoxicated with pride of strength, had been

'Agastya

said,

Listen,

O

hurled from heaven.

The

pure-spirited
toil,

Brahmanas and

celetsial saints,

while carrying him, weary with

questioned that vicious one,

O best

10
of

MAHABHARATA
victors,

saying,

O

Indra,

there

are certain

hymns

in the

Vedas,

directed to be recited while sprinkling the cows.

Nahusha, who had lost his them that they were not authentic. The saints then said, Thou thou takest not to the righteous art tending towards unrighteousness path. The greatest saints have formerly said that they are authentic, O Indra. And incited by Untruth, he touched me on my head with his At this, O lord of Sachi, he became divested of power and of foot. looks. Then, as he was agitated and overpowered with fear, I good
not
?

Are they authentic or senses by the operation of the Tamas,

told

;

Since thou hast pronounced as spurious the unexceptionthe Veda which have been recited by Brahmarsis, (Brahmana saints)and since thou hast touched my head with thy foot, and since thou, O ignorant wretch, hast turned these unapproachable saints,

spoke to him,
able

hymns

of

wretch, be divested of thy lustre, and being hurled headlong, fall thou from heaven, the effect of all thy good deeds being exhausted* For ten

equal to Brahma, into animals

for carrying thee, therefore,

O

thousand years, thou over the earth.
heaven.

shalt,

in the

form
is

of an

enormous snake, roam

When

that period

full,

thou mayst
that

come back

to

Thus hath

that wretch been hurled from the throne of heaven,

O

represser of foes.

How

fortunate,

O Indra,
*

we

are flourishing

That thorn of the Brahmanas hath been killed. O lord of Sachi, repair thou to heaven, protect the worlds, subdue thy senses, subdue thy foes, and be glorified by the great saints "Salya continued, 'Then, O ruler of men, the gods, and the bands of great saints were exceedingly pleased. And so also were the Pitris, the YaksHas, the Snakes, Rakshasas, the Qandharvas, and all the bands of celestial nymphs. And the tanks, the rivers, the mountains, and the seas also were highly pleased. And all came up and said, How fornow.
tunate,

O

slayer of foes, that thou art flourishing

!

How

fortunate,
!

that
for-

the intelligent

Agastya hath
'

killed

the vicious Nahusha

How

tunate that the vile individual hath been turned into a snake to roam

over the earth

!'

SECTION XVIII
celestial

Then Indra, glorified by the bands of Qandharvas and nymphs, mounted on Airavata, the king of elephants, characterised by auspicious marks. And the illustrious Agni, and the great saint Vrihaspati, and Yama, and Varuna, and Kuvera, the lord of riches,
"Salya said,

to

went by the gods together with the Qandharvas and the celestial nymphs. And the performer of a hundred And sacrifices, the king of the deities, was thus united with his queen.
accompanied him.
the
the lord Sakra, the slayer of Vritra, then

And

three worlds surrounded

UDTOGA PABVA
f

81

be began to protect the worlds with exceeding gladness. Then the illustrious divine saint Angiras arrived in the assembly of Indra and

worshipped him duly by reciting the hymns of the Atharva. And the became satis6ed and granted a boon to the AtharvanAnd Indra said, Thou wilt be known as a Rishi of the name giras. Atharvangiras in the Atharva Veda, and thou wilt also get a share in
great lord Indra
sacrifices.

And

Indra, the performer of a hundred sacrifices,
king.

having honoured Atharvangiras thus, the great lord parted with him, O great
all

And

he honoured

the deities and

all

the saints endued with

wealth of asceticism.

And,

O

king,

Indra, well-pleased,

governed the

people virtuously. Thus was misery endured by Indra with his wife. And with the view of slaying his foes, even he had to pass a period in

concealment.

king of kings, hast suffered with Draupadi as also with thy high-rninded brothers in the great forest. descendant of Bharata, O king of kings,
it

Thou

shouldst not take

to heart that thou,

O

O

O

delighter of Kuru's race,

thou wilt get back thy kingdom

in

the same

way
that

as Indra got his, after

having

killed Vritra.

The

vicious Nahusha,

enemy

of Brahmanas, of evil mind,

was overthrown by the curse of

Agastya, and reduced to nothing for endless years. Similarly, slayer of foes, thy enemies, Kama and Duryodhana and others of vicious souls
will quickly

O

be destroyed.
as far as the sea,

this earth,

Then, O hero, thou wilt enjoy the whole of with thy brothers and this Draupadi. This

story of the victory of Indra, equal to the Veda in its sacred character, should be listened to by a king desirous of victory and when his forces

have been arrayed
reciting
it

in

order of battle. Therefore,

to thee for thy victory,

attain prosperity
tion

when they are
Kshatriyas
is

O best of victors, I am O Yudhishthira. High-souled persons O Yudhishthira, the destrucglorifiedat

hand by reason of the crimes of Duryodhana, and through the might also of Bhima and Arjuna. He who
of high-souled

readeth this story of Indra's victory with a heart
is

full

of religious faith,

cleansed of his

sins,

attaineth a region of
the next.

bliss,

and obtaineth joy both
of his foes
peril
;

in this

world and

in

He

hath no fear

he never

becometh

a sonless

man, never encountereth any
'

whatever, and

enjoyeth long life. Everywhere victory declareth for him, and he knoweth not what defeat is.'

Vaisampayana continued
best of righteous

"O best

of Bharata's race, the king, that

men, thus encouraged by Salya, honoured him in proper form. And Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, of powerful arms, having heard the words of Salya, spoke to the king of the Madras the following There is no doubt that thou wilt act as the charioteer of Kama. words
:

Thou must damp
Arjuna.'

the spirits of

Kama

then by recounting the praises of

89
"Salya said,
I

HAHABHABATA
'Let
it

be

so.

I shall

do just as thou
Salya,

tellest

me.

And

shall

do for thee anything

else that I

may be

able to do."

Vaisampayana continued,
with
his

"Then

bade farewell to the sons of Kunti.

And

the king of the Madras, hands'ome man then went that

army

to

Duryodhana,

O

represser of foes."

SECTION XIX
Vaisampayana
said,

"Then Yuyudhana, the great hero

of the

Satwata race, came to Yudhishthira with a large army of foot, and horses and cars and elephants. And his soldiers of great valour come from various lands, bore various weapons of war, and heroic in look they
beautified the
of battle-axes,

and staves,

Pandava army. And that army looked splendid by reason missiles, and spears, and lances, and mallets, and clubs, and cords, and stainless swords, and daggers, and arrows of
and
all

various kinds,

of the best temper.

And

the army, beautified by those

weapons, and resembling in colour .the cloudy sky, assumed an appearance like to a mass of clouds with lightning-flashes in its midst. And the army counted an Akshaufifni of troops. And when absorbed in the
troops of Yudhishthira it entirely disappeared, as doth a small river when And similarly, the powerful chief of the Chedis, it enters the sea.

of

Dhrishtaketu, accompanied by an AkshauKini, came to the sons of Pandu immeasurable strength. And the king of Magadha, Jayatsena of great
strength, brought with

him

for Yudhishthira an

Akshauhini of troops.

And

similarly

Pandya, who dwelt on

the coast-land near the sea,

came

accompanied by troops of various kinds to Yudhishthira, the king of kings. And, O king, when all these troops had assembled, his army, finely dressed and exceedingly strong, assumed an appearance pleasant to the eye. And the army of Drupada also was beautified by valiant soldiers who had come from various lands, and also by his mighty sons. And
similarly Virata, the king of the Matsyas, a leader of troops,

accompanied
for the high-

by the king of the
souled sons of

hilly regions,

came

to Pandu'ssons.

And

Pandu there were

thus assembled from various directions,

seven Akshauhini of troops, bristling with banners of various forms. And eager to fight with the Kurus, they gladdened the hearts of the Pandavas.
rashtra's son,

same way king Bhagadatta, gladdening the heart of Dhritagave an AkshauHim of troops to him. And the unassailable mass of his troops, crowded with Chins and Kiratas, all looking like figures of gold, assumed a beauty like to that of a forest of Karnikara And so the valiant Bhurisravas, and Salya, O son of Kuru, came trees.
in the

And

And Kritavarman, to Duryodhana, with an Akshauhini of troops each. the son of Hridika, accompanied by the Bhojas, the Andhas, and the
Kukuras, came to Duryodhana with an A/cshauHini of troops.

And

the

UDYOGA PABVA
body of
his troops

83
their
as a

persons garlands of

composed of those mighty soldiers, who wore on many-coloured flowers, looked as graceful
a

And through others led by Jayadratha, the dwellers of the land of Sindhusauvitra, came in such force that the hills seemed to tremble under their tread.
number
of sportive elephants that have passed

wood.

And

their force, counting an

Akshauhini, looked like a mass of clouds

moved by the wind. And Sudakshina, the king of the Kambojas. O ruler of men, accompanied by the Yavanas and Sakas, came to the Kuru chief
with an Akahauhini of troops.
like a flight of locusts,

the body of his troops that looked with the Kuru force, was absorbed and meeting
similarly

And

disappeared in
city of the

it.

And

came king

Nila, the

resident of

the

who

carried

Mahishmati, with mighty soldiers from the southern country weapons of pretty make. And the two kings of Avanti,

accompanied by

a mighty force, brought to Duryodhanai each a separate Akshauhini of troops. And those tigers among men, the five royal brothers, the princes of Kekaya, hastened to Duryodhana with an Akshauhini of troops, and gladdened his heart. And from the illustrious

kings of other quarters there came*
divisions of troops.

O

best of Bharata's race, three large

And
all

thus Duryodhana had a force which numbered

eleven Akshauhini

eager to fight with the sons of Kunti, and bristling descendant of Bharata, there with banners of various forms. And

O

was no space

in the city of Biastinapura

even

for the

principal

leaders

of Duryodhana's army. And rivers, and the whole of the region called Kurujangala. and the forest of Rohitaka which was uniformly wild, and Ahichatra, and Kalakuta, and the banks
for this reason the land of the five

Ganga, and Varana, and Vatadhana, and the hill tracts on the border of the Yamuna the whole of this extensive tract full of
of the

abundant corn and wealth, was entirely overspread with the army of the Kauravas. And that army, so arranged, was beheld by the priest who had been sent by the king of the Panchalas to the Kurus."

SECTION XX
Vaisampayana saidi "Then Drupada's priest, having approached chief, was honoured by Dhritarashtra as also by Bhishma and Vidura. And having first told the news of the welfare of the Pandathe

Kaurava

vas, he enquired about the welfare of the Kauravas.

And

he spoke the

following words in the midst of

all

the leaders of Duryodhana's army,

shall yet recite

known to you all. But though known, I them as an introduction to what I am going to say. Both Dhritarashtra and Pandu are known to be sons of the same father. There is no doubt that the share of each to the paternal wealth should be The sons of Dhritarashtra obtained the paternal wealth. Why equal.
The
eternal duties of kings are

84 did not the sons of

MAHABHABATA
Pandu
at all receive their paternal portion ?

Ye

are

aware how formerly the sons of Pandu did not receive their paternal property which was all usurped by Dhritarashtra's sons. The latter endeavoured in various ways to remove the sons of Pandu from their but as their path by employment even of murderous contrivances not wholly run out, the sons of Pandu could destined terms of life had not be sent to the abode of Yama. Then again, when those high-souled princes had carved out a kingdom by their own strength, the mean-minded sons of Dhritarashtra, aided by Suvala's son, robbed them of it by This Dhritarashtra gave his sanction even to that act as hath deceit. been usual with him. And for thirteen years they were then sent to sojourn in the great wilderness. In the council-hall, they had also been
;

subjected to indignities of various kinds, along with their wife, valiant though they were. And great also were the sufferings that they had to

endure in the woods, Those virtuous princes had also to endure unspeakable woes in the city of Virata, such as are endured only by vicious men when their souls transmigrate into the forms of inferior beings.

Ye

all these injuries of yore they desire but a peaceful settlement with the Kurus ! Remembering their nothing behaviour, and that of Duryodhana also, the latter's friends should

best of Kuru's race, overlooking

entreat him to consent to peace

!

The heroic sons

of

Pandu are not

eager for war with the Kurus. They desire to get back their own share without involving the world in ruin. If Dhrifarashtra's son assigns a

of

proper reason. The sons Pandu are more powerful. Seven Akshauhinia of troops have been collected on behalf of Yudhishthira, all eager to fight with the Kurus, and they are now awaiting his word of command. Others there are, tigers among men, equal in might to a thousand Akshauhinia, such as
reason in favour of war, that can never be a

Satyaki and Bhimasena, and the twin brothers of mighty strength. It is true that these eleven divisions of troops are arrayed on one side, but
these are

balanced on the other by the mighty-armed Dhananjaya of And as Kiritin exceeds in strength even all these troops together, so also doth Vasudeva's son of great effulgence and powerful Who is there that would fight, in view of the magnitude of intellect.

manifold form.

the opposing force, the valour of Arjuna, and the wisdom of Krishna ? Therefore, I ask you to give back what should be given, as dictated by " morality and compact. Do not let the opportunity pass !'

SECTION XXI
Vaisampayana said, "Having heard his words, Bhishma, senior in wisdom, and endued with great effulgence, paid honours to him, and then spoke words suitable to the occasion. And he said, 'How fortunate that they are all well, with Krishna.! How fortunate that they have procured

UDYOGA PABVA
aid,

85

and that they are inclined to a virtuous course! How fortunate that There is no those scions of Kuru's race desire peace with their cousins
!

doubt that what thou hast
ingly sharp,

said

is

true.

Thy words, however, are exceed-

suppose, being that thou art a Brahmana. No the sons of Pandu were much harassed both here and in woods. doubt, No doubt, by law they are entitled to get all the property of their father.
the reason,
I

Arjuna, the son of Pritha,
car-warrior.
of Pandu.

is

strong trained in weapons,

Who,

in sooth, can withstand in battle

and is a great Dhananjaya the son
other
is

Even the wielder
!'

himself of the thunderbolt cannot,

bowmen
all

are hardly worth mention.

My

belief

is

that he

a

match for

the

three worlds

And

while Bhishma was thus speaking,

Kama

wrathfully and insolently interrupted his words, and looking at Duryodhana said, There is no creature in the world, Brahmana, who is

O

not informed of
again and again
?

all

these facts.
behalf of

What

is

the good of repeating

them

Duryodhana, Sakuni formerly won in game of dice. Yudhishthira, the son of Pandu went to the woods according to a stipulation. He is now paying no regard to that stipulation, but con6dent of aid from the Matsyas and Panchalas, he wisheth to get
back

On

O learned man, Duryodhana would not yield his ancestral throne. even a single foot of land if thou appealest to his fears, but if justice If they wish requires, he would give up the whole earth even to a foe. to get back their ancestral throne, they should pass the specified period of time in the forest as had been stipulated. Afterwards let them live as the dependants of Duryodhana, safe and sound. From dull-headedness however let them not turn their mind towards an absolutely unrighteous
course.

they desire war, then when they encounter in battle these praiseworthy Kurus, they will
If,

nevertheless, abandoning the path of virtue,

remember these
"Bhishma

my
said,

words.'
is

Thou

shouldst

'What remember that

the use

of thy talking,

O

Radha's son.

occasion

when

Pritha's son, single-handed,
'

over-powered in battle six car-warriors. If we do not act as this Brahmana hath said, to be sure, we shall be all slain by him in battle !'

Vaisampayana continued, "Then Dhritarashtra pacified Bhishma with words of entreaty, rebuked the son of Radha, and spoke the follow'What Bhishma, Santanu's son, hath said is salutary for us, ing words, I shall, as also for the Pandavas, and likewise for the whole Universe.
however, after deliberation, send Sanjaya to the sons of Pandu. So thou needst not wait. Go thou to the son of Pandu this very day.' The Kaurava chief then honoured Drupada's priest and sent him back to the
Pandavas.

And summoning

Sanjaya

to the council-hall,

he addressed

him

in the following words."

SECTION XXII
"Dhritarashtra
in the
said,

They

say,

O San jaya, that the Pandavas have
Thou must
is

arrived at Upaplavya.

Go

Ajatasatru from the woods) thou hast reached such a city. And to all of them thou must say, O Sanjaya, these words. Are ye well, having spent that
harassing period of sojourn, ye who. were

following words,

thou and enquire after them. By good luck it

greet

that

(emerged

unworthy

of such harassment ?

O

they be appeased towards us, for though treated In no case, foes), yet they are righteous and good. treacherously (by I ever met with any untruthfulness on the part of the Sanjaya, have
will

In no time

It was by their own valour that they had won all their prosand (yet) they were ever dutiful to me. Though I scrutinized their conduct, I could never find fault with them, no, not even a single fault for which we might blame them. They always act mindful of virtue

Pandavas.
perity,

and wealth

;

they never give
;

or hunger, or thirst
are

and heedlessness. The
ever pleasant to

enjoyments, or cold, they subdue sleep and laziness and wrath and joy sons of Pritha, mindful of both virtue and wealth,
to love of sensual
all.

way

wealth to friends.

proper occasions they part with their Friendship with them never loses its ardour on account of length of time for they bestow honours and wealth on every one according to his deserts. Not a soul in the race of Ajamida ever
;

On

them excepting this vile, capricious, dull-headed and excepting also the still more mean-minded Kama. Duryodhana, These two always enhance the energy of those high-souled ones who have been divested of both friends and happiness, Enterprising and
entertains hatred for

brought up
done.

every indulgence, Duryodhana reckons all that to be well on Duryodhana's part to think that it is possible to of their just share so long as they are alive. It is wise rob the Pandavas to him whose steps to yield to Yudhishthira his due share before the war, are followed by Arjuna and Krishna and Bhima andSatyaki and the two
in
It is childish

Madri and the warriors of the Srinjaya race. That wielder of the Qandiva, Savyasachin, seated on his car, would alone be able to devastate the whole world. And likewise the victorious and high-souled Krishna,
sons of

the lord of the three worlds, incapable of defeat

is

able to

do the same.

What
all

mortal would stand before him who

is

the one worthiest person in

the worlds and

who

discharges

his

multitude of arrows that roar

like the clouds, covering all sides, like flights of swiftly coursing locusts?

Alone on
their

his car, holding the Qandiva, he had conquered the Northern region as also the Kurus of the North and brought away with him all

converted the people of the Dravida land to be a It was Falguna, the wielder of the Gandiva, who defeating in the Khandava woods all the gods together with Indra, made offerings to Agni, enhancing the honour and fame of the Pandavas.
wealth. portion of
his

He

own army.

UDYOGA PABVA
Of
all

37

wiclders again
is

of the mace, there
is

is

none equal to Bhima

;

and
they

there
say,

none

also

who

so skilful a rider of elephants.
;

On

car,

and as to might of arms, he is equal to ten thousand elephants. Well-trained and active, he who hath again been rendered bitterly hostile, would in anger consume the Dhartahe yields not to even Arjuna

no time. Always wrathful, and strong of arms, he is not being subdued in battle by even Indra himself. Of great heart, and strong, and endued with great lightness of hand, the two (twin) brothers, sons of Madri, carefully trained by Arjuna, would leave
rashtras
in

capable of

birds.
it

not a foe alive, like to a pair of hawks preying upon large flocks of This our army, so full, to tell thee the truth, will be nowhere when
will

encounter them.

In their side will

be Dhrishtadyumna,

endued

with great activity,
selves.

one
of

The

chief

who is regarded as one of the Pandavas themthe Somaka tribe, with his followers, is, I have

heard,

so devoted to the cause of the
his

down
thira
I

very

life

for them.

Who

Pandavas that he is ready to lay would be able to withstand Yudhishtribe (Krishna) for his leader ?

who hath

the

best of the Vrishni

have heard that Virata, the chief of the Matsyas, with whom the Pandavas had lived for some time and whose wishes were fulfilled by them, old in years, is devoted, along with his sons to the Pandava cause, and hath become an adherent of Yudhishthira. Deposed from the throne of the Kekaya land, and desirous of being reinstated thereon, the five mighty brothers from that land, wielding mighty bows, are now
following the sons of Pritha ready
to fight.

All

who

are valiant

among

the lords of the earth have been brought together and are devoted to the

Pandava
they

cause.

who

hear that they are bold, worthy, and respectful, have allied themselves to the virtuous king Yudhishthira from
I

of attachment to him. And many warriors dwelling on the and inaccessible fastnesses, and many that are high in lineage and old in years, and many Mleccha tribes also wielding weapons of various kinds, have been assembled together and are devoted to the cause of Pandavas. And there hath come Pandya also, who, hardly inferior to
feelings
hills

Indra on the

field of

battle,

is

followed

when he

fights

by numberless

warriors of great courage.

and energy that have That same Satyaki who, I have heardi obtained weapons from Drona and Arjuna and Krishna and Kripa and Bhishma, and who is said to be
equal to the son of Krishna,
is

Remarkably heroic and endued with prowess no parallel, he is devoted to the Pandava cause.

And

the assembled kings of the

devotedly attached to the Pandava cause. Chedi and the Karusha tribes have all

taken the part of the Pandavas with all their resources. That one in their midst who, having been endued with blazing beauty, shone like
the sun,

whom

all

persons deemed unassailable

in battle

and the very
trice,

best of all

drawers of the bow on earth, was

slain

by Krishna in a

38

MAHABHABATA

of all the

by help of his own great might, and counting for naught the bold spirit Kshatriya kings. Kesava cast his eyes on that Sishupala and

smote him, enhancing the fame and honour of the sons of Pandu. It was the same Sishupala who was highly honoured by those kings at whose head stood the king of the Karusha tribe. Then the other kings, deeming Krishna unassailable when seated on his car drawn by Sugviva

and other steeds,

left

the chief

of the Chedis and ran

away

like small

animals at the sight of a lion. And it was thus that he who from audacity had sought to oppose and encounter Krishna in a combat hand
to

hand, was slain by

Krishna and lay

down
in

lifeless,

resembling a

Karnikarfl tree uprooted by a gale.

O

Sanjaya,

O son

they have told

me

of the

activity of Krishna

Gavalgana, what cause of Pandu's sons,
of

and what
mind.

I

remember

of his past achievements, leave
is

me no
is

peace of

No

foe

whatsoever

capable of

withstanding them

who are
trembling
the self-

under the lead
with fear

of that lion of the Vrishni tribe.

My

heart

upon learning that the two Krishnas, are seated on
If

same

car.

my

dull-headed son forbear to fight with those two, then
else those

may he

fare

well,

two

will

consume the race

of

Kuru

as

Indra and Upendra consume the Daitya hosts. Dhananjaya is, I conceive, equal to Indra, and the greatest of the Vrishni racei Krishna, is the

The son of Kunti and Pandu, Yudhishthira, is virtuous and brave and eschews deeds that bring on shame. Endued
Eternal Vishnu himself.

with great energy, he hath been wronged by Duryodhana. If he were not high-minded, he would in wrath burn the Dhartarashtras. I do not so much dread Arjuna or Bhima or Krishna or the twin brothers as I
dread the wrath of the king,
austerities

O Suta,
to
I

when

his

wrath

is

excited,

His

are great

;

he

is

devoted
just it
is,

Brahmacharya practices.

His

heart's wishes will certainly be fulfilled.

When
am
filled

I

think of his wrath,

O

Sanjaya, and consider

how

with alarm.

Go

thou

speedily on a car, despatched by me, where the troops of the king of the

Panchalas are encamped.

Thou

wilt repeatedly address

meet Krishna, O child, endued with a magnanimous soul. Him also thou wilt ask on my part as to his welfare, and tell him that Dhritarashtra is desirous of peace with Pandu's sons. O Suta, there is nothing that Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, would not do at the bidding of Krishna. Kesava is as dear to them as their own selves. Possessed of great learning, he is ever devoted to their cause. Thou wilt also enquire about the welfare of all the assembled sons of Pandu and the Srinjayas and Satyaki and Virata and all the five sons of Draupadi, professing to be a messenger from me. And whatsoever also thou mayst deem to be opportune, and benefical for the Bharata race, all that, O Sanjaya, thou must say in the midst of those kings, everything, in sooth, that may not be unpalatable or provo'

Thou wilt ask Yudhishthira about his welfare. him in affectionate terms. Thou wilt also who is the chief of all brave men and who is

cative of war.'

SECTION XXIII
Vaisam pay ana said, "Having heard these words of king Dhritarashtra Sanjaya went to Upaplavya to see the Pandavas of immeasurable strength. And having approached king Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, he made
obesiance to him
first

and then spoke.
I

And

the son of Gavalgana, by

name Sanjaya and by 'How lucky, O king,
son of
is

caste a Suta, cheerfully spoke unto

Ajatasatru,

that

see

inferior to the great Indra.

you hale, attended by friends and little The aged and wise king Dhritarashtra, the

I hope Bhimasena and that Dhananjaya, that foremost of the Pandavas, and these two sons of Madri, are well. I hope princess Krishna also, the daughter of Drupada, is well, she who never swerves from the path of truth, that lady of great energy, that wife of heroes^ I hope she is well with her sons, she in whom are centred all your dearest joys and whose

Ambika, hath enquired about your welfare.

well,

welfare you constantly pray for.' "Yudhishthira said, 'O Sanjaya, son of Gavalgana> hath thy jourhere been safe ? are pleased with thy sight. I ask thee in return ney

We

how thou
brothers.

art.

I

am,

O

learned man, in excellent health with

my

younger
thee,

O
I

Suta, after a long

while do

I

now

receive news of the aged

king of the Kurus,
Sanjaya,
feel as

that descendant of Bharata.
if I

Having seen

O
Is

have seen the

king himself, so pleased I

am

!

our aged grandsire Bhishma, the descendant of Kuru, endued with great energy and the highest wisdom and always devoted to the practices of
his

own

order,
I

O

sire,

in health ?

I

hope he

still

retains all his

former

habits.

hope

the high-souled king Dhritarashtra, the son of Vichitra-

with his sons. I hope the great king Vahlika, the son endued with great learning, is also in health. I hope, O sire, that Somadatta is in health, and Bhurisravas, and Satyasandha, and Sala, and Drona with his son, and the Brahmana Kripa are also well. I hope all those mighty bowmen are free from disease. O Sanjaya, all those greatest and best of bow-men, endued with the highest intelligence and versed in letters, and occupying the very top of those who wield weapons, have attached themselves to the Kurus. I hope those bowmen
virya,
is

in health

of Pratipa,

I hope they are free from disease. How kingdom dwells the mighty and handsome happy I hope Yuyutsu, the highly bowman, the well-behaved son of Drona

receive their honours due.
are they in whose

!

intelligent son

of Dhritarashtra by his Vaisya wife

is

in health.

I

hope,

O sire,

the adviser

Kama, whose
is

counsels are followed

of the Bharata

in health. I hope the aged ladies, and the kitchen-maidens, the bond-maids, the daughters-in-law, the boys, the sister's sons and the sisters, and the daughters' sons of Dhritarashtra's house are all free from trouble.

headed Suyodhana,

by the dullthe mothers

race,

40

MAHABHARATA
I

O sire,
nas.
I

hope the king

still

allows their former subsistence to the Brahma-

hope,

O Sanjaya,
I

Dhritarashtra's son hath not seized those gifts
I

to

the

Brahmanas that

made.

I

hope Dhritarashtra with

his

sons

meets

in a spirit of

forbearance any over-bearing conduct on the part of

the Brahmanas.

that being the sole

light

hope he never neglects to make provision for them, highway to heaven. For this is the excellent and clear that hath been provided by the Creator in this world of living
If like

beings.

dull-headed persons,

the sons of

Kuru do not

treat the

Brahmanas
them.
I

in a

forbearing spirit, wholesale destruction will overtake

hope king Dhritarashtra and his son try to provide for the functionaries of state- I hope there are no enemies for theirs who, O sire, I hope none disguised as friends, are conspiring for their ruin. of these Kurus talk of our having committed any crimes? I hope Drona and his son and the heroic Kripa do not talk of our having been guilty in any way ? I hope all the Kurus look up to king Dhritarashtra and his sons as the protectors of their tribe. I hope when they s^e a horde of

remember the deeds of Arjuna, the leader in all fields of hope they remember the arrows shot from the Qandiva, which course through the air in a straight path, impelled onwards by the stretched bow-string in contact with the fingers of his hand, and making
robbers, they
battle.
I

a noise loud
excels or

the thunder. I have not seen the warrior that Arjuna who can shoot by a single effort of his hand sixty-one whetted and keen-edged shafts furnished with excellent feathers. Do they remember Bhima also, who, endued with great activity
as that of

even

rivals

causeth hostile hosts arrayed in battle to tremble in dread, like an
elephant with rent temples agitating a forest of reeds ? Do they remember the mighty Sahadeva, the son of Madri, who in Dantakura conquered

the Kalingas, shooting arrows by both the

remember Nakula, who,

O Sanjaya,

left and right hand ? Do they was sent, under your eye, to con-

quer the Sivis and the Trigartas, and who brought the Western region under my power ? Do they remember the disgrace that was theirs when under evil counsels they came to the woods of Dwaitavana on pretence
of taking

Those wicked ones having been overpowered by their enemies were afterwards liberated by Bhimasena and Arjuna, myself protecting the rear of Arjuna (in the fight that ensued) and Bhima protecting the rear of the sons of Madri, and the wielder of

away

their cattle ?

the Qandiva

a great slaughter of the hostile host, not by a single good deed,
attained,

coming out unharmed from the press of battle having made do they remember that ? It is
all

when by

Sanjaya, that happiness can here be our endeavours we are unable to win over the son

O

of Dhritarashtra f

"

SECTION XXIV
"Sanjaya said, 'It is even so as thou hast said, O son of Pandu I Dost thou enquire about the welfare of the Kurus and of the foremost ones among them ? Free from illness of every kind and in the possession
of excellent spirit are those

foremost ones

among

the Kurus about

whom

O

son of Pritha, thou enquirest. Know, son of Pandu, that there are certainly righteous and aged men, as also men that are sinful and
son.

O

wicked about Dhritarashtra's even to his enemies it is not
;

Dhritarashtra's son would

make

gifts

likely, therefore, that
It is

he should withdraw

the donations
yas,

made

to the
fit

Brahmanas.

to follow a rule

for butchers, that leads
;

customary with you, Kshatriyou to do harm to those

that bear no ill-will to you

with his
like a

but the practice is not good. Dhritarashtra sons would be guilty of the sin of intestine dissension, where he,
ill-will

bad man, to bear

not approve of this injury (done to you) he grieves at his heart the old man
intestine

towards you who are righteous. He does he is exceedingly sorry for it
;

;

O

Yudhishthira,

for,

having

communicated with the Brahmanas, he hath learnt that provoking
dissensions
is

the greatest of

all sins.

O

king of men, they

remember thy prowess on the field, and that of Arjuna, who taketh the lead in the field of battle. They remember Bhima wielding his mace when the sound of the conch-shell and the drum rises to the highest pitch. They remember those mighty car-warriors, the two-sons of Madri,

who on
in

the

field of

battle career

in all

directions, shooting incessant

showers of shafts on hostile hosts, and who know not what it is to tremble I believe, O king, that which Futurity hath in store for a fight. cannot be known, since thou, O son of Pandu, who art particular person
to suffer trouble of such

endowed with all the virtues, hast had
kind.

unendurable

All

this,

no doubt,

O

help of your intelligence.
wilt so

The

Yudhishthira, thou wilt again make up by sons of Pandu, all equal to Indra, would

never abandon virtue for the sake of pleasure.
rashtra

Thou,
viz.,

O

Yudhishthira,

make up thy intelligence that they and Pandu and the Srinjayas, and

all,

the sons of Dhrita-

all

the kings

who have been

assembled here, will attain peace. O Yudhishthira, hear what thy sire Dhritarashtra having consulted with his ministers and sons, hath spoken
to me.

Be attentive

to the same."

SECTION XXV
'Here are met the Pandavas and the Srinjayas, son of the Suta Gavalgana, and Krishna, and Yuyudhana and Virata,

"Yudhishthira

said,

O

tell

us

all

that Dhritarashtra hathldirected thee to say.'
said,
I

"Sanjaya

greet Yudhishthira,

and Vrikodara, and Dhanan-

6

43

MAHABHARATA

jaya, and the two sons of Madri, and Vasudeva the descendant of Sura, and Satyaki, and the aged ruler of the Panchalas, and Dhrishtadyumna, the son of Prishata. Let all listen to the words I say from a desire for the

welfare of the Kurus. King Dhritarashtra, eagerly welcoming the chance
of peace, hastened the preparation of
it

my

car for this journey here.

Let

be acceptable to king Yudhishthira with his brothers and sons and The sons of Pritha are relations. Let the son of Pandu prefer peace.

endowed with every virtue with steadiness and mildness and candour. Born in a high family, they are humane, liberal, and loath to do any act which would bring on shame. They know what is proper to be done. A base deed is not befitting you, for you are so high-minded, and have such a terrible following of troops. If you committed a sinful act, it would be a blot on your fair name, as a drop of collyrium on a white Who would knowingly be ever guilty of an act, which would cloth. result in universal slaughter, which would be sinful and lead to hell, an act consisting in the destruction (of men), an act the result of which, whether it be victory or defeat, is of the self-same value ? Blessed are they that have served their relative's cause. They are the true sons and friends and relatives (of Kuru's race) who would lay down life, life which is liable to be abused by misdeeds, in order to ensure the welfare
'

of the Kurus.

If

and slaying
lent
kinsfolk ?
side,

all

you, ye sons of Pritha, chastise the Kurus, by defeating your foes, that subsequent life of yours would be equivafor what,
if

to death,

Who, even

in sooth, is life after having killed all your he were Indra himself with all the gods on his

would be able to defeat you who are aided by Kesava and ChekitaWho nas, and Satyaki, and are protected by Dhrishtadyumna's arms ? again, O king, can defeat in battle the Kurus who are protected by Drona and Bhishma, and Aswatthaman. and Salya, and Kripa and Kama
with a host of Kshatriya kings
that
?

Who,
in

without

loss to himself,
?

is

able
it

to slay the vast force assembled by Dhritarashtra's son
is,

Therefore

I

do not see any good either

victory or in defeat.

How can
act of

the sons of Pritha, like base persons of low lineage,

commit an

Therefore, I appease, I prostrate myself before unrighteousness ? Krishna and the aged king of the Panchalas. I betake myself to you as my refuge, with joined hands, so that both the Kurus and the Srinjayas

may be
life,
if

benefited.

It is

will not act

up to
is

these

not likely that either Krishna or Dhananjaya my words. Either of them would lay down his
Therefore,
I

besought (to do
This

so).

say this for the success of
'

my

mission.

the desire of the king and his counsellor, Bhishma, that
the Kurus).'

there

may be confirmed peace between you (and

SECTION XXVI
"Yudhishthira
preferable to war.
said,

'What words from me,

heard, indicative of war, that thou apprehendest

O Sanjaya, hast thou war ? O sire, peace
is

Who,

O

charioteer, having got the other alternative

would wish to fight ? It is known to me, O Sanjaya, that if a man can have every wish of his heart without having to do anythingi he would hardly like to do anything even though it might be of the least trouble-

some kind,
to

far less
is

would he engage
so cursed

in war.

Why

should a

man

ever go

by the gods that he would select war ? The sons of Pritha, no doubt, desire their own happiness but their conduct is ever marked by righteousness and conducive to the good of the world. They desire only that happiness which results from righteousness. He
?

war

Who

and and avoiding misery, betaketh himself happiness
that fondly followeth the lead of his senses,

is

desirous of obtaining

to action

which

in

its

is nothing but misery. He that hankers after pleasure causeth body to suffer one free from such hankering knoweth not what misery is. As an enkindled fire, if more fuel be put upon it, blazeth forth again with augmented force, so desire is never satiated with the

essence

his

;

acquisition of
clarified butter

its
is

object but gaineth force like unkindled fire

when

abundant fund of which king Dhritarashtra hath with what we possess. He enjoyment that is unfortunate never winneth victories. He that is unfortunate enjoyeth not the voice of music. He that is unfortunate doth not enjoy garlands and scents nor can one that is unfortunate enjoy cool and and finally he that is unfortunate weareth not fine fragrant unguents clothes. If this were not so, we would never have been driven from the Kurus. Although, however, all this is true t yet none cherished
poured upon
it.

Compare

all this

;

;

torments of the heart.
in the

The

king being himself in trouble seeketh

This is not wise. Let him, however, protection receive from others the same behaviour that he displays towards them.

might

of others.

The man who
in a forest of

casteth a burning fire at mid-day in the season of spring dense underwood, hath certainly, when that fire blazeth
if

forth by aid of the wind, to grieve for his lot

he wisheth to escape.

Sanjaya, why doth king Dhritarashtra now bewail, although he hath all this prosperity ? It is because he had followed at first the counsels of his wicked son of vicious soul, addicted to crooked ways and

O

confirmed
best of

in folly.

Duryodhana disregarded
if

his

well-wishers, as

the words of Vidura, the the latter were hostile to him. King

Dhritarashtra, desirous solely of satisfying his sons, would knowingly enter upon an unrighteous course. Indeed on account of his fondness
for his son, he
is

would not pay heed to Vidura who, out of all the Kurus, the wisest and best of all his well-wishers, possessing vast learning.

44

MAHABHABATA

clever in speech, and righteous in act. King Dhritarashtra is desirous of satisfying his son who, while himself seeking honours from others, is

envious and wrathful, who transgresses the rules for the acquistion of virtue and wealth, whose tongue is foul, who always follows the dictates
of his wrath,

absorbed in sensual pleasures, and who, full of many, obeys no law, and whose life is evil, heart implacable, and understanding vicious. For such a son as this, king Dhritarashtra knowingly abandoned virtue and pleasure. Even then, O

whose soul

is

unfriendly feelings to

Sanjaya,

when

I

was engaged in that game

of dice I

thought that the
those wise and

destruction of the Kurus was at hand, for

when speaking

excellent words Vidura obtained no praise from Dhritarashtra. Then, O charioteer, did trouble overtake the Kurus when they disregarded the words of Vidura. So long as they had placed themselves under the lead of his wisdom, their kingdom was in a flourishing state. Hear from me,

O charioteer,
They
son
1

who are

the counsellors

now

of the covetous

are Dussasana, and Shakuni the son of Suvala,

Duryodhana. and Kama the Sutas
So
I

O
I

son of Gavalgana, look at

this folly of his

!

do not

see,

though

think about

it,

how

th e re can be prosperity for the Kurus and
the throne

the Srinjayas

when Dhritarashtra hath taken

from

others,

and the far-seeing Vidura hath been banished elsewhere. Dhritarashtra with his sons is now looking for an extensive and undisputed sovereignty over the whole world. Absolute peace is, therefore, unattainable. He regardeth what he hath already got to be his own, When Arjuna taketh up his weapon in fight, Kama believeth him capable of being
withstood.

Formerly there took place many great

battles.

Why

could

then be of any avail to them' It is known to Kama and Drona and the grandsire Bhishma, as-also to many other Kurus, that there is no wielder of the bow, comparable to Arjuna. It is known to
not
all

Kama

the assembled rulers of the earth,

how

the sovereignty was obtained
of
foes,

by Duryodhana although that represser
the sons of

Pertinanciously doth Dhritarashtra's son believe that

Arjuna, was alive. it is possible to rob
himself

Pandu

of

what

is

their

own, although he knoweth having

himself gone to the place of fight,

how Arjuna comforted

when

he had nothing but a

bow

four cubits long for his weapon of battle.

Dhritarashtra's sons are alive simply because they have not as yet heard that twang of the stretch Qandiva. Duryodhana believeth his object
already gained, as long
sire,

as he beholdeth not the wrathful Bhima. O even Indra would forbear to rob us of our sovereignty as long as Bhima and Arjuna and the heroic Nakula and the patient Sahadeva are alive I O charioteer, the old king with his son still entertains the

notion that his sons will not be perished, Sanjaya, on the field of battle, consumed by the fiery wrath of Pandu's sons. Thou knowest,

O
I

O Sanjaya,

what misery we have suffered

For

my

respect to thee, I

UDYOGA PABVA
selves

45

would forgive them all. Thou knowest what transpired between ourand those sons of Kuru. Thou knowest how we comforted ourselves towards Dhritarashtra's son. Let the same state of things still
continue,
I

shall seek peace, as

thou counsellest
this

me

to do.

Indraprastha for

my kingdom. Let
"

be given to

Let me have me by Duryodhana,

the chief of Bharata's race.'

SECTION XXVII
"Sanjaya
that
said,

'O Pandava, the world hath heard thy conduct
it

being righteous. I see

also to be so,
;

O

son of Pritha. Life

is

transient,

O

Ajatasatru,

it is

infamy considering this, perish. without war, the Kurus will not yield thy share, I think, far better for thee to live upon alms in the kingdom of the Andhakas
in great
if

may end

thou shouldst not

and the Vrishnis than obtain sovereignty by war. Since this mortal existence is for only a short period, and greatly liable to blame, subject to constant suffering, and unstable, and since it is never comparable to a It is the good name, therefore, O Pandava, never perpetrate a sin desires, O ruler of meni which adhere to mortal men and are an obstruc.

tion to a virtuous

life.

Therefore, a wise

man

should beforehand

kill

them all and thereby gain a stainless fame in the world, The thirst after wealth is but like fetter in this world
those that seek
it is

O son
;

of Pritha.

the virtue of
;

sure to suffer.

He

is

wise

who

seeketh virtue alone

desires being increased, a
sire.

man must
all
is

suffer in his

temporal concerns,
life,

O

Placing virtue before

other concerns of

a

man

shineth like

the sun

when

its
is

vicious soul,
this earth.

devoid of virtue, and of splendour great. overtaken by ruini although he may obtain the whole of
hast studied the

A man

Thou

Vedas, lived

the

life

of

a

saintly

Brahman, hast performed sacrificial rites, made charities to Brahmanas. Even remembering the highest position (attainable by beings), thou hast also devoted thy soul for years and years to the pursuit of pleasure. He who, devoting himself excessively to the pleasures and joys of life, never employeth himself in the practice of religious meditacion, must be exceedingly miserable. His joys forsake him after his wealth is gone and his strong instincts goad him on towards his wonted pursuit of pleasure. Similarly, he who, never having lived a continent life, forsaketh the path of virtue and commiteth sin, hath no faith in existence of a world to come. Dull as he is after death he hath torment (for his lot). In the world to come, whether one's deeds be good or evil these deeds are, in no case, annihilated. Deeds, good and evil, precede the agent (in his
journey to the world to come) the agent is sure to follow in their path. Your work (in this life) is celebrated by all as comparable to that food, savoury and dainty, which is proper to be offered with reverence to the
;

46

MAHABEABATA
the food which
is

Brahmanas
as this

offered

in

religious

ceremonies with
is

large donations (to the officiating priests).

All acts are done, so long

body

lasts.

O son

of Pritha.

After deatli there

nothing

to be

thou hast done mighty deeds that will do good to thee in There (in the world to come, and they are admired by righteous men. and fear, and from the next world) one is free from death and decrepitude
done.

And

hunger and
this kind,

thirst,

and from

all

that

is

disagreeable to the mind; there
it

is

nothing to be done in that place, unless

O
and

ruler of

men,

is

be to delight one's senses. Of the result of our deeds. Therefore,

do not from desire act any longer in this world. Do not, O Pandu's son, betake to action in this world and thereby thus take leave
of

truth

sobriety

and candour and humanity.
sacrifices,
1

perform the Rajasuya and the Aswamedha come near an action which in itself is sin
time, ye sons of Pritha,

Thou mayst but do not even
such a length of

If

after

and commit the sinful deed, in vain, for virtue's sake, did ye dwell for years and years in It was in vain that you went to exile, after the woods in such misery for this army was entirely in your control parting with all your army And these persons who are now assisting you, have been always then.
to

you now give way
!

hate,

;

obedient to you,
car, of kings,
first.

this Krishna,

Matsya

land, with his son at the

and Satyaki, and Virata of the golden head of martial warriors. All the

Possessd of mighty resources, dreaded by

formerly vanquished by you would have espoused your cause at all, having an army, and

followed behind by Krishna and Arjuna, you might have slain your foreof foes on the field of battle. You might have (then) brought low Duryodhana's pride. O Pandava, why have you allowed your foes to grow so powerful ? Why have you weakened your friends ? Why have you sojourned in the woods for years and years ? Why are you now

most

desirous of fighting, having let the proper opportunity slip

?

An

unwise
;

or an unrighteous
a wise

man may win

prosperity by means

of

fighting

but

and

a righteouslman,

(against better instinct),

were he free from pride to betake to fight doth only fall away from a prosperous path.

your understanding inclines not to an unrighteous wrath you never comitted a sinful act. Then what is the course. From cause, and what is the reason, for which you are now intent to do this
Pritha's sons,

O

deed, against the dictates of
bitter drug,

wisdom

?

Wrath,

O

mighty king,
;

is

a

though

it

has nothing to do

with disease

it

brings on
sinful

a

disease of the head, robs one of his fair fame, and leads
It is

to

acts.

drunk up (controlled) by those that are righteous and not by those that are unrighteous- I ask you to swallow it and to desist from war. Who would incline himself to wrath which leads to sin ? Forbearance would be more beneficial to you than love of enjoyments where Bhishma would be slain, and Drona with his son, and Kripa, and Somadatta's

PABVA
son,

4T

Having which you will Even having won the entire sea-girt earth, you get ? Tell me that will never be free from decrepitude and death, pleasure and pain, bliss and misery. Knowing all this, do not be engaged in war. If you are
slain all these,

and Vikarna and Vivingsati, and what bliss may that be,
!

Kama

and Duryodhana.
son,

O

Pritha's

desirous of taking this course, because your counsellors desire the same, then give up (everything) to them, and run away. You should not fall " away from this path which leads to the region of the gods I'

SECTION XXVIII
'

Yudhishthira

said, -^'Without
all

doubt,

O

righteous deeds are the foremost of
shouldst,

our

acts,

Sanjaya, it is true that as thou sayest. Thou
it is

however, ensure
I

me having

first

ascertained whether

virtue or vice that

practise.

When

vice assumes the aspects of virtue

and virtue itself wholly seems as vice, and virtue, again, appears in its native form, they that are learned should discriminate it by means of their reason. So, again, virtue and vice, which are both eternal and
absolute, exchange their aspects during seasons of distress.

One

should

follow without deviation the duties prescribed for the order to which he

belongs by birth. Know, O Sanjaya, that duties in seasons of distress are otherwise. When his means of living are totally gone, the man,
that
is

destitute should certainly desire those other

means by which he

may be
is

able to discharge

the sanctioned duties of his order.

One

that

O

not destitute of his means of living, as also one that is in distress, are, Sanjaya, both to be blamed, if they act as if the state of each were

otherwise.

When

the Creator hath ordained expiation for those Brahfor
this

manas who, without wishing
acts not sanctioned for
distress,

self-destruction,

betake themselves to

them,

proves that people may, in season of

And,

O

betake to acts not ordained for the orders to which they belong. Sanjaya, thou shouldst regard them as worthy that adhere to

the practices of their own order in usual times as also those that do not thou shouldst censure them adhere to them in season of distress
;

that

act otherwise

in

usual times

while adhering to their ordained

practices
their

during times of distress.

As regards men

desiring to bring

minds under control, when they endeavour to acquire a knowledge of self, the practices that are ordained for the best viz., the Brahmanas, are equally ordained for them. As regards those, however, that are not

Brahmanas and that do not endeavour to acquire knowledge of self, those practices should be followed by them that are ordained for their
respective orders in seasons of distress or, otherwise. Even that is the path followed by our fathers and grandfathers before us and those also
that had lived before them.

As

regards

those that are desirous of

48

MAHABHABATA
act,

knowledge and avoiding to

even these
I

also hold the

same view and
is

regard themselves as orthodox. any other path. Whatsoever wealth there
soever there

do not, therefore, think that there

may be
or

in

this earth,

what-

may

be among
I

the

gods,

whatsoever there

may be

unattainable by them,
region of

the region of the Prajapati, or

heaven or the
it

Brahma
Here
is

himself,

would

means.

Krishna, the

not, by unrighteous Sanjaya, seek giver of virtue's fruits, who is clever,

O

who has waited upon the Brahmanas, who knows and counsels various mighty kings. Let the celebrated everything, Krishna say whether I would be censurable if I dismiss all idea of peace, or whether if I fight, I should be abandoning the duties of my caste, for
politic, intelligent,

Krishna seeketh the welfare of both
the Andhakhs,

sides.

This Satyaki, these Chedis,

the Vrishnis, the Bhojas, the Kukuras, the Srinjayas, the counsels of Krishna, slay their foes and delight their friends. adopting

The

Vrishnis and the Andhakas, at whose head stands Ugrasena, led by

Krishna, have

become

like Indra, high-spirited,

devoted to truth, mighty,

and happy.

Vabhru, the king
as his
life,

fructifier of wishes,

having obtained Krishna, that brother, and upon whom Krishna showers all
of Kasi,

the blessings of

as the clouds

upon

all

earthly

creatures,

when the

hot season
is

over, hath attained the highest prosperity. sire, so great this Krishna 1 Him you must know as the great judge of the propriety
is

O

or otherwise of
of men.
I

all acts. Krishna is dear to us, and never disregard what Krishna sayeth."

is

the most illustrious

SECTION XXIX
"Krishna
not be ruined
;

said,

'I

desire,

O Sanjaya,

that the sons of

Pandu may

prosper, and attain their wishes. Similarly, I pray for the prosperity of king Dhritarashtra whose sons are many. For evermore, O Sanjaya, my desire hath been that I should tell them noth-

that they

may

ing else than that peace
also

would be acceptable to king Dhritarashtra. I proper for the sons of Pandu. A peaceful disposition of an exceedingly rare character hath been displayed by Pandu's son in this matter. When Dhritarashtra and his sons, however, are so covetous, I do not see why hostility should not run high ? Thou canst not pertend, O Sanjaya, to be more versed than I am or Yudhishthira is, in the nice-

deem

it

ties of right

and wrong. Then why dost thou speak words of reproach with reference to the conduct of Yudhishthira who is enterprising,

own duty, and thoughtful, from the very beginning, of the welfare of his family, agreeably to the injunctions (of treatises of
mindful of his
?

morality)

With

regard to the topic as hand, the Brahmanas have held

opinions of various kinds.

Some

say that success in the world to

come

depends upon work.

Some

declare that action should be shunned and

UDYOGA PABVA

49

that salvation is attainable by knowledge. The Brahmanas saythat though one may have a knowledge of eatable things, yet his hunger will not be appeased unless he actually eats. Those branches of knowledge

that help the doing of work,
fruit of

bear fruit, but not other kinds, for the

thirsty person drinks water, and by that act his thirst is allayed. This result proceeds, no doubt, from work. Therein lies the efficacy of work. If any one thinks that something else is better than work, I deem his work, and his words are
is

work

of ocular demonstration.

A

meaningless.
flourish.
It is

In the other world,

by virtue of work that the gods by work that the wind blows. It is by virtue of work that
it is

the sleepless Surya rises every day and becomes the cause of day and night, and Soma passes through the months and the fortnights and the

combinations of constellations.
virtue of work, doing
sustains by force this

Fire

is

kindled

of itself

and burns by
Earth,
giving

good to mankind. very great burden.

The The

sleepless goddess sleepless rivers,

satisfaction to all (organised) beings, carry their waters with speed.
sleepless Indra, possesed of a mighty force, pours

The

down rain, resounding the heaven and the cardinal points. Desirous of being the greatest of the gods, he led a life of austerities such as a holy Brahmana leads.
Indra gave up pleasure, and all things agreeable to the heart. He sedulously cherished virtue and truth and self-control, and forbearance,

and impartiality, and humanity.
position the highest (of
all).

It was by work that he attained a Following the above course of life, Indra

attained the high sovereignty

over the

gods.

Vrihaspati, intently and

with self-controL led

Brahmana

leads.

proper manner that life of austerities which a He gave up pleasure and controlled his senses and
in a

thereby attained the position of the preceptor of the celestials- Similarly the Constellations in the other world, by virtue of work, and the Rudrat,
Vasus, king Yama, and Kuvera, and the Qandharvas, Yakaha8 and the celestial nymphs, all attained their present position the by work. In the other world, the saints shine, following a life of study,
the Adityas, the
t

Knowing, O Sanjaya, that this is the and Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas, and thou being one of the wisest men, Why art thou making this endeavour on behalf of those sons of Kurus ? Thou must know that Yudhiththira
austerity

and work (combind).

rule followed by the best of Brahmanas,

is

horse-sacrifice and the Rajatuya.
is

constantly engaged in the study of the Vedat. He is inclined to the Again, he rides horses and elephants,

arrayed in armour, mounts a car, and takes up the bow and all kinds of weapons. Now, if the sons of Pritha can see a course of action not
virtue

involving the slaughter of the sons of Kuru, they would adopt it. Their would then be saved, and an act of religious merit also would be

achieved by them, even if they would have then to force Bhima to follow a conduct marked by humanity. On the other hand, if in doing

7

60

MAHABHABATA
their forefathers did, they should

what

meet with death under inevitable
their duty, such

destiny, then in trying their utmost to discharge

death

would even be worthy of praise. Supposing thou approvestof peace alone I should like to hear what thou mayst have to say to this question, which way doth the injunction of religious law lie, viz., whether it is proper for the king to fight or not ? Thou must, O Sanjaya, take into thy consideration the division of the four castes, and the scheme of respective duties alloted to each.

Pandavas are going to adopt.
as
it

may

please thee.

A

Thou must hear that course of action the Then mayst thou pairse or censure, just Brahmana should study, offer sacrifices, make
all

charities,

and sojourn to the best of

holy

places on the earth

;

he

should teach, minister as a priest in sacrifices offered by others worthy
of such help, and accept gifts from persons

who

are known.

Similarly, a

Kshatriya should protect the people in accordance with the injunctions
of the law, diligently practise the virtue of charity, offer sacrifices, study

the whole Veda, take a wife, and lead a virtuous

householder's

life. If

he

be possessed of a virtuous soul, and if he practise the holy virtues, he may Vaisya should study easily attain the region of the Supreme Being.

A

and diligently earn and accumulate wealth by means of commerce, agriculture, and the tending of cattle. He should so act as to please the Brahmanas and the Kshatriyas, be virtuous> do good worksi "and be a
householder.

The
;

following are the duties declared for a Sudra from

the olden times.

He

should serve the Brahmanas and submit to them

;

should not study

sacrifices are forbiden to

him

;

he should be diligent

and be constantly enterprising in doing all that is for his good. The king protects all these with (proper) care, and sets all the castes to perform
their respective duties.

He

should not be given to sensual enjoyments.
all his

He

should be impartial, and treat

subjects on an

equal footing.

should never obey the dictates of such desires as are opposed If there be any body who is more praise-worthy than to righteouness.
he,

The king

who

is

instruct his subjects to see him.

stand

this.

well-known and gifted with all the virtues, the king should A bad (king), however, would not underGrowing strong, and inhuman and becoming a mark for deshe would cast covetous eye on the riches of others.

tiny's wrath,

Then

comes war,
death.

for

which purpose came into being weapons, and armour, and
and weapons, and bows.

bows. Indra invented these contrivances, for putting the plunderers to
Religious acquired by putting the robbers to death. Many awful evils have manifested themselves, on account of the Kurus having been unrighteous, and unmindful of law and religion. This is not right,

He

also contrived armours,

merit

is

O

Sanjaya.
seized

Now,

king Dhritarashtra

with

his

sons,

what lawfully belonged to Pandu's son. immemorial law observable by kings. All the Kurus are following

hath unreasonably He minds not the
in the

UDTOGA PABVA
wake.
same,
is

51

A
in

thief

who

steals

wealth unseen and one

who

forcibly seizes the

open day-light, are both to be condemned,

O

Sanjaya.
?

What
avarice

the difference between them and Dhritarashtra's sons

From

he regards that to be righteous which he intends to do, following the
dictates of his wrath.

The

shares of the

Pandavas

is,

no doubt,

fixed.

Why should

that share of theirs be seized by that
it

fool ?

This being the

would be praise-worthy for us to be even killed in fight. A paternal kingdom is preferable to sovereignty received from a stranger. These time-honoured rules of law, O Sanjaya, thou must propound to the Kurus, in the midst of the assembled kings, I mean those dull-headed fools who have been assembled together by Dhritarashtra's son, and who
state of things,

are already under the clutches of Death.
of all their acts,

those Kurus, at beloved wife of the sons of Pandu, daughter of Drupada, of fare fame, pure life, and conduct worthy of praise, was seized, while weeping, by

Look once more at that vilest Kurus in the council-hall. That whose head stood Bhishma did not interfere when the
the conduct of the

that slave of lust.
there.
I
If

The Kurus

all,

including young and old, were present

they had then prevented that indignity offered to her, then

should have been pleased with Dhritarashtra's behaviour. It would have been for the final good of his sons also. Dussasana forcibly took
the

Krishna into

fathers-in-law.

midst of the public hall wherein were seated her Carried there, expecting sympathy, she found none

The kings uttered not a word of probecause they were a set of imbeciles. Vidura alone spoke test, solely words of opposition, from a sense of duty, words conceived in righteto take her part, except Vidura.

ousness adressed to that
not,

man (Duryodhana)
son
of
!

of little sense.

O Sanjaya,
to

then say what law and
the

morality were, but

Thou didst now thou

comest

instruct

repaired to the hall at that time
in the sea, she

Pandu Krishna, however, having made everything right, for like a vessel

ocean

(of

misfortunes)

rescued the Pandavas as also herself, from that gathering Then in that hall, while Krishna stood, the
I

charioteer's son addressed her in the presence of her fathers-in-law saying,

O

Daughter
a

of

Drupada, thou hast no
to the

refuge.

Better betake
son.

thyself as

bond-woman

house
exist.

of

Dritarashtra's

Thy

husbands, being defeated, no longer

Thou

hast

a

loving soul;

This speech, proceeding from Kama, else for thy lord ? was a wordy arrow, sharp, cutting all hopes, hitting the tenderest parts It buried itself deep in Arjuna's of the organization, and frightful. heart. When the sons of Pandu were about to adopt the garments made choose some one
of

the skins of black deer, Dussasana spoke the following pungent words; These all are mean eunuchs, ruined, and damned for a lengthened time. And Sakuni, the king of the Gandhara land, spoke to Yudhish-

thira at the time of the

game

of dice the following

words by way of a

69
wily trick
:

MAHABHAEATA
Now

Nakula hath been won by me from you, what else have you got ? you should better stake your wife Draupadi. You know O Sanjaya, all these words of an approbrious kind which were spoken at the time of the game of dice. I desire to go personally to the Kurus, in order to settle this difficult matter. If without injury to the Panda va
succeed in bringing about this peace with the Kurus, an act of religious merit, resulting in very great blessings, will then have been
cause
I

done by me and the Kurus also will have been extricated from the meshes of death. I hope that when I shall speak to the Kurus words of wisdom, resting on rules of righteousness, words fraught with sense and free from all tendency to inhumanity, Dhritarashtra's son will, in my presence, pay heed to them. I hope that when I arrive, the Kurus will
;

pay

me

due respect.

Else them mayest rest assured that those vicious
their

sons of Dhritarashtra, already scorched by

own

vicious acts, will

be burnt up by Arjuna and Bhima ready for battle.

When

Pandu's

sons were defeated (at the play), Dhritarashtra's sons spoke to them

will,

words that were harsh and rude. But when the time will come, Bhima no doubt, take care to remind Duryodhana of those words. DuryoKama is its trunk Sakuni is its dhana is a big tree of evil passions
;
:

abundant blossoms and fruits (while) branches the wise king Dhritarashtra is its roots. Yudhishthira is a big tree of righteousness Arjuna is its trunk and Bhima is its branches the sons and its roots are myself of Madri are its abundant flowers and fruits
;

Dussasana forms

its

;

;

;

;

;

and

religion

and

religious

men. King Dhritarashtra with
sons of

his sons constiits

tutes a

forest, while, O Sanjaya, the

Pandu

are

tigers.

Do
:

not, oh, cut

down the forest with its tigers, and let not the tigers be driven away from the forest. The tiger, out of the woods, is easily slain the wood also, that is without a tiger, is easily cut down. Therefore, it is
are as creepers, while,

the tiger that protects the forest and the forest that shelters the tiger.

The Dhartarashtras
Sola trees.

O

Sanjaya, the Pandavas are
it

A creeper can
The

never flourish unless

hath a large tree to

twine round.
as.

sons of Pritha are ready to wait

upon Dhritarashtra
Dhrita-

indeedi those repressers of foes are ready for war. Let king

rashtra

now do what may be proper

for

him

to do.

The virtuous and

the high-souled sons of Pandu, though competent to be engaged in fight, are yet now in peace (with their cousins), learned man, represent all

O

1

'

this trully (to Dhritarashtra),

SECTION XXX
"Sanjaya
said,
'I

did thee farewell,

O

divine ruler of men.
I

I will

now

depart,

O

son of Pandu.

Let prosperity be thine.

hope

I

have

not, carried

away by the

feelings of

my

heart, given

utterance to any-

UDYOGA PABVA
thing offensive.
I

68
to

would

also bid farewell to Janarddana,

Bhima and

Arjuna, to the son of Madri, to Satyaki, and to Chekitana, and take my departure. Let peace and happiness be yours. Let all the kings look
at

me with

eyes of affection.' "Yudhishthira said, 'Permitted

leave.

Peace to thee

!

O

by us, Sanjaya, take your learned man, thou never thinkest ill of us.
Besides being an ambassador now,

O

Both they and we

know

thee to be a person of pure heart in the midst

of all in the court (of the

Kurus).

O

Sanjaya, thou art faithful, beloved by us, of agreeable speech and excellent conduct, and well-affected towards us. Thy mind is never
clouded, and even
if

addressed harshly thou art never

moved

to wrath.

O Suta, thou

never utterest harsh and cutting words, or those that are

false or bitter.

We know

that thy words, free from malice, are always

fraught with morality and grave import. Amongst envoys thou art the most dear to us. Beside thee, there is another who may come here, and
that
is

Vidura.

Formerly we always used

to

see

thee.

Thou

art,

indeed, a friend to us as dear as Dhananjaya.

Proceeding hence,

O

Sanjaya, with

speed, thou shouldst wait upon those Brahmanas of energy and devoted to study according to the Brahmacharya mode, pure those, namely, that are devoted to the study of the Vedaa while leadall

ing lives of mendicancy, those ascetics that habitually dwell in the woods,
as also the

aged ones of other

classes,

should

all

be addressed by thee in

should be enquired into by thee. O Suta, repairing unto the priest of king Dhritarashtra as also unto his preceptors and Ritwijs, thou shouldst address them and enquire
after their welfare.

my name,

O Sanjaya, and then

their welfare

at least aged,

Even amongst them that are, though not well-born endued with energy, and prossessed of good behaviour and strength, who remembering speak of us and practise according to their might even the least virtue, should first be informed of my peace, O Sanjaya and then shouldst thou enquire after their welfare. Thou

shouldst also enquire after the welfare of those that live in the kingdom carrying on trade, and those that live there filling important offices of

Our beloved preceptor Drona, who is fully versed in morality, who is our counsellor, who had practised the Brahmacharya vow for mastering the Vedas, who once again hath made the science of weapons full and complete, and who is always graciously inclined towards us, should be greeted by thee in our name. Thou shouldst also enquire into
state.

the welfare of Aswatthaman, endued with great learning, devoted to

mo de of life, possessed of great activity, and like unto a youth of the Qandharva race, and who besides, hath once again made the science of weapons full and complete.
the study of the Vedat, leading the Brahmacharya

Thou must

also, O Sanjaya, repair to the abode of Kripa, the son of Swaradwat, that mighty car-warrior and foremost of all persons having a

54

MAHABHABATA

knowledge of self, and repeatedly saluting him in my name touch his feet with thy hand, Thou shouldst also, touching his feet, represent me as hale unto that foremost of the Kurus, Bhishma, in whom are

combined bravery, and abstention from injury, and asceticism, and wisdom and good behaviour, and Vedic learning, and great excellence, and firmness. Saluting unto also the wise, venerable, and blind king (Dhritarashtra), who possessed of great learning and reverential to
the old,
is

the leader of the
sire,

Kurus.

Thou

shouldst also,

O

Sanjaya,

enquire, O

about the welfare of the eldest of Dhritarashtra's sons, who is wicked and ignorant and deceitful and vicious, and Suyodhana,
the welfare of

the entire world. Thou shouldst also enquire about even the wicked Dussasana. that mighty bowman and hero among the Kurus, who is the younger of Duryodhana and who
possesses a character like that of his elder

who now governs

brother.
the

Thou

shouldst,

O

Sanjaya,

also

salute

the

wise chief

of

Valhikas,

cherishes no other wish

save that there should

who always be peace among the

Bharatas. I think thou shouldst also worship that Somadatta who is endued with numerous excellent qualities, who is wise and possesses a merciful heart, and who from his affection for the Kurus always controls his anger towards them. The son of Somadatta is worthy of the greatest

reverence among the Kurus. He is my friend and is a brother to us, mighty bowman and the foremost of car-warriors, he is worthy in
respects.

A
all

Thou
his

shouldst,

O

with that of

friends and councillors.

Sanjaya, enquire after his welfare along Others there are of youthful

age and of consideration amongst the Kurus,
us like that of sons, grandsons, and brothers.

of these thou must speak words which thou mayst consider suitable, enquiring, O Suta Thou must also enquire about the welfare of those after his welfare.

who bear a Unto each

relationship to

kings that have been assembled by Dhritarashtra's son for fighting

with

the Pandavas,
thas,

viz.,

the Kekayas, the Vasatis, the Salwakas, the

Amvash-

and the leading Trigartas, and of those endued with great bravery that have come from the East, the North, the South, and the West, and of those that have come from hilly countries, in fact, of all

amongst them that are not cruel and that lead good lives. Thou shouldst also represent unto all those persons who ride on elephants, and horses and cars, and who fight on foot, that mighty host composed
of

honourable men,

that

I

am

well,

and then thou must enquire about
about the welfare of those revenue or as his door-keepers,
his

their

own

welfare,

Thou must
in

also enquire

that serve the king

the matter of his

or as the leaders of his troops, or as the accountants of
outlay, or as officers constantly occupied in

income and

tant concerns.

Thou must,

O

sire,

looking after other imporalso enquire about the welfare of
that [youth

Dhritarashtra's son by his Vaisya wife

who

is

one

of

the

UDYOGA PABVA
best of the

56

who never falls into error, who possesseth vast race, endued with every virtue, and who never cherishes a Thou shouldst also ask about the welfare of Chitraliking for this war sena who is unrivalled in the trick s of dice, whose tricks are never
Kuru
is

wisdom, who

!

detected by others,

handling the dice,

who plays well, who is and who is unconquerable

well-versed in the
in play

art of

but not in fight.

enquire about the welfare of Sakuni, the king of the Gandharas, that native of the hilly country, who is unrivalled in deceitful games at dice, who enhances the pride of Dhritarashtra's son,
also,

Thou must

O sire,

and whose understanding naturally leads

to

falsehood.

Thou must

also

enquire about the welfare of Kama, the son of Vrikartana, that hero who is ready to vanquish, alone and unassisted, mounted on his car, the Pandavas whom no one dares assail in battle, that Kama who is un-

Thou must also parallaled in deluding those that are already deluded. enquire about the welfare of Vidura, O sire, who alone is devoted to us, who is our instructor, who reared us, who is our father and mother and
friend,

whose understanding finds obstruction in nought, whose ken reaches far, and who is our counsellor. Thou must also salute all the
aged dames and those who are known to be possessed of merit, and those are like mothers to us, meeting them gathered together in one

who

Sanjaya, these words at first, Ye mothers of living sons, I hope your sons comfort themselves towards you Thou must then tell them in a kindly, considerate, and worthy way. that Yudhishthira is doing well with his sons. Those ladies, O Sanjaya
place.
tell

Thou must

them,

O

who
your

are in the rank of our wives, thou must ask as to their
I

welfare also

addressing them in these words,
fair

hope you are well protected.
I

fame hath suffered no

injury.

I hope hope you are dwelling within

your abodes blamelessly and caretully. I hope you are comforting yourselves towards your fathers-in-law in a kindly, praise-worthy and considerate way. You must steadily adopt such a conduct for yourselves Those young ladies, O as will help you to win your husband's favour
!

Sanjaya,

who

bear a relationship to us like that of your dauthers-in-law,

who have been brought from high familiesi who are possessed of merit and who are mothers of children, thou must meet them all and tell them that Yudhishthira send his kindly greetings to them. Thou must,

O Sanjaya,
bands

embrace the daughters

of

your house, and must ask them
tell

about their welfare on my behalf. husbands be kindly and agreeable
;

Thou must
;

them,
to

May your
your hus-

may you

be agreeable

may you have ornaments and clothes and perfumery and clean* liness may you be happy and have at your command the joys of life may your looks be pretty and words pleasant ? Thou must ask, O sire, Thou must also represent the women of the house as to their welfare.
; ;

unto the maid-servants and man-servants there

may

be of the Kurus,

58

MAHABHABATA
also the

and

many hump-backed and lame ones among them,

that

I

am

about their welfare. Thou must tell them, I hope Dhritarashtra's son still vouchsafes the same kindly treatment to you. I hope he gives you the comforts of life. Thou must also represent unto those that are defective in limb, those
that are imbecile,
the dwarfs to

doing well, and thou must then ask them

whom

Dhritarashtra gives food and

raiment from motives of humanity, those that are blind, and all those that are aged, as also to the many that have the use only of their hands
being destitute of
not, nor be
legs,

that

I

am

doing well, and that
in the

I

ask

them
Fear

regarding their welfare, addressing
dispirited

them

following words,

on account of your unhappy lives so full of suffering; no doubt, sins must have been committed by you in your former lives. When I shall check my foes, and delight my friends, I Thou shouldst also, O sire shall satisfy you by gifts of food and clothes,
at our request, enquire after the welfare of those that are masterless and weak, and of those that vainly strive to earn a living, and of those

that are ignorant, in fact, of all

those

circumstances.

O charioteer,

meeting those

persons that are in pitiable others that, coming from
of the Dhartarashtras

different quarters,
in fact, all

have sought the protection

and

who deserve our greetings, thou shouldst also enquire about their welfare and peace. Thou shouldst also enquire about the welfare of those who have come to the Kurus of their own accord or who have
been invited, as also of all the ambassadors arrived from all sides and then represent unto them that I am well. As regards the warriors that

have been obtained by Dhritarashtra's son, there are none equal to them on earth. Virtue, however, is eternal, and virtue is my power for the
destruction of

my

enemies.

Thou

shouldst,

O

Sanjaya, also represent
:

unto Suyodhana, the son of Dhritarashtra, the following thine which torments thy heart, viz., the desire of ruling the
rival, is very

That desire of Kurus without a

unreasonable.

It

had no justification. As for

ourselves,

we

will

way as to do anything that may be disagreeable to thee ! O foremost of heroes among the Bharatas, either give me back my own Indra. prastha or fight with me /"

never act in such a

SECTION XXXI
"Yudhishthira
of the
said,

the young and the old, the

'O Sanjaya, the righteous and the unrighteous, weak and the strong, are all under the
It
is

control

Creator.

that

Supreme Lord who imparteth
to the learned,

knowledge

to the child

and childishness

according to his

own will. If Dhritarashtra ask thee about our strength, tell him everything trully, having cheerfully consulted with everyone here and ascerson of Gavalgana, repairing unto the Kurus, thou tained the truth.

O

UDYOGA PARVA
wilt salute the
his

57
his feet

mighty Dhritarashtra, and touching

enquire after

welfare speaking in our name.
tell

And when
It

seated in the midst of the

Kurus,
in

him from

us.

The

sons of Pandu,

O

king, are living happily

was through thy grace, O represser of foes, that those children of tender years had obtained a kingdom. Having first bestowed a kingdom on them, thou shouldst not now be indifferent to them, for destruction then would overtake them The whole of this kingdom, O Sanjaya, is not fit to be owned by one person. Tell him again, from us, O sire, we wish to live united. Do not suffer
consequence of thy prowess.
!

thyself

vanquished by foes. Then shouldst again, O Sanjaya, bending thy head, in my name salute the grandsire of the Bharatas, Bhishma, the son of Santanu. Having saluted our grandsire, he should
to

be

By thee, when Santanu's race was about to be extinct, it was revived. Therefore, O sire, do that according to thy own judgment by which thy grandsons may all live in amity with one another. Thou shouldst then address Vidura also, that adviser of the Kurus, saying, Counselth peace, O amiable one, from desire of doing good unto Yudhishthira.

then be told,

Thou

shouldst address the unforbearing prince

Duryodhana
and

also,

when seated in the midst of The insults thou saying,
Draupadi
because
also,

the Kurus, beseeching him again and again,

hadst offered to innocent
the assembly,

helpless

in

the midst of

we

will quietly
slain.

bear, simply

we have no mind

to

see the

Kurus

The

other injuries

both before and after that, the sons of Pandu are quietly bearing,

although they are possessed of might to avenge them. All this, indeed, the Kauravas know. O amiable one, thou hadst even exiled us dressed
in deer-skins.

We

are bearing that also because

we do not want

to see

the

Kurus

slain.

Dussasana, in obedience to thee. had dragged Krishna,

disregarding Kunti.
chastiser of foes,

That act

also

will

we must have our proper
will

be forgiven by us. But, bull share of the kingdom.

O

O

among men, turn thy coveting heart from what belongeth
Peace then,
desirous

to others.

O king,
;

be amongst our gladdened

selves-

We

are

of peace give us even a single province of the empire. Give even Kusasthala, Vrikasthala, Makandi, Varanavata, and for the fifth any other that thou likest. Even this will end the quarrel. O Suyo-

us

dhana, give unto thy five brothers at least five villages. O Sanjrva, thou of great wisdom, let there be peace between us and our cousins-

O

him also, Let brothers follow brothers, let sires unite with sons. Let the Panchalas mingle with the Kurus in merry laughter. That I may O see the Kurus and the Panchalas whole and sound, is what I desire. bull of the Bharata race, with cheerful hearts let us make peace. O
Tell

Sanjaya,

acquire

lam equally capable of war and peace. lam prepared to wealth as well as to earn virtue. I am fir enough for severity
'

as for softness.'

S

SECTION XXXII
Vaisampayana
Sanjaya
set said,

"Dismissed with salutation by the Pandavas,
all

out for (Hastinapura) having executed

the

commands

of

Reaching Hastinapura he quickly entered and presented himself at the gnte of the inner apartments of the it, Addressing the porter, he said, 'O gate keeper, say unto palace. Dhritarashtra that I, Sanjaya, have just arrived, coming from the sons of
Pandu.
say so,
arrival.

the illustrious Dhritarashtra.

Do

not delay.
for
I

If

the king be awake,

then only shoulJst thou
apprised him of

O

keeper,

like

to enter having 6rst
I

my

have something of very great importance to communicate.' Hearing this, the gate keeper went to the king and addressed him, saying, 'O lord of earth, I bow to thee. Sanjaya is at
In the present instance

thy gates, desirous of seeing thee.
the Pandavas.
Is<ue

He comethi

your commands,
I

O

king, as to
I

bearing a message from what he should do.'
hale.

"The
enter.

king said,

"Tell Sanjaya that

am happy and

Let him

always ready to receive him. should he stay outside whose admission is never forbidden ?'
to Sanjaya.
'

Welcome

am

Why

continued, "Then, with the king's permission, entered that spacious apartment, the Suta's son, with joined having hands, approached the royal son of Vichitravirya who was protected by many wise, valiant, and righteous persons, and who was then seated

Vaisampayana

on

his throne.
I

And

4

Sanjaya addressed him, saying,

I

am

Sanjaya,
I

O

king.

bow unto

thee.

O chief

of

men, proceeding hence

found the

sons of Pandu.

After having paid

his salutations to thee,

Pandu's son,
well-pleased,

the intelligent Yudhishthira, enquired of thy welfare.

And

he also enquireth after thy sons, and asketh thee whether thou art happy with thy sons and grandsons and friends and counsellors and, O king, all
those that depend upon thee.'

'O child, giving my blessings to Ajatsatru, I ask thee, O Sanjaya, whether that king of the Kauravas, Pritha's son, is well with his sons and brothers and counsellors.'
"Dhritarashtra said,
possessions of that

Pandu's son is well with his counsellors. He desires which he formerly had as his own. He seeketh virtue and wealth without doing anything that is censurable, possesseth intelligence and vast learning, and is, beside?, far-sighted and of excellent disposition. With that son of Pandu, abstention from injury is even
"SanjaYa
said,

superior to virtuei and virtue superior to the accumulation of wealth. His mind, Bharata, is always inclined to happiness and joy, and to

O

such course of action as are virtuous and conducive to the higher ends
of

Even like doll pulled this way and that by threads, man (in this life. world) moveth, swayed by a force not bis own. Beholding the sufferings

UDYOGA PABVA
of Yudhishthira,
I

59

regard the force of destiny to be superior to the effect

of

human

exertion. Beholding again thy

unworthy

deeds, which, besides

and unspeakble, are sure to terminate in misery, it being seemeth to me that one of thy nature winneth praise only so long as his able foe bideth his time. Renouncing all sin, even as a serpent casteth
highly sinful
off
its

worn-out slough which

it

cannot any longer ?retain, the heroic

Ajatasatru shineth in his natural perfection, leaving his load of sins to be borne by thee. Consider, king, thy own acts which are contrary

O

to both religion

and
hast,
in

profit,

righteous.

Thou

O

and to the behaviour king, earned a bad repute

of

those that

are

in this

world, and
son thou

wilt reap misery to enjoy

the next.

Obeying the counsels

of thy

doubtful property, keeping them aloof. This hopest unrighteous deed is loudly bruited about in the world. Therefore, foremost of the Bharatas, this deed is unworthy of thee. Calamity
this

O

overtaketh him

who

is

cruel, or

who who

is

deficient

in

wisdom, or who

is

of

low

birth,
is

or

cherisheth hostility for a long time, or
is

who

not

steady in Kshatriya virtues, or
tion, in fact,

devoid of energy, or is of a bad disposihim who hath such marks. It is by virtue of luck that a
or

person taketh his birth in a good race, or becometh strong, or famous,
or versed in various lore, or possesseth the comforts of
life,

becometh

capable of subduing his senses, or discriminating virtue and vice that

What person is there who, attended upon foremost of counsellors, possessed of intelligence, capable of discrimiby nating between virtue and vice in times of distress, not destitute of the
are always linked together.
rituals of
religion,

commit

cruel deeds.

and retaining the use of all his These counsellors, ever devoted

faculties,

would

to thy

work, wait

here united together.
the Pandavas are not

this is their firm determination (viz., that back their share). The destruction of the get Kurus, therefore, is certain to be brought about by the force of circumstances. If, provoked by the offences, Yudhishthira wisheth for misery to

Even

to

thee, then

sins to thee, the

Kurus will be destroyed prematurely, while, imparting all his blame of that deed will be thine in this world. Indeed,
there save the will of the Gods, for Arjuna, the son of Pritha,

what

else

is

leaving this world ascended to the very heavens and was honoured there very greatly. This proves that individual exertion is nothing. There is no doubt as to this. Seeing that the attributes of high birth, bravery,
etc.,

also

depended for their development or otherwise on acts, and beholding prosperity and adversity and stability and instability (in persons
possessions), king Vali, in his search after causes, having failed
a beginning (in the

and their

to discover

chain of acts of former lives one before

another), regarded the eternal Essence to be the cause of everything. The eye, the ear, the nose, the touch, and the tongue. these are the

doors of

a

person's knowledge.

If

desire

be curbed, these would be

60
gratified

MAHABHARATA
themselves.

Therefore, cheerfully and without repining one should control the senses. Others there are that think differently. They

hold that

if

a person's acts

are well applied, these must produce

the

Thus the child begot bv the act of the mother and the father grows when duly tended with food and drink. Men in this world become subject to love and hate, pleasure and pain, praise and blame. A man is praised when he behaves honestly. Thee I blame, since these
desired result.
dissension of

the Bharatas (whose root them art) will surely bring about

If peace be not concluded, then through thy fault Arjuna will consume the Kurus like a blazing fire consuming a heap of dried grass. O ruler of men, thou alone of all the world, yielding to thy son whom no restraints can bind, hadst regarded

the destruction of innumerable lives.

crowned with success and abstained from avoiding dispute at at dice. Behold now the fruit of that (weakness O monarch, by rejecting advisers that are faithful and of thine)! accepting those that deserve no confidence, this extensive and prosperous empire, O son of Kuru, thou art unable to retain owing to thy waekness. Wearied by my fast journey and vety much fatigued, I solicit thy permission to go to bed now, O lion of men, for to-morrow morning will the Kurus, assembled together in the council hall, hear the words of
thyself as

the time of the match

Ajatasatru."

SECTION XXXIII
Vaisampayana
said,

'King Dhritarashtra endued with great wis'I

dom

(then) said to theorderly-in-waiting,

desire to see Vidura. Bring

him here without delay.' Despatched by Dhritarashtra, the messenger went to Kshatri and said, 'O thou of great wisdom, our lord the mighty
king desireth to see thee.' 'Thus addressed, Vidura (set out and) coming
to

the palace, spoke unro
1

the orderly.

'Apprise Dhritarashtra of
to Dhritarashtra,

my
'O

arrival.

Thereupon the orderly went
is

and

said,

foremost of kings, Vidura
thy feet.

here at thy

command. He wisheth

to behold

what he is to do.' Thereupon Dhritarashtra Vidura of great wisdom and foresight enter. I am never said, unwilling or unprepared to see Vidura. The orderly then went out and
as to

Command me

'Let

spoke unto Vidura, 'O Kshatri, enter the inner apartments of the wise " The king says that he is never unwilling to see thee.' king.

Vaisampayana continued, "Having entered Dhritarashtra's chamVidura said with joined hands unto that ruler of men who was then ber, plunged in thought, 'O thou of great wisdom, I am Vidura, arrived here
at thy

command.

If

there

is

anything to be done, here

I

am,

command He
hath

me

i'

Dhritarashtra said,

'O Vidura, Sanjaya hath come back.

tJDYOGA PABVA
gone away after rebuking me.
of

61

the court, Ajuasatru's

message.

what the message is burning, and that hath produced sleeplessness. Tell us what may be good for a person that is sleepless and burning. Thou art, O child, versed in both religion and profit. Ever since, Sanjaya hath returned from the Pandavas, my heart knoweth no peace. Filled with anxiety
ascertain

To-morrow he will deliver, in the midst I have not been able to-day to of the Kuru hero. Therefore, my body is

about what he may deliver, all my senses have been disordered.' "Vidura said, 'Sleeplessness overcaketh a thief, a lustful person, him that hath lost all his wealth, him that hath failed to achieve success, and him also that is weak and hath been attacked by a strong person. I
hope,
I

O

king,

that none of these grave calamities have overtaken thee.

hope thoti dost not grieve, coveting the wealth of others ?' "Dhritarashtra said, 'I desire to hear from thee words that are In this race of royal Rishis beneficial and fraught with high morality.
thou
alone
art reverenced

by the wise.'
virtue,
is

Vidura

replied,

'King

worthy of being the soveO Dhritarashtra, however worthy of being kept by thy side, he was exiled by thee. Thou art, however, possessed of qualities which are thy very reverse of those possessed by him. Although virtuous and versed in morality, thou hast yet no right
(Yudhishthira), graced with every reign of the three worlds yet,
;

to a share in the
his

kingdom owing

to thy loss of sight.

In consequence of

inoffensiveness and kindness, his righteousness,

love of truth and

remembering the reverence that is due to thee, Yudhishthira patiently bears innumerable wrongs. Having bestowed on Duryodhana and Suvala's son and Kama, and Dussasana the management of
energy, and his

the empire, how canst thou hope for prosperity ? He that is not served from the high ends of life by the aid of self-knowledge, exertion, forbearance and steadiness in virtue, is called wise. These again are the marks of a wise man, viz*, adherence to acts, worthy of praise and rejection of

what

is

blameable, faith, and reverence.

He whom

neither anger

nor pride, nor false modesty, nor stupefaction, nor vanity, can draw away from the high ends of life, is considered as wise. He whose

nor joy,

whose
wise.
fear

intended acts, and proposed counsels remain concealed from foes, and acts become known only after they have been done, is considered

He whose

or attachment, prosperity or adversity,

purposed actions are never obstructed by heat or cold, is considered wise. He

whose judgment dissociated from desire, followeth both virtue and profit, and who disregarding pleasure chooseth such ends as are serviceable in
both worlds,
is

considered wise.
also to the

They

that

exert to the

best of

their
as

might, and act

best of their might,

and disregard nothing

insignificant, are called, wise.

He

that understandeth quickly, listeneth

patiently,

pursueth his objects with judgment and not from desire and

2

MAHABHABATA

spendeth not his breath on the affairs of others without being asked, is said to possess the foremost mark of wisdom. They that do not strive
for objects that are unattainable, that

do not grieve for what

is

lost

and

gone, that do not suffer their minds to be clouded amid calamities, are

He who striveth, who never wasteth his having commenced anything, completed, time, and who hath his soul under control, is regarded wise. They that
regarded to possess intellects endued with wisdom.
till it is

are wise,

O

bull of the
to their

what tendeth
is

Bharata race, always delight in honest deedsi do happiness and prosperity, and never sneer at what

good.

He win

exulteth not at honours,

and grieveth not at

slights,

and remaineth cool and unagitated like a lake in the course of Qanga, That man who knoweth the nature of all creatures is reckoned as wise.
(M'Z..

that everything
all

is

subject to destruction),

who

is

cognisant also of

the connections of

acts,

and who
to (for
boldly,

is

means that men may resort
as wise.

He who

speaketh
of

knowledge of the their objects), is reckoned attaining can converse on various subjects,
and can interis

proficient in the

knoweth the science
pret the meaning

of argumentation, possesseth genius,

what

is

writ in books,

reckoned as wise.

He

whose studies are regulated by reason, and whose reason followeth the scriptures, and who never ab^taineth from paying respect to those that are good, is called a wise man. He. on the other hand, who is ignorant
of scripture yet vain, poor yet proud,
for the acquisition of his objects,
is

and who resorteth

to unfair

means

He who, forsaking his own, concerneth himself with the objects of others, and who practiseth deceitHe who wisheth for ful means for serving his friends, is called a fool.
a fool.

those

things that should

legitimately be desired, and
ful,

regarded to friend, who hateth
is

those that may who beareth malice to those that are powerbe a foolish soul. He who regardeth his foe as his and beareth malice to his friend, and who commitis

not be desired, and forsaketh

teth wicked deeds,

said to be a person of
his projects,

foolish soul-

O

bull

of the

Bharara race, he

who divulgeth

doubteth

in all things,

and

spend eth a long time in doing what requireth a short time, is a fool. He who doth not perform the Sraddha for the Pitris, nor worshippeth the
deities,

nor acquireth noble-minded friends, is said to be a person of foolish soul. That worst of men who entereth a place uninvitcdi and

much without being asked, and reposeth trust on untrustworthy That man who being himself guilty casteth the blame on others, and who though impotent giveth vent to anger, is the most That man who, without knowing his own strength and foolish of men.
talketh
wights,
is a fool.

dissociated from both virtue and profit, desireth an object difficult of acquisition,

of

without again adopting adequate means, is said to be destitute O king, he who punisheth one that is undeserving of payeth homage to persons without their knowledge, and punishment,
intelligence.

UDYOGA PARVA
waitcth

68

upon raisers, is said to be of little sense- But he that, having immense wealth and prosperity or acquired (vast) learning, doth not bear himself haughtily, is reckoned as wise. Who. again, is more
attained
heartless than he who, though possessed of affluence, eateth himself and

weareth
his

excellent robes
?

himself without distributing his wealth
sins,
it is

among

dependents

While one person committeth
;

many

reap the

advantage resulting therefrom

(yet in the end)

the

dner alone to

whom

the sin attacheth while those that
a

enjoy the fruit escape unhurt.

When
slaying
his

bowman

shooteth an arrow,

he mav or

may not

succeed in

even

a single person,
;

intelligence (viciously)

but when an intelligent individual applieth it may destroy an entire kingdom with the
of four,

means of th-? one, bring under thy and also conquering the five and the six, and abstaining from the seven, be happy. Poison knowing wicked counsel?, slayeth but one person, and a weapon also but one however, destroy an entire kingdom, with king an.l subjects. Alone one
king.

Discriminating the two bv
the three by

subjection

means

;

of profit,

should not partake of any savoury viand, nor alone reflect on concerns nor alone go upon a journey, nor alone remain awake among
sleeping

companions.

That Being who
boit
in

is

One without
is

a

second,
self,

and
and

whom,
the

O king, thou, has not been Way to heaven, even like a

able to comprehend,

Truth's
is

the ocean.
;

There
is

one only

defect in

forgiving persons, and not another

that defect

thu people

take a forgiving person to be weak. That defect, however, should not be taken into consideration, for forgiveness is a great power. Forgiveness
is

a

virtue of the weak, and an ornament of
(all) in

the strong.

subdueth

this

world
a

;

what

is

there that

Forgiveness forgiveness cannot

achieve?

What

can

sabre of forgiveness in

wicked person do unto him whocarrieth the Fire falling on a grassless ground is his hand ?

extinguished, of

itself.

many
ness
is

enormities.

unforgiving individual defileth himself with Righteousness is the one highest good and forgive; ;

And

supreme contentment and benevolence, one sol^ happiness. Even as a serpent devoureth animals living in holes, the earth devoureth these two, viz a king who who doth not suj >urn to holy is incompetent to fight, and a Biahmana A man may attain renown in this world by doing two things, places. viz by refraining from harsh speech, and by disregarding those that are wicked. O tiger among men, these two have not a will of their own,
the one supreme peace

knowledge

is

on*,

;

,

,

viz.,

those

women who
is

covet

by others of their sex, and that
because the latter

men simply because the Litter are coveted person who worships another simply

These two are like sharp thorns afflicting the body, viz-, the desires of a poor man, and the anger of the impotent. These two persons never shine because of their incompartible acts, viz., a house-holder without exertion, and a beggar busied
worshipped by others.

64
in

MAHABHAEATA
schemes.

These two,
itself,
is

O

king,
of

live (as

it

were)

in

a region

higher

than heaven
poor

viz., a

man

man

that

charitable.

power endued with forgiveness, and Of things honestly got, these two must be

looked upon as misuse, viz-, making gifts to the unworthy and refusing the worthy. These two should be thrown into the water, tightly binding weights to their necks, viz., a wealthy

man

that doth not give away,

and a poor

man

that

is

proud.

These two,

O
O

tiger

among men, can

pierce the orb itself of the sun, viz., a mendicant accomplished in Yoga,

and

a warrior that hath fallen in
in

persons versed

open the Vedas have

fight.

bull of the Bharata race,

said that

men's means are
that kind of

good,
bad.

middling, and bad.

Men

also,

O

king,

are good, indifferent, and
in

They should,
for
their

therefore,

be respectively employed

work

which they may be fir. These three. O king, cannot have wealth of own, viz., the wife, the slave, and the son, and whatever may be earned by them would be his to whom they belong. Great fear springeth from these three crimes, viz., theft of other's property, outrage on
other's

wives and breach with

friends

These three, besides being

destructive to one's

own

self,

are the gates of hell, viz., lust, anger, and

Therefore, every one should renounce them. These three should never be forsaken even in imminent danger, viz., a follower, one who seeks protection, saying. I am thine, and lastly one who hath
covetousness.

come
alone

to

your abode.
in

Verily,

O

amounteth

point of merit,

Bharata, liberating a foe from distress, to these three taken together, viz.,

conferring a boon, acquiring a kingdom, and obtaining a son. Learned men have declared that a king, although powerful, should never consult with these four, viz., men of small sense, men that are prr crastinating,

men

that are indolent, and

men
life

that are flatterers.
of a house-holder,

O

sire,

crowned with
four
dwell
persons fallen

prosperity and leading the
into

let these

with thee, viz, old consanguineous, relatives, high-born
adversity, poor friends,

and

issueless

sisters.

On

being asked

by

the chief of

the celestials,

Vrihaspati,

O

mighty king,

declared four
.

things capable of fructifying or occuring within a single day, viz the resolve of the gods, the comprehensions of intelligent persons, the humility of learned men, and the destruction of the sinful. These four that are calculated to remove fear, bring on fear when they are improperly

performed,

viz.,

the

Agni-hotra,

the

vow

of silence,

study,

and

sacrifice (in general).

O

bull of the

Bharata race, these five

fires,

should

worshipped with regard by a person, viz., father, mother, fire (proper), soul, and preceptor. By serving these five, men attain great

be

fame
These

in this

world, viz

,

the gods,

the

Pitris,

men, beggars, and guests.
,

five follow thee

are indifferent, Of the five senses beholding to man,

wherever thou goest, viz friends, foes, those that dependants, and those that are entitled to maintenance.
if

one springeth a

leak,

then from

UDYOGA PABVA

85

that single hole runneth out all his intelligence, even like water running out from a perforated leathern vessel. The six faults should be avoided by a person who wisheth to attain prosperity, viz., sleep, drowsiness, fear,
anger, indolence and
like a splitting

procrastination.
viz., a

These

six

should be renounced

vessel in the sea,
is

the scriptures, a priest that

illiterate,

preceptor that cannot expound a king that is unable to protect,

a wife that speaketh disagreeable words, a
to go to the fields,

cow-herd that doth not wish

and

a barber that

the woods.
viz., truth,

Verily, those six charity, diligence,

wisheth to renounce a village for qualities should never be forsaken by men,

benevolence, forgiveness, and patience.
if

These

six are instantly destroyed,

neglected, viz., kine, service, agri-

culture, a wife, learning, and the wealth of a Sudra. These six forget those who have bestowed obligations on them, viz., educated disciples, their preceptors ; married persons, their mothers persons whose desires have been gratified, women they who have achieved success, they who
;
;

had rendered aid they who have crossed a river, the boat (that carried and patients that have been cured, their physicians. them over)
; ;

certainty

Health, unindebtedness, living at home, companionship with good men, as regards the means of livelihood, and living without fear,
these six,

O king,

conduce

to the

happiness of men.

These

six

are

always miserable, irarcible, the ever-suspicious,
others.

viz., the envious, the malicious, the discontented, the

and those depending upon the fortunes of
a beloved

These

six,

O

king, comprise the happiness of

ment
wife,

of wealth,

uninterrupted health,

men, viz., acquireand a sweet-speeched

He that an obedient son, and knowledge that is lucrative. succeedeth in gaining the mastery over the six that are always present in the human heart, being thus the master of his senses, never commiteth
sin,

and therefore suffereth calamity.
ailing

These

six

may

be seen to subsist
;

upon other six. on persons that are
priests,
lastly,

viz., thieves upon persons that are careless
;

physicians
;

upon them that
of learning,

men

women, upon persons suffering from lust sacrifice a king, upon persons that quarrel, and upon them that are without it. A king should
;
;

renounce these seven faults that are productive of calamity, in as much as they are able to effect the ruin of even monarchs firmly established
these are
of

women,

dice, hunting,

punishment, and misuse

drinking, harshness of speech, severity of wealth. These eight are the immediate

indications of a

man

destined to destruction, viz., hating the Brahmanas,

disputes with Brahmanas, appropriation of a Brahmana's possessions, taking the life of Brahmana, taking a pleasure in reviling Brahmanas,

grieving to hear the praises of Brahmanas, forgetting them on ceremonious occasions, and giving vent to spite when they ask for anything.

These transgressions a wise man should understand, and understanding, eschew. These eight, O Bharata, are the very cream of happiness, and 9

66

MAHABHABATA
accession of
a son,

these only are attainable here, viz., meeting with friends,

immense wealth, embracing

union for intercourse, conversation

with friends in proper times, the advancement of persons belonging to one's own party, the acquisition of what had been anticipated, and
respect in society.

These eight qualities glorify a man, viz., wisdom, learning, prowess, moderation in speech, gift This house hath nine doors, to one's power, and gratitude. according That three pillars, and five witnesses. It is presided over by the soul. learned man who knoweth all this is truly wise. O Dhritarashtra, these ten do not know what virtue is, viz., the intoxicated, the inattentive,
high birth,
self-restraint,

the raving, the fatiguedi the angry, the starving, the hasty, the covetous,
the frightened, and the lustful.

Therefore, he that
is

is

wise must eschew

the company of these.

In this connection

cited the old story about

what transpired between Suyodhana and (Prahlada), the chief of the Asuras in relation to the latter's son. That king who renounceth lust and anger, who bestoweth wealth upon proper recipients, and is discriminating, learned, and active, is regarded as an authority of all men.
Great prosperity attends upon that king
confidence in others,

who knoweth how to inspire punishment on those whose guilt hath been proved, who is acquainted with the proper measure of punishment, and who knoweth when mercy is to be shown. He is a wise person who doth not disregard even a weak foe; who proceeds with intelligence
who
inflicteth

anxiously watching for an opportunity not desire hostilities with persons stronger than himself
in a respect of a foe,

;

:

and

who doth who

displayeth his prowess in season. That illustrious person who doth not grieve when a calamity hath already come upon him, who exerteth with
all his

senses collected, and

who

patiently beareth misery in season,

is

certainly the foremost of persons,

and

all

his foes

are vanquished.

He

who doth not

uselessly, who doth not make friends who never outrageth another's wife, who never betrayeth arrogance, and who never committeth a theft or showeth ingratitude or indulgeth in drinking is always happy. He who never boastfully striveth to attain the three objects of human pursuit, who when asked, telleth the truth, who quarreleth not even for the sake of friends, and who never becometh angry though slighted, is reckoned as wise. He who beareth not malice towards others but is kind to all who, being weak, disputeth not with others, who speaketh not arrogantly, and forgeteth a quarrel, is praised everywhere. That man who never assumeth a haughty mein, who never censureth others praising himself
live

away from hope

with sinful persons,

the while, and never addresseth harsh words to others forgetting himself, is ever loved by all. He who raketh not up old hostilities, who behaveth
neither arrogantly nor
distressed

with too much humility, and who even when never committeth an improper act, is considered by respect-

UD10GA PABVA
able

67
not at his own who repenteth not

men

a person

of good conduct.
to be a

He who ezulteth
misery, and

happiness, nor delighteth in another's
after having

good nature and conduct. customs of different countries, and also che languages of different nations, and of the usages of different orders of men, knoweth at once all that is high and low and wherever he may go, he is sure to gain an ascendancy over even
gift, is said

made a

man

of

He who

desireth

to obtain

a

knowledge of the

;

man who relinquished pride, folly, towards the king, crookedness of behaviinsolence, sinful acts, disloyalty our, enmity with many, and also quarrels with men that are drunk, mad
those that are glad.

The

intelligent

and wicked,

is

the foremost of his species.

The very gods bestow

pros-

purification, auspicious rites, worship of the gods, expiatory ceremonies, and other rites of

perity upon him who

daily practiseth self-restraint,

universal observance.

The

acts of that learned

man

are well conceived,

and well applied who formeth matrimonial alliances with persons of equal position and not with those that are inferior, who placeth those before him that are more qualified, and who talketh, behaveth and maketh friendships with persons of equal position. He who eateth
little after

food amongst his dependants, who sleepeth and who when solicited giveth away even unto working much, his foes, hath his soul under control, and calamities always keep themselves aloof from him. He whose counsels are well kept and well carried out into practice, and whose acts in consequence thereof are never known by others to injure men, succeedeth in securing even his most trifling objects. He who is intent upon abstaining from injury to
frugally after dividing the
all

creatures,

shineth greatly

who is among

truthful,
his

gentle,

charitable,

and pure

in

mind*

kinsmen

like a precious

having its origin in an excellent mine. even though his faults be not known to any save himself, is highly honoured among all men. Possessed of a pure heart and boundless energy and abstracted within himself, he shineth in consequence of his energy
like the

gem of the purest ray That man who feeleth shame

very sun. King Pandu consumed by a (Brahmana's) curse, had five sons born unto him in the woods that are like five Indras. O son of Ambika. thou hast brought up those children and taught them everything.

They

are obedient

to thy

commands.
filled

just share of the kingdom,

O

sire,

with

joy,

Giving them back their be thou happy with

thy sons.

Then,

O

monarch, thou shalt inspire confidence in both the

gods and men."

SECTION XXXIV
"Tell me what may be done by a person that and burning with anxieties, for thou alone amongst us, O child, sleepless Advise me wisely, O Vidura. art versed in both religion and profit. tell me what is thou deemest to be O thou of magnanimous heart,

"Dhritarashtra said,

is

beneficial for Ajatasatru

and what
I

Apprehending future evils, ask thee with anxious heart,
Ajatasatru's mind."

is productive of good to the Kurus. look back only on my previous guilt : I O learned one, tell me what is exactly in

"Vidura said, 'Even if unasked, one should speak truly, whether words be good or bad, hateful or pleasing, unto him whose defeat one doth not wish. I shall, therefore, say, O king, what is for the good of the Kurus. I shall say what is both beneficial and consistent with
his

morality.

not, O Bharata, set the heart upon means and improper. A man of intelligence must of success that are unjust not grieve if any purpose of his doth not succeed, notwithstanding the Before one engageth in an act, application of fair and proper means.

Listen to me.

Do

one should consider the competence of the agent, the nature of the act itself, and its purpose, for all acts are dependent on these. Considering these one should begin an act, and not take it up on a sudden impulse* He that is wise should either do an act or desist from it fully considering
his

own

ability,

the

nature of the act, and the

consequence also of
as regards

success.

The king who knoweth not proportion or measure

territory, gain, loss, treasury, population, and punishment, cannot retain his kingdom long. He, on the other hand, who is acquainted with the measures of these as prescribed in treatises, being necessarily possessed of the knowledge of religion and profit, can retain his kingdom. As the
stars are affected

by the planets, so

is

this

world affected by the senses,

when they are directed, uncontrolled, to their respective objects. Like the moon during the lighted fortnight, calamities increase in respect of him who is vanquished by the five senses in their natural state, which ever lead him towards various acts. He who wisheth to control his
counsellors

before controlling his

own

self,

or to subdue his adversaries

before controlling his counsellors, at last

He, therefore,

who

first

succumbs, deprived of strength. subdueth his own self regarding it as a foe,
last.

never faileth to subdue his counsellors and adversaries at

Great

prosperity waiteth upon him who hath subdued his senses, or controlled his soul, or who is capable of punishing all offenders, or who acteth

with judgment or who
one's car
;

is

blessed with patience.
is

One's body,

O king,
its

is

the soul within

the driver

;

and the senses are

steeds.

TJDYOGA PABVA
i

89
is

f

Drawn by

those excellent steeds,

when

well-trained* he that

wise,

pleasantly performeth the

journey of

life,

and awake in peace.

The

horses that are unbroken and incapable of being controlled, always lead an unskilful driver to destruction in the course of the journey ; so one's

The inexperienced wight senses, unsubdued, lead only to destruction. who, led by his unsubdued senses, hopeth to extract evil from good and good from evil, necessarily confoundeth misery with happiness* He
who, forsaking religion and profit, followeth the lead of his senses, loseth without delay prosperity, life, wealth and wife. He who is the master of riches but not of his senses, certainly loseth his riches in consequence
of his
self

want of mastery over his senses. One should seek by means of one's own self, controlling one's mind,
is

to

know
foe.

one's

intellect,

senses, for one's self

one's friend
self

as,

indeed,
self,

it is

one's

own
self

and That

man who hath conquered
for one's self
is

by means of

hath his

for a friend,

ever one's friend or foe.

Desire and anger,

O

king,

break through wisdom,
cords.

just as a large fish breaks

through a net of thin

He who

in

this

word

regarding both religion

and

profit,,

seeketh to acquire the means of success, wineth happiness, possessing He who, without subduing his five inner foes of all he had sought.

wisheth to vanquish other adversaries, is, in fact, overpowered by the latter. It is seen that many evil-minded kings, owing to want of mastery over their senses, are ruined by acts of their own, occasioned by the lust of territory. As fuel that is wet burneth with

mental

origin,

punished equally with the sinful Therefore, in consequence of constant association with the latter. with the sinful should be avoided. He that, from ignorance, friendship
that which
is

dry,

so a sinless

man

is

faileth

to control

his five

greedy foes, having five distinct objects,
Guilelessness and simplicity,

is

purity and overwhelmed by calamities. contentment, sweetness of speech and self-restraint, truth and steadithese are never the attributes of the wicked. Self-knowledge nesS(

and steadiness, patience and devotion to virtue, competence to keep counsels and charity, these, O Bharata, never exist in inferior men.
Fools seek to injure the wise by false reproaches and evil speeches. The consequence is, that by this they take upon themselves the sins of the

freed from their sins, are forgiven. In malice in criminal code, the strength of kings, lieth the strength of the wicked and in forgiveness that of the in attentions of the weak and of women It is king, is said to be most difficult. virtuous. To control speech,
wise, while the latter,
; ;

O

not easy to hold a long conversation uttering words full of meaning and delightful to the hearers- Well-spoken speech is productive of

many
evils.

again

and ill-spoken speech, O king, is the cause of A forest pierced by arrows, or cut down by hatchets may grow, but one's heart wounded and censured by ill-spoken words
beneficial results
;

TO

MAHABHABATA

never recoveretb. Weapons, such as arrows, bullets, and bearded darts, can be easily extracted from the body, but a wordy dagger plunged deep into the heart is incapable of being taken out. Wordy arrows
are shot from the

A

mouth smitten by them one grieveth day and night. should not discharge such arrows, for do they not touch the very vitals of others ? He, to whom the gods ordain defeat, hath his senses taken away, and it is for this that he stoopeth to ignoble
;

learned

man

deeds.

When

the intellect becometh

dim and destruction

is

nigh,

wrong, looking like right, firmly sticketh to the heart. Thou dost not clearly see it, O bull of the Bharata race, that clouded intellect hath

now

possessed thy sons in consequence of their hostility to the Pandavas.

Endued with every auspicious mark and deserving to rule worlds, Yudhishthira is obedient to thy commands. Let him,
rashtra,
is

the three

O

Dhrita-

rule the earth, to the

exclusion of

all

thy sons.

Yudhishthira

all thy heirs. Endued with energy and wisdom, and with the truths of religion and profit, Yudhishthira, that acquainted foremost of righteous men, hath, king of kings, suffered much misery

the foremost of

O

out of kindness and sympathy, in order to preserve thy reputation.

1'

SECTION XXXV
"Dhritarashtra said,

'O thou of great intelligence,

tell

me
'

again

words such as these, consistent with religion and profit. My thirst for hearing them is not quenched. What thou sayst is charming !' "Vidura said, 'Ablution in all the holy places and kindness to all
creatures.

these

two are

equal.

Perhaps, kindness to

all

creatures sur-

passeth the former.

O

master,

that winning great fame in this

show kindness unto all thy sons, for by world, thou wilt have heaven hereafter.
of
in this world, so long,
is

As long as a man's good deeds are spoken tiger among men, is he glorified in heaven.

O

In this connection

cited

an old story about the conversation between Virochana and Sudhanwan, both suitors for Kesini's hand. Once on a time, O king, there was a

maiden

of the

name

of Kesini,

unrivalled for beauty

;

moved by

the

desire of obtaining a

good husband, she resolved to choose her lord in
of the sons of Diti.

Swayamvara.

Then one

Virochana by name, went to

that spot, desirous of obtaining the
Daityas. Kesini

maiden. Beholding that chief of the addressed him, saying, 'Are Brahmanas superior, Virochana, or are the sons of Diti superior ? And why also should not

O

Sudhanwan
this

sit

on the sofa
Kesini,

?'

Virochana

said,

'Sprung from Prajapati
all

himself, we,

O

are the best and

at the top of

creatures,

and

world

is
?'

ours without doubt.

Brahmanas

Kesini said,

Who are the gods, and who are the 'We will, O Virochana, stay here in this very

UDYOaA PABVA
pavilion.

n
morrow, and
let

Sudhanwan

will

come here on

the

me

see

both of you sitting together,* Virochana said, 'O amiable and timid girl, Thou wilt behold Sudhanwan and myself I will do what thou sayst.

met together
solar

'

in the morning.'

"Vidura continued, 'When the night had passed away and 'the disc had risen Sudhanwan, O best of Kings, came to that place where, O master, Virochana was waiting with Kesini. And Sudhanwan saw there both Prahlada' s son and Kesini. And beholding the Brahmana
(

arrived, Kesini,

O

bull of the

him

a

seat,

water to wash

Virochana (to share his touch thy excellent golden seat. I cannot, however, suffer myself to be regarded as thy equal, and sit on it with thee.' Virochana said, 'A
piece of
only,

Bharata race, rising up from hers, offered his feet, and Arghya. And asked by seat) Sudhanwan said, 'O son of Prahlada, I

wooden plank, an animal

skin, or a

mat

of grass or straw,

these

O Sudhanwan, are fit

for thee.

Thou

deservest not, however, the

same seat with me.' Sudhanwan said, 'Father and son, Brahmanas of the same age and equal learning, two Kshatriyas, two Vaisyas, and two Sudras, can sit together on the same seat. Except these, no others can
to pay his regards to me, taking a seat me. Thou art a child, brought up in every lower than that occupied by luxury at home and thou understandest nothing.' Virochana said, 'Staking all the gold, kine, horses, and every other kind of wealth that
sit

together.

Your father used

we have among
tion that are
kine,

the Asuras, let

able to answer.'

and heroes,
this

O

us, O Sudhanwan, ask them this quesSudhanwan said, 'Let alone your gold, Virochana. Making our lives the "forfeit, we will

ask

question that are competent.' Virochana said, 'Wagering our lives where shall we go ? I will not appear before any of the gods

them

and never before any among men.'
our
lives,

we

will

'Having wagered approach thy father, for he, Prahlada, will never say
said,
'

Sudhanwan

an untruth even for the sake of his

son.'

Vidura continued. "Having thus laid a wager, Virochana and Sudhanwan, both moved by rage, proceeded to that place where Prahlada was. And beholding them together, Prahlada said, These two

who had never before been companions, are now seen together coming hither by the same road, like two angry snakes. Have ye now become companions, ye who were never companions before ? I ask thee, O Virochana, has there been friendship between thee and Sudhanwan ? Virochana said, 'There is no friendship between me and Sudhanwan. On the other hand, we have both wagered our lives. O chief of the
Asuras,

ask thee a question, do not answer it untruly !' Prahlada said, 'Let water, and honey and curds, be brought for Sudhanwan. Thou Brahmana. white and fat cow is ready deservest our worship,
I shall

O

A

for thee.'

Sudhanwan

said,

'Water, and honey and curds, have been

72
presented Prahlada
superior
to

MAHABHABATA
me on my way
!

hither.

I

shall

ask thee a question.

!

?'

Are Brahmanas superior, or is Virochana Answer it truly Prahlada said, 'O Brahmana, this one is my only son.

How can one like us answer a art present here in person. about which ye two have quarrelled ?' Sudhanwan said, 'Give question unto thy son thy kine and other precious wealth that thou mayst have,
Thou
also

but,

O wise one,
it.'

puting about
suffer,

thou shouldst declare the truth when we two are disPrahlada said, 'How doth that misuser of his tongue

O Sudhanwan,
put to

who answereth
ask thee
this.'

that

is

him

?

I

Sudhanwan

not truly but falsely, a question 'The person that said,

misuseth his tongue suffers like the deserted wife, who pineth, at night, beholding her husband sleeping in the arms of a co-wife like a person
;

who hath
gates,

lost

at dice,

or

load of anxieties.
into

Such a
his

who is weighed down with an unbearable man hath also to stay, starving outside the cityis

which

admission

barred.

Indeed,

he that giveth

false

He that speaketh a on evidence is destined account of an animal, casteth down from heaven five of his sires of the
to always find his foes.
lie

ascending order.

He

that speaketh a

lie

on account

of a

cow

casteth

down from heaven

ten of his ancestors.
;

A

lie

on account of a horse
order.

causeth the downfall of a hundred

and a

lie.

on account of a human
of one's race both

being, the downfall of a thousand of one's sires of the ascending

An

untruth on account

of

gold ruineth the

members

born and unborn, while an untruth for the sake of land ruineth everything. Therefore, never speak an untruth for the sake of land.

Prahlada
to

said,

'Angiras

is

superior

to myself,

superior to thee,

O

Virochana. Mother also of

Sudhanwan is Sudhanwan is superior
and

O Virochana, hath been debated by Sudhanwan. This Sudhanwan is now the master of thy life. But, O Sudhanwan, I wish that thou shouldst grant Virochana his life.' Sudhanwan said, 'Since, O Prahlada, thou hast preferred virtue and hast not, from temptation, said an untruth, I grant thy son his life that
thy mother
;

therefore, thou,

is

dear to thee.
to thee.

So here
shall,
'

is

thy son Virochana,
to

O
O

Prahlada, restored by
feet in the presence

me

He

however, have
'For

wash

my

of the

maiden Kesini.' "Vidura continued,
for

these reasons,

veth thee not from affection

to say an untruth for the sake of land.

king of kings, it behoSaying an untruth
all

thy son,

O

King, hasten not to destruction, with

gods do not protect men, taking up clubs in their hands after the manner of herdsmen; unto those, however, they wish to protect, they grant intelligence. There is no doubt that
one's objects
to

thy children iand counsellors.

The

meet with success in proportion to the attention he directs righteousness and morality. The Vedas never rescue from sin a
by falsehood.

deceitful person living

On

the other hand, they forsake

UDYOGA PABVA
him while he
their nests.
is

7

death-bed, like newly fledged birds forsaking Drinking, quarrels, enmity with large numbers of men, all
his

on

connections

with

connubial

disputes,

and severance

of

relationship

between husband and wife, internal dissensions, disloyalty to the king, these and all paths that are sinful, should, it is said be avoided. A palmist, a thief turned into a merchant, a fowler, a physician, an enemy,
Agnihotra
these seven are incompetent as witnesess. An from motives of pride, abstention from speech performed practised from similar motives, study and sacrifice from the same motives, these four, of themselves innocent, become harmful when practised unduly. One that setteth fire to a dwelling house, an administerer of poison, a pander, a vendor of the Soma juice, a maker of arrows, an astrologer, one that injureth friends, ah adulterer, one that causeth
a friend,

and

a minstrel,

abortion, a violater of his
drink, one that
is

preceptor's bed, a Brahmana addicted to sharp-speeched, a raker of old sores, an atheist, a reviler of the Vedas, and taker of bribes, one whose investiture with the

sacred thread has

been delayed beyond the prescribed age, one that secretly slayeth cattle, and one that slayeth him who prayeth for protecthese all are reckoned as equal in moral turpitude as the slayers tion,

Gold is tested by fire; a well-born person, by his Brahmanas. deportment; an honest man, by his conduct. A brave man is tested during a season of panic; he that is self-controlled, in times of proverty ; and friends and foes, in times of calamity and danger. Decrepitude
of

destroyeth behaviour;
ifs

beauty;

ambitious

hopes,

righteousness; anger,
lust,

prosperity;

patience; death, life; envy, companionship with the low, good

modesty; and pride, everything.

Prosperity taketh

birth in good deeds,

groweth

in

consequence of activity,

driveth

its

roots

deep

in

consequence of

skill,

and acquireth
gift

control.

Wisdom, good

lineage, self

owing to selfcontrol, acquaintance with the
stability

scriptures, prowess,

absence of garrulity,
sire,

to the

extent of one's

power, and gratefulness,
possessor.

these eight qualities shed a lustre

upon

their

one endowment which alone can cause all these attributes to come together; the fact is, when the king honoureth a particular person, the royal favour can cause all these attributes to
But,

O

there

is

shed their lustre (on the favourite).
of

Those

eight,

O

king in the world

of heaven. Of the eight (mentioned below) four connected, with the good, and four others are always followed by the good. The first four which are inseparably connected with the good, are sacrifice, gift, study and asceticism, while the other

men, are indications

are inseparably

four that are always followed by the
simplicity,
'

good, are self-restraint, truth,
all."

and abstention from injury to

'Sacrifice, study, charity,

asceticism,

truth,

forgiveness,

mercy,

and contentment constitute the eight different paths of righteousness.
10

74

MAHABHABATA
6rst four of these

The

may be

practised from motives of pride, but the

last four

only in those that are truly noble. there are no old men, and they are not old bly where

can

exist

That

is

no assem-

who do

not declare

what morality is. That is not morality which is separated from truth, and that is not truth which is fraught with deceit. Truth, beauty,
acquaintance with the scriptures, knowledge, high birth, good behaviour, strength, wealth, bravery, and capacity for varied talk, these ten are
of

heavenly origin*

evil consequences.

A sinful person, by committing sin, overtaken by A virtuous man, by practising virtue, reapeth great
is

happiness.

Therefore, a man, rigidly resolved, should abstain from
intelligence;
sin.

sin.

Sin, repeatedly perpetrated, destroyeth

and the man who
Virtue, repeatedly

hath

lost intelligence,

repeatedly committeth

practised, enhanceth intelligence;

and the man whose intelligence hath

increased, repeatedly practiseth virtue.
virtue,

The
that

virtuous man, by practising

goeth

to

regions

of

blessedness.

firmly resolved,
deceitful, soon

practise
is

virtue.

He

is

Therefore, a man should, envious, he that injureth

others deeply, he that
is

cruel, he that

constantly quarreleth,

he that

meeteth with great misery for practising these sins. He that is not envious and is possessed of wisdom, by always doing what it good, never meeteth with great misery; on the other hand, he
shineth everywhere.
is

He

that draweth

wisdom from them that are wise
is

really learned

and wise.

And

he that

wise,

by attending to both

virtue and profit, succeedeth in attaining to happiness.

Do

that during

the night in happiness; and do may that during eight months of th e year which may enable thee to pass the season of rains happily. Do that during youth which may ensure a
the day which

enable thee to pass

happy old
digested,

age;

and do that during thy whole

life

here which

may

enable*
easily

thee to live happily hereafter.
that wife whose

The wise

prize

that food which

is

youth hath passed away, that hero who is victorious and that ascetic whose efforts have been crowned with
success.

The gap

fully, reraaineth

that is sought to be filled by wealth acquired wronguncovered, while new ones appear in other places. The

preceptor

controlleth

them whose

souls are

under their own control

;

the king controlleth persons that are wicked; while they that sin secretly have their controller in Yama, the son of Vivaswat. The greatness of
of river-banks, of high-souled men, and the cause of woman's wickedness, cannot be ascertained. O king, he that is devoted to the worship of the Brahmanas, he that giveth away, he that behaveth righteously towards his relatives, and the Kshatriya that behaveth nobly,

Rishis, of rivers,

rule the earth for ever. He that is possessed of bravery, he that is possessed of learning, and he that knows how to protect others, these three are always able to gather flowers of gold from the earth. Of acts,

those accomplished by intelligence are

first;

those accomplished by

the

UDIOGA PABVA

75

arms, second; those by the thighs, and those by bearing weights upon the head, are the very worst. Reposing the care of thy kingdom on

Duryodhana, on Sakuni, on foolish Dussasana, and on Kama, how canst thou hope for prosperity ? Possessed of every virtue, the Pandavas, O bull of the Bharata race, depend on thee as their father. O repose thou

on them

'

as

on thy sons

I'

SECTION XXXVI
''Vidura said,
'In this

connection

is

cited

the old

story of the
is

discourse between the son of Atri and the deities called Saddhyaa

as

the name of Saddhycu heard by us- In days of old, the deities questioned the highly wise and great Rishi of rigid vows (the son of Atri), while the latter was wandering in the guise of one depending on

known by

eleemosynary charity for livelihood.
great Rishi, deities
to

The Saddhyas
to us,

said,

'We

are,

O
art

known
art.

as

Saddhyaa.

Beholding thee,

we

are unable

guess

who

thou

It

seemeth

however that thou

and self-control in consequence of acquaintance with the scriptures. It, therefore, behoveth thee to discourse to us in magnanimous words fraught with learning, The mendicant Rishi answered, 'Ye immortals, it hath been heard by me that by untying all the
possessed of intelligence

knots in the heart by the aid of tranquility, and by mastery over all the passions, and observance of true religion, one should regard both the
agreeable and the disagreeable like his own self. One should not return the slanders or reproaches of others for the pain that is felt by him

who

beareth silently, consumeth the
also
in

slanderer

;

and he

that beareth

succeedeth

appropriating Indulge not in slanders and reproaches. Do not humiliate and insult others. Quarrel not with friends. Abstain from companionship with those that

the virtues

of the slanderer.

Be not arrogant and ignoble in conduct. Avoid words that are harsh and fraught with anger. Harsh words burn and scorch the very vitals, bones, heart, and the very sources of the life of
are vile and low.

men. Therefore, and angry words.

he, that

is

virtuous, should always abstain from harsh

who

of men is of harsh and wrathful speech, the virals of others with wordy thorns, beareth hell in his pierceth

That worst

tongue, and should ever be regarded as a

dispenser of

The man

that

is

wise, pierced by another's

and smarting

like 6re

or the sun, should,

misery to men. wordy arrows, sharp.pointed even if deeply wounded and

burning with pain, bear them patiently remembering that the slander's merits become his. He that waiteth upon one that is good or upon one
that
is
is

wicked, upon one that

is

possessed of ascetic merit or

upon one
his,

that

a thief, soon taketh the colour from that
it
is

companion

of

like a

cloth from the dye in which

soaked.

The very

gods

desire

his

76

MAHABHARATA

company who, stung with reproach, returneth it not himself nor causeth others to return it, or who being struck doth not himself return the blow
nor causeth other to do
to
it,

and who wisheth not the
it is

slightest

iujury
if

him that injureth him.
it is is

Silence,

said,

is

better than speech,
;

speak you must, then
it is

better to say the truth
agreeable; and
is

if is

truth

is

to be
is

said,

better

to say

what

if

what

agreeable

to be

said,

then

it is

better to say what
like

consistent with morality.
liveth,

cometh exactly

him with whom he

or like

A man behim whom he

regardeth, or like that which he wisheth to be.

One

is

freed from those

things from which one abstaineth, and if one abstaineth from everything be hath not to suffer even the least misery. Such a man neither vanquisheth others, nor is vanquished by others. He never injureth nor

opposeth
species

others.

He

is

grieveth nor exalteth in joy.

unmoved by That man

praise or
is

blame.
as the

He

neither

who

wisheth for the prosperity of

all

his regarded and never setteth his heart

first of

on the misery of others, who is truthful in speech, humble in behaviour, and hath all his passions under control. That man is regarded as a
mediocre in goodness who never consoleth others by saying what is not and who keepeth an eye over the true; who giveth having promised however, are the indications of a bad man, weakness of others. These,
;

z.,

incapacity to be controlled

;

liability to
;

be afflicted by dangers prone;

ness to give
friend,

way

to wrath, ungratefulness

inability to

become

another's

of heart. He too is the worst of men, who is with any good that may come to him from othersi who is suspicious of his own self, and who driveth away from himself all his true friends. He that desireth prosperity to himself, should wait upon

and wickedness

dissatisfiied

them

that are good, and at times upon them that are indifferent, but never upon them that are bad. He that is wicked, earneth wealth, it

is true, by putting forth his strength, by constant effort, by intelligence, and by prowess, but he can never win honest fame, nor can he acquire the virtues and manners of high families (in any of which he may be

born)..

"Dhritarashtra said,
profit

without swerving from

'The gods, they that regard both virtue and either, and they that are possessed of

great learning, express a liking for high families. I ask thee, what are those families that are called high ?" this question,

O

Vidura
Vedat,

"Vidura
sacrifices,

said,

Asceticism, self-restraint, knowledge of the
gifts of

pure marriages, and

food,

those families in which

these

seven exist or are practised duly, are regarded as high. There are high families who deviate not from the right course* whose deceased ancestors are never pained (by witnessing the wrong-doings of their descendants), who cheerfully practise all the virtues, who desire to

enhance the pure fame of the line in which they are born, and who

PABVA

ft

avoid every kind of falsehood. Families that are high, fall down and become low owing to the absence of. sacrifices, impure marriages, aban-

donment
fall off
ill

of

of the Vedaa, and insults offered to Brahmanas. High families and become low owing to their members disregarding or speaking Brahmanas, or to the misappropriation, O Bharata, of what had

been deposited with them by others. Those families that are possessed of members, wealth, and kine, are not regarded as families if they be wanting in good manners and conduct, while families wanting in wealth
but distinguished by manners and good conduct
are regarded as such

and win great reputation. Therefore, should good manners and good conduct be maintained with care, for as regards wealth, it cometh or goeth. He that is wanting in wealth is not really wanting, but he that is wanting in manners and conduct is really in want. Those families that abound in kine and other cattle and in the produce of the field, are not really worthy of regard and fame if they be wanting in manners and
(

conduct.

Let none in our race be a fomenter of quarrels, none serve a king as minister, none steal the wealth of others, none provoke intestine dissensions, none be deceitful or false in behaviour, and none eat before serving the Riahia, the gods, and guests. He, in our race, who slayeth
them, or impedeth or otherwise injureth agriculture, doth not deserve to mix with Straw (for a seat), ground (for sitting upon), water (to wash the us.
feelings
of

Brahmanas, or entertaineth

aversion

towards

feet

and

face), and, fourthly sweet words,

these are

never wanting
these

in

the houses of the good.

Virtuous

men devoted

to the practice of

right-

eous actSf

when

desirous of entertaining (guests), have

things

king, ready for being offered with reverence. As the Sandal tree, is competent to bear weights which timbers of other trees though thin,

O

(much
is

thicker) cannot

;

so they that belong

to high families are

always

able to bear the weight of great cares

which ordinary men cannot.

He

no friend whose anger inspireth fear, or who is to be waited upon with fear. He however, on whom one can repose confidence as on a Other friendships are nominal connection. He father, is a true friend.
that beareth himself as a friend,
blood,
is

is

a true friend, a real refuge, and a protector.

even though unconnected by birth of He whose heart

who doth not wait upon the aged, or who is of a restless disposition cannot make friends. Success (in the attainment of objects) forsaketh the person whose heart is unsteady, or who hath no control over his mind, or who is a slave of his senses, like swans forsaking a tank whose waters have dried up. They that are of weak minds suddenly
unsteady, or
give

way

to anger and are gratified

without sufficient cause

like clouds that are so inconstant.

The very

are ; they birds of prey abstain from

touching the dead bodies of those
fited

who having been served and

bene-

by

friends,

show

ingratitude to the latter.

Beest thou poor or

78

MAHABHABATA
Until some service
is

beest thou rich, thou shouldst honour thy friends.
asked,
the sincerity or
;

otherwise of friends cannot be known.
;

Sorrow

killeth beauty sorrow killeth strength sorrow killeth the understanding ; and sorrow bringeth on disease. Grief, instead of helping the acquisition of its object, drieth up the body, and maketh one's foes glad. Therefore, do not yield to grief. Men repeatedly die and are reborn repeatedly they
;

wither away and grow ; repeatedly they ask others for help, and they themselves are asked for help repeatedly they lament and are lamented.
;

Happiness and misery, plenty and want, gain and loss, life and death, are shared by all in due order. Therefore, he that is self-controlled should neither exult in joy nor repine in sorrow. The six senses are
always
restless.

Through the most predominant one amongst them
proportion to the
strength
it

one's

understanding

escapeth in

assumes, like

water from a pot through its holes,' "Dhritarashtra said, 'King Yudhishthira
fire,

who

is

like a

flame of
battle all

has been deceived by me.

He

will surely

exterminate

in

sons. Everything, therefore seems to me to be fraught with and my mind is full of anxiety. O thou of great intelligence, tell danger, me such words as may dispell my anxiety. "Vidura said, 'O sinless one, in nothing else than knowledge and

my

wicked

else than restraining the senses, in nothing else than complete abandonment of avarice, do I see thy good. Fear is dispelled by self-knowledge ; by asceticism one winneth what is great

asceticism, in nothing

by waiting upon superiors learning is acquired and peace gained by self-restraint. They that desire salvation without having acquired the merit attainable by gifts, or that which is attainable by
; ;

and valuable

is

practising the ritual of the Veda*, do not sojourn through life, freed from anger and aversion. The happiness that may be derived from a judi-

cious course of study, from a battle fought virtuously, from ascetic
austerities

performed

rigidly,

always increaseth at the end.

They that
if

arc no longer in peace with their relatives, obtain no

sleep even

they

have recourse to well-made beds; nor do they, O king derive any pleasure from women, or the laudatory hymns of bards and eulogists. Such persons can never practise virtue* Happiness can never be theirs, in this world> Honours can never be theirs, and peace hath no charm
for them.

Counsels that are for their benefit please them not. They never acquire what they have not, nor succeed in retaining what they have. king, there is no other end for such men save destruction. As

O

milk

is

possible in kine, asceticism
so fear
is

women,

in Brahmanas, and inconstancy in from relatives. Numerous thin threads of possible

equal length, collected together, are competent to bear, from the strength of numbers, the constant rolling of the shuttle-cock over them. The
case
is

even so with relatives that are good,

O

bull of the Bharata race,

UDYOGA PABVA
separated from one another, burning brans

79

produce only smoke

;

but

brought together they blaze forth into a powerful flame. The case is even so, Dhritarashtra, with relatives. They, O Dhritarashtra, who

O

tyrannise over Brahmanas,

women,

relatives,

and kine, soon

fall off their

stalks, like fruits that are ripe.

And

the tree that stands singly, though

gigantic

and strong and deep-rooted, hath its trunk soon smashed and twisted by a mighty wind. Those trees, howeveri that grow in close

compact are competent owing to mutual dependence to resist winds more violent still. Thus he that is single, however endowed with all the virtues, is regarded by foes as capable of being vanquished like an isolated tree by the wind. Relatives, again, in consequence of mutual dependence and mutual aid, grow together, like lotus stalks in a lake. These must never be slain, vz., Brahmanas, kine, relatives, children,

women,

those

whose food

is

eaten, and those also that yield by asking for

protection.
a person*

O king, without
If,

wealth no good quality can show itself in however, thou art in health, thou canst achieve thy good,

is unhealthy and ill. king, anger is a kind of pungent, acrid, and hot drink, painful in its consequences it is a kind of headache not born of any physical illness, and they that are un-

for

he

is

dead who

O

bitter,

:

king swallow it up and obtain peace. by disease have no liking for enjoyments, nor do they desire any happiness from wealth. The sick, however, filled with sorrow, know not what happiness is or what the enjoyments of wealth
wise can never digest
it.

Do

thou,

O

They

that are tortured

are.

Beholding Draupadi

won

at dice,

I

told

thee before,

O

king these

words, dhanul
is

They

that are honest avoid

deceit in

play.

There/ore, atop

Duryo.

Thou

didst

not,
is

however, act according
opposed
to
softness.

to

my
the

words.

That
hand,

not strength which

On

other

strength mixed with softness constitutes

true policy

which should ever

That prosperity which is dependent on crookedness alone That prosperity, however, which depends on both strength and softness, descends to sons and grandsons in tact. Let, therefore, thy sons cherish the Pandavas, and the Pandavas also cherish thy sons. O king let the Kurus and the Pandavasi both having same friends and same toes, live together in happiness and prosperiry.
be pursued.
is

destined to be destroyed.

sons of Kuru. Indeed, the dependent on thee. O sire, preserving thy fame unsullied, cherish thou the children of Pandu, afflicted as they are with the sufferings of exile. O descendant of Kuru, make peace with the sons of Pandu. Let not thy foes discover thy holes. They all
art, to-day,

Thou

O

king, the refuge of the
is

race of Kuru,

O

Ajamida,

O god among

men, are devoted to truth. from his evil ways." Duryodhana

O

king of men, withdraw

SECTION XXXVII
'*

Vidura

said,

created, hath,

O

'O son of Vichitravirya, Manu, the son of the Selfking spoken of the following seven and ten kinds of

men, as those that strike empty space with their fists, or seek to bend the vapoury bow of Indra in the sky, or desire to catch the intangible rays of the sun. These seven and ten kinds of foolish men are as follow
:

he
he

who who

seeketh to control a person that
is

is

incapable of being controlled

:

content

with

small gains

;

he

who humbly
;

pays court

to

enemies; he
for gifts

who seeks to restrain women's frailty he who asketh him who should never be asked he who boasteth, having done any;

thing

he who, born in a high family, perpetrateth an improper deed he who being weak always wageth hostilities with one that is powerful
;

;

;

person listening scoffingly; he who desireth to have that which is unattainable J he who being a father-in-law, jesteth with he who boasteth at having his alarms dispelled by his daughter-in-law

he who talketh

to a

;

who scattereth his own seeds in another's field he who speaketh ill of his own wife he who having received anything from another sayeth that he doth not remember it, he who, having given away anything in words in holy places, boasteth at home when asked to make good his words, and he who striveth to prove the truth The envoys of Yama, with nooses in hand, drag those of what is false. persons to hell. One should behave towards another just as that other behaveth towards him. Even this is consistent with social polity. One may behave deceitfully towards him that behaveth deceitfully, but honestly towards him that is honest in his behaviour. Old age killeth
his daughter-inrlaw
;

he

;

;

beauty

;

patience, hope
;

;

death,
;

life

;

the

practice of

virtue,

worldly

companionship with the wicked, good behaviour; anger, prosperity; and pride everything." "Dhritarashtra said, 'Man hath been spoken of in all the Vedat as
enjoyments
lust,

modesty

having hundred years for the period of his do not all men attain the allotted period ?

life.

For what reason then,

'Excess of pride, excess in speech, excess in eating, said, the desire of enjoyment, and intestine dissensions, these, O king anger, are six sharp swords that cut off the period of life alloted to creatures.
It is these

"Vidura

which

kill

men, and not death.

Knowing

this,

blessed be

thou

!

who appropriates to himself the wife of one who hath confided who violates the bed of his preceptor that Brahmana, O in who becomes the husband of a Sudra woman, or drinks wines Bharata, he who commandeth Brahmanas or becometh their master, or taketh away the lands that support them; and he who taketh the lives of those who
**He
;

him

he

;

;

UDYOGA PABVA
The Vedas declare that contact with these
accepts the teaching of
of morality
;

81

yield asking for protection, are all guilty of the sin of slaying Brahmanas.

requires expiation.
is

He

that

the wise
;

he that

is

liberal
;

acquainted with the rules he that eateth having first dedicated the
;

he that

food to the gods and

he that envieth none; he that is incapable of doing anything that injureth others; he that is grateful, truthful, humble and learned, succeedeth in attaining to heaven.
Pitris

words.

"They are abundant, O The speaker, however,

king,
is

that can always speak agreeable

are disagreeable but medicinal.
is

agreeable or disagreeable to his
is

words that That man who, without regarding what master but keeping virtue alone in view,
rare, as also the hearer, of

sayeth what
of

the king.

unpalatable, but medicinal, truly addeth to the strength For the sake of the family a member may be sacrificed
;

for the sake of the village, a family

may
;

be sacrificed

;

for the sake of a

kingdom a village may be sacrificed and for the sake of one's soul, the whole earth may be sacrificed. One should protect his wealth in view of the calamities that may overtake him by his wealth one should
;

protect his wives, and by both his wealth and wives one should protect his own self. From very olden times it hath been seen that gambling provoketh quarrels. Therefore, he that is wise, should not resort to it

even

in jest.

told thee,

O

son of Pratipa, at the time of that gambling match I This is not proper. But, O son of Vichitravirya, like king,

O

medicine to a sick man, those words of mine were not agreeable to thee.

O

thou desirest to vanquish the sons of Pandu, who are just as peacocks of variegated plumage, whereas thy sons are all as crows.
king,

Forsaking lions thou art protecting jackals ! O king, when the time cometh, thou wilt have to grieve for all this. That master O sire, who doth not give vent to his displeasure with devoted servants zealously
pursuing
his

good, enlisteth the confidence of his servants.

In fact, the
grants to

latter adhere to

him even
stopping

in distress.

By

confiscating the

one's servants or

pay, one should not seek to amass wealth, for even affectionate counsellors deprived of their means of life
their

and enjoyment, turn against him and leave him (in distress). Reflecting first on all intended acts and adjusting the wages and allowances of servants with his income and expenditure, a king should make proper
alliances,

for there

is

nothing that cannot be accomplished by alliances.

That

officer

who
all

dischargeth

understanding the intentions of his royal master duties with alacrity, and who is respectable himself and
fully

always telleth what is for his master's good, and acquainted with the extent of his own might and with that also of those against whom he may be engaged, should be regarded by the king as his second self. That servant, however, who commanded

devoted to

his master,

who

is

fully

(by his master) disregarded the latter's injunctions and

who

enjoined to

11

8f

MAHABHARATA

do anything refuseth to submit, proud as he is of his own intelligence and given to arguing against his master, should be got rid of without Men of learning say that a servant should be endued the least delav.
with these eight qualities,
viz.,

absence of pride,

ability,

absence of

procrastination, kindness, cleanliness, incorruptibility, birth in a family No man free from the taint of disease, and weightiness of speech.

should confidently enter an enmy's house after dusk even with notice. One should not at night lurk in .the yard of another's premises, nor

should one seek to enjoy a
love.

woman

to

whom
who

the king himself might
to

make
hath

Never

set thyself

against the decision
is

which

a

person

arrived who keepeth low company and
all

in the habit of consulting

Never tell him. I do not believe thee, but assigning some reason send him away on a pretext. A king who is exceedingly merciful,
he meeteth.

lewd character, the servant of a king, a son, a brother, a infant son, one serving in the army, and one that hath suffered great losses, should never be engaged in pecuniary transactions of lending or borrowing. These eight qualities shed a lustre on men, viz.,
a
of

woman

widow having an

high lineage, acquaintance with scriptures, self-restraint, moderation in speech, gift to the extent of one's power, and prowess, These high qualities, O sire, are necessarily brought gratefulness. together by one only by gifts. When the king favours a person, that incident (of royal favour) bringeth in all others and holdeth them together.

wisdom,

He

that performeth ablutions winneth these ten, viz., strength, beauty, a clear voice, capacity to utter all the alphabetical sounds, delicacy of

touch, fineness of scent, cleanliness, gracefulness, delicacy of limbs,
beautiful
health,

women.
life,

He

that
;

eateth
his

long

and ease

and winneth these six, viz., progeny also becometh healthy, and nosparingly

body reproacheth him

for gluttony.

One

should not give shelter to these

in his house, viz., one that always acteth improperly, one that eateth too much, one that is hated by all, one that is exceedingly deceitful, one that is cruel, one that is ignorant of the proprieties of time and place,

A person, however distressed, should miser for alms, or one that speaketh ill of others, or one never that is unacquainted with the Shastras, or a dwellerin the woods, or one that is cunning, or one that doth not regard persons worthy of regard,
and one that dresseth indecently.
solicit a

or one that that
is

is

cruel,

or one that habitually quarrels with others,

or one

ungrateful.
,

A
is

person should never wait

upon

these six worst of

men, viz one that falsehood, one that

one that always errs, one that is wedded to is wanting in devotion to the gods, one that is without affection, and one that always regards himself competent to do everything. One's purposes depend (for their success) on means and
a foe,
;

means are dependent,

again,

be accomplished by tham).

on the nature of the purposes (sought to They are intimately connected with each

TJDYOaA PABVA
other, so that success

81

depends on both.

Begetting sons and

rendering

them independent by making some provision for them, and bestowing maiden daughters on eligible persons, one should retire to the woods,
Muni. One should, do that which is for the Supreme Being, for his own happiness, for it is this which is one's objects. What anxiety hath he for a

and desire
the

to live as a

for obtaining the favours of

good of

all

creatures as also
all

the root of the success of
livelihood that

hath

intelli-

gence, energy, prowess, strength, alacrity and perseverance ? 'Behold the evils of a rupture with the Pandavas which would
1

sadden the very gods with Sakra.

These

are,

them that

are

all

thy sons

;

secondly, a
;

life of

first, enmity between continued anxiety thirdly,
;

the loss of the fair fame of the Kurus
are thy enemies.
Indra, of

and

lastly,

the joy of those that

The wrath of Bhishma, O thou of the splendour of and the king Yudhishthira, will consume the whole Drona, world, like a comet of large proportions falling transversely on the earth. Thy hundred sons and Kama and the sons of Pandu can together
rule the vast earth with the belt of the seas.

O

king, the Dhartarashtras
I

constitute a forest

of

which the Pandavas
its tigers
!

are,

think,

tigers.

O, do

not cut

down

that forest with
!

O,

let not

the tigers be driven

from that
without a
forest
!'

forest

forest.

The

There can be no forest without tigers, and no tigers forest shelters the tigers and tigers guard the

'They that are sinful never seek so
qualities of others as to

much

to ascertain the

good

ascertain

their faults.

He

that

desires the

highest success in all matters connected with worldly profit, should

from

the very beginning practise virtue, for true profit is never separated from heaveni He whose soul hath been dissociated from sin and firmly fixed on virtue, hath understood all things in their natural and advenhe that followeth virtue, profit, and desire, in proper titious states seasons, obtaineth, both here and hereafter, a combination of all three. He that restraineth the force of both anger and joy, and never, O king, loseth his senses under calamities, winneth prosperity. Listen to me, O king. Men are said to have five different kinds of strength. Of these, the strength of arms is regarded to be of the most inferior kind. Blessed
;

is regarded as the second kind of strength. The wise have said that the acquisition of wealth is the third kind of strength. The strength of birth, O king, which one naturally acquireth from one's sires and grandsires, is regarded as the fourth kind of strength. That, however, O Bharata, by which all these

be thou, the acquisition of good counsellors

are won, and which
strength
of the

is

the foremost of

all

kinds of strength,

is

called the

intellect.

Having provoked

the hostility of a person

who

capable of inflicting great injury on a fellow creature, one should not gather assurance from the thought that one livethat a distance from
is

84
the other.

MAHABHABATA

Who

that

is

wise that can place his trust on

women,

kings,

serpents, his

own master, enemies, enjoyments, and are no physicians nor medicines for one that hath been struck by the arrow of wisdom. In the case ot such a person neither the mantras of
period of life ?

There

Koma, nor auspicious ceremonies, nor the mantras of the Atfiarva Ved'a, nor any of the antidotes of poison, are of any efficacy. Serpents, fire,
lions,

and consanguineous relatives, none ot these, O Bharata, should be disregarded by a man all of these are possessed of great power. Fire It lurketh in wood and never this world. is a thing of great energy in
;

consumath

it

till it is

ignited by others,
its

That very

fire,

out by friction, consumeth by

lurketh, but also an entire forest and
lineage are just like fire in energy.

energy not only the many other things.

when brought wood in which it

Men
wood.

of high

Endued with

forgiveness, they betray

no outward symptoms

of

wrath and are quiet
possessed of
as Sala
trees.

like fire in

Thou,

O

king, with thy

sons art

the virtue of creepers, and the

sons of

Pandu are regarded
is

A

unless there

a large tree to

twine round.

O king, O
doomed

creeper never groweth son of Ambika,
to destruction,

thy son
lions

is

as a forest.

O
its

sire,

know

that the Pandavas are the lions of
is

that forest.
also

Without are doomed

lions the

forest

and

to destruction without

the forest (to shelter

them.)

SECTION XXXVIII
Vidura said, 'The heart of a young man, when an aged and venerable person cometh to his house (as a guest), soareth aloft. By advancing forward and saluting him, he getteth it back. He that is selfcontrolled,
guest's

bringing water and causing his washed and making the usual enquiries of welcome, should then speak of his own affairs, and taking everything into consifirst

offering

a seat, and

feet to be

deration, offer

him

food.

The wise have

said

that

man

liveth in vain

in whose dwelling a Brahmana conversant with mantras doth not accept

water, honey and curds, and kine, from fear of being unable to appropriate them, or from miserliness and unwillingness with which the gifts
are made. the

even one that hath given complete, a thief, a crookedup a Brahmana that drinks, one that causeth miscarriage, minded man, one that liveth by serving in the army, and one that selleth the Vedas, when arrived as a guest, however undeserving he may be the offer of water should be regarded (by a house-holder) as exceedingly dear. A
physician,

A

a

maker

of arrows,
it
is

vow

of

Brahmacharya before

Brahmana should never be
honey,
clothes,
oil,

a seller of salt, of

cooked

food, curds, milk,

all

sesame, meat, fruits, roots, potherbs, dyed kinds of perfumery, and treacle. He that never giveth way

clarified butter,

UDYOGA PABVA
to anger, he that
is

86
in

above

grief,

he that

is

no longer

need of friend-

ship and quarrels, he that disregarded both praise and blame, and he that standeth aloof from both what is agreeable and disagreeable, like one perfectly withdrawn from the world, is a real Yogin of the Bhikshu order,

or pot-herbs,
fire
is

That virtuous ascetic who liveth on rice growing wild, or roots, who hath his soul under control, who carefully keepeth his for worship, and dwelling in the woods is always regardful of guests,

indeed, the foremost of his brotherhood.

Having wronged an

intelli-

gent person, one should never
liveth at a distance

gather assurance from the fact that one

intelligent parsons have,

from the person wronged. Long are the arms which by which they can return wrongs for wrongs done to them. One should never put trust on him who should not be trusted> nor put too much trust on him who should be trusted, for the

danger that ariseth from one's having reposed trust on another cutteth off one's very roots. One should renounce envy, protect one's wives,
give to others

what

is

their due, and be agreeable in speech.
in his
It

One

should

be sweet-tongued and pleasant should never be their slave.
highly
blessed and

address as regards one's wives, but hath been said that wives that are
of

virtuous, worthy of worship and the ornaments of

their homes, are really

embodiments

domestic prosperity.

They

One should devolve the should, therefore, be protected particularly. looking over of his inner apartments on his father ; of the kitchen, on of the kine, on somebody he looks upon as his own self ; his mother
;

but as regards agriculture, one should look over
look after
the

it

himself.

One

should

guests of the trader-caste through his servants,

and those of
;

Kshatriyas in Brahmanas

through his sons. Fire hath its origin in water and iron in stone. The energy of those, (i.e., ; fire, Kshatriyas. and iron) can affect all things but is neutralised as soon as the things come in contact with their progenitors. Fire lieth concaste

Brahmana

itself externally. Good and forgiving high families and endued with fiery energy, do not betray any outward symptoms of what is within them* That king whose counsels cannot be known by either outsiders or those about him, but

cealed in

wood without showing

men born

of

who knoweth
perity long.

the counsels of others through his spiesi enjoyeth his pros-

should never speak of what one intends to do. Let thoudoest in respect of virtue, profit, and desire, be not known any thing Let counsels be not divulged. Ascending on the mountill it is done. tain-top or on the terrace of a palace, or proceeding to a wilderness

One

devoid of trees and plants, one shjuld, in secrecy, mature his counsels. Bharara, neither a friend who is without learning, nor a learned friend

O

who hath no
state secrets.

control over his senses, deserveth

to be

a repository of

O

king, never

make one

thy

minister without examining

him

well* for a king's

finances and the keeping of his counsels both

86

MAHABHABATA
his

depend on
ministers
after

minister.
his

That king

is

the

foremost
profit,

of

rulers,

whose
only

know

acts in

respect of virtue,

and

desire,

they are done.

The king whose counsels are kept
success.

close,

without

doubt,

commandeth

He

that from ignorance committeth acts
life in

that are censurable, loseth his very

consequence of the untoward

The doing of acts that are praiseworthy is always results of those acts. attended with'ease. Omission to do such acts leadeth to repentance- As
a

Brahmana without having studied the Vedas
(in

is

not

fit

to officiate at a

Sraddha

honour of the

Pitris),

so he that hath not heard of the six

(means for protecting a kingdom) deserveth not to take part in political O king, he that hath an eye upon increase, decrease, and deliberations' surplus, he that is conversant with the six means and knoweth also his own self, he whose conduct is always applauded, bringeth the whole
earth under subjection to himself.
tive of consequences,

he who

anger and joy are produclooketh over personally what should be

He whose

done, he who hath his treasury under his own control, bringeth the whole earth under subjection to himself. The king should be content with the name he wins and the umbrella that is held over his head. He

should

divide the wealth of the kingdom

among

these that serve him.

Alone he should not appropriate everything. A Brahmana knoweth a Brahmana, the husband understandeth the wife, the king knoweth the minister, and monarchs know monarchs. A foe that deserveth death, when brought under subjection, should never be set free. If one be weak,
one should pay court to one's foe that is stronger, even if the latter deserves death but one should kill that foe as soon as one commandeth
;

sufficient strength,

for,

if

not killed, dangers soon arise from him.
control his wrath against

One
kings,

should,

with an effort,

the

gods,

Brahmanas, old men, children, and those that are helpless. He that is wise should avoid unprofitable quarrels such as fools only engage in. By this one winneth great fame in this world and avoideth misery and unhappiness. People never desire him for a master whose grace is fruitless and whose wrath goest for nothing, like women never desiring

him for a husband who

is

a eunuch.
is

Intelligence doth not exist for the
;

acquisition of wealth, nor

idleness the cause of adversity

the

man

of

wisdom only knoweth, and not others, the cause of the diversities of condition in this world. The fool, O Bharata, always disregardeth those that are elderly in years, and eminent in conduct and knowledge, in Calamities soon come upon them that intelligence, wealth, and lineage. are of wicked disposition, devoid of wisdom, envious, or sinful, foultongued, and wrathful. Absence of deceitfulness, gift, observance of
the established rules of intercourse, and speech well-controlled, bring all creatures under subjection. He that is without deceitfulness, he that
is

active, grateful,

intelligent,

and

guileless,

even

if

his

treasury be

UDTOGA PAEVA

87

empty, obtaineth friends, counsellors, and servants. Intelligence, tranabsence of harsh speech and quility of mind, self-controL purity, unwillingness to do anything disagreeable to friends, these seven are
regarded as the fuel of porsperity's flame.
give to others their due,

who

is

of

That wretch who doth not wicked soul, who is ungrateful, and

shameless, should,

voketh another about him that
They,

proinnocent, cannot sleep peacefully at night, like a person passing the night with a snake in the same room.
guilty
is

O

king, be

avoided.

The

person

who

O Bharata, who upon being angry endanger one's possessions and means of acquisition, should always be propitiated like the very gods. Those objects that depend upon women, careless persons, men that have fallen away from the duties of their caste, and those that are wicked in
disposition, are doubtful of success.

They

sink helplessly,
a deceitful

O

king,

like

a raft

made

of stone,

who have
that are

a

woman,

person, or a child,
principles of

for their guide.

They

competent

in the

general

work, though not in particular kinds of work are regarded by men as learned and wise for particular kinds of work, are subsidiary. That man

who

is

highly spoken of by swindlers,
alive,

mimes and women

of

ill

fame,

is

more dead than
energy,
viz.,

the son of Pandu,

Forsaking these mighty bowmen of immeasurable thou hast, O Bharata, devolved on

Daryodhana, the cares of a mighty empire.
see that swelling affluence fall off,
like

Thou

shalt, therefore, soon

Vali fallen off from the three

"
world.'

SECTION XXXIX
"Dhritarashtra
perity or adversity.

the Creator hath

Man is not the disposer of either his prosHe is like a wooden doll moved by strings. Indeed, made man subject to Destiny. Go on telling me, I am
said,

attentive to what thou sayest."

"Vidura

said.

O

Bharata, by speaking words out of season even

the charge of ignorance, Vrihaspati one becometh agreeable by gift, another by sweet words, a third by the force of incantation and drugs. He, however, that is naturally agree-

himself incrurreth reproach and

always remaineth so. He that is hated by another is never regarded by that other as honest or intelligent or wise. One attributed! everyand everything evil to him one hateth. thing good to him one loveth Thou shouldst as Duryodhana was born I told thee, O king, as soon
able,
;

abandon

this

one son, for by abandoning him thou wouldst secure the

prosperity of thy hundred sons, and by keeping him, destruction would overtake thy hundred sons, That gain should never be regarded highly which leadeth to loss. On the other hand, that loss even should be

regarded highly which would bring on gain. That is no loss, O king, which bringeth on gain. That, however, should be reckoned as loss which

88
is

MAHABHABATA
certain to bring about greater losses
of
;

still.

Some become eminent
so
in

in

consequence
wealth.

consequence of good qualities that are eminent in wealth but Avoid them, O Dhritarashtra,
!"

others

become

destitute of good qualities

"Dhritarashtra said.

'All that
I

you sayest

is

approved by the wise

and
is

is

for

my

future good.

dare not, however, abandon
is

my

son.

It

well-known that where there

righteousness there

is

victory.

"Vidura

said,
is

with humility,
living creatures.
of others,

'He that is graced with every virtue and is endued never indifferent to even the minutest sufferings of

always strive with activity
matters,

They, however, that are ever employed in speaking ill in quarreling with one another
calculated
to give pain to others.

There is sin in accepting gifts from, and danger in making gifts to them, whose very sight is inauspicious and whose companionship is fraught with danger.
and
in
all

They

that are quarrelsome, covetous, shameless, deceitful, are known as unrighteous, and their companionship should always be avoided. One should also avoid those

men

that are

endued with similar
beneficial result
it, all

faults
is

of

a

grave nature.
nection,

When

the occasion

that

caused the frendship

over
con-

the frendship of those that are low, the

of that

and the happiness
strive to speak

also

derivable from

come

to an end.

They then
loss

ill

of their (late) friend and endeavour to inflict

on him, and if the loss they sustain be even very small, for all that, from want of self-control, fail to enjoy peace. He that is learned, examining everything carefully and reflecting well, should, from a distance, avoid the frendship of vile and wicked-minded persons such
they,
as these.

He

that helpeth his poor and

wretched and

helpless

relatives,

obtain children and animals and enjoyeth prosperity that knoweth no end. They that desire their own benefit should always succour their
relatives.
of thy race.

By every means, therefore,
Prosperity
all

will

be thine,

O King, do thou O monarch,

seek the growth if thou behavest

well towards

thy relatives.

Even

relatives that are destitute of good
race,

qualities should be protected.

O

bull of the Bharata

how much

more, therefore, should they be protected that are endued with every virtue and are humbly expectant of thy favours ? Favour thou the
heroic sons of Pandu,
in this world.
I

monarch, and let a few villages be assigned to them for their maintenance. By acting thus, O king, fame will be thine

O

Thou
is

art old

thou shouldst, therefore, control thy sons.

should say what

for thy good.

Know me

as

one that wishes well to

thee.
his

He

that desireth his

own good
the

should never quarrel,

O

sire,

with

Bharata race, happiness should ever be enjoyed with one's relatives, and not without them. To eat with one another, to talk with one another, and to love one another, are what
relatives.
bull of

O

relatives should always do.

They should never

quarrel.

In

this

world

UDYOGA PAEVA
it is

89

the relatives that rescue, and the relatives that ruin (relatives). Those amongst them that are righteous rescue while those that are
;

unrighteous sink (their brethren).

O

king, be thou,

O

giver of honours,

righteous in thy conduct towards the sons of Pandu. Surrounded by them, thou wouldst be unconquerable by thy foes. If a relative shrinks in the presence of a prosperous relative, like a deer at sight of a hunter armed with arrows, then the prosperous relative hath to take upon himself
all

the sins of

the other.

O

best of

(for this thy inaction

at present) death of either the Pandavas or thy sons.

when

in future

men, repentance will be thine thou wilt hear of the
O, think of
all this.

When

life itself is

unstable, one should in the very beginning avoid that act in

consequence of which one would have to indulge in regrets having entered the chamber of woe. True it is that a person other than Bhargava, the author of the science of morality is liable to commit actions that go

consequence an aged scion of Kuru's race. If Duryodhana inflicted these wrongs on the sons of Pandu, it is thy duty, O king of men, to undto them all .Re-instaiting them in
against morality.
is

It is seen,

however, that a

just notion of

present in

all

persons of intelligence.

Thou

art

thou wilt, in this world, be cleansed of all thy sins and be, men, an object of worship with even those that have their souls under control. Reflecting on the well-spoken words of the wise according to their consequences, he that engageth in acts never loseth fame. The knowledge imparted by even men of learning and skill is imperfect, for that which is sought to be inculcated is ill understood, or, if understood, is not accomplished in practice. That learned person who never doth an act, the consequences of which are sin and misery, always groweth (in prosperity). The person, however, of wicked soul, who
their position,

O king

of

from

folly

pursueth

his

sinful course

commenced before

falleth into a

slough of deep mire.

He

that

is

wise should ever keep in view the

(following) six conduits by which counsels become divulged, and he that desireth success and a long dynasty should ever guard himself from those
six.

They

are,

intoxication,

sleep, inattention to spies, as

set

over one by

dependent on the working of one's another, one's own demeanour own heart, confidence reposed on a wicked counsellor, and unskilful envoys. Knowing these six doors (through which counsels are divulged),
he that keepeth

them shut while pursuing
succeedeth
in

the attainment of

virtue,

standing over the heads of his foes. profit, and desire, Without an acquaintance with the scriptures and without waiting upon the old, neither virtue nor profit can be known (or won) by persons
blessed even with the
intelligence of Vrihaspati.
lost
if

A

thing

is

lost

if
;

cast

into

the sea

;

words are

addressed to one that
his soul

listens

not
;

the

scriptures are lost
libation

on one that hath not
is

under control
left

and a
fire

of clarified butter

lost

if

poured over the ashes

by a

12

90
that
is

MAHABHARATA
extinguished.

He

that

is

endued with the intelligence maketh
by his understanding, and using

friendships with those that are wise, having 6rst examined by the aid of
his intelligence,

repeatedly searching

and judgment. Humility removeth obloquy, ears, failure, prowess; forgiveness always conquereth anger and auspicious rites destroy all indications of evil. One's lineage, O king, is tested by his objects When of enjoyment, place of birth, house, behaviour, food, and dress.
his ears, eyes,
;

an object of enjoyment is available, even that one who hath attained emancipation is not unwilling to eirjoy what, again, need be said of him
;

that

is

yet

wedded

to desire ?

A

king should cherish a counsellor that

worshippeth persons of wisdom, is endued with learning, virtue, agreeable appearance, friends, sweet speech, and a good heart. Whether of low

who doth not transgress the rules of polite intercourse, who hath an eye on virtue, who is endued with humility and modesty, The friendship of those is superior to a hundred persons of high birth.
or high birth, he

persons never cooleth, whose hearts, secret pursuits, and pleasures, and acquirements, accord in every respect. He that is intelligent should

avoid an ignorant person of wicked soul, like a pit whose mouth is covered with grass, for friendship with such a person can never last. The man of wisdom should never contract friendship with those that
are proud, ignorant, fierce, rash, and fallen off from righteousness.

He

that is grateful, virtuous, truthful, large-hearted, and devoted, and he that hath his senses under control, preserveth his dignity, and never

forsaketh a friend, should be desired for a friend.
the senses from
their respective objects
is

The withdrawal
death

of

equivalent to

itself.

Their exce-sive indulgence again would ruin the very gods.
love of
all

Humility,

creatures,

forgiveness,
life.

learned have siid, lengthen
said to possess
is

and respect for friends, these, the He who with a firm resolution striveth
frushis

to accomplish by a virtuous policy purposes that have once been
trated,
objects,
is

real

manhood.

That man attaineth

all

conversant with remedies to be applied in the future, who is firmly resolved in the present, and who could anticipate in the past bow an act begun would end. That which a man pursueth in word,

who

him for its own therefore, one should seek that which is for his good. Effort after securing what is always good, the properties of time, place, and means, acquaintance with the
deed, and thought, winneth
;

scriptures,

activity, straightforwardness,

and frequent meetings with
Perseverance
is

those that are good,

these bring about prosperity.

the

what is beneficial. The man that an object with perseverance and without giving it up in vexapursueth tion, is really great, and enjoyeth happiness that is unending. O sire, there is nothing more conducive of happiness and nothing more proper for a man of power and energy as forgiveness in every place and at all
root of prosperity, of gain, and of

UDYOGA PABVA
times.

91
all

He
;

that

is

weak should

forgive under

circumstances.

He
of

that

is

possessed

of

power should show forgiveness from motives
the success or failure of his objects
is

virtue
is

and he, to

whom
and

naturally forgiving.

That pleasure the

the same, of which doth not pursuit

injure one's virtue

profit, should certainly be

pursued to one's

fill.

should not, however, act like a fool by giving free indulgence to his senses. Prosperity never resides in one who suffers himself to be tor-

One

tured by a grief, who is addicted to evil ways, who denies Godhead, who is idle, who hath not his senses under control, and who is divested of
exertion.

The man that is humble, and who from humility is modest is regarded as weak and persecuted by persons of misdirected intelligence. Prosperity never approacheth from fear the person that is excessively
that giveth

liberal,

away without measure, that

is

possessed of extrais

ordinary bravery, that practiseth the most rigid vows, and that

very

Prosperity doth not reside in one that is highly nor in one that is without any accomplishment. She doth accomplished, not desire a combination of all the virtues, nor is she pleased with the

proud

of

his

wisdom.

total

absence of

all

virtues.
is

Blind, like a

mad cow,

Prosperity resides

with some one who

not remarkable.

The
;

fruits of the

Vedas are cere-

monies performed before the (Homa) fire the fruits of an acquaintance with the scriptures are goodness of disposition and conduct. The fruits
of

woman

are the pleasures of intercourse and offspring

of wealth are

to secure his

and the fruits enjoyment and charity. He that performeth acts tending prosperity in the other world with wealth acquired sinfully,
;

never reapeth the
of

fruits of these acts in the

the sinfulness of the

acquisitions

(spent for the purpose).

other world, in consequence In the

midst of deserts, or deep woods, or inaccessible fastnesses, amid all kinds of dangers and alarms, or in view of deadly weapons upraised for striking him, he that hath strength of mind entertaineth no fear. Exertion, selfcontrol, skill, carefulness, steadiness,
after

memory, and commencement
of
;

of acts

mature deliberation,
the

know

that these are the roots of
ascetics
;

prosperity.

Austerities constitute

strength

the Vedas are

the

in envy lieth the strength of strength of those conversant with them the wicked: and in forgiveness, the stength of the virtuous. These eight, fruits, milk, clarified butter, (what is done at) the vi?., water, roots,

desire of a

Brahmana,

(or at) the

command

of a preceptor,
is

and medicine,

are not destructive of a
self,

vow.

That which

antagonistic to one's

own

virtue.

should never be applied in respect of another. Briefly, even this is Other kinds of virtue there are, but these proceed from caprice.
;

Anger must be conquered by forgiveness and the wicked must be conquered by honesty the miser must be conquered by liberality, and falsehood must be conquered by truth. One should not place trust on a
;

woman,

a swindler, an idle person, a coward,

one that

is

fierce,

one that

99
boasts of his

MAHABHABATA

own power, a thief, an ungrateful person, and an atheist. Achievements, period of life, fame, and power these four always expand in the case of him that respectfully saluteth his superiors and

waiteth upon the old. Do not set thy heart after these objects which cannot be acquired except by very painful exertion, or by sacrificing A man without knowrighteousness, or by bowing down to an enemy.
ledge
pitied
is
;

to be pitied

;

the people of a

an act of intercourse that is not fruitful is to be kingdom that are without food are to be pitied
;

and

a

rains, decay of hills and mountains absence of enjoyment, anguish of women and wordy arrows, The scum of the Vedas is want of study of Brahmanas, of the heart. of the absence of vows of the Earth, the Valhikas of man, untruth

of pain

kingdom without king is and weakness to embodied creatures the
a
; ;

to be pitied. These constitute the source

;

;

;

:

;

chaste
is

woman,
:

curiosity
;

;

of

women,

exile

silver

of silver, tin

of tin,

lead,
;

from home. The scum of gold and of lead, useless dross* One
;

cannot conquer sleep by lying down women by desire fire by fuel and wine by drinking' His life is, indeed, crowned with success who hath won his friends by gifts, his foes in battle, and wife by food and they, who have hundreds, also drink; they who have thousands live live. O Dhritarashtra, forsake desire. There is none who cannot manage to live by some means or other. Thy paddy, wheat, gold, animals, and
;
;

women

that are on earth

all

cannot satiate even one person.

Reflecting

want of universal dominion. O king, I again tell thee, adopt an tqual conduct towards thy children. i.e., towards the sons of Pandu and thy own sons/
on this, they that are wise never grieve for
'

SECTION XL
"Vidura
said,

'Worshipped by the good and abandoning pride, that

his objects without outstepping the limits of soon succeedeth in winning fame, for they that are good, his power, when gratified with a person, are certainly competent to bestow happi-

good man who pursueth

He that forsaketh, of his own accord, even a great object ness on him. owing to its being fraught with unrighteousness, liveth happily, casting
off all

woes, like a snake that hath cast off

its

slough.

A

victory gained

by an untruth, deceitful conduct towards the king, and insincerity of intentions expressed before the preceptor, these three are each equal to the sin of slaying a Brahmana. Excessive envy, death, and boastfulness, are the

causes of the destruction of prosperity.

Carelessness in

waiting upon preceptor, haste, and boastlessness, are the three enemies
of knowledge.
ness,

Idleness, inattention,

confusion of the intellect, restless-

these seven constitute,

gathering for killing time, haughtiness, pride, and covetousness, it is said, the faults of students in the pursuit

UDYQCJA PABVA
of learning.

08
?

How

can they

that

desire

pleasure have knowledge

Students, again, engaged in the pursuit of learning, cannot have pleasure.

Votaries of pleasure must give up knowledge, and votaries of knowledge must give up pleasure. Fire is never gratified with fuel (but can con-

sume any measure
rivers
it

thereof).

The great ocean

is

never

gratified with the
is

receives (but can receive any number of them). Death beautiful woman gratified even with entire living creatures.

A

is

never never

with any number of men (she may have). O king, hope killeth Varna killeth growth anger killeth prosperity miserliness patience absence of tending killeth cattle killeth fame one angry Brahmana
gratified
; ;

;

;

;

Let goats, brass, silver, honey, antidotes of poison, birds, Brahmanas versed in the Vedas, old relatives, and men O of high birth sunk in poverty, be always present in thy house.
Bharata,

destroyeth a whole kingdom.

Manu

hath said that goats,

bull, sandal,

lyres, mirrors,

honey,

clarified butter, iron, copper, conch-shells,

salagram (the stony-image of Vishnu with gold within) and gorochana should always be kept in one's house for the worship of the gods. Brahmanas, and guests, for all those

objects are auspicious.

would impart to thee another sacred lesson productive of great fruits, and which is the highest of all teachings, viz., virtue should never be forsaken from desire, fear, or temptation nay, nor for the sake of life itself. Virtue is everlasting pleasure and
sire,
I
;

O

pain are transitory
are transitory.
that
is

;

life is,

indeed, everlasting but

its

particular phases

Forsaking those which are transitory, betake thyself to

which

is

everlasting, and let
all

contentment be

thine, for

contentment

acquisitions. Behold, having ruled lands abounding with wealth and corn, have become the victims of the Universal Destroyer, leaving behind their kingdoms and vast sources of enjoyment. The son brought up with anxious care, when

the highest of

illustrious

and mighty kings,

dead,

is

taken up and carried away by
as
if it

men

(to

the burning ground).

With

the dishevelled hair and crying piteously,

they then cast the body

were a piece of wood. Others enjoy the deceased's wealth, while birds and fire feast on the elements of his body. With two only he goeth to the other world, viz- his merits and his sins which keep him company. Throwing away the body, O sire, relatives, friends, and sons retrace their steps, like birds abandoning trees without blossoms and fruits. The person cast into the funeral pyre is followed only by his own acts. Therefore, should men, carefully and gradually earn the merit of righteousness. In the world above this, and also in that below this, there are regions of great gloom and darkness. Know, O king, that those are regions where the senses of men are exceedingly
into the funeral pyre,
t

afflicted.

Oh,
if

let

these words,

not any of those places be thine. Carefully listening to thou canst act according to them, thou wilt obtain great

fame

in this

world of men, and fear will not be thine here or hereafter.

94

MAHABHABATA
Bharata, the soul

O
its

sacred baths

;

truth, its
is

waves.
soul
is

He

that

spoken of as a river religious merit constitutes water self-control its banks kindness, its righteous purifieth himself by a bath therein, for the
is
; ;
;

sacred, and the absence of desire
a river whose waters are the five

is

the highest merit.

O

king,

life is

senses,

and whose crocodiles and

sharks are desire and anger. Making self-control thy raft, cross thou its eddies which are represented by repeated births. Worshipping and
gratifying

friends that

are eminent

in

wisdom, virtue, learning, and

years, he that asketh their advice about what he should do and should

not do,
patience
;

is
;

never misled.

One

should restrain one's lust and stomach by

one's hands and feet by one's eyes; one's eyes and ears by one's

mind and one's mind and words by one's acts. That Brahmana who never omitteth to perform his ablutions, who always weareth his sacred thread* who always attendeth to the study of the Vedas, who always avoideth food that is unclean, who telleth the truth and performeth acts
in

honour

of his preceptor,

never falleth

off

from the region

of

Brahma.

Having

poured libations into fire, performed sacrifices, protected subjects, sanctified his soul by drawing weapons for protecting kine and B rah m anas, and died on the field of battle, the
studied the Vedas,

Kshatriya

buted

in

attaineth to heaven. Having studied the Vedas, and distriproper time his wealth among Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, and his

own
fires,

dependents, and inhaled the sanctified smoke of the three kinds of the Vaisya enjoyeth heavenly bliss in the other world. Having

properly worshipped Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas in due order, and having burnt his sins by gratifying them, and then peacefully casting off his body, the Sudra enjoyeth the bliss of heaven.

the four orders are thus set forth before thee.
of

Listen

The duties of now to the reason

speech as I discourse it. Yudhishthira, the son of Pandu, is Place him, therefore* falling off from the duties of the Kshatriya order.

my

O king,

in a position to discharge the duties of kings.'

O 'It is even so as thou always teachest me. amiable one, my heart also incline th that very way of which thou tellest me. Although, however. I incline in my mind towards the Pandavas
Ohritarashtra said,

even as thou teachest

me

to do,

yet as soon as

I

come

in contact

with

Duryodhana
avert fate*

No creature is able to it turneth off in a different way. Indeed Destiny, I think, is certain to take its course ;
"
is futile.'

individual exertion

SECTION XLI
(Sanat-swfata

Parva)

"Dhritarashtra

said,
I

'It

there

is

anything

still

left unsaid

by thee,
is,

O

Vidura, say

it

then, as

am

ready to listen to thee.

The

discourse

indeed charming."

"Vidura

said,

'O Dhritarashtra,

O

thou of the Bharata race, that

ancient and immortal Rishi Sanat-sujata who, leading a life of perpetual that foremost of all intellicelibacy, hath said that there is no Death.

gence persons,

will

expound to thee

all

the doubts, in thy mind, both

expressed and unexpressed.' "Dhritarashtra said, 'Dost thou not
Rishi will
say unto me that degree of wisdom.'
?

know what
it,

that

immortal

O

Vidura, do thou say

if

indeed thou hast

"Vidura said, 'I am born in the Sudra order and, therefore, do no venture to say more than what I have already said. The understanding, however, of that Rishi leading a life of celibacy, is regarded
by

me

to be in6nite.

He

that

is

a

Brahmana by

birth,

by discoursing

on even the profoundest mysteries, never incureth the censure of the gods- It is for this alone that I do not discourse to the, upon the subject.
me, O Vidura, how with this body of mine I can meet with that ancient and immortal one ?' Vaisampayana said, 'Then Vidura began to think of that Rishi
"Dhritarashtra said,
'Tell
'

And knowing that he was thought of, the Rishi, O showed himself there. Vidura then received him with the Bharata, And when, having rested awhile, the Rishi rites prescribed by ordiance. was seated at his ease, Vidura addressed him, saying, O illustrious one, there is a doubt in Dhritarashtra's mind which is incapable of being explained away by me. It behoveth thee, therefore, to expound it, so
of

rigid

vows.

that listening to thy discourse,

this chief of

men may

tide

over

all his

sorrows, and so that gain and
able,

loss,

what

is

agreeable and what disagree-

pride and prosperity, dislike, sleep, increase may all be borne by him I*
'

decrepitude and death, fright and jealousy, hunger and thirst, lust and wrath, and decrease and

SECTION XLII
Vaisampayana
rashtra,

and wise king Dhritahaving applauded the words spoken by Vidura, questioned
said,

"Then the

illustrious

Sanat-sujata in secret, desirous of obtaining the highest of all knowledge. And the king questioned the Rishi saying, *O Sanat-sujata, I hear that thou art of the opinion that there is no Death. Again it is said that the

gods and the Asuras, practise ascetic austerities Of these two opinions, then, which is true ?'

in

order to avoid death.

98
"Sanat-sujata said,
acts
;

MAHAEHARATA
'Some
is

say,

death
;

others opinion
is

there

no death
king, as I

these

true.

Listen to me,

O

is avertable by particular thou hast asked me which of discourse to thee on this, so that

thy doubts may be removed. Know, O Kshatriya, that both of these are true. The learned are of opinion that death results from ignorance.
I

say that

(Knowledge) is became subject to defeat and death, and it is from the absence of ignorance that the gods have attained the nature of Brahman. Death doth not devour creatures like a tiger its form itself is unascertainable. Besides This, however, is due to the this, some imagine Yama to be Death. weakness of the mind. The pursuit of Brahman or self-knowledge is immortality. That (imaginary) god (Yama) holdeth his sway in the region of the Pitris, being the source of bliss to the virtuous and of woe to the sinful. It is at his command that death in the form of wrath, ignorance, and covetousness, occurreth among men. Swayed by pride, men always walk in unrighteous path. None amongst them succeeds in
;

Death, and so the absence of ignorance immortality. It is from ignorance that the Asuras

ignorance

is

attaining

to his

real nature.

With

their understanding clouded,
their bodies

themselves swayed by
repeatedly
is

these passions, they cast off

and and
It

fall into hell.

They

are always followed by their senses.

for this

that ignorance receives the

name

of death.

Those men that

desire the fruits of action

when

the

proceed to heaven,
death.

casting off

their bodies.

timecometh for enjoying those fruits, Hence they cannot avoid
attain the knowledge of

Embodied Brahman and from
to

creatures,

from

inability to

their connection with earthly enjoyments, are obliged sojourn in a cycle of re-births, up and down and around. The natural inclination of man towards pursuits that are unreal is alone the

cause of the senses being led to error. The soul that is constantly affected by the pursuit of objects that are unreal, remembering only
that

with which
it.

it is

that surround

The

always engaged, adoreth only earthly enjoyments desire of enjoyments first killeth men. Lust and

wrath soon follow behind it. These three, viz., the desire of enjoyments, They, however, that have lust, and wrath, lead foolish men to death.
conquered their souls, succeed by self-restraint, to escape death. He that hath conquered his soul without suffering himself to be excited by his ambitious desire, conquereth these, regarding them as of no value, by the aid of self-knowledge. Ignorance, assuming the form of Yama, cannot devour that learned man who controlled his desires in this manner. That man who followeth his desires is destroyed along with
his desires.

He, however, that can renounce
Desire
is,

desire,

can certainly drive
darkness and

away

all

kinds of woe.
respect of
all

indeed, ignorance and

hell in

creatures,

for

swayed by

it

they lose their senses.

As

intoxicated persons in walking along a street reel towards ruts and

UDYOGA PABVA
boles, so

97

men under

the influence of desire, misled by deluding joys, run

towards destruction.
terrors, like a tiger

What can

not been confounded or misled by desire

death do to a person whose soul hath ? To him, death hath no

tence of desire, which
the slightest one,
is

is

of straw. Therefore, Kshatriya, if the exisignorance, is to be destroyed, no wish, not even either to be thought of or pursued. That soul, which
is

made

O

with wrath and covetousness, and filled with ignorance, that is death. Knowing that death arises in this way, he that relies on Knowledge, entertaineth no fear of death. Indeed, as
in

thy body, associated as

it is

the body

is

destroyed

death

itself is

when brought under the influence of death, so destroyed when it comes under the influence of Knowledge.'

'The Vedas declare the emancipating capacity of those highly sacred and eternal regions, that are said to be obtainable
"Dhritarashtra said,

by the regenerate classes by prayers and sacrifices. Knowing should not a learned person have recourse to (religious) acts ? l

this,

why

"Sanat-sujata said, 'Indeed, he that is without knowledge proceedeth thither by the path indicated by thee, and the Vedas also declare
that thither are both bliss

and emancipation.
if

material

body

to

be

self,

he

But he that regardeth the succeeds in renouncing desire, at once
however, one seeketh emanone must have to proceed along the
If,

attaineth emancipation

(or Brahman).

cipation without renouncing desire,

(prescribed) route of action, taking care to destroy the chances of his retracing the routes that he hath once passed over**

1 The question that Dhritarashtra asks is easy enough. The Bishi having applauded knowledge and its efficacy in procuring emancipation, the king asks, if knowledge is of such efficacy, what then is the value of Karma or acts, i.e., prayers and sacrifices as ordained in the Vedas ? Ijyaya is the instrumental form of Ijya, meaning sacrifices, religious rites, and ceremonies. Parartham is explained by Nilakantba to mean Mokthaprapakatwam i e., capacity to lead to emancipation. It should be noted here that the Hindu idea of emancipation is not bliss enjoyed by a conscious Self, but freedom from the obligation of re- birth and Karma. Mere Karma, as such, implies pain and misery and the Supreme Soul (Para-Brahman) is without action and attributes. Although other kinds of salvation are spoken of in other systems of philosophy, the emancipation that forms the subject of these queries and answers, is freedom from this
,

Karma.
2

T.

The Bishi answers,

Yes,

Karma

or action does, indeed, lead to the

emancipate state. In the regions, of which thou speakest, there are both bliss and emancipation (Arthajtita is explained by Mlakantha to mean The second line is elliptical, Blioja-mokshakhya-prayojana samanyam).

wargena

the construction being Paratma amha (aan) parnm ayati ; (anyatha-tii) margan nihatya poiam (prayati.) Paratma is explained by Nilakantha to mean one who regards tie material body to he Self. In the succeeding Slokae the Biehi uses the wcrd 'dehin* which, in this connection, is the same as 'dehabhimanin.' The Bisbi's answer is, The

IS

98
"Dhritarashtra said,

MAHABHAEATA

'Who is it that urgeth that Unborn and Arcient One ? If. again, it is He tnat is all this Universe in consequence of His having entered everything, (without desire as He is) what can be His action, or His happiness ? O learned sage, tell me all this truly.'
1

"Sanat-sujata said, 'There is great objection incompletely identify, ing (as here) the two that are different Creatures always spring from the union of Conditions (with what in its essence is without Conditions).

Ancient One.
tions.

This view doth not detract from the supremacy of the Unborn and the As for men, they also originate in the union of CondiSoul-

All this that appears is nothing but that everlasting Supreme Indeed, the universe is created by the Supreme Soul Itself under-

going transformations.

The Vedas do

attribute

this

power

(of

self*

8->ul, * e

renouncing desire, attaineth to the state of the Supreme emancipation. The sense seems to be that by renouncing desire, both actions and attributes are lost. The state, therefore, of such a soul is one of inaction, or perfect quietude and the absence of attributes, wbioh is exactly the nature of the Supreme Sr-ul. If, again emancipation be by the aid of work (prayers and Bought without extinguishing desire, the sacrifice?), it is to be attained "by extinguishing path by a path," i. seeker is to proceed along a definite or prescribed or ordained rout?, taking care that the portions of the route he once passes over may not have to be re-trodden by him. .Action, as explained in a subsequent bloka, leadetb, it is true to regions of bliss and emancipation, but that state is transitory, for when the merit is extinguished, the state that was attained in consequence of it, is extinguished, and the person falling off, has to recommence action. If, therefore, permanent emancipation is to be attained, the
materialist, by
, ,
,

obligation
re-

of

re-commencing action must begot
of

rid of,

e.,

taktn that the portions
trodden.
1

the route once passed over
of

may

care must be not have to be

T.

is not connected with intimate, and the question follows as a corollary from the Rishi's last answer. The Hishi having said that the ordinary soul, by a certain proce^s (i e renunciation of desire), attains to the state of the Supreme Soul, Dhritaraphtra infers that vice versa, it is the Supreme Soul that becomes the ordinary soul, for (as Nilakantba puts it in the phraseology of the Nyaya school) things different cannot become what they are not and unless things are similar, they cannot become of th? same nature. Applying this maxim of the Nyaya, it is seen that when the ordinary soul becomes the Supremo Soul, these are not diffVrert. and, therefore, it is the Supreme Soul that becomes the ordinary soul. Under this impression Dhritarashtra asks, Well, if it is the Supreme Soul that becomes the ordinary soul, who is it that urgeth the Supreme Soul to become so ? And if all this (universe) be indeed, that Soul, in consequence of the latter pervading and entering into everything, then divested of desire as the Supreme Soul is, where is the possibility of its action faction or work bf ing the direct consequence of desire) ? If it is answered that the universe is the Deity's lila (mere sport, as some schools of philosophy assert), then, as every suort is ascribable to some motive of happiness, what can be the happiness of the Deity who, as presupposed, is without desire ? T.

Apparently this question

Dhritarashtra
is

what precedes.

The connection, however,

,

TOYOGA PABVA
transformation) to the

90
of the

Supreme

Soul.

For the identity, again,

both the Vedas and others are the authority.' 1 "Dhritarashtra said, 'In this world, some practise virtue, and some renounce action or Karma (adopting what is called Sannyasa Yoga).

power and

its possessor,

(Respecting those that practise virtue) I ask, destroy vice, or is it itself destroyed by vice ?*

is

virtue competent to

"Sanat-sujata said, 'The fruits of virtue and of (perfect) inaction are both serviceable in that respect (i.e., for procuring emancipation). Indeed, both are sure means for the attainment of emancipation. The

man, however, that

is

wise, achieveth success

by Knowledge (inaction).
'

On

the other hand, the materialist acquireth merit (by action and (as the consequence thereof) emancipation. He hath also (in course of his
pursuit) to incur sin.

Having obtained again
its

fruits of

both virtue and

vice which are transitory, (heaven having
of the virtuous and the sinful),

end

as also hell in respect

the

man

of action
his

addicted to action as the consequence of
vices.

The man

of action,

own previous who possesseth however,
Virtue, therefore,

becometh once more virtues and
intelligence,
is

destroyeth his sins by his virtuous aces.

strong* and

hence the success of the

man

of action.'

me, according to their gradation, of those eternal regions that are said to be attainable, as the fruits of their own virtuous acts, by regenerate persons, engaged in the practice of
'Tell

"Dhritarashtra said,

learned

Speak unto me of others regions also of a similar kind. O do not wish to hear of actions (towards which man's heart naturally inclineth, however interdicted or sinful they may be).'
virtue.
sire, I,

"Sanat-sujata said,
their

'Those regenerate persons that take pride in

Yoga practices,
shine in the

like strong

men

in

their

own

strength,

departing

hence, proudly exert in performing sacrifices

region of Brahman.

Those regenerate persons that and other Vedic rites, as the fruit

There is a great objection in admitting the 1 The Kisbi answers complete or essential identity of things difl erect, i e tbe ordinary BOU! and AB Supreme Soul being different, their identity cannot be admitted. regards creatures, they flow continually from Anadi-yoga, i.e., the union of tbe Supreme Soul (which in itself ie Unconditioned^ \vitb the conditions of identity, therefore between of space, time, etc. j .e., there is this n uch tbe ordinary and the Supreme Soul, but not a ccmpltte or essential It is also in const qutnce of this that the superiority oi tbe identity. Supreme boul is not lost (the opposite theory wou'd be destructive 01 that superiority/ The favourite analogy oi tbe thinkers o! this school for explaining tbe connection of tbe Supreme Soul with tbe universe is derived from tbe connection of Akasa with Cliatakasa, ie, f-pace absolute and unconditioned and f-pace as confined by the limits of a vessel. The latter has a name, IB moved when tbe vessel it moved, and is limited in space while space itself, of which tbe vessel's space forms a part, is absolute and unconditioned, immovable, and unlimited. T.
,

:

100
of

MAHABHABATA
which
is

consequence of those acts, freed from this w >rld. proceed to that region which is the abode of the deities. Tnere are others, again, conversant with the Vedas, who are of opinion
that knowledge
theirs,

in

that the
is

performance of the

sacrifices

and

rites

(ordained by the Vedas)

obligatory, (their non-performance being sinful).

Wedded to

external

forms, though seeking the development of the inner self (for they practise these rites for only virtue's sake and not for the accomplishment of
particular aims), these persons, should

not be regarded very

highly

(although some respect should be theirs). Wherever* again food and drink worthy of a Brahmana are abundant, like grass and reeds in a spot during the rainy season, there should the Yogin seek for his livelihood
(without afflicting the householder of scanty means); by no means should he affl.ct his own self by hunger and thirst. In a place, where there may

be both inconvenience and danger to one, for one's aversion, to disclose one's superiority, he that doth not proclaim his superiority is better than he that doth. The food offered by that person who is not pained at the sight of another disclosing his superiority, and who never eateth without offering the prescribed share to Brahmanas and guests, is approved by
the righteous.
its injury,

As

a dog oftentimes

so those

Yogins devour

their

devoureth its own evacuations to own vomit who procure their

livelihood by disclosing their pre-eminence.

The wise know him

for a

Brahmana who,
tices to

remain

living in the midst of kindred, wishes his religious pracalways unknown to them. What other Brahmana deser-

vcth to know the Supreme Soul, that is unconditioned, without attributes, unchangeable, one and alone, and without duality of any kind?
In consequence of such practices, a Kshatriya can know the Supreme Soul and behold it in his own soul. He that regardeth the Soul to be the
acting and feeling Self,

what

sins are not
?

robbeth the soul of
tion,

its

attributes
gifts,

should never accept

committed by that thief who Brahmana should be without exershould win the respect of the righteous,

A

should be quiet, and though conversant with the Vedaa should seem to be otherwise, for then only may he attain to knowledge and know Brahman.

They that are poor in earthly but rich in heavenly wealth and sacrifices, become unconquerable and fearless, and they should be regarded as embodiments of Brahman. That person even, in this world, who (by performing sacrifices) succeedeth in meeting with the gods that bestow all kinds of desirable objects (on performers of sacrifices), is not equal to him
that

knoweth Brahman for the performer of sacrifices hath to undergo that knoweth Brahman attaineth to Him without He was said to be really honoured who, destitute of such exertions). He should never regard himself as actions, is honoured by the deities. honoured who is honoured by others. One should not, therefore, grieveth when one if not honoured by others. People act according to their nature
exertions (while he

TJDYOQA PABVA
just as they
;

101

pay respect
again,

open and shut their eyelids and it is only the learned that The man that is respected should think so. They to others.
foolish,

in this world, that are

apt to

sin,

and adepts
;

in deceit,

never pay respect to those that are worchy of respect on the other hand, they always show disrespect to such persons. The world's esteem

and asceticism (practices of Mauna), can never
this

exist together.

Know

that

world
is

is

for

those that are candidates for esteem, while the other

world

for those that are

devoted

to asceticism.

Here, in

this world,

O

Kshatriya, happiness (the world's esteem) resides in worldly prosperity.

The

latter,

however,

is

an impediment
is

(to

heavenly

bliss).

Heavenly
is

prosperity, on the other hand,

unattainable by one that

without
of gates,

true wisdom.
all difficult

The righteous say that there are various kinds

of being guarded, for giving access to the last kind of pros-

These are truth, uprightness, modesty, self-control, purity of mind and conduct and knowledge (of the Vedas). These six are desperity.

tructive of vanity and ignorance.'

"

SECTION
"Dhritarashtra
said,

XLIII
the object of asceticism (numna) ?

'What

is

Of the two kinds
tion),

of

mauna, (viz., the restraining of speech
?

and meditathe true

which

is

approved by thee

O

learned one,

tell

me

aspect of mauna.

Can

a person of learning attain to a state of quietude
?

and emancipation (moksha) by that mauna
asceticism (mauna) to be practised here
?

O

Muni,

how

also

is

"Sanat-sujata said, 'Since the Supreme Soul cannot be penetrated by both the Vedas and the mind, it is for this that Soul itself is called

mauna-

That from which both the Vedic

syllable

Om

and

this

one

(ordinary sounds) have arisen, that One,

O

king,

is

displayed as the

Word.'
"Dhritarashtra said,
'Is

Yajus Vedas, is he that knoweth the when he commiteth sins ?'

he that knoweth both the Rig and the Soma Veda, sullied by sins or not
thee truly that the
his

"Sanat-sujata said,
restrained his senses
is

'I tell

man

that hath not

not rescued from

Sama or
fledged

the Rig, or the Yajws Veda.

by either the The Vedas never rescue from sin
sinful acts

the deceitful person living by deceit.
birds forsaking their nest,
the

On

the other hand, like newa

Vedas forsake such

person at

the end.'

'O thou that hast restrained thy senses, if, indeed, the Vedas are not competent to rescue a person without the aid of virtue, whence then is this delusion of the Brahmanas that the Vedas
"Dhritarashtra
said,

are always destructive of sins

?'

109
"Sanat-sujata said,

MAHABHAKATA
'O magnanimous
one, this

universe

hath

sprung from that Supreme Soul by the union of Conditions respecting name, form, and other attributes. The Vedis also, pointing it out duly,
declare the same, and inculcate that the

are different and not identical.

It is for attaining to that

Supreme Soul and the universe Supreme Soul

that asceticism and sacrifices are ordained, and
the
is

man

of learning earneth virtue.

it is by these two that Destroying sin by virtue, his soul

enlightened by knowledge. The man of knowledge, by the aid of knowledge, attaineth to the Supreme soul. Otherwise, he that conveteth the four objects of human pursuit, taking with him all that he doth here,

enjoyeth their fruits hereafter, and (as those fruits) are not everlasting) cometh back to the region of action (when the enjoyment is over).
Indeed, the fruits of ascetic austerities performed in this world have to be enjoyed in the other world (as regards those persons who have not

obtained the mastery of their souls).

As

regards those Brahmanas

employed in ascetic practices (who have the mastery of their souls), even these regions are capable of yielding fruits.' "Dhritarashtra said, 'O Sanat-sujata, how can ascetic austerities, which are all of the same kind, be sometimes successful and sometimes
unsuccessful ?
Tell us this in order that

we may know
is

it

f

"Sanar-sujata said,

'That asceticism which
to be

not stained by (desire
is

and other)
is,

faults

is

said

capable of procuring emancipation, and
asceticism that
stained by vanity All thy enquiries,

therefore, successful, while the

O

and want of true devotion is regarded unsuccessful. Kshatriya, touch the very root of asceticism. It is by asceticism that they that are learned, know Brahman and win immortality f
"Dhritarashtra said,
'I

have listened to what thou hast said about asceticism unstained by faults, and by which I have succeeded in knowing an eternal mystery. Tell me now, O Sanat-sujata, about asceticism
that
is

stained by faults f

'O king, the twelve, including anger, as also "Sanat-sujata said thirteen kinds of wickedness, are the faults of asceticism that is the
cruelty,

ignorance of right and wrong, discontent, vanity, grief, love of pleasure, envy, and speaking ill of others, are generally the faults of human beings. These twelve should
stained.

Anger,

lust, avarice,

malice,

always be avoided by men.
destruction of men,

Any one amongst
men.

these can singly effect the

Indeed, every one of these wait for opportunity in respect of men, like a hunter expectant of opportuniAssertion of one's own superiority, desire of ties in respect of deer.

O bull among

enjoying others' wives, humiliating others from excess of pride, wrathfulness, ficklenesSf and refusing to maintain those worthy of being maintained, these six acts of wickedness are always practised by sinful

men

defying

all

dangers here and hereafter.

He

that regards the grati-

UDYOGA PABVA
fication of lust to be

108
is

one of

life's
f

aims, be that

exceedingly proud, he

thac grieves having given

he that never spends money, he that persecutes his subjects by exacting hateful taxes, he that delights in the

away

humiliation of others, and he that hates his
others

own

wives,

these seven are

that

are also called

wicked.

Righteousness, truth (abstention

from injury and truthfulness
in

of speech), self-restraint, asceticism, delight

modesty, forbearance, love of others, sacriknowledge of the scriptures, these twelve He that succeeds in acquiring constitute the practices of Brahmanas. these twelve, becomes competent to sway the entire earth. He that is endued with three, two, or even one, of these, should be regarded of
fices, gifts,

the happiness of others,
perseverance,

heavenly prosperity. Self-restraint, renunciation, and knowledge of
in

Self,

these are
say,

wisdom,

emancipation. Those Brahmanas that are endued with that these are attributes in which truth predominates.

Self-restraint

is constituted by eighteen virtues. Breaches and nonobservance of ordained acts and omissions, falsehood, malice, lust,

wealth, love of (sensual) pleasure, anger,

grief,

thirst,

avarice, deceit,

joy in the misery of otheis, envy, injuring others,

rtgret, aversion

from

pious acts, forgetfulness of duty, calumniating others, and vanity he that is freed from these (eighteen) vices is said by the righteous to be
aelf -restrained.

tute what is reverse of those six again are faults called mada. that go by the

The eighteen faults (that have been enumerated) consticalled mada or pride. Renunciation is ot six kinds. The
(The
six).

faults, therefore,

name
all

of

mada

are

eighteen and

The

six

kinds of

renunciation are

but by that

all

commendable. The third only is difficult of practice, sorrow is overcome. Indeed, if that kind of renunciation
it

be accomplished in practice, he that accomplishes pairs of contraries in the world.

overcomes

all

the

"The six kinds of renunciation are all commendable. They are these The first is never experiencing joy on occasions of prosperity. The second is the abandonment of sacrifices, prayers, and pious acts. That winch is called the third, O king, is the abandonment of desire, or
:

withdrawing from the world.

consequence of this third kind of renunciation of desire, which is evidenced by the abandonment of all objects of enjoyment (without enjoying them) and not their abandonment after having enjoyed them to the fill, nor by abandonment
Indeed,
it is in

after acquisition, nor by

petent to enjoy
consists in this
:

from

loss of appetite.

abandonment only after one has become incomThe fourth kind of renunciation
self to

One

should not grieve nor suffer his
tail,

be afflicted

by

notwithstanding one's possession of all the virtues and all kinds of wealth. Or, when anything disagreeable happens, one feeleth no pain. The fifth kind of renunciation consists
grief

when

one's actions

in not soliciting

even one's sons, wives, and others that may

all

be very

104
dear.

MAHABHABATA
The
sixth kind consists in giving away to a deserving person who which act of gifts is always productive of merit. By these again,

solicits,

one acquires the knowledge of Self. As regards this last attribute, it involves eight qualities. These are truth, meditation, distinction of subject and object, capacity for drawing inferences, withdrawal from the world, never taking what belongeth to others, the practices of BrahmacHarya vows (abstinence), and non-acceptance (of gifts).
11

'So also

the attribute of

mada
all

(the opposite of

dama

or self-

restraint) hath faults
t These faults

which have
I

been indicated (in the scriptures),

should be avoided.

have spoken (to thee) of renunciation

and

self

want

of

it
is

knowledge. And as, self-knowledge hath eight virtues, so the hath eight faults. Those faults should be avoided. O Bharata,
liberated from
his five senses,

he that

mind, the past and the future, becomes happy. O king, let thy soul be devoted to truth all the worlds are established on truth indeed, self-control, renunciation, and
;
;

self-knowledge are said

to

have truth

for

their

foremost attribute.
here.

practise Avoiding (these) faults, Ordainer hath ordained that truth alone should be the
righteous.

one should

asceticism

The
of

vow

the

Asceticism, that

is

dissociated

from these

faults

and endued

with these virtues, becomes the source of great prosperity. I have now briefly told these about that sin-destroying and sacred subject which

thou hadst asked me and which birth, death, and decrepitude.'
''Dhritarashtra said,

is

capable of liberating a person from

'With Akhyana (Puranas) as their fifth, the Soul to be this universe consisting of mobile Supreme and immobile things. Others regard tour God-heads and others three others again regard two; and others only one; and others regard
Vedas declare the
; ;

Brahman alone
possessing a

as the

sole existent object,

(there being nothing else

separate existence.) Amongst these, which should I know to be really possessed of the knowledge of Brahman. "Sanat-sujata said, 'There is but one Brahman which is Truth's self.
It is

be diverse.
or

from ignorance of that One, that god-heads have been conceived to But who is there, O king, that hath attained to Truth's self
?

Brahman

Man

regardeth himself wise without knowing that
desire of happiness
is

One

Object of knowledge, and from

engaged study and the practices of charity and sacrifices. They have deviated from Truth (Brahman) and entertain purposes corresponding (with their state) and hence, relying on the truth of Vedic texts, thereof perform sacrifices.
in

Some perform

(or attain the object of) sacrifices by the mind (meditation), some by words (recitation of particular prayers, or Yafm) and some by acts (actual consummation of the Vatis/itcma and other costly rites).
;

The

person, however,

desired objects at home.

who seeketh Brahman through Truth, obtaineth his When, however, one's purposes become abortive

UDTOGA PABVA

106

(through absence of knowledge of Self), one should adopt vows of silence and such like, called Dikshavrata. Indeed, Diksha cometh from the root Diksha, meaning the observance of vows. As regards those that

have knowledge of

"The
hereafter.

fruits

A

with them Truth is the highest object of pursuit. knowledge are visible; asceticism yieldeth fruits Brahmana who (without knowledge and asceticism) hath
Self,

of

only read

much

should only be

known

as a great

reader.

Therefore,

O

Kshatriya, never think that one can be a Brahmana (.Bra/iman-knowing) by only reading the scriptures. He, on the other hand, should be known

by thee to be possessed of the knowledge of Brahman who doth not deviate from Truth. Kshatriya, the verses that were recited by

O

Atharvan to a conclave of great sages, in days of old, are known by the name of Chhandas. They are not to be regarded as acquainted with the Chhandas who have only read through the Vedas, without having attained to the knowledge of Him who is to be known through the Vedas. The Chhandas, O best of men, become the means of obtaining Brahman independently and without the necessity of anything foreign. They cannot be regarded as acquainted with the Chhandaa who are
acquainted only with the modes of sacrifice enjoined in the Vedas,

On

the other hand, having waited upon those that are acquainted with the FedoVjhave not the righteous attained to the Object that is knowable by
the Vedas
?

There

is

none who hath truly caught the sense of the Vedas

only read the

He that hath Object knowable by them. He, however, that is established in Truth, knoweth the Object knowable by the Vedas. Amongst those faculties which lead to perception of
or there

may be some who have,
Vedas, doth not

O

king, caught the sense.

know

the

may
is

the body as the acting agent, there is none by which true knowledge be acquired. By the mind alone one cannot acquire the knowledge

and Not-Self. Indeed, he that knoweth Self also knoweth what He, on the other hand, that knoweth only what is Not-self, doth not know Truth. He, again, that- knoweth the proofs, knoweth But what that Object in its also that which is sought to be provedof Self

Not-self.

nature is (which is sought to be proved) is not known to either the Vedas or those that are acquainted with the Vedas. For all that, however, those Brahmanas that are (truly) acquainted with the Vedas succeed in
obtaining a knowledge of the Object knowable (by the Vedai) through As the branch of a particular tree is sometimes resorted to the Vedas.
for pointing out the lunar digit of the first

day of the lighted fortnight Vedas are used for indicating the highest attributes of the Supreme so the soul. I know him to be a Brahmana (possessing a knowledge of Brahman)

who expoundeth the doubts of others, having himself mastered all his own doubts> and who is possessed of the knowledge of Self. One cannot
find

what the Soul
14

is

by seeking

in the East,

the South, the West, the

106

MAEABHARATA

North, or in the subsidiary directions or horizontally. Very rarely can it be found in him who regardeth this body to be Self. Beyond the conthe man of Toga.medita.tion only can behold ception of even the Vedaa,
the Supreme.

Completely restraining

all

thy senses and thy mind also,
thy

seek thou that
is

Brahman which

is

known

to reside in

own

Soul*

He

Yoga-meditation; nor he who liveth in the woods, (having retired from the world). He, however, is a only Muni and is superior to all who knoweth his own nature. In consenot a
practiseth only

Muni who

quence of one's being able to expound every object (Vyakarana), one is said to be endued with universal knowledge (F aiyakarana) and, indeed
;

the science

itself is

called

every object
eth
all

to its

Vyakarana owing to its being able to expound root (which is Brahman). The man who beholdvery
is

the regions as present before his eyes,

said to be possessed of uni-

versal knowledge.
said to be a

He

that

stayeth in Truth and knoweth

Brahman

is

A
to

Brahmana, and a Brahmana possesseth universal knowledge. Kahatriya also, that practises such virtues, may behold Brahman. He
also attain to that high state
is

may

by ascending step by

step,

what

indicated in the

Vedaa.

Knowing

it

for certain,

I tell

according thee

this."

SECTION XLIV
"Dhritarashtra said,
course
is,

'Excellent,

O

Sanat-sujata, as this thy

dis-

treating of the attainment of
I

Brahman and the

origin of the

universe.

pray thee, O celebrated Rishi, to go on telling me words such as these, that are unconnected with objects of worldly desire and are,

therefore, rare

among

men.'*

"Sanat-sujata said, That Brahman about which thou askest me with such joy is not to be attained soon. After (the senses have been restrained and) the will hath been merged in the pure intellect, the state that succeeds in one of utter absence of worldly thought.' Even that is

knowledge (leading

to the

attainment of Brahman).

It is attainable

only

by practising Brahmacharya, "Dhritarashtra said, 'Thou sayest that the knowledge of Brahman dwelleth of itself in the mind, being only discovered by Brahmacharya ;
that
is

dwelling in the mind,

it

requires for

its

manifestation no efforts

(such as are necessary for

work) being manifested (of itself) during the seeking (by m^ans of Brahmacharya). How then is the immortality associated with the attainment of Brahman ?"
"Sanat-sujata said, 'Though residing in and inherent to the mind, the knowledge of Brahman i s still unmanifest. It is by the aid of the pure
intellect

and Brahmacharya that that knowledge
to

is

made

manifest. Indeed,
It
is

having attained

that knowledge,

Yoyin* forsake this world.

ODYOGA PARVA
always to be found among eminent preceptors.
thee on that knowledge.
I shall

107

now

discourse to

'What should be the nature of that Brahma, eharya by which rhe knowledge of Brahman might be attained without much difficulty ? O regenerate one, tell me this.'
"Dhritarashtra said,

'They who, residing in the abodes of their and winning their good will and friendship, practise Brahma, preceptors eharya austerities, become even in this world the embodiments of Brahman
"Sanat-sujata said,

and casting

off their bodies are

united with the

Supreme

Soul.

They
all

that in this world desirous of obtaining the state of Brahman, subdue

desires, and endued as they are with righteousness, they succeed in dissociating the Soul from the body like a blade projected from a clumb of heath. The body, O Bharata, is created by these, viz. the father and the mother; the (new) birth, however, that is due to the preceptor's instructions is sacred, free from decrepitude, and immortal. Discoursing upon Brahman and granting immortality, he who wraps all persons with (the mantle of) truth, should be regarded as father and mother; and bearing in mind the good he does, one should never do him any injury. A disciple must habitually salute his preceptor with respect, and with purity (of body and mind) and well-directed attention, he must betake to study. He must not consider any service as mean, and must not har-

bour anger.

of that disciple

Even this is the first step of Brahmacharya. The practices who acquires knowledge by observing the duties ordained
regarded also as the
first

for one of his class are

step of Brahmacharya.
possessions, in

A

disciple should, with his
all

very
is

life

and

all his

thought,
is

word and deed, do

regarded as the second step of Brahmacharya. He should behave towards his preceptor's wife and son also in the same way as towards his preceptor

that

agreeable to the preceptor.

This

himself.

This also is regarded as the second step of Brahmacharya. Bearing well in mind what has been done to him by the preceptor, and understanding also its object, the disciple should, with a delighted heart
think.
I

have, been taught

and made great by him.

This

is

the third step

of Brahmacharya.

final gift, a wise disciple

Without requiring the preceptor by payment of the must not betake to another mode of life; nor or even think of in his mind / make this gift. This is the should he say fourth step of Brahmacharya. He attaineth the first step of (knowledge of Brahman which is) the object of Brahmacharya by aid of time;
the second step, through the preceptor's
the

prelections
finally,

;

the

third,

by
dis-

power

of

his

own

understanding; and
practices are called
is its

the fourth, by

cussion.

The

learned have said that Brahmacharya
its
is

is

constituted by the

twelve virtues, the Yoga
this in

in Fogra-meditation called

Valam and one

Angas, and perseverance crowned with success in
of

consequence of the preceptor's aid and the understanding

the

108
sense of the Vedas.

MAHABHABATA
Whatever wealth
a disciple, thus engaged,
It
is

may

earn,

thus that the preceptor obtaineth his highly praise-worthy livelihood. And thus also should the disciple behave towards the preceptor's son. Thus stationed (in Brahmashould
all

be given to the preceptor.

charya), the disciple thriveth by

all

means

in this

world and obtaineth

numerous progeny and fame* Men also from all directions shower wealth upon him; and many people come to his abode for practising Brahmacharya. It is through Brahmacharya of this kind that the celestials attained to their divinity, and sages, highly blessed and of great wisdom, have obtained the region of Brahman. It is by this that the Oandharvaa and the Apsarae acquired such personal beauty, and it is through Brahmacharya that Surya riseth to make the day. As the seekers
of the philosopher's stone derive great happiness

when they obtain the object of their search those mentioned above (the celestials and others),

on completing their Brahmacharya, derive great happiness inconsequence of being able to have whatever they desire. He, O king, who devoted to the practice of ascetic austerities, betaketh himself to Brahmacharya in its entirety and thereby purifieth his body, is truly wise, for by this he

becometh

like a child (free

from
he,

all evil

passions) and triumpheth over

death at last.

Men,

O

Kshatriya, by
;

Work, however

pure, obtain only

worlds that are perishable

attaineth, by the aid of that

There

is

however, that is blessed with knowledge, Knowledge, to Brahman which is everlasting. no other path (than Knowledge or the attainment of Brahman)

leading to emancipation.'

"Dhritarashtra said,

'The existence of Brahman, thou

sayest, a wise

perceiveth in his own soul. Now, is Brahman white, or red, or black or blue, or purple? Tell me what is the true form and colour of the Omnipresent and Eternal Brahman ?'

man

Brahman (as perceived) may appear as or bright. But neither on the earth, nor in white, red, black, brown, the sky, nor in the waters of the ocean, is there anything like it. Neither in the stars, nor in lightning, nor in the clouds, is its form to be seen, nor is it visible in the atmosphere, nor in the deities, nor in the moon, nor in the sun. Neither in the Rikh, nor among the Tajtts, nor among the Atharvans, nor in the pure Samans, it is to be found. Verily, king, it is not to be found in Rathantara or Varhadratha, nor in great sacrifices. Incapable of being compassed and lying beyond the reach of the limited intellect, even the universal Destroyer, after the Dissolution, is himself Incapable of being gazed at, it is subtle as the edge of the lost in it. It is the basis upon which everyrazor, and grosser than mountains. it is unchangeble it is this visible universe (omnithing is founded it is delightful creatures have all sprung from it present) it is vast and are to return to it. Free from all kinds of duality, it is manifest as the universe and all-pervading. Men of learning say that is without any change, except in the language used to describe it. They are that are acquinted with That in which this universe is emancipated^
Sanat-sujata said,
'Indeed,

O

;

;

;

;

;

'

established.'

SECTION XLV
"Sanat-sujata said,

'Sorrow, anger, covetousness,

lust,

ignorance,

laziness, malice, self-importance, continuonus desire of gain, affection, these twelve, O monarch, are grave faults jealousy and evil speech,

that are destructive of men's lives.

Each of
Afflicted

these,

opportunities
senses and

to

seize

mankind.

O monarch, wait for by them, men lose their
is fierce,

commit

sinful acts.

He

that

is

covetous, he that

he

that is harsh of speech, he that is garrulous, he that is given to nurshing anger, he that is boastful, these six of wicked disposition, on obtaining

wealth, cannot treat others with courtesy.
gratification as the

He

that regardeth sensual

end

of life,

he that

is

self-conceited, he that boasteth

having made a gift, he that never spendeth, he that is weak in mind, he that is given to self-admiration, and he that hateth his own wife, these seven are counted as wicked men of sinful habits. Righteousness,
truth, asceticism,

love of others,
giveness,

contentment, modesty, renunciation, with the scriptures, patience, and forgift, acquaintance these twelve are the practices of a Brahmana. He that doth
self-restraint,

He that is fall off from these twelve, may sway the entire earth. endued with three, or two, or even one, of these, doth never regard
not

anything as his
tion,

own

to the exclusion of others.
in

Self-restraint, renuncia-

attributes of

These are the and knowledge, Brahmanas endued with wisdom and regarding Brahman as
these reside emancipation.
all

for a

True or false, it is not laudable they that do this have hell for their abode. Mada hath eighteen faults which have not yet been enumerated by me. They are ill-will towards other, throwing obstacles in the way of virtuous acts, detraction, falsehood in speech, lust, anger,
the highest of
objects of attainment.
ill

Brahmana

to speak

of others;

dependence, speaking ill of others, finding out the faults of others for report, waste of wealth, quarrel, insolence, cruelty to living creatures,
malice, ignorance, disregard of those that are

worthy

of

regard, loss of

and always seeking to injure others. A wise man, therefore, should not give way to mada, for the accompaniments of mada are censurable- Friendship is said to possess six indications; firstly, friends delight in the prosperity of friends, and secondly,
the senses of right and wrong,

are distressed at their adversity.

any one asketh for anything which which should not be asked for, a true friend is dear to his heart, but Fourthly, a true friend who is of a surely giveth away even that. when asked, can give away his very prosperity, righteous disposition,
If

his

Fifthly, a friend should not dwell in the house of a friend, on whom he may have bestowed everything, but should enjoy what he earneth himself. Sixthly, a friend

beloved son?, and even

his

own

wife.

110

MAHABHARATA

stoppeth not to sacrifice his own good (for his friend). The man of wealth who seeketh to acquire those good qualities, and who becometh
charitable and righteous restraineth his five senses from their respective Such restraint of the senses is asceticism. When it groweth objects.
in degree,
it is

capable of winning regions of

bliss

hereafter (unlike

Knowledge which leadeth to success even here). They that have fallen off from patience (and are incapable, therefore, of attaining to Knowledge) acquire such asceticism in consequence of the purpose they entertain, t*z., the

attainment of

bliss in

the high regions hereafter.

In consesacrifices

quence

of his ability to grasp that
is

Truth (Brahman) from which

capable of performing sacrifices by the mind. Another sacrifices by Words (Yapa) and another by Work. Truth performed! resides in him who knoweth Brahman as vested with attributes. (Brahman)
flow, the Yogin
It

dwelleth more competely in him
Listen

who knoweth Brahman
from me.

as

divested

of attributes.

now

to something else

This high and

celebrated philosophy should be taught (to disciples). All other systems are only a firrago of words. The whole of this (universe) is established
in
this

Fofja-philosophy.

They

that

are acquainted with
that

it

are

not

subject to death.

O king, one

can not, by Work, however well accom-

phished, attain to Truth (Brahman).

The man

is

destitute of

knowcan

ledge even

if

he poureth koma libations or performeth

sacrifices,

never, by Work, O king, attain to immortality (emancipation). Nor doth he enjoy great happiness at the end. Restraining all the external
senses

and alone, one should seek Brahman.

Giving up Work, one

should not exert mentally.

One should

also (while thus engaged) avoid

Kshatriya, by conducexperiencing joy at praise or anger at blame. himself in this way, according to the successive steps indicated in ting

O

the Vedas, one may, even here, attain to Brahman. is all that I tell thee.'"

This

O

learned one,

SECTION XLVI
"Sanat-sujata said,

Mahayatat,

is

destitute

of accidents,

'The primary Seed (of the universe), called is pure Knowledge, and blazeth

with effulgence. It leadeth the senses, and it is in consequence of that seed that Surya shineth. That Eternal One endued with Divinity is
beheld by Yogine (by their mental eye).
It is in consequence of that Seed (which is Joy's self) that Brahman becomes capable of Creation, and it is through it that Brahman increaseth in expansion. It is that Seed which entering into luminous bodies giveth light and heat. Without
its light and heat from any other thing it is self-luminous, and an object of terror to all luminous bodies. The Eternal one endued is with Divinity is beheld by Yogine (by their mental eye), The body

deriving

UDTOGA PABVA
composed
of the five grosser elements, that are

111

themselves sprung from
originating
in

the five subtler ones,

the

latter,

in

their
is

turn,

one

ness

homogeneous substance called Brahman upheld by both the creature-Soul endued with life and Iswara. (These two, during sleep and the universal dissolution, are deprived of consciousness.) Brahman on the other hand, which is never bereft of consciousness, and which is the Sun's Sun, upholdeth both these two and also the Earth and the Heaven. The Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye). That Seed upholdeth the two gods, the Earth and the Heaven, the Directions, and the whole Universe. It is from that Seed that directions (points of the compass) and rivers spring, and the vast seas also have derived their origin. The Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their
(realised) in conscious-

mental eye). The body however, are undying.
lead,

is

like a car

destined to destruction.

Its

acts,

Tied to the wheels of that car (which are
of consciousness,

represented by the acts of past lives), the senses, that are as steeds,

through the region

the

man

of

wisdom towards

that Increate and Unchangeable One, that one endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye). The form of that One can not be displayed by any comparison.

They that know him become freed from death.
beheld by

by the
their

the eye. rapt faculties, the mind, and the heart, The Eternal One endued with Divinity is
is

None ever beholdeth Him by

Yogins (by

terrible; guarded its waters and beholding many sweet things in its midst, men swim along it to and fro. This stream flows from that Seed. That Eternal One

by the

mental eye). The stream of illusion gods, it hath twelve fruits. Drinking of

endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye). Destined to sojourn to and fro, the creature-Soul, having reflected enjoyeth
(in the other

world) only half of
is

the

fruits

of

his

acts.

It

is

that

creature-Soul which
It is

Iswara, pervading everything in
sacrifices.

the

universe.

Iswara that hath ordained
is

That Eternal One endued

beheld by Yogins, (by their mental eye). Souls divested of accidents, resorting to Avidya, which is like unto a tree of golden foliage, assume accidents, and take births in different orders according to their propensities. That Eternal One endued with Divinity (in

with Divinity

Whom
eye).
latter

all

those Souls are united)

is

Accidents (which coming

in

beheld by Yogins (by their mental contact with Brahman make the

assume many forms) raise the universe in its Fulness from that Brahman which is full. Those accidents also, in their Fulness, arise from Brahman in its Fulness. When one succeeds in dispelling all accidents from Brahman which is ever Full, that which remains is Brahman in its
Fulness.

(by their

That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins mental eye). It is from that Seed that the five elements have

119
arisen,

MAHABHABATA
and
it is

in it that the

from that Seed that and Soma) have sprung, and
senses rest.

power resideth for controlling them. It is both the consumer and the consumed (called Agni
it is

in

it

that the living organisms with the

Everything should be regarded to have sprung from it. That Seed called in the Vedas TATH (Tad), we are unable to describe.

That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogint (by their mental eye). The vital air called Apana is swallowed up by the air called Prana; Prana is swallowed up by the Will, anJ the Will by the Intellect, and the Intellect by the Supreme Soul. That
Eternal

One endued with
eye).

mental

The

Divinity is beheld by yogins (by their Supreme Soul endued with four legs, called

respectively

Waking, Dream, profound Sleep, and Turiya, like unto a swan, treading above the unfathomable ocean of worldly affairs doth not put forth one leg that is hid deep. Unto him that beholdeth
(viz.,

that leg

three, both death

Turiya) as put forth for the purpose of guiding the other and emancipation are the same. That Eternal One

endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye). Of the measure of the thumb, ever Full, and different from this eternal organism, coming in contact with the Vital airs, the Will, the Intellect, and the ten senses, it moveth to and fro. That Supreme Controller, worthly hymns, capable of everything when vested with accidents and the prime cause of everything, is manifest as Knowledge in creature-Souls. Fools alone do not behold him; that Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye). Among indiviof reverential

duals there are

those that

and those that have not.
equally.

Indeed,
is

it

have obtained the mastery of their minds, Yet in all men the Supreme Soul may be seen resideth equally in him that is emancipate and in

him that

obtain honey flowing in a thick

are emancipate That Eternal One endued with Divijet. When one maketh life's nity is beheld by Yogint (by their mental eye). sojourn, having attained to the knowledge of Self and Not-self, then it matters little whether his Agni.hotra is performed or not. O monarch let not such words as 'I am thy servant' fall from their lips. The Supreme Soul hath another name, viz., Pure Knowledge. They only that have res-

not, with only this difference that they that

Him. That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye). Even such is He. Illustrious and Full, all living creatures are merged into Him. He that knoweth that embodiment of Fulness attaineth to his object (emancipation) even here. That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogint (by their mental eye). That which flieth away stretching forth thousands of wings, yea, if endued with the speed of the mind, must yet come
trained their minds obtain

back to the central Spirit within the living organism, (in which the most distant things reside^^That Eternal One endued with Divinity) is

UDTOaA PABVA
beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).

118

His form cannot be an object of sight. They only, that are of pure hearts, can behold him. When one seeketh the good of all, succeedeth in controlling his mind, and never suffereth his heart to be affected by grief, then is he said to have

Those again that can abandon the world and all its that cares, become immortal. (That Supreme Soul which is undying), Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental
purified
his heart.

eye).

Like serpents concealing themselves

in holes,

there are persons

following the dictates of their preceptors, or by their own conduct conceal their vices from scrutiny's gaze. They that are of little sense
In fact, bearing themselves outwardly without any impropriety, these deceive their victims for leading them to hell. (Him, therefore, who may be attained by companionship with persons of the very opposite class), that Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye). He that is emancipate thinks, this transitory organism can never make me liable to joy and grief and the other attributes inhering to it nor can there be, in my case, anything like death and birth and, further, when Brahman, which hath no opposing force to contend against and which is alike in all times and all
: :

who

are deceived by these.

places, constitutes the resting-place of both realities

and unrealities.how
the origin and the
I

can emancipation be mine ? end of all causes and effects.
Eternal
eye).

It is I

alone

that

am

(Existing in the
is

form of

or Self) that

One endued with
glorified

Divinity
acts

beheld by Yogins (by their mental
is

The Brahman-knowing person, who
by
go
id

equal unto

Brahman
It
is

itself, is

neither

nor defiled by bad ones.

only in

ordinary

men

that acts, good or bad, produce different results.

The

person Amrita or the state called Kaivalya which is incapable of being affected by either virtue or vice. One should, therefore, disposing his mind in
the

that

knoweth Brahman should be regarded as identical with

way

indicated, attain to that essence of sweetness (Brahman).

That

Eternal

One endued with
I

Divinity

is

beheld by Yogins (by their mental

eye.) Slander grieveth not the heart of the

nor the thought
Agni-hotra.

person that knoweth Brahman have not studied (the Veda), or, 1 have not performed my
of

The knowledge

dom which

they only obtain

Brahman soon imparteth to him that wiswho have restrained their mind. (That

Brahman which freeth the Soul from grief and ignorance) that Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye). He, therefore, that beholdeth his own Self in everything, hath no longer to grive, for they only have to grieve who are employed in diverse other occupations of the world. As one's purposes (appeasing thirst, etc.)

may be served in a well as in a large reservoir or vast expanse, so the various purposes of the Vtdaa may all be derivable by him that knoweth the Soul, Dwelling in the heart, and of the measure of the thumb,
15

114
that
sight.

MAHABHARATA
illustrious

embodiment of Fulness Unborn he moveth, awake day and night.
the
full of joy.
all I

One

is

not an object of
that

He

him, becometh both learned and
father.
I

am

called the

knoweth mother and

am

again the son.
I

Of

that was, and of all that

we

will be,
I

I am the Soul. O Bharata, am the old grandsire, I am the am the son. Ye are staying in my soul, yet ye are not mine, The Soul is the cause of my birth and procreation. yours
I

father,

nor
I

am I am the

warp and woof of the universe. That upon which I rest is indestructible. Unborn I move, awake day and night. It is I knowing whom one becometh both learned and full of joy. Subtler than the subtle, of excellent eyes capable of looking into both the past and the future, Brahman isawake in every creature. They that know Him know that
'

Universal Father dwelleth in the heart of every created thing

!'

SECTION XLVII
Vaisampayana
said,

"Thus conversing with Sanat-sujata and the
had entered the court-hall with
after

learned Vidura, the king passed that night.

And

the night

passed away, all the princes and chiefs, joyous hearts and desirous of seeing that Suta

(who had returned). And

anxious to hear the message of Partha's, fraught with virtue and profit, all the kings with Dhritarashtra at their head, went to that beautiful
hall.

Spotlessly white
effulgent as the

and spacious,

ic

And

moon and exceedingly

was adorned with a golden floor. beautiful, it was sprinkled

over with sandal water. And it was spread over with excellent seats made of gold and wood, and marble and ivory. And all the seats were

wrapped with excellent covers. And Bhishma and Droaa and Kripa and Salya, and Kritavarman and Jayadratha, and Aswatthama and Vikarna, and Somadatta and Valhika and Vidura of great wisdom and
Yuyutsu, the great car-warrior, all these heroic kings in a body, O bull among the Bharatas, having Dhritarashtra at their head, entered that
hall of great

beauty.

son of Suvala,
Vivinsati,

And Dussasana and Chitrasena, and Sakuni, the and Durmukha and Dussaha, Kama anJ Uluka and

these also, with Duryodhana, the wrathful king of the Kurus,

at their head,

entered that hall,

O

monarch,

the train of Sakra himself.

And

filled

like the celestials forming with these heroes possessed of

arms

mountain-cave filled with lions. all these mighty bowmen, endued with great energy and blazing, with solar effulgence, entering the hall, seated themselves on those beautiful seats. And after all those kings, O Bharata,
like

maces

of iron, that hall locked,

O

king, like a

And

had taken their
the Pandavas.

seats,

the Suta's son, saying,

the orderly-in-waiting announced the arrival of 'Yonder cometh the car that was despatched to Our envoy hath returned quickly, by the aid of well-

UDYOGA PABVA
trained steeds of the Sindhu breed.'

116
the place

And having approached

with speed and alighted from the car, Sanjaya adorned with ear-rings entered that hall full of high-souled kings. And the Suta said, 'Ye Kauravas, know that having gone to the Pandavas I am just returning

from them. The sons of Pandu offer their congratulations to all the Kurus according to the age of each. Having offered their respects in return, the sons of Pritha have saluted the aged ones, and those that are equal to them in years, and those also that are younger, just as each should, according to his years, be saluted. Listen, ye kings, to what I,
instructed before by Dhritarashtra, said to the Pandavas, having gone to
*

them from

this place.'

SECTION XLVIII
"Dhritarashtra
ray boy and
of these
said,
'I

ask thee,

O Sanjaya,
?'

in the presence, of
illustrious

Dhananjaya
warriors,

of

what words were said by the might that knoweth no diminution, that
kings,

leader of

that destroyer of the lives of the wicked
said,

"Sanjaya

'Let

Duryodhana

listen to the

words which the high-

souled Arjuna, and in the hearing of Kesava.

eager for fight,

with Yudhishthira's sanction Fearless (in battle) and conscious of the
uttered,

might

of his arms, the heroic Kiriti,

eager for fight, spoke thus unto

me

in the presence of

Vasudeva,
all

'Do thou,

O Suta, say unto Dhritarashtra's

son, in the

presence of
of foul

Suta's son,

the Kurus, and also in the hearing of that and wicked soul, of little sense, stupid reason, tongue

and
vas,

of

numbered

days,

who

in the hearing of those kings

always desires to fight against me, and also assembled for fighting against the Pandathe

words now uttered by me are heard O monarch, continued Sanjaya, even as the celestials eagerly listen to the words of their chief armed with the thunderbolt, so did the Pandavas and the Srinjayas listened to those words of grave import uttered by Kiriti. Just these are the words

and do thou see that

all

well by that king with his counsellers.'

spoken by Arjuna, the wielder of Gandiva, eager for the fight and with eyes red as the lotus, 'If Dhritarashtra's son doth not surrender to king Yudhishthira of the Ajamida race, his kingdom, then (it is evident)
there must be some sinful act committed by the sons of Dhritarashtra, whose consequences are yet unreaped by them, for it can be nothing

Bhimasena and Arjuna, and the Aswins and Vasudeva, and Sini's son, and Dhrishtadyumna infallible in arms, and Sikhandin, and Yudhishthira, who is like Indra himself and who can consume heaven and earth by merely wishing them ill. If Dhritarashtra's son desireth war with these, then will all objects of the
else

when they

desire

battle with

Pandavas be accomplished.

Do

not, therefore,

propose

peace for

i!6

MAHABHABATA

That bed of woe in the if thou likest. woods which was Yudhishthira's when that virtuous son of Pandu lived in exile Oh, let a more painful bed than that, on the bare earth, be now jDuryod'hana's and let him lie down on it, as his last, deprived of Win thou over those men that were ruled by the wicked Duryolifedhana of unjust conduct to the side of Pandu's son endued with modesty and wisdom and asceticism and self-restraint and valour and might regulated by virtue. Endued with humility and righteousness, with asceticism and self-restraint and with valour regulated by virtue, and always speaking the truth, our king, though afflicted by numerous deceptions, hath forgiven all and hath patiently borne great wrongs.
the sons of Pandu, but have war
;

When

the eldest son of Pandu, of soul under proper control, will indig-

nantly dart at the Kurus his terrible wrath accumulated for years, then As a blazing fire will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war. burning all around consumeth dry grass in the hot season, so will
Yudhishthira, inflamed with wrath, consume the Dhritarashtra host by glance alone of his eye. When Dhritarashtra's son will behold Bhimasena,

that wrathful
in hand,

mace

repent for

terrific impetus, stationed on his car, vomiting the venom oi his wrath, then will Duryodhana this war. Indeed, when he will behold Bhimasena, who

Pandava

of

always fighteth in the van, accoutred in mail, scarcely capable of being looked at even by his own followers, felling hostile heroes and devastating the enemy's ranks like Yama himself, then will the exceedingly vain

Duryodhana

recollect these words. When he will behold elephants, looking like mountain-peaks, felled by Bhimasena, blood flowing their broken heads like water from broken casks, then will Dhritarashtra's

son repent for this war.
the fierce

upon the sons of Dhritarashtra mace in hand, will slaughter them, like a huge lion falling upon a herd of kine, then will Duryodhana repent for this war. When the heroic Bhima undaunted even in situawhen that grinder of tions of great danger and skilled in weapons mounted on his car, and alone will crush by his hostile hosts in battle, mace crowds of superior cars and entire ranks of infantry, seize by his
falling

When

Bhima

of terrible mien,

nooses, strong as iron, the elephants of the hostile army, and mow the Dhritarashtra's host, like a sturdy woodsman cutting a forest

down down

with an axe, then will Dhritarshtra's son repent for this war. When he will behold the Dhartarashtra's host consumed like a hamlet full of
straw-built huts

by

fire,

or a field of ripe corn by lightning,

indeed,

when he

will behold his vast

army

scattered,

its

leaders slain, and

men

running away with their backs towards the

with fear, and all the warriors, humbled to the dust, being scorched by Bhimasena with the fire of his weapons, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for When Nakula, that warrior of wonderful feats, that forethis war.
field afflicted

UDYOGA PABVA

117

most of all car-warriors, dexterously shooting arrows by hundreds, will mangle the car-warriors of Duryodhana, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war. Accustomed to enjoy all the comforts and luxuries of life, when Nakula, recollecting that bed of woe on which he had slept for a long time in the woods, will vomit the poison of his

wrath

like

an angry snake,

then will

the son of Dhritarashtra repent

for this war.

Ready

to lay

down

their very lives, the (allied) monarchs,
just,

O Suta,
ing this,

urged to battle by king Yudhishthira the
their resplendent cars against

will

furiously

advance on
the

the (hostile) army.

Behold-

the son of Dhritarashtra will certainly have to repent. When Kuru prince will behold the five heroic sons of (of Draupadi),

tender in years but not in acts, and all well-versed in arms, rush, reckless of their lives, against the Kauravas, then will that son of

Dhritarashtra repent for this war. When bent upon carnage Sahadeva, mounted on his car of noiseless wheels, and motion incapable of being obstructed, and set with golden stars, and drawn by well-trained steeds,
will

make

the heads of monarchs

roll

on the

field of battle

with volleys

of arrows,
his car in

the midst of that frightful havoc, turning
right and falling

indeed beholding that warrior skilled in weapons, seated on now to the left and

now

to the

upon the foe

in all directions,

then will the

son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.

Indeed, when

the modest but

mighty Sahadeva, skilled in battle, truthful, conversant with all the ways of morality, and endued with great activity and impetuousness, will fall upon the son of Gandhari in fierce encounter and rout all his
followers, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.

When

he will behold the
skilled in

sons of Draupadi, those great bowmen, those heroes weapons and well-versed in all the ways of chariot-fighting,
poison, then
will the

dart at the foe like snakes of virulent
Dhritarashtra

son of

repent for this war.
skilled in

When

that slayer of hostile heroes,
will

Abhimanyu,
foe

arms

like

Krishna himself,

overpower the

showering upon them, like the very clouds, a thick downpour of arrows, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war. Indeed, when he will behold that son of Subhadra, a child in years but not in
energy, skilled in weapons and like unto Indra himself, falling like Death's self upon the ranks of the foe, then will the son of Dhritarashtra

repent for

this

war.

When

the

youthful Prabhadrakas, endued with

great activity, well-versed in battle, and possessed of the energy of lions will overthrow the sons of Dhritarashtra with all their troops, then wil

Duryodhana repent Virata and Di upada

for this

war.

When

those

vetern car-warriors
divisions,

will assail, at the

head of their respective

the sons of Dhritarashtra and their ranks,

then will Duryodhana repent When Drupada, skilled in weapons, and seated on his car, for this war. desirous of plucking the heads of youthful warriors, will wrathfully strike

MAHABHABAtA
them
off

with arrows

shot from

his

bow, then

will the

son of Dhrita-

rashtra repent for this war. When that slayer of hostile heroes, Virata will penetrate into the ranks of the foe, grinding all before him with

the aid of his Matsya warriors of cool courage, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war. When he will behold in the very
eldest son of the Matsya king, of cool courage and collected mien, seated on his car and accoutred in mail on behalf of the Pandavas, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war. I tell thee truly

van the

that

when

that foremost of

Kaurava

heroes, the virtuous son of Santanu,

will be

will perish. Indeed,

by Sikhandin, then all our foes, without doubt, when, overthrowing numerous car-warriors, Sikhandin, seated on his'bwn well-protected car, will proceed towards Bhishma, crushing multitudes of (hostile) cars by means of his own powerful
slain in battle
will

steeds,

he

then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war. behold Dhrishtadyumna unto whom Drona hath imparted

When
all

the

mysteries of the science of weapons, stationed in splendour in the very van of the Srinjaya ranks, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent. Indeed, when the leader of the Pandava host, of immeasurable prowess

and capable of withstanding the rush of any force, will proceed to attack Drona in battle, crushing with his arrows the Dhritarashtra ranks, then What enemy can withstand him will Duryodhana repent for this war.

who

hath,

for fighting
v

in his
is

van, that lion of the
intelligent,

Vrishni race, that

chief of the

mighty and endued and blessed with every kind of prosperity ? Say with great energy, Do not covet (the kingdom). also this (unto Duryodhana), have chosen, for our leader, the dauntless and mighty car-warrior Satyaki,

Somakas who

modest and

We

the grandson of Sini,
his equal.
in

khi^.l in

weapons and having none on earth

as

Of broad

cnest and long arms, that grinder of foes, unrivalled

battle,

Sini,

and acquainted with the best of weapons, the grandson of skilled in arms and perfectly dauntless, is a mighty car-warrior

wielding a
that chief
his

bow

of full four

cubits' length.

When

that slayer of foes,

of the Sinis,
foe,

arrows on the

downpour, then will When that illustrious warrior of long arms and firm grasp of the bow, musters his resolution for fighti the foe then, like kine getting the scent
of the lion, fly

urged by me, will shower, like the very clouds, completely overwhelming their leaders with that the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.

That

illustrious

away from him before even commencing the encounter. warrior of long arms and firm grasp of the bow is

capable of splitting the very hills and destroying the entire universe. Practised in weapons, skilled (in battle), and endued with exceeding lightness of hand, he shineth on the field of battle like the Sun himself
in the sky.

That

lion of

the Vrishni race, that scion of Yadu's

line, of

superior training,

hath diverse

wonderful and

excellent

weapons.

UDTOGA PABVA

119

ndeed, Satyaki is possessed of a knowledge of all those uses of weapons that are said to be of the highest excellence. When he will behold in battle the golden car of Satyaki of Madhu's race, drawn by four white
steeds,

then

will that

rashtra, repent.

wretch of uncontrolled passions, the son of DhritaWhen he will also behold my terrible car, endued with
white steeds and

the effulgence of gold and bright gems, drawn by furnished with the banner bearing the device of the

Ape and

guided by

Kesava

himself, then will that wretch of uncontrolled

passions repent.

he will hear the fierce twang produced by the constant stretch of the bow-string with fingers cased in leather gloves, that terrible twang,
the

When

my bow Qandiva wielded by me in midst of the great battle, then will that wicked wretch, the son of Dhritarashtra repent, beholding himself abandoned by his troops,
loud as the rolling of the thunder, of
flying

away

like kine

from the

field of battle in all directions,

overwhel-

with the darkness created by my arrowy downpour. When he will behold innumerable keen-edged arrows, furnished with beautiful wings,

med

and capable

of penetrating into the

very

vitals,

shot

from the

string of

Qandiva, like fierce and terrible flashes of lightning emitted by the clouds, destroying enemies by thousands, and devouring numberless
steeds

and elephants clad

in mail,

then will the son of

Dhritarashtra

repent for this war.

When

he will behold the arrows shot by the

enemy

turned

off,

or turned back struck by

transversely
strike

by my repent for this war.
off the

or cut to pieces pierced arrows, then will the foolish son of Dhritarashtra
shafts,

my

When

broad-headed arrows shot by

my

hands

will

from the
war.
their cars,

tree-tops,

When

heads of youthful warriors, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this he will behold excellent warriors of his, falling down from
like birds picking
field,

off fruits

and elephants and steeds rolling on the
then will the

deprived of
for

life

by

my

arrows,

son of Dhritarashtra

repent

this war.

When

he will behold his brothers, even before fairly coming within the

range of the enemy's weapons, die all around, without having achieved anything in battle, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.

When

pouring

my

blazing shafts incessantly,

with mouth wide-open, destroy on all sides When he will behold his soldiers, then will that wretch repent.
troops, covered with the dust raised by

Death himself multitudes of cars and footI will,

like

own

my

car

wander
then

in all directions,

torn

to pieces

whole army running away in fear in all directions, mangled in limbs, and bereft of senses ; when he will when he will behold his steeds, elephants, and foremost of heroes slain
repent.
his
;

When

by Qandiva and he will behold

reft

of

senses,

will

that wretch

see his troops thirsty, struck with panic, wailing aloud,

dead and dying,

bones and skulls lying in heaps around like half-wrought works of the Creator, then will that wretch

with their animals exhausted

;

and

hair,

130
repent.
celestial

MAHABHABATA
When
he will behold on

my

car, Qandiva,

Vasudeva. and the

and ray
like

conch Panchajanya, myself, my couple of inexhaustible quivers, conch called Devadatta as also my white steeds, then will the son

of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.

When

I

consume the Kauravas,

assembled together at Agni consuming innumerable wicked the time of ushering in another Yuga at the end of the last one, then Dhritarashtra with all his sons repent. When the wicked-hearted and the wrathful son of Dhritarashtra will be deprived of prosperity with
souls

brothers and army and followers, then, reft of pride and losing heart and trembling all over, will that fool repent. One morning when I had
finished

my

water-rites and prayers, a
'

Brahmana spoke unto me

these

pleasant words,
task.

O

Partha, thou shalt have to execute a very difficult Savya^achin, thou shalt have to fight with thy foes. Either
in

O

hand will walk before thee slaying thy foes in battle, or Krishna, the son of Vasudeva will protect thee from behind riding on his car drawn by the steeds headIndra riding on his excellent steed and thunder-bolt

ed by Sugriva. Relying on those words, I have, in this battle, passing over Indra, the wielder of the thunder-bolt, preferred Vasudeva as my
ally.

That Krishna hath been obtained by me for the destruction of those wicked ones. I see the hand of the gods in all this. The person whose success is only wished for by Krishna, without the latter's actually taking up arms in his behalf, is certain to prevail over all enemies, even
if

those be the celestials with Indra at their head,
if

while anxiety there

is

none

they be human.
heroes,

most

of

He that wisheth to conquer in battle that foreVasudeva's son Krishna endued with great energy,

wisheth to cross by his two arms alone the great ocean of wide expanse and immeasurable water. He that wisheth to split by a slap of his palm
the high Kailasa mountain,

mountain although his would conquer Vasudeva in battle, would, with his two arms, extinguish a blazing fire, stop the Sun and the Moon, and plunder by force the Amrita of the gods, that Vasudeva, viz., who, having mowed down in battle by main force all the royal warriors of the Bhoja race, had carried off on a single car Rukmini of great fame for making her his wife and by her was afterwards born Pradyumna of high soul. It was this
that
;

not able to do the slightest damage to the hand only with its nails is sure to wear away. He
is

favourite of the gods, who, having speedily smashed the Gandharas and conquered all the sons of Nagnajit, forcibly liberated from confinement
king Sudarsana of great energy. It was he that slew king Pandva by striking his breast against his, and moved down the Kalingas in battle. Burnt by him, the city of Varanasi remained for many years without a

incapable of being defeated by others. Ekalavya, the king of the Nishadas, always used to challenge this one to battle but slain by Krishna he lay dead like the Asura Jambha violently thrashed on a hillock,
king,
;

UDYOGA PARVA
It

181

was Krishna who, having Baladeva for his second, slew Ugrasena's wicked son (Kansa), seated in court in the midst of the Vrishnis and the Andhakns, and then gave unto Ugrasena the kingiom. It was Krishna

who fought with
fearless in

king Salva, the lord of Saubha, stationed in the
of his

skies,

consequence

powers
is

of illusion;

and

it

was he who at

the gate of Saubha caught with his hands the fierce Sataghni (hurled by

Saubha's lord).
a city
able.

What

mortal

able to bear his might ?

The Asuras had

named
It

Pragoytisha, which was formidable, inaccessible and unbear-

was there that the mighty Naraka, the son of the Earth, kept the jewelled ear-rings of Aditi, having brought them by force. The very gods who, fearless of death, assembled together with Sakra at their head were incapable of conquering him. Beholding Kesava's prowess and might, and weapon that is irresistible, and knowing also the object of his
birth, the gods

deva,

too,

agreed to c&anathat hero slew

employed him for the destruction of those Asuras. Vasuendued with all the divine attributes that ensure success, undertake that exceedingly difficult task. In the city of Nirmosix

thousand Asuras^nd cutting into pieces innumerable keen-edged shafts, he slew Mura and hosts of Rakshasas, and then entered that city. It was there, that an encounter took place between
the mighty

Slain by Karnikara tree uprooted lifeless there, like by the wind. Having slain the Earth's son, Naraka, and also Mura, and having recovered those jewelled ear-rings, the learned Krishna of unparalleled prowess came back, adorned with beauty and undying fame.

Naraka and Vishnu of immeasurable strength.
a

Krishna. Naraka lay

Having witnessed
the firmament

his

terrible feats in that

battle, the

gods then and

there blessed him saying,

Fatigue will never be thine in fights; neither

nor the waters shall stop thy course; nor

Krishna, by penetrate thy body. rewarded. Immeasurable, and possessed of great might, in exist allthe virtues. Andyettheson of Dhritarashtra seeketh
all this,

And

regarded himself
to

weapons amply Vasudeva ever
shall

vanquish

that unbearable Vishnu of infinite energy, for that wretch often thinks of

imprisoning him. Krishna, however, beareth all this for our sake only. That wretch seeketh to create a sudden disunion between Krishna and
far, however, he is capable of taking away the affection from the Pandavas, he will see on the field of battle. Having bowed down unto Santanu's son, and also Drona with his son, and the

myself.

How

of Krishna

unrivalled son of Saradwat,

I
I

shall

fight for

regaining our

kingdom.

The God
sinful

of justice

himself,

am

sure,

will bring

destruction on that

man who
in

will fight

with the Pandavas.
of royal

Deceitfully
birth,

defeated at

dice by those

wretches, ourselvt-s,
those

had

to pass twelve
state of

years

great distress in the forest and one long year in a

con-

cealment.

When

Pandavas are

still

alive,

how
?

shall
If

the sons of

Dhritarashtra rejoice, possessing rank and affluence

they vanquish

122

MAHABHARATA

us in fight, aided by the very gods headed by Indra, the then practice of vice would be better than virtue, and surely there would be nothing
like righteousness

on

earth.

If

man

is

affected

Duryodhana, then, I hope that, Duryodhana. with all his kinsmen. O lord of men, if the act of robbing us of our kingdom be wicked, if these cur own good deeds be not fruitless, than beholding both this and that, it seems to me, the overthrow of Duryodhana is certain. Ye Kauravas, ye will
second,
I

superior

to

by his acts, if we be with Vasudeva as my

shall slay

see

it

with your eyes that,
If

if

they

fight,

the sons of Dhritarashtra shall
instead of fighting, then

certainly perish.

they act otherwise
the

may
shall

live;

but

in

the event of a
all

battle ensuing,

none

of

them
with

will

they be
I

left alive.

Slaying

sons of Dhritarashtra along

Kama,

surely wrest the hole of their kingdom. Do ye, meanwhile, whatever ye think best, and enjoy also your wives and other sweet things of life. There are, with us, many aged Brahmanas, versed in various sciences, of amiable behaviour, well-born, acquainted with the cycle of the years, engaged in the study of astrology, capable of understanding with certainty the motions of planets and the conjunctions of

and answering questions relating to the future, acquainted with the signs of the Zodiac, and versed with the occurrences of every hour, who are prophesying the great destruction of the Kurus and the Srinjayas, and the ultimate
stars as also of explaining the mysteries of fate,

victory of the Pandavas,

so
his

that

Yudhishthira,

who never made an
consequence
of

enemy, already regardeth
slaughter of his foes.

objects fulfilled in

the

And Janarddana also, that lion among the Vrishnis, endued with the knowledge of the invisible future, without doubt, beholdeth all this. And I also, with unerring foresight, myself behold
that future, for that foresight of mine, acquired of old,
is

not obstructed.

The

sons of Dhritarashtra

if

they fight, will not live.

My

bow, Oandiva,

yawneth without being handled; my bowstring trembleth without being stretched; and my arrows also, issuing from my quiver's mouth, are again and again seeking to fly. My bright scimitar issueth of itself from and on the top its sheath, like a snake quitting its own worn off slough;
of

my

flagstaff are

heard

terrific

voices

''When shall thy car be yoked,

Kiritin" ? Innumerable jackals set up hideous howls at night, and Rakshasas frequently alight from the sky; deer and j^ck^ls and peacocks, crows and vultures and cranes, and wolves and birds of golden plumage,

follow in the rear of

my

car

when my white
a

steeds are yoked unto
all

it.

Single-handed
hot season,

I

can despatch, with arrowy showers,

warlike kings,
in the

to the regions of death.
so,

As

blazing

fire
I

consumeth
will

a forest

exhibiting diverse courses,

hurl those great wea-

pons called Sthur.karna, Pasupata, and Brahma, and all those that Sakra gave me, all of which are endued with fierce impetuosity. And with

UDYOGA PAEVA
their aid, setting

123
I

my

heart on the destruction of those monarchs,

will

leave no

remnant of those that come to the field of battle. I will rest, having done all this. .Even this is my chief and decided resolve. Tell them this, O son of Gavalgani. Look at the folly of Duryodhana O
!

Sula, they that are invincible in battle even of the very gods headed by Indra, even
!

if

encountered with the aid

them that son of Dhritarashtra thinketh of warring But so let it be even as the aged Bhishma, the son of Santanu, and Kripa, and Drona with his son, and Vidura endued with great wisdom, are saying, 'May the Kauravas all "
against
live long

1'

SECTION XLIX
"In the midst, O Bharata, of all those assemsaid, Bhishma, the son of Santanu, then said these words unto Duryodhana, 'Once on a time, Vrihaspati and Sakra went to Brahma. The Maruts also with Indra, the Vasus with Agni, the Adityas, the Sadhyas, the seven celestial Rithit, the Oandharvas, Viswavasu, and the beautiful tribes of the Apsaras, all approached the ancient Grandsire. And having bowed down unto that Lord of the universe, all those dwellers of heaven sat around him. Just then, the two ancient

Vaisampayana
kings,

bled

deities,

drawing unto themselves by their own energy the minds and energies of all who were present there, left the place. Thereupon, Vrihaspati asked Brahma, saying, -Who are these two that have the place without worshipping thee ? Tell us, O Grand, sire, who are they .'Thus asked, Brahma said, these two. endued with ascetic merit, blazing with effulgence and beauty, illuminating both the earth and the heaven, possessed of great might, and pervading and surpassing all. are Nara and Narayana, dwelling now in the region of Brahman having arrived from the other world. Endued with great might and prowess, they shine in consequence of their own asceticism. By their acts they always contribute to the joy of the world. Worshipped by the gods and the Gandharvas, they exist only for the destruction of
*

the

#wNaraandNarayana,asif

Aturaa.
the spot where

"Bhishma continued, 'Having heard these words, Sakra went to those two were practising ascetic austerities, accom-

all the celestials and having Vrihaspati at their head. At that time, the dwellers of heaven had been very much alarmed in consequence of a war raging between themselves and the Asuras. And Indra asked that illustrious couple to grant him a boon. Thus best of the Bharata race, those two solicited, said, Name thou the boon Upon this Sakra said unto them, Give us your aid. They then said unto Sakra, We will do what thou wiahest. And then it was

pained by

O

with

124
their aid

MAHABHARATA
that Sakra

subsequently
foes,

vanquished

the

Daityas and

the

Danavas.

The

chastiser of

thousands of Indra's foes among this Arjuna who, riding on a whirling car, sevred in battle, with a broad-headed arrow, the head of the Asura Jambha while the latter was

Nara, slew in battle hundreds and the Paulomas and the Kalakanjas. It

was

swallow him. It was he who afflicted (the Daitya city of, Hiranyapura on the other side of the ocean, having vanquished in battle It was this conqueror of hostile sixty thousands of Nivata-kavachas.
about
to

towns, this Arjuna of mighty arms, that gratified Agni, having vanquished the very gods with Indra at their head. And Narayana also hath, in

way numberless other Daityas and such are those two of mighty energy that are now seen united with each other. It hath been heard by us that the two heroic
this

world, destroyed in the same

Danavas.

Even

and mighty car-warriors, Vasudeva and Arjuna, that are now united with each other, are those same ancient gods, the divine Nara and Narayana. Amongst all on earth they are incapable of being vanquished by the Asuras and the gods headed by Indra himself. That Narayana
is

Krishna, and that

in twain.

haustible

Nara is Falguna. Indeed, they are one Soul born These two, by their acts, enjoy numerous eternal and inexregions, and are repeatedly born in those worlds when
For
this

destructive wars are necessary.
Just this is

reason their mission

is

to fight.

what Narada, conversant with the Vedas, had said unto the When thou, O Duryodhana, wilt see Kesava with conchshell Vrishnis. and discus, and mace in hand, and that terrible wielder of the bow, Arjuna, armed with weapons, when thou wilt behold those eternal and illustrious ones, the two Krishnas seated on the same car, then wilt
thou,

O child,

threaten the
profit

remember these my words. Why should not such danger Kurus when thy intellect, O child, hath fallen off from both
If

and virtue?
art alone
in

thou heedest not

my
the

to hear of the slaughter of

many, for

all

words, thou shalt then have Kauravas accept thy opinion.

Thou
race,

of only three persons,

holding as true the opinion, O bull of the Bharata viz., Kama, a low-born Suta's son cursed by

Rama, Sakuni,
Dussasana.'

the son of Suvala, and thy

mean and

sinful

brother
to use

"Kama

said,

'It

behoveth thee not,
I

O blessed

grandsire,

such words towards me, for

have adopted

the duties of the Kshatriya

order without falling off from those of my own. Besides, what wickedness is there in me ? I have no sin known to any one of Dhritarashtra's on the people* I have never done any injury to Dhritarashtra's son
;

can they that are wise make peace again with those that have before been injured ? It is always my duty to do all that is agreeable to king Dhritarashtra,
other hand,
I will slay
all
'

the Pandavas in battle.

How

and especially to Duryodhana, for he

is

in possession of the

kingdom/

UDYOGA PABVA

125

Vaisampayana continued, "Having listened to these words of Kama, Bhishma the son of Santanu, addressing king Dhritarashtra, again said, 'Although this one often boasteth saying,/ shall slay the
Pandavas,
yet he is not equal to even a sixteenth part of high-souled Pandavas. Know that the great calamity that is about to overtake thy sons of wicked souls, is the act of this wretched son of a Suta \ Relying

upon him, thy
tial

Suyodhanahath insulted those heroes of celesdescent, those chastiser of all foes. What, however, is that difficult
foolish son

wretch before that is equal to any of those achieved one of the Pandavas ? Beholding in the city of Virata of old by every his beloved brother slain by Dhananjaya who displayed such prowess,
feat achieved by this

When Dhananjaya, rushing against all the this one then do ? assembled Kurus, crushed them and took away their robes, was this one not there then ? When thy son was being led away as a captive by the Gandharvas on the occasion of the tale of the cattle, where was this son
what did
of

a Suta then who now beiloweth like a bull ? Even there, it was Bhima, and the illustrious Partha, and the twins, that encountered the Gandharvas and vanquished them. Ever beautiful, and always unmindful of both

virtue and profit, these,

O

bull of the Bharata race, are the

many

false things, blessed

be thou, that this one uttereth.'

"Having heard these words of Bhishma, the high-souled son of Bharadwaja, having paid due homage unto Dhritarashtra and the assembled kings spoke unto him these words, 'Do that, O king, which
the best of the Bharatas,

Bhishma, hath
the

said.

It

behoveth thee not to

act according to the words of those that are covetous of wealth.

Peace
best.

with the

Pandavas, before

war breaks

out, seems to be the

Everything said by Arjuna and repeated here by Sanjaya, will, I know, be accomplished by that son of Pandu, for there is no bowman equal unto him in the three worlds !' Without regarding, however, these words spoken by both Drona and Bhishma, the king again asked Sanjaya
about the Pandavas.
a

From that moment, when the king returned not proper answer to Bhishma and Drona, the Kauravas gave up all hopes

of life."

SECTION L
"Dhritarashtra said,

'What

did

that Pandava-king, the son of

Dharma,

say, O Sanjaya, after hearing that a large force hath been assembled here for gladdening us ? How also is Yudhishthira acting, in view of the coming strife, O Suta, who amongst his brothers and sons

are looking
as he
is

up

to his face,

desirous of receiving his orders ?

Provoked

by the deceptions of

my

wicked

sons,

who, again are dissuading

126

MAHABHAEATA
and conversant with virtue,
saying,

that king of virtuous behaviour

Have peace T
"Sanjaya said, 'All the Panchalas, along with the other sons of Pandu, are looking up to Yudhishthira's face, blessed be thou, and he too is restraining them all. Multitudes of cars belonging to the Pandavas

and the Panchalas are coming in separate bodies for gladdening Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, ready to march to the field of battle.

As
like

the sky brightens

up

at the

advent

of the rising sun, so the Panchalas risen

are rejoicing at their union with Kunti's son of blazing splendour, a flood of
light.

The Panchalas, the Kekayas, and the Matsyas,

their kine and sheep, are and gladdening Yudhishthira, the son of Pandu. Brahman and Kshatriya girls, and the very daughters of the Vaisyas, in large number, are coming in playful mood for beholding Partha accoutred in coat of

along with the very herdsmen that attend on
rejoicing

mail.'

"Dhritarashtra

said,

"Tell usi
1

O Sanjaya, of
of
all

the forces of Dhrishta-

dyumna, as also Pandavas intend

of the to fight

Somakas, and " with us.

others, with

which the

Vaisampayana continued, "Thus interrogated, in the midst of the Kurus and in their very hall, the son of Gavalgani became thoughtful for a moment and seemed to draw repeatedly deep and long sighs and suddenly he fell down in a swoon without any apparent reason. Then in that Jassembly of kings, Vidura said loudly, 'Sanjaya, O great king, hath fallen down on the ground senseless, and cannot utter a word,
;

bereft of sense and his intellect clouded.'

"Dhritarashtra

said,

mighty car-warriors, the sons of Kunti,

'Without doubt, Sanjaya, having seen those hath his mind filled with great
"

anxiety in consequence of those tigers among men.' Vaisampayana continued, "Having recovered consciousness, and

being comforted, Sanjaya addressed king Dhritarashtra in the midst of that concourse of Kurus in that hall, saying, 'Indeed, king of kings, I saw those great warriors, the sons of Kunti, thinned in body, in

O

consequence
king of the

of

the restraint

in

which they had

lived in the place of the

Matsyas.

Hear,

O

king, with

whom

the

Pandavas

will

contend against you.
they will fight against

With that you. With
;

hero Dhrishtadyumna as their ally, that personage of virtuous soul, who

never forsaketh truth through anger or fear, temptation, or for the sake of wealth, of disputation and who is, O king, a very authority in
matters of religion, himself being the best of those that pactise virtue with him, who hath never made an enemy, the sons of Pandu will
;

fight

against you.

He

unto

whom

no one on earth
all

is

equal in might

of arms, and
tion,

who

wielding his

bow had brought

and who vanquishing of old the people

of

kings under subjecKasi and Anga and

UDYOGA PAEVA
;

127

with that Bhimasena will the sons of Magadha, as also the Kalingas Pandu fight against you. Indeed, he, through whose might the four sons of Pandu quickly could alight on the earth, having issued forth from the (burning) house of lac that son of Kunti, Vrikodara, who became the means of their rescue from the cannibal Hidimva that son of Kunti, Vrikodara, who became their refuge when the daughter of Yajnasena was being carried away by Jayadratha indeed, with that Bhima who rescued the assembled Pandavas from the conflagrasion at Varanavata even with him (as their ally) will they fight against you. He who for
;

;

;

having penetrated the and terrible mountains of Qandhamadana, he to whose arms hath rugged been imparted the might of ten thousand elephants; with that Bhimasena (as their ally) the Pandavas will fight against you. That hero who, for
the
gratification of Agni, with Krishna only for his second, bravely vanquished of yore Purandara in fight he who gratified by combat
;

the gratification of Krishna slew the Krodhavasas,

that

God

of gods, the trident-bearing
his

lord of
;

Uma

Mahadeva himself

having the mountains for
subjugated
all

abode

that foremost of warriors

who

with that Vijaya (as their ally) the Pandavas will encounter you in battle. That wonderful warrior who vanquished the whole of the western world teeming with Nakula,
Mlecckas,
that
is

the kings of the earth

present in

the

Pandava camp.
that

With

that

unrivalled

bowman,

son of Madri,

O

handsome hero, Kauravya, the

Pandavas

will fight

against you.

He who

warriors of Kasi, Anga, and Kalinga,
equals only four

vanquished in battle the with that Sahadeva will the

Pandavas encounter you in battle. He, who in energy hath for his men on earth, viz., Aswatthaman and Dhrishtaketu and RukmiandPradyumnai with that Sahadeva, youngest in years, that
hero among men, that gladdener of Madri's heart, with him, O king, you have a destructive battle. She who, while living of yore as the daughter of the king of Kasi, had practised the austerest penances
;

will

Bharata race, desiring even in a subsequent life to compass the destruction of Bhishma, took her birth as the daughter of Panchala, and accidently became afterwards a male who, O tiger
she who,
bull of the
;

O

among men,
battle,

is

conversant with the merits and demerits of both sexes

:

that invincible prince of the Panchala

who encountered

the Kalingas in

with what Sikhandin skilled in every weapon, the Pandavas will She whom a Yaksha for Bhishma's destruction metafight against you. morphosed into a male, with that formidable bowman the Pandavas
will fight five

against you.

With

those mighty

bowmen, brothers

all,

those

Kekaya princes, with those heroes clad in mail, will the Pandavas With that warrior of long arms, endued with great fight against you.
the use of weapons, possessed of
intelligence

activiry in

and prowess
Vrishnj

incapable of being baffled,

with that Yuyudhana, the

lion of the

128

MAHABHAEATA

He who had been the refuge of the highrace, will you have to fight. souled Pandavas for a time, with that Virata, ye will have an encounter
in battle.

The

lord

of

Kasi,

that mighty car-warrior
theirs
;

who

ruleth in

Varanasi hath become an
fight

ally of

with him will the Pandavas

against you.

The

high-souled

sons of Draupadi, tender in years

but invincible in battle, and unapproachable like snakes of virulent poison, with them will the Pandavas fight against you. He, that in energy is like unto Krishna and in self-restraint unto Yudhishthira, with
that

Abhimanyu

son of Sisupala,

will the Pandavas fight against you. That war-like Dhrishtaketu of great fame, who in energy is beyond

comparison and who when angry is incapable of being withstood in battle, with that king of the Chedis who has joined the Pandavas at the head of an Akshauhini of his own, will the sons of Pandu fight against
you.

He

that

is

the refuge of the Pandavas,
will

celestials,

with that Vasudeva
of Bharata race,

even as Vasava is of the the Pandavas fight against you. He

also,

O

bull

Sarabha the brother of the king of the

Chedis,

who

again

is

united with Karakarsa, with both these will the

Pandavas
Pandavas.

fight against you.

Sahadeva, the son of Jarasandha, and Jayat-

sena, both unrivalled heroes in battle, are resolved

upon

fighting for the

And Drupada

too, possessed of great

and reckless of his life, is Relying upon these and other kings by hundreds, of both the Eastern and " Northern countries, king Yudhishthira, the just, is prepared for battle.'
a large force,

might, and followed by resolved to fight for the Pandavas.

SECTION
"Dhritarashtra said,

LI

with great courage, but

all

"All these named by thee are, indeed, endued of them together are equal to Bhima singly.
is,

My

fear,

O

child,

from the wrathful Bhima

indeed, very great, like

deer from an enraged tiger. I pass all my nights in sleeplessness, breathing deep and hot sighs afraid of Vrikodara, child, like
that of a fat

O

an animal of any other species afraid of the lion. in energy equal unto Sakra himself, I see not in

this

Of mighty arms, and whole army even

one that can withstand him

in battle.

mined
jest,
is

in animosity,

that son

of

Exceedingly wrathful and deterKunti and Pandu smileth not even in

mad with

rage,

casteth his glances obliquely,

and speaketh

in a

impetuosity and great courage, of long arms and great might, he will not, in battle, leave even one of my
voice of thunder.
great
foolish sons alive.

Of

ing

his

mace

in battle,

Indeed Vrikodara, that bull among the Kurus, whirlwill, like a second Yama mace in hand slay all

my

sons

who
mace

are afflicted by a ht>avy calamity.
of his,

Even now

I

see that

terrible

with eight

sides

made

of steel,

and adorned with

UDTOGA PABVA
gold,

129
a lion

uplifted like a
a

Brahmana's curse.

As
his

of

mjghty strength
troops.

among

flock of deer,
his

Bhima

will

range among

my

He

only

(amongst brothers) always displayed strength cruelly towards and endued with great impetuosity, from my sons. Eating voraciously, his very childhood he hath been behaving inimically towards my children.

My

heart trembleth (to remember) that even in their childhood,

Duryodhana and other sons of mine, while fighting with him (sportively) were always ground down by the elephant-like Bhima. Alas, my sons have always been oppressed by his might, and it is that Bhima of terrible prowess that hath been the cause of this rupture. Even now I behold
Bhima, mad with rage, fighting in the very van, and devouring the whole of my host consisting of men, elephants, and steeds. Equal unto

Drona and Arjuna
wind, and
in

in

wrath

weapons, his speed equal unto the velocity of the like unto Maheswara himself, who is there, O

Sanjaya, that would slay that wrathful and terrible hero in battle ? I think it to be a great gain that my sons were not even then slain by that
slayer of enemies

who

is

endued with such energy.

How

can a

human

being withstand the impetuosity of that warrior in battle who slew Yakshas and Rakshasas of terrible might before ? Sanjaya, even in his childhood he was never completely under my control. Injured by

O

my
now

wicked
?

sons,

how can

that son of

Cruel and extremely wrathful, he would break but not bend.

Pandu come under my control Of

oblique glances and contracted eye-brows,

how can he be induced

to

remain quiet
complexion,
the

?

Endued with heroism,
palmyra
tree,

of incomparable
in height taller

tall like a

and

might and fair than Arjuna by
in

span of the thumb, the second son of Pandu surpasseth the very
indistinct

steeds in swiftness, and elephants in strength, speaketh
accents,

and possesseth eyes having the hue of honey. As regards form and might, even such was he in his very boyhood, as I truly heard long Terrible and possessed of cruel might, before from the lips of Vyasa when angry he will destroy in battle with his iron mace cars and elephants and men and horses. By acting against his wishes, that foremost of smiters who is ever wrathful and furious, hath before been, O
!

child,

insulted
is

by me.

Alas,

how

will

my

sons bear

that

mace

of his

which

straight,

made

of steel,

thick, of beautiful sides,

adorned with
sound when
desirous of
is

gold, capable of slaying a

hundred, and producing

a terrible

hurled at the foe?

Alas,

O
on

child,

my

foolish

sons

are

crossing that inaccessible ocean
shoreless,

constituted by Bhima, which

really
full

without

a

raft

it,

immeasurable
of arrows.

in depth,

and

of

currents impetuous as

the course

boasting of their wisdom, alas,

my

Fools in reality though children do not listen to me even

though
fall

I

cry out.
is

that

Beholding only the honey they do not see the terrible before them They that will rush to battle with Deatli
!

17

180
himself in that

MAHABHABATA
shape, are certainly doomed to destruction by the Ordainer, like animals within the lion's view. Full four cubits

human

Supreme
in length,

endued with
impetus

six sides

and great might, and having

also a deadly

touch,

when he

will hurl his
?

child, bear its

mace from the sling, how shall my sons, O Whirling his mace and breaking therewith the
breaths,

heads of (hostile) elephants, licking with

mouth and drawing long

when

tongue the corners of his he will rush with loud roars
his

against mighty elephants, returning the yells of those infuriated beasts

that might rush against him, and

when

entering! the close

array of cars

he will slay, after taking proper aim, the chief warriors before him, what mortal of my party will escape from him looking like a blazing flame ?

Crushing

my

forces and cutting a passage, through

armed

hero, dancing with

mace

in

them, that mightyhand, will exhibit the scene, witnessed

during the universal Dissolution at the end of a Yuga. Like an infuriated elephant crushing trees adorned with flowers, Vrikodara will, in battle, furiously penetrate the ranks of my sons Depriving my warriors,
of

their cars, drivers,

fighting

steeds, and flag-staff, and from cars and the backs of elephants, that

afflicting all

warriors

trees

Sanjaya, like the impetuous current of standing on its banks, crush in battle

among men will, Ganga throwing down diverse
tiger

the troops of

my

sons.

Without doubt, O Sanjaya, afflicted by the fear of Bhimasena, my sons and their dependents and all .the allied kings will fly in different directions. It was this Bhima who, having entered of old, with Vasudeva's aid, the innermost apartments of Jarasandha, overthrew that king endued with great energy that lord of Magadha, the mighty Jara;

sandha, having fully brought under his subjection the goddess Earth, oppressed her by his energy. That the Kauravas in consequence of

Bhishma's prowess, and the Andhakas and the Vrishnisin consequence of their policy, could not be subjugated by him was due only to their good fortune. What could be more wonderful than that the heroic son of

Pandu, of mighty arms and without any weapons, having approached that king, slew him in a trice ? Like a venomous snake, whose poison
hath accumulated for years, Bhima
poison of his wrath upon
will,

O

Sanjaya, vomit in battle the
celestials,

my

sons

!

Like the foremost of the
his thunder-bolti

the great Indra, smitting the
will,

Danavas with
!

Bhimasena

resisted, of fierce
1

all my sons Incapable of being withstood or impetus and prowess, and with eyes of a coppery hue, behold even now that Vrikodara falling upon my sons. Without mace

mace

in

hand, slay

or bow, without car or coat of mail, fighting with
.

his

bare arms only,

what man
rate

is

there that can stand before him

?

Bhishma, that regene-

acquainted as

Drona, and Kripa the son of Saradwat, these are as much I myself with the energy of the Bhima. intelligent with the practice of those that are noble, and desirous of Acquainted

UDYOGA PABVA

131

death in battle, these bulls among men will take their stand in the van of our army. Destiny is everywhere powerful, especially-in the case of
a male person, for beholding the victory of the Panda vas in battle,
I

do

my yet treading in that ancient track leading up to heaven, will lay
riot

restrain

sons.

These mighty

bowmen

of mine, desirous of

down

their

however, of earthly fame. O Child, my sons are the same to these mighty bowmen as the Pandavas are to them, for all of them are grand-sons of Bhishma and disciples of Drona and Kripa.
lives in battle, taking care,
little acceptable services that we have been able to do unto these three venerable ones, will certainly be repaid by them owing

O

Sanjaya, the

to their

own noble dispositions. It is said that death in battle of a Kshatriya, who hath taken up arms and desireth to observe Kshatriya
is,

practices
all

indeed, both good and meritorious.
against the Pandavas.

those

that will fight

I weep, however, for That very danger hath

now come which was
Sanjaya, that
it is

that

foreseen by Vidura at the outest. It seems, O wisdom is incapable of dispelling woe on the other hand, overwhelming woe that dispelleth wisdom. When the very sages, are emancipated from all worldly concerns and that behold, stand;

the affairs of the universe, are affected by prosperity and what wonder is there that I should grieve, I who have my adversity, affections fixed on a thousand things such as sons, kingdom, wives,

ing aloof,

all

grandsons, and relatives ? What good can possibly be in store for me on the accession of such a frightful danger ? Reflecting on every circumstance. I see the certain destruction of the Kurus. That match at

danger of the Kurus. Alas, this sin was committed from temptation by foolish Duryodhana, desirous all this to be the untoward effect of ever-fleeting I believe of wealth Time that bringeth on everything. Tied to the wheel of Time, like its
dice seems to be
the cause of
this great
;

periphery,

I

am
I

not capable of flying away from
?

it.

Tell me,

O

Sanjaya,

how shall I do it ? These foolish Kauravas will all be destroyed, their Time having come. Helpshall I have to hear the wailing of women when my hundred sons lessly will all be slain. Oh, how may death come upon me? As a blazing fire in the summer season, when urged by the wind, consumeth dry grass, so will Bhima, mace in hand, and united with Arjuna, slay all on my side !"
where
shall

go

What

shall

I

do,

and,

'

SECTION
"Dhritarashtra said,
falsehood, he

LII

'He

whom we
to

have never heard
fight for

to

speak a
the

who hath Dhananjaya

him,

may have

Reflecting from day to day I do not find the warrior who may, on his car, advance in battle against the wielder of Qandiva. When that wielder of Gandiva will shoot winged

sovereignty of even the three worlds.

132

MAHABHARATA

arrows and Nalikas and shafts capable of piercing the breasts of warriors, there is no rival of his in battle. If those bulls among men, those heroes, Drona and Kama, those foremost of mighty men, versed in weapons

and invincible
ful,

in battle,

but

I

am

sure that the

withstand him, the result may be very doubtvictory will not be mine. Kama is both
is

compassionate and heedless, and preceptor
for

aged and hath affection

this pupil. Partha, however, is able and mighty, of firm grasp (of bow) and ndefatiguable. Terrible will be the encounter between them, without resulting in any one's defeat. Conversant with weapons and endued with heroism, all of them have earned great fame. They

the

may

relinquish the very sovereignty of the gods,

but not the chance of

There would be peace, without doubt, upon the fall two (Drona and Kama) or of Falguna. There is none, however, who can either slay or vanquish Arjuna. Alas, how may his wrath that hath been excited against my foolish sons be pacified. Others there are acquainted with the use of weapons, that conqueror are conquered but it is heard that Falguna always conquereth. Three and thirty years have passed away since the time, when Arjuna, having invited Agni, gratified him at Khandava, vanquishing all the celestials. We have never heard of his defeat anywhere, O child. Like the case of
winning victory.
of either of these
;

Indra, victory

is

always Arjuna's, who hath for

his charioteer in battle

Hrishikesa, endued with the same character and position.
that the two Krishnas on the

We

hear

three forces,

same car and the stringed Gandiva, these have been united together. As regards ourselves, we
of that kind, or a warrior like Arjuna, or a charioteer
foolish

have not
this.

a

bow

like Krishna.

The

followers of

Duryodhana are not aware

of

thunder-bolt falling on the head leaveth child, shot by Kiritin leave something undestroyed, but the arrows, Even now I behold Dhananjaya shooting his nothing undestroyed.
Sanjaya,
the blazing

O

O

arrows and committing a havoc around, picking off heads from bodies with his arrowy showers Even now I behold the arrowy conflagration,
!

blazing

all

around, issuing from the Gandiva, consuming
sons.

in battle the

ranks of

my

Even now

it

seemeth

at the rattle of
forces
is

Savyasachin's car, my running away in all directions.

struck with panic vast army consisting of diverse
to

me

that,

As

a

tremendous conflagration,

wandering in all directions, of swelling flames and urged by the wind, consumeth dry leaves and grass, so will the great flame of Arjuna's weapons consume all my troops. Kiritin. appearing as a foe in battle, will vomit innumerable arrows and become irresistible like all-destroying Death urged forward by the Supreme Ordainer. When I shall constantly hear of evil

omens

of diverse kinds happening in the
field of battle,

homes

of the

Kurus, and around them and on the

then will destruction,

without doubt, overtake the Bharatas.

SECTION
"Dhritarashtra
said,

LIII

'Endued with great prowess and eager for

victory, even as the sons themselves of

Pandu

are, so are their followers,

who

are

alt

resolved to sacrifice
thou,

their lives

and determined to win

victory.

Even

O

son,

hast told

me

of

my

mighty enemies,

viz.,

the kings of the Panchalas, the Kekayas, the Matsyas, and the Magadhas.

He, again, who at
mighty Krishna
is

his

will

worlds with Indra at their head,

can bring under his subjection all the three even that Creator of the universe, the

bent on giving victory upon the Pandavas. As regards

arms from Arjuna. That scion of Sini's race will stand on the battle-field, shooting his shafts like husbandmen sowing seeds. The prince of Panchala, Dhristadyurona,
Satyaki, he acquired in no time the whole science of
that mighty car-warrior of merciless deeds, acquainted with all superior weapons, will fight with my host. Great is my fear, O child, from the wrath of Yudhishthira, from the prowess of Arjuna, and from the Twins

and Bhimasena.
army,
spread their
of
it.

When
It is

those

lords of

men

will, in
I

the midst of
troops will

my
not

superhuman
for this,
is

net of arrows,

fear

my

come out
blessed,

Pandu, Yudhishthira,
possessed of
soul.

Sanjaya, that I weep. That son of handsome, endued with great energy, highly

O

force, intelligent, of great wisdom, and and counsellors, united with persons ready virtuous Having for battle, and possessing brothers and father-in-law who are all heroes and mighty car-warriors, that tiger among men, the son of Pandu, is also endued with patience, capable of keeping his counsels, compassionate,
allies

Brahma

modest, of powers incapable of being baffled, possessed of great learning, with soul under proper control, ever waiting upon the aged, and subdued senses possessed thus of every accomplishment, he is like unto a
;

blazing
will

fire.

What

fool,

doomed

to destruction and deprived of sense,

irresistible Pandava fire.' towards him. The king, like unto a fire Alas, I have behaved deceitfully of long flames, will destroy all my foolish sons in battle without leaving any alive. I, therefore, think that it is not proper. to fight with them.

jump, moth-like, inco that

blazing and

Ye Kauravas, be ye of the same mind. Without doubt, the whole race This of Kuru will be destroyed, in case of hostilities being waged. appears to me veiy clearly, and it we ace accordingly, my mind may have peace. If war with them doth not seem beneficial to you, then we
will strive to bring

when he

sees us distressed,
'

about peace. Yudhishthira will never be indifferent for he censures me only as the cause of this

unjust war.'

SECTION LIV
"Sanjaya
sayest.
said,

Tt

is

even

so,

O

great king, as thou,

O

Bharata,

On

the event of a battle, the destruction of the Kshatriyas by

i4
means
of

MAHABHABATA

Qandiva is certain. This, however, I do not understand, how when thou art always wise and especially acquainted with the prowess of Savyasachin, thou followest yet the counsels of thy sons. Having O bull of the Bharata race, injured the sons of Pritha from the very beginning,
king,

the time

great having, in fact, committed sins repeatedly, this is not, He that occupies the position of a father (to grieve).
if

Q

and a friend,

he

is

always watchful and of good heart,

should seek the

welfare (of his children); but he that injures, can not be called a father.

Hearing of the defeat of the Pandavas at dice, thou hadst, O king, When the laughed like a child, saying, 'This is won, this is acquired ! were addressed to the sons of Prithai thou didst not harshest speeches then interfere, pleased at the prospect of thy sons winning the whole
'

kingdom. Thou couldst not, however, then see before the inevitable

fall.

The country

of the Kurus, including the region called Jangala

is,

O

king,

thy paternal kingdom.

Thou

hast,

however, obtained the whole earth

by those heroes. Won by the strength of their arms, the sons of Pritha made over thee this extensive empire. Thou thinkest, however, O best of kings, that all this was acquired by thee. When thy sonsi seized by
the king of-the Gandharvas, werea bout to sink in a shoreless sea without

a raft to save them,

it

was Partha,

O

king,

that brought them back.

Thou hadst, like a child, repeatedly laughed, O monarch, at the Pandavas when they were defeated at dice and were going into exile. When
alone beings of flesh and blood.

shower of keen arrows, the very oceans dry up, let Faiguna is the foremost of all shooters Gandiva is the foremost of all bows Kesava is the foremost of all the Sudarsana is the foremost of all weapons and of cars, that beings furnished with the banner bearing the blazing Ape on it is the foremost.

Arjuna poureth

a

;

;

;

:

That car of consume us
all kings,

his,

bearing

all

these and

drawn by white

steeds, will,

O

king,

all in

battle like the upraised

wheel of Time.

O

bull of the

Bharata race,

his is even now the whole earth and he is the foremost of who hath Bhima and Arjuna to fight for him. Beholding thy host sinking in despair when smitten by Bhima, the Kauravas headed by Duryodhana will all meet destruction. Struck with the fear of Bhima

sons, O king, and the kings following them, will not, O be able to win victory. The Matsyas, the Panchalas, the Salwaysand the Surasenasi all decline to pay thee homage now and all disregard thee. Acquainted with the energy of that wise king, all of them, however, have joined that son of Pritha, and for their devotion to him they are always opposed to thy sons. He that, by his evil deeds, afflicted the sons of Pandu, who are all wedded to virtue and undeserving of destruction, he that hateth them even now, that sinful man, O monarch, who is none else than thy son, should, with all his adherents, be checked by all means. It behoveth thee not to bewail in this strain. Even this was said by myself as well as by the wise Vidura at the time of the gambling match at dice. These thy lamentations in connection with the Pandavas, as if thou wert a helpless person, are, O king, all useless.'

and Arjuna, thy

lord,

'

SECTION LV
"Duryodhana
for us.
battle.
said,

'Fear not,
lord,

O

king.

Nor

shouldst thou grieve

O

monarch,

O
of

we

are quite able to vanquish

the foe in

When

the Parthas had been exiled to the woods, there came

unto them the slayer

Madhu

with a vast
;

army

in

battle array and

capable of crushing hostile kingdoms
the Kekayas, and Dhrishtaketu,

and there

also

came unto them

and Dhrishtadyumna of Pritha's race and numerous other kings in their train and all those great car warriors were assembled in a place not far from Indraprastha and having assembled together they censured thee and all the Kurus. And O Bharata, all those warriors with Krishna at their head paid their
; ;

homage unto Yudhishthira

clad

in deer-skin

and seated

in their midst.

And

all

those kings then

back the kingdom.
followers.

suggested to Yudhishthira that he should take And all of them desired to slay thee with all the
all this,

And

hearing of

O

bull of the Bharata race,
fear,

I

addressed

Bhishma and Drona and Kripa, struck with

O

king, at the pros-

And I said unto them, pect of the ruin that threatened our kindred. 'I think the Pandavas will not abide by the agreement made by them ; Vasudeva desireth our utter extinction. I think also that with the
exception of Vidura
the slaughter,

you will be slain, although the chief of the Kurus, Dhritarashtra, conversant with morality, will not be included in
all

of

O sire, effecting our complete destruction, Janarddana wisheth to bestow upon Yudhishthira the entire kingdom of the Kurus. What should be done ? Shall we surrender, or fly, or shall we fight the
foe giving

up every hope
is

of
all

life ?

If,

indeed,

we

stand

up against them,
us,

our defeat
thira's
all

certain,

for

the kings of the
of the

earth are under Yudhishall

command.
ill

The people

realm are
us.

annoyed with
king of

and
are

our friends also are angry with
of us,
in

All the

the earth

speaking

can be no fault
party

and especially all our friends and relatives. There our surrender, for from time immemorial, the weaker
I

known men, my blind
is

to conclude peace.

grieve,

father,
is

and misery that

endless.

who may, on my [It is known
were
all

however, for that lord of account, be overtaken by woe
to thee,

O

king,

even before

opposed to the foe for pleasing me Those mighty car-warriors, the sons of Pandu, will, indeed, only.]. avenge their wrongs by destroying the whole race of king Dliritarashtra (It was thus that I addressed them, and) seeing will all his counsellors. me afflicted by great anxiety and my senses tortured, Drona and Bhishma
this, that thy other

sons

and Kripa and Drona's son then addressed me, saying, 'Fear noti O will not be represser of foes, for if the foe wage hostilities with us, they one of us is singly able to vanquish us when we take the field. Every come. capable of vanquishing all the kings of the earth. Let them

136

MAHABHABATA
will

With keen-edged arrows we

curb their pride.

Inflamed with anger

Bhishma (amongst us) in days of old upon had conquered all the kings of the earth, on a single car. O Bharata, his wrath excited, that best of the Kurus smote numberless ones amongst
the death of his father,
this

them, whereupon, from fear, they
seeking
his protection.

vanquishing the foe in Bharata race, be all dispelled.

all surrendered to this Devavrata, That Bhishma, united with us, is still capable of battle. Let thy fears, therefore, O bull of the
'

"Duryodhana continued, 'Even this was the resolve then formed by these heroes of immeasurable energy. The whole earth was formerly under the foe's command. Now, however, they are incapable of vanquishing us in battle, for our enemies, the sons of Pandu, are now without
allies

and destitute of energy.

O
me

bull

of the

Bharata race, the

sovereignty of the earth
best of the
sake,

now

resteth in me, and the kings also, assembled
in

by me, are of the same mind with

weal or woe.

Know

thou,
for

O
my

Kuru

race, that all these kings,
fire

O

slayer of foes, can,
all

enter into the

or the

sea.

They are

Every one amongst these kings is able to withstand the Pandavas. Indeed, sire, every one regardeth himself let thy fears, therefore, be dispelled. Even Vasava himself is not capable of vanquishing my vast host. The Self;

beholding thee filled with grief and indulging in one out of his wits, and affrighted at the praises of the foe.

laughing at thee, these lamentations like

create

Brahma

himself,
all

if

desirous of slaying
city,

it,

cannot annihilate

it.

Having given up
villages,

hopes of a

affrighted,

O

lord,

Yudhishthira craveth only five at the army I have assembled and at my

power.

The

belief
is

son of Kunti,

thou entertainest in the prowess of Vrikodara, the unfounded. Bharata, thou knowest not the extent of

O

my

prowess.

There

is

none on earth equal to me in an encounter with

the mace.

None have ever surpassed me in such an encounter, nor will any surpass me. With devoted application and undergoing many privaI

tions,

have

lived in

my

preceptor's

abode.

I

have completed my
have no fear either

knowledge and exercises there.
of

It is for this that I

Bhima or

of others.

When I humbly
it

preceptor), blessed be thou,

waited upon Sankarshana (my was his firm conviction that Duryodhana
I

hath no equal in the mace.

In battle

am

Sankarshana's equal, and in

none superior to me on earth. Bhima will never be able A single blow, O king, that I to bear the blow of my mace in battlemight there
is

may wrathfully deal unto Bhima will certainly, O hero, carry him without delay to the abode of Yama. O king. I wish to see Vrikodara mace in hand. This hath been my long-cherished desire. Struck in battle
with
his

mace, Vrikodara, the son of Pritha, will fall dead on the ground, limbs shattered. Smitten with a blow of my mace, the mountains of
split

my

Himavat may

into

a

hundred thousands fragments.

Vrikodara

UDYOGA PABVA

117

himself knoweth this truth, as also Vasudeva and Arjuna, that there is no one equal to Duryodhana in the use of mace. Let thy fears, therefore, caused by Vrikodara be dispelled, for I will certainly slay him in fierce
conflict.

slain

Do not, O king, give way to melancholy. And after I have him, numerous car-warriors of equal or superior energy, will, O bull among the Bharatas, speedily throw Arjuna down. Bhishma, Drona,
Pragjyotish,

Kama and Bhurisravas, Salya, the king of and Jayadratha, the king of the Sindhus, every one of these, O Bharata, is singly capable of slaying the Pandavas. When united togetheri they will, within a moment, send Arjuna to the abode of Yama. There, indeed, is no reason why the united army of all the kings will be incapable of vanquishing Dhananjaya singly. A hundred times shrouded by immeasurable arrows shot by Bhishma and Drona and Drona's son and Kripa, and deprived of strength, Partha will have to go unto Yama's abode. Our grandsire born of Qanga is, O Bharata, superior to Santanu himself. Like unto a regenerate saint, and incapable of being withstood by the very celestials, he took his birth amongst men. There is no slayer of Bhishmai O king, on earth, for his father, being gratified, gave him tfie boon Thou shah not die except when it is thy own wish. And Drona took his birth in a water-pot from the regenerate saint BharadKripa and Drona's son,
waja.
of

the highest weapons.

And from Drona hath taken birth his son, having a knowledge And this the foremost of preceptors, Kripa

hath taken his birth from the great Rishi Gautama. Born in a clump of heath this illustrious one, I think, is incapable of being slain. Then again, king, the father, mother and maternal uncle of Aswaalso,

O

thaman,
unto
these

these three,

are not born of woman's

womb.

I

have that
are like

hero also on

my

side.

All these mighty car-warriors,

O

king,

celestials,

and can,

O bull
is

himself in battle.
singly.

Arjuna

of the Bharata race, inflict pain on Sakra incapable of even looking at any one of

When

united together,

these tigers
is

among men

will

certainly slay Dhananjaya.

and Drona and Kripa.
art

O Bharata, Rama O
king, of

equal unto me.

Kama
;

suppose, equal unto Bhishma himself had told him, Thou had two ear-rings born with him, of great
also, I

Kama

brilliance

and beauty

for Sachi's gratification Indra begged

them

of that

repressor of foes, in exchange,

an

infallible
life

and

terrible shaft.

How

would Dhananjaya, therefore, escape with

from

Kama who

is

king, is as certain protected by that arrow ? My success, therefore, The utter defeat also of my foes as a fruit held fast in my own grasp.
is

O

already bruited about on earth*

every day ten thousand soldiers. Drona, Drona's son and Kripa. Then,
of the Samsaptaka warriors

This Bhishma, Bharata, killeth unto him are these bowmen, Equal

O

O

repressor of foes, the ranks
Either

have made

this resolution,

we

will slay

Arjuna

or

that

Ape-bannered

wariior will slay us.

There are other kings

18

138
also,

MAHABHABATA
who
firm
in their resolve

of slaying Savyasachin, regard

unequal to themselves.

Why

dost thou then apprehend danger

him as from the

Pandavas? When Bhimasena will be slain, O Bharata, who else (amongst them) will fight ? Tell me this, O represser of foes, if thou knowest any amongst the foes ? The five brothers, with Dhrishtadyumna and Satyaki, these seven warriors of the enemy, O king, are regarded as their chief strength. Those, however, amongst us, that are our chief warriors, are Bhishma, Drona, Kripa, Drona's son, Kama, Somadatta, Vahlika, and Salya, the king of Pragjyotisha, the two kings (Vindha and Anuvinda) of Avanti, and Jayadratha and then, O king, thy sons
;

Chitrasena, Purumitra, Srutayu Vivinsati, Sala, Bhurisravas, and Vikarna. O King, I have assembled one and ten Akshauhinis. The army of the enemy is less than mine, amount;

Dussasana,

Durmukha,

Dussaha,

seven Akshauhinis. How then can I be defeated ? Vrihaspati hath said that an army which is less by a third ought to be encountered. Besides, My army, king, exceedeth that of the foe by a third.
ing only to

O

O

Bharata,
also the

I

know

that the

are endued with

enemy hath many defects, many good virtues. Knowing all

while mine,
this,

O

lord,

O

Bharata, as
it

superiority of

my

force and the inferiority of the Pandavas,
senses.'

behoveth thee not to lose thy

"Having said this, O Bharata, that conqueror of hostile chiefs, Duryodhana, asked Sanjaya again, anxious to know more about the
doings of the Pandavas."

SECTION LVI
"Duryodhana
said,

'Having obtained,
is

O Sanjaya, an army numberthe son of Kunti, with the
?

ing seven Akshauhinis, what

Yudhishthira,

other kings in his company, doing in view of the war

"Sanjaya
the battle.

said,

And

Yudhishthira, king, is very cheerful in view of so also are Bhimasena and Arjuna. The twins also are

O

perfectly fearless.

(obtained by him), Vibhatsu,
illuminating
all

Desirous of making an experiment of the mantras the son of Kunti, yoked his celestial car

the directions.

Accoutred

in mail,

he looked like a mass

of clouds charged with lightning.
fully addressed
will certainly

After reflecting for a while, he cheer-

me, saying,

Behold,

O Sanjaya, these

preliminary signs.

We
to

conquer'

Indeed, what Vibhatsu said unto

me appeared

me

to be true.'

"Duryodhana
defeated at dice.

said,

'Thou

Tell us

now what

Arjuna's car and what sort of
or

applaud those sons of Pritha steeds are yoked unto banners are set UD on it ?*
sort of

rejoicest to

'Sanjaya said, 'O great king, the celestial artificer called Tashtri Bhaumana, aided by Sakra and Dhatri, created forms of diverse kinds

TJDYOGA PABVA
and great beauty for Arjuna's car. And displaying divine illusion they placed on his flagstaff those celestial forms, large and small, of great value. And at Bhimasena's request, Hanumat, the son of the Wind-god,
will also place his

had recourse
its its

to

own image on it. And Bhaumana has, in its creation* such illusion that that banner covers, both perpendi-

an area of one Yojana, and even if trees stand in course cannot be impeded. Indeed, even as Sakra's bow of way, diverse colours is exhibited in the firmament, and nobody knows of
cularly and laterally,
its

what it is made, so hath that banner been contrived by Bhaumana, for form is varied and ever varying. And as a column of smoke mixed with fire riseth up, covering the sky and displaying many bright hues and elegant shapes, so doth that banner contrived by Bhaumana rear its head. Indeed, it hath no weight, nor is it capable of being obstructed. And unto that car are a century of excellent celestial steeds of white hue and endued with the speed of the mind, all presented by Chitrasena And neither on earth, O king, nor in the (the king of the Qandharvas).

And formerly a boon hath been granted to the effect that their number would always remain And unto Yudhishthira's full how often so ever they might be slain.
sky, nor in heaven, their course can be impeded.

car are yoked large steeds of equal energy and white in colour like ivory. And unto Bhimasena's car are yoked coursers endued with the speed of
the wind and the splendour of the Seven Rishis. And steeds of sable bodies and backs variegated like the wings of the Tittri bird, all present-

ed by his gratified brother Falguna, and superior to those of

the heroic

Falguna himself, cheerfully carry Sahadeva. And Nakula of Ajamida's race, the son of Madri, is borne, like Indra the slayer of Vitra, by excellent steeds, presented by the great Indra himself, all mighty as the

wind and endued with great speed. And excellent steed of large size, equal unto those of the Pandavas themselves in years and strength, endued with great swiftness and of handsome make, and all presented by
the celestials, carry those

youthful princes, the sons of Subhadra and

Draupadi."

SECTION LVII
"Dhritarashtra said,

'Whom

hast thou,
will,

O Sanjaya, seen

to

have,

from affection, arrived there* and who
fight

on behalf of the Pandavas,

my

son's forces

?'

"Sanjaya said,

'I

have seen Krishna,

the. foremost of the

Andhakas

and the Vrishnis, arrived there, and Chekitana,
wise called Yuyudhana.
their strength

as also Satyaki, other-

And

those
all

and famed over

two mighty car-warriors, proud of the world, have joined the Pandavas,

each with a separate Akshauhini of troops.

And Drupada,

the king of

140

MAHABHARATA

the Panchalas, surrounded by his ten heroic sons Satyajit and others headed by Dhrishtadyumna, and well protected by Sikhandin, and

having furnished his soldiers with every necessary thing, hath come there with a full Akshauhini, desirous of honouring Yudhishthira. And
that lord of earth, Virata,

with his two sons Sankha and Uttara, as also

with those heroes Suryadatta and others

headed by Madiraksha and

surrounded by one Akshauhini of troops, hath thus accompanied by brothers and sons, joined the son of Pritha. And the son of Jarasandha,

Magadha, and Dhrishtaketu, the king of the Chedis, have there, each accompanied by an Akshauhini of troops. separately And the five brothers of Kekaya, all having purple flags, have joined the Pandavas, surrounded by an Akhshauhini of troos. Then numbering to this extent, have I seen assembled there, and these, on behalf of the Pandavas, will encounter the Dhartarashtra host. That great car-warrior, Dhrishtadyumna, who is acquainted with human, celestial, Gandharva and Asura arrays of battle, leadeth that host. O king, Bhishma, the son of Santanu, has been assigned to Sikhandin as his share; and Virata with
the king of

come

Matsya warriors will support Sikhandin. The mighty king of the Madras hath been assigned to the eldest son of Pandu as his share, though some are of opinion that those two are not well matched. Duryodhana with his sons and his ninetynine brothers, as also the rulers of th East and the South, have been assigned to Bhimasena as his share. Kama, the son of Vikartana, and Jayadratha the king of the Sindhus, have been assigned to Arjuna as his share. And those heroes also on the earth who arc incapable of being withstood and who are proud of
all his

have been accepted by Arjuna as his share. And those mighty bowmen, the five royal brothers of Kekaya, will put forth their strength in battle, accepting the Kekaya warriors (on Dhritarashtra's side) as antagonists. And in their share are included the Malavas also, and the Salwakas, as also, the two famous warriors of the Trigarta host
their might,

who have sworn
Dussasana,
son as his share.

to conquer or die.

And

all

the sons of

Duryodhana and

as also king

Vrihadvala, have been assigned to Subhadra's

cars furnished with gold-embroidered banners,

Draupadi, having headed by Dhrishtadyumna, will, O Bharata, advance against Drona. And Chekitana on his car desireth to encounter Somadatta in single combat with him, while
those great
all

And

bowmen, the sons

of

Satyaki

is

anxious to battle against the Bhoja chief, Kritavarman.
terrible

And

the heroic son of Madri, Sahadeva, who setteth up battle, hath intended to take as his share thy brother-in-law, the son of
roars in

Suvala.

And Nakula

also,

the son of Madravati, hath intended to take
tribes

as his share for all

the deceitful

Uluka and the

of the Saraswatas.

As
own

the other kings of the earth,

O

monarch, who will go

to battle,

the sons of Pandu have, by naming them, distributed them in their

UDtCXU PABVA
respective shares.
divisions.

141
host been

Thus hath the Pandava

distributed into

Do thou now,
"
said,

without delay, with thy sons, act as thou
'Alas, all
it is

thinkest best.'

"Dhritarashtra
ful dice, are already

my

foolish sons, addicted to deceit-

dead when

the mighty

Bhima with

whom

they

desire to encounter in
too, consecrated
like so

the field of battle.

All the kings of the earth

by Death himself for sacrifice, will rush to the Gandiva, moths into fire. Methinks my host is already put to flight many by those illustrious warriors formerly injured by me. Who, indeed, shall follow to battle my warriors, whose ranks will be broken by the
sons of

Pandu

in the encounter ?

possessed of great bravery, of

prowess, equal unto the fiery Those that have Yudhishthira for their leader, the slayer of Madhu for their protector, the heroic Savyasachin and Vrikodara for their warriors,

All of them are mighty car-warriors, famous achievements, endued with great sun in energy, and all victorious in battle.

and Nakula, and Sahadeva, and Dhrishtadyumna, the son of Prishata, and Satyaki, and Drupada, and Dhrishtaketu with his son, and Uttamaujas, and the unconquerable Yudhamanyu of the Panchalas, and Sikhandin, and Kshatradeva, and Uttara, the son of Virata, and Kasayas,
the Chedis, the Matsyas, the Srinjayas,

Vabhru

the

son of Virata, the
those,

Panchalas,

and the Prabhadrakas,

for fighting for them,
if

indeed,

from

they are unwilling, snatch this those heroes, cool and steady in fight, who can split the very earth, mountains alas, it is with them that are endued with every virtue and

whom

Indra himself cannot,

possessed of

superhuman prowess that
fight,

this

wicked son of mine,
I

O

Sanjaya, desireth to self hoarse I"

disregarding

me even though

am

crying

my-

"Duryodhana

said,

'Both the Pandavas and ourselves are of the

earth, why then dost same race ; thou think that victory will declare itself for only the Pandavas ? Bhishma, Drona, Kripa, the unconquerable Kama, Jayadratha, Somadatta, and Aswatthama all mighty bowmen and endued with great energy, are incapable of being vanquished by Indra himself united with the
celestials.

both they and we tread upon the same

What

sayst thou then,

O

father of the

Pandavas

?

All these

noble

and heroic kings of the earth, bearing weapons, O father, are quite capable, for my sake, of withstanding the Pandavas, while the I am powerful latter are not capable of even gazing at my troops. with their sons. O Bharata, enough to encounter in battle the Pandavas
all

those rulers of the earth,

who

are anxious for

my

welfare, will cer-

tainly seize all the

young deer by means of net. in consequence of our crowds of cars and snares of arrows, I tell thee, the Panchalas and the Pandavas will all be routed.' "Dhritarashtra said, 'O Sanjaya, this my son speaketh like a mad

Pandavas

like a herd of

'

149

MAHAEHABATA

man, for he is incapable of vanquishing in battle Yudhishthira the just. This Bhishma truly knoweth the might of the famous, powerful, virtuous, and high-souled Pandavas and their sons, for he doth not wish a battle
with those illustrious ones. But
ments.
Tell me,
tell

me

again,

O Sanj.iya,

of their

movewith

who

are inciting those

illustrious

and mighty bowmen

endued with great

activity,
?'

like priests enkindling

(Homa)

fires

libations of clarified butter

"Sanjaya said, 'O Bharata, Dhrishtadyumna is always urging the Pandavas to war, saying, Fight ye, best among the Bharatas. Do not entertain the least fear. All those rulers of the earth who, courted by
Dhritarashtra's son, will become in that fierce encounter target of showers of weapons, indeed, I alone will encounter all those angry kings assembled together with their relatives, like a whale seizing little

from the water. Bhishma and Drona and Kripa and Karna and Drona's son and Salya and Suyodhana, them all I withstand, like the bank resisting the swelling sea.' Unto him saying thus, the virtuous 'The Panchalas and the Pandavas wholly said, king Yudhishthira
fishes

depend upon thy prowess and steadiness. Rescue us safely from the war. I know, O mighty-armed one, that thou art firm in the duties of the
Kshatriya order.

Thou

Kauravas.
thou,

When

art, indeed, quite competent to smite alone the the latter, eager for fight, will stand before us, what

O

Even

represser of foes, wilt arrange, will certainly be for our good. this is the opinion of those acquainted with the scriptures, that

the hero who, displaying his prowess, rallieth those that after the rout

run away from the battle-field, seeking for protection, is to be bought with a thousand. Thoui O bull among men, art brave, mighty, and powerWithout doubt, thou art that deliverer of those that are overful.

powered with
addressed

fear

on the

field

of

battle.'
this,

And when

the righteous
fearlessly

Yudhishthira the son of Kunti said

Dhrishtadyumna
Suta,

without delay, and say unto all those that have come to fight for Duryodhana, say unto the Kurus of the Pratipa dynasty with the Valhikas, the son of Saradwata, and Karna and Drona, and Drona's son, and Jayadratha, and Dussasana,
in these words,

me

'Go thou,

O

and Vikarna, and king Duryodhana, and Bhishma, Do not suffer yourselves to be slain by Arjuna, who is protected by the celestials. Before that happens, let some good man approach Yudhishthira and entreat
that son of Pandu, that best of men, to accept the kingdom (surrendered

by them) without delay.

There

is

no warrior on the earth

like

unto

Savyasachin, son of Pandu, of prowess incapable of being baffled. The celestial car of the holder of Gandiva is protected by the very gods. He
is

incapable of being vanquished by " bend your mind to war !'

human

beings.

Do

not,

therefore,

SECTION
"Dhritarashtra said,

LVIII
is

'Yudhishthira the son of Pandu

endued

with Kshatriya energy and leadeth the Brahmacharya mode of life from his very youth. Alas, with him these foolish sons of mine desire to fight,
disregarding

me

that

am

thus bewailing.

I

ask thee,

foremost of the Bharata race, desist from hostility. foes, under any circumstances, war is never applauded.
is

O

O Duryodhana, O chastiser of
Half the earth
thy
followers.
their

quite enough Give back unto the sons of Pandu, share. All the Kauravas deem just

for the

maintenance

of

thyself and

all

O

chastiser of foes,

this to

proper be consistent with justice,

the high-souled sons of Pandu. and thou wilt find that this thy army is for thy own death. Thou understandest not this from thy own folly. I myself do not desire war, nor Valhika, nor Bhishma, nor Drona, nor Aswatthaman,
that

thou shouldst

make peace with

Reflect thus,

O

son,

nor Sanjaya, nor Somadatta, nor Salya, nor Kripa, nor Satyavrata, nor Purumitra, nor Jaya, nor Bhurisravas, in fact, none of these desireth
Indeed^ those warriors upon whom the Kauravas, when afflicted by the foe, will have to rely, do not approve of the war. O child, let that be acceptable to thee. Alas, thou dost not seek it of thy own will,

war.

but

it

is

Kama

and the evil-minded Dussasana and Sakuni, the son of
it.'

Suvala, that are leading thee to

"Duryodhana said, 'I challenge the Pandavas to battle, without depending upon thyself, Drona, or Aswatthaman, or Sanjaya, or Vikarna, or Kamvoja, or Kripa, or Valhika, or Satyavrata, or Purumitra, or Bhurisravas, or others of thy party. But, O bull among men, only myself

and Kama,
all

O sire,

are prepared to celebrate the sacrifice of battle

with

the necessary

rites,

sacrifice,

my

car will be

the altar

making Yudhishthira the victim. In that my sword will be the smaller ladle,
; ;

mace, the large one, for pouring libations my coat of mail will be assembly of spectators my four steeds will be the officiating priests ;
;

my

my

arrows

will

be the blades of Kusa grass
king, performing,
in

fied butter.
battle,

O

and fame will be the clarihonour of Yama, such a sacrifice in
;

be furnished by ourselves, we will return victoriously, covered with glory, after having slain our foes. Three of us, O sire, viz., myself and Kama and my brother Dussasana,
the ingredients of

which

will

all

will slay the

Pandavas

in battle.

Either

I,

slaying the Pandavas,
will

will
this
life,

sway

this Earth,

or the sons of Pandu, having slain me,

enjoy

Earth.

O

king,

O

thou of unfading glory,

I

would

sacrifice

my

kingdom, wealth, everything, but would not be able to live side by side with the Pandavas. O venerable one, I will not surrender to the Pandavas even that much of land which may be covered by the sharp
point of a needle."

144

MAHABHABATA
"Dhritarashtra
said,
'I

now abandon Duryodhana

for

ever.

I

ye kings, that will follow this fool who is about to proceed to Yama's abode. Like tigers among a herd of deer, those foremost of smiters the sons of Pandu, will smite down your
nevertheless grieve for you
all,

principal leaders assembled for battle. Methinks, the Bharata host, like a helpless woman, will be afflicted and crushed and hurled to a distance

by Yuyudhana of long arms. Adding to the strength of Yudhishthira's army, which without him was already sufficient, Sini's son will take up his stand on the field of battle and scatter his arrows like seeds on a cultivated field. And Bhimasena will take up his position in the very van of the combatants, and all his soldiers will fearlessly stand in his
rear, as behind a rampart. Indeed, when thou, Duryodhana, wilt behold elephants, huge as hills, prostrated on the ground with their tusks disabled, their temples crushed and bodies dyed with gore, in fact,

O

when thou

will see

them

lying on the field of

battle like

riven

hills,

then, afraid of a clash

with him, thou wilt remember these

my

words*

Beholding thy host consisting of cars, steeds, and elephants, consumed by Bhimasena, and presenting the spectacle of a wide-spread conflagration's track, thou wilt remember these my words. If ye do not make
peace with the Panda vas, overwhelming calamity will be yours. Slain by Bhimasena with his mace, ye will rest in peace. Indeed, when thou
wilt see the

Kuru

host levelled to the ground

by Bhima,

forest torn up by the roots, then wilt thou remember these my words.' Vaisampayana continued, "Having said this unto all those rulers
of the earth, the king, addressing

like a large "

Sanjaya again, asked him as follows."

SECTION LIX
"Dhritarashtra said,
"Tell me,

O thou
I

of great

high-souled Vasudeva and Dhananjaya said.
thee
all

am

wisdom, what anxious to hear from

about

this."

"Sanjaya said, 'Listen, O king, as I tell thee the state in which I Bharata. tell thee what found Krishna and Dhananjaya. I will also, down and hands joined O king, with looks bent those heroes said

O

;

together,

and with senses well-restrained, I entered the inner apartments for conferring with those gods among men. Neither Abhimanyu nor the Twins can repair to that place where are the two Krishnas and Draupadi and lady Satyabhama. There I beheld those chastisers of foes, exhilarated with Bassia wine, their bodies adorned with garlands of flowers. Attired in excellent robes and adorned with celestial ornaments, they sat on a golden dais, decked with numerous gems, and covered over with carpets of diverse texture and hue. And I beheld
Kesava's feet resting upon Arjuna's lap while those of the high-souled

UDYOQA PABVA
Arjuna rested upon the laps
pointed out to
of Krishna and foot-stool

145
Satybhama.
of gold.

Partha then

me
I

(for a seat) a

made

Touching

it

with

my

hand,

seated

myself

down on
I

withdrew
his soles.

his feet

from the foot-stooli

the ground. And when he beheld auspicious marks on both

to fore-toe,

Those consisted of two longitudinal lines running from heels O sire, endued with black complexions, of high statures,

and erect like Sala trunks, beholding those youthful heroes, both seated on the same seat, a great fear seized me. They seemed to me to be Indra
and Vishnu seated together, though Duryodhana of dull sense knoweth it not, in consequence of his reliance on Drona and Bhishma and on the loud vaunts of Kama. That very moment, I was convinced that the
wishes of Yudhishthira the just, who had those two for obeying his orders, were certain to succeed. Being hospitably entertained with food

and drink, and honoured with other courtesies, I conveyed to them thy message, placing my joined hands on my head. Then Partha, removing Kesava's auspicious foot from his lap, with his hand scarred by the flappings of the bowstring, urged

him

to speak.

Sitting

up

erect like Indra's

banner, adorned with every ornament, and resembling Indra himself in

which that best of speakers said were sweet, charming and mild, though awful and alarming to the son of Dhritarashtra. Indeed, the words uttered by Krishna, who alone is fit to speak, were of correct emphasis and accent, and pregnant with meaning, though heart-rending in the end. And Vasudeva said, 'O Sanjaya, say thou these words unto the wise Dhritaenergy, Krishna then

addressed me.

And

the words

rashtra and in the hearing of that foremost of the Kuru?, Bhishma,

Drona, having first saluted at our request, O Suta, all the aged ones and having enquired after the welfare of the younger ones, 'Do ye celebrate diverse sacrifices, making presents unto the Brahmanas,

and

also of

and rejoice with your sons and wives,. for a great danger threatens ye 1 Do ye give away wealth unto deserving persons, beget desirable sons, and do agreeable
thira
is

offices to those that are
1'

eager for victory

While

I

was

dear to thee, for king Yudhishat a distance, Krishna with

me said That debt, accumulating with time, hath not been paid off by me. Ye have provoked hostilities with that yet Savyasachin, who hath for his bow the invincible Gandiva of fiery
tears addressing

energy, and who hath me for his help-mate. Who, even if he were Purandara himself, would challenge Partha having me for his help-mate, He that is capable of vanunless, of course, his span of life were full 1 ahle to uphold the Earth with his quishing Arjuna in battle is, indeed,

two arms,

to

consume

all

created things in anger and hurl the celestials

from Heaven.

Among

the celestials, Asuras, and men,

among Yakshas,

Gandharvas, and Nagas, I do not find the person that can encounter Arjuna in battle. That wonderful story which is heard of an encounter
19

146
in

MAHABHABATA

the city of Virata between a single person on one side and innumerable warriors on the other, is sufficient proof of this. That ye all fled in all directions being routed in the city of Virata by that son of Pandu
singly,
is

sufficient proof of

this.

Might, prowess, energy, speed, light-

ness of hand, indef atiguableness, and patience are not to be found in any

one
his

Thus spoke Hrishikesa cheering up Partha by words and roaring like rain-charged clouds in the firmament. Having
else

save Partha.'

heard these words of Kesava, the diadem-decked Arjuna, of white
steeds, also spoke to the

same

effect."

SECTION LX
Vaisampayana said, "Having heard these words of Sanjaya, the monarch endued with the eye of wisdom, took that speech into his consideration as regards its merits and demerits. And having counted in detail the merits and demerits as far as he could* and having exactly ascertained the strength and weakness of both parties, the learned and intelligent king, ever desirous of victory to his sons, then began to compare the powers of both sides.

And

having at

last

ascertained that the

Pandavas were endued with strength and energy both human and divine, and that the Kurus were much weaker, Dhritarashtra said unto Duryodhana, 'This anxiety, O Duryodhana, always fillerh me. Indeed, it doth not leave me. Truly, it seemeth that I behold it with my eye. This conviction is not a matter of inference. All created beings show
great affection for their offsprings, and do,
to the best

of their

power,
to

what

is

agreeable and beneficial
case of benefactors.

to them.

This

is

generally to be seen
desire

also in the

They that are good always
is

return the good done to them and to do what benefactors. Remembering what was done
will,

highly agreeable to their

to

him at Khadava, Agni

no doubt, render aid to Arjuna in this terrible encounter between the Kurus and the Pandavas. And from parental affection, Dharma and

other

celestials,
I

duly invoked, will come together to the aid of the

Pandavas.

think that to save

them from Bhishma and Drona and

Kripa, the celestials will be filled with wrath, resembling the thunderbolt in its effects. Endued with energy and well-versed in the use of weapons
those tigers
tials, will be incapable of

when united with the celeseven gazed upon by human warriors. being He who hath the irresistible, excellent and celestial Gandiva for his bow, he who hath a couple of celestial quivers obtained from Varuna, large, full of shafts, and inexhaustible; he on whose banner, that is unobstructed like smoke in its action, is stationed the monkey-image of celestial origin; whose car is unequalled on the earth girt by the four seas, and the rattle of which as heard by men is like the roar of the clouds, and which

among men,

the sons of Pritha,

TTDIOGA-PABVA
like the

14T

rolling of
as

the

thunder frightens the foe
in

;

he
all

whom
the

the

whole
the

world regards
earth

superhuman

energy

;

he

whom

kings of

be the vanquisher of the very gods in battle; he that taketh up five hundred arrows at a time and in the twinkling of the eye, shooteth them, unseen by others, to a great distance; that son of Pritha
to

know

and tiger among car-warriors and chastiser of foes, whom Bhishma and Drona and Kripa and Drona's son and Salya, the king of the Madras, and
in fact, all impartial

persons, regard as incapable of being vanquished even earthly kings of superhuman prowess, when ready for fight; by who shooteth at one stretch full five hundred arrows^ and who is equal

unto Kartavirya in strength of arms; that great bowman, Arjuna, equal unto Indra or Upendra in prowess, I behold that great warrior Bharata, reflecting committing a great havoc in this terrible battle.

O
is

day and night on
the Kurus,
if

this, I

am unhappy and

sleepless,

the welfare of the Kurus.

A

terrible

destruction

through anxiety for about to overtake

there

is

for peace with the Parthas

nothing but peace for ending this quarrel. I am and not for war. child, I always deem the

O

Pandavas mighter than the Kurus."

SECTION LXI
Vaisampayana
words,
said,

"Hearing these words of

his father, the pass-

ionate son of Dhritarashtra, inflamed with great

wrath, again said these

Thou

thinkest the Parthas having the celestials for their allies,

Let this thy fear, best of kings, are incapable of being vanquished. be dispelled. The gods attained to their divinity for absence of desire,
of envy, of covetousness,
all

O

and

of enmity, as also for

their indifference to

worldly

affairs.

ascetic austerities,

Formerly, Dwaipayana-Vyasa and Narada of great and Rama, the son of Jamadagni, told us this The
beings engage
in

gods never like
race, from

human

work,

O

bull

of the

Bharata
if

desire, or wrath, or

covetousness, or envy.

Indeed,

Agni,

or Vayu, or Dharma, or Indra, or the Aswins had ever engaged themselves in works from worldly desire, then the sons of Pritha could never

have

fallen into distress.

Do

not, therefore,

by any means, indulge

in

such anxiety, because the gods,
affairs

O

Bharata, always set their eyes on

worthy of themselves. If, however, envy or lust become noticeable in the gods in consequence of their yielding to desire, then, according to what has been ordained by the gods themselves, such envy or lust can never prevail. Charmed by me, Agni will be instantly extinguished, even if he blazes up all around for consuming all creatures. The energy with which the gods are endued is, indeed, great, but

know,
Earth them,

O O

Bharata, that

mine

is

greater than that of the gods.

If

the

herself cleaves in twain, or
king, by

mountain

crests split,

I

can re-unite
If

my

incantations before the eyes of

all.

for the

148

MAHABHABATA
of

destruction of this universe

animate and

inanimate,

mobile and

immobile creatures, there happeneth a terrific tempest or stony shower of loud roar, I can always, from compassion for created beings, stop it
before the eyes of
all.

When

the waters are solidified by me, even cars

and infantry can move over them. It is I who set agoing all the affairs Unto whatever countries I go with my of both gods and Asuras. Akshauhinis on any mission, my steeds move whithersover I desire. Within my dominions there arc no fearful snakes, and protected by my
incantations, creatures within
that are
frightful.

my

territories are

never injured by others

dwelling in
they desire.

my

pour, as regards those dominions, showers as much as they desire and when All my subjects, again, are devoted to religion and are
clouds,
king,

The very

O

never subject to calamities of season. The Aswins, Vayu, Agni, Indra with the Maruts, and Dharma will not venture to protect my foes. If these had been able to protect by their might my adversaries, never

would the sons
yearsI tell

of Pritha

have fallen into such

distress for

three and ten

thee truly that neither gods, nor Gandharvas nor Asuras nor Rakshasas are capable of saving him who hath incurred my displeasure; I have never before been baffled as regards the reward to punishment

that

I

intended to bestow or
I said,

inflict

on friend or

foe.

If

ever,

O
can

represser of foes,

this

is

to be.

that hath always been.

People,

therefore* have always

known me

as a speaker of truth. All persons
of

bear witness to
I

my

greatness, the

mention
I,

this,

O king for

which hath spread all around. thy information and not from pride. Never

fame

had

own self is mean. Pandavas and the Matsyas, the Panchalas and the Kekayas, of Satyaki and Vasudeva, at my hands. Indeed, as rivers, on entering the ocean, are entirely lost in it, so the Pandavas with all their followers, on approaching me, will all be annihilated. My
king, praised myself before, for to praise one's

Thou

wilt hear of defeat of the

intelligence

is

superior,
is

knowledge the Pandavas. Whatever knowledge of weapons in Drona, and Kripa, and Salya, and Shalya, exist in

my

my energy is superior, my prowess is superior, my resources are superior by far to
is

superior,

those of

in

the Grandsire,

me

as well."

"Having
of foes, again

said these words,

O

Bharata, Duryodhana, that represser

asked Sanjaya in order to ascertain bent upon war,'* Yudhishthira

the proceedings of

SECTION LXII
Vaisampayana
son of Vichitravirya
said,

"Without much minding Dhritarashtra, the who was about to ask of Partha, Kama said unto

Kurus, 'Coming to
the

Dhritarashtra's son these words, cheering up the spirit of the assembled know of the false pretence under which I obtained

Brahma weapon

of old

from Rama, the

latter

told me,

When

thy

UDYOGA PABVA
hour will com? thy memory will
for so great an offence
I

149
of this weapon

fail

thse in resptct

Even

was cursed
her

so lightly

bv that great Rishi,
is

my

preceptor.

That great Rishi

of fierce
seas.

energy

capale of

consuming

By attention and personal bravery, I appeased his heart. I have that weapon with me still, and my period is not yet run. I am, therefore, fully competent (to win vicHaving obtained the favour of tory). Let the responsibility be mine.
even the entire Earth with
that Rifhi,

an eye the Panchalas, the Karushas, the Matsyas, and the sons of Pritha with their sons and grandLet sons, and bestow on thee numerous regions won by my weapons.
I

will slay within the twinkling of

the Grandsire and Drona and

all

the kings stay with thee.

I

will slay

the sons of Pritha, marching forth with the chief

warriors of

my

army.

Unto him speaking thus, Bhishma said, 'What sayest thou, O Kama ? Thy intellect is clouded at the approach of thy hour. Knowest thou not, O Kama, that when the chief is slain, the sons of Dhritarashtra will all be slain ? Having heard of the feat achieved
Let that task be mine.'

by Dhananjaya, with Krishna only as his ally, at the burning of the Khandava forest, it behoveth thee with thy friends and relatives to
restrain thy mind.

The

shaft that the illustrious
thee, thou

and adorable chief of
will be

the celestials, the great In<Jra, gave

wilt see,

broken

to ashes when struck by Kesava with his discus. That other shaft of serpentine mouth that shineth (in thy quiver) and is respectfully worshipped by thee with flowery garlands, will. O Kama, when

and reduced

his shafts, perish with thee. O Karua, Bhumi's son (Naraka), Vasudeva himself, who the slayer of Vana and hath, in the thickest of battle, slain foes equal and even superior to thee, protecteth the diadem-decked Arjuna.

struck by the son of

Pandu with

"Kama
I

said,

'Without doubt, the chief
that that high-souled one

of the Vrishnis
is

admit, Further, Let, however, the Grandsire listen to

is even so. even more than that.

the effect of the bit of harsh

speech that he hath uttered. I lay down my weapons. The Grandsire After thou will henceforth behold me in court only and not in battle. the rulers of the earth will behold my prowess in this hast become quiet,
'

world.'

Vaisampayana continued. (Kama), leaving the court went

"Having
to his

said this, that great

bowman

own

abode.

Bhishma, however,

king^addressing Duryodhana in the midst of the Kurus, and laughing aloud, said 'How truly doth the Suta's son keep his promise. Why, having repeatedly given his pledge, saying, The kings of Avanti and
Kalinga, Jayadratha, and Chediddhaja and Valhika standing as spectators, I how will he will slay hostile warriors by thousands and tens of thousands,

O

discharge that obligation

?

Having distributed

his divisions in

counter-

array and scattering heads by thousands, behold the havoc committed by

160 Bhimasena.
Indeed, that

MAHABHABATA
moment when,
representing himself as a

Brahmana unto the holy and blameless Rama, Vikartana's son obtained that weapon, that vile wretch lost both his virtue and asceticism.' O king of kings, when Bhishma said this after Kama had gone away giving up his weapons, Duryodhana, that foolish son of Vichitravirya's son,
addressed Santanu's son in these words."

SECTION
"Duryodhana
said,

LXIII

"The son of Pritha are
?

are, in fact, of earthly birth as other

that they are sure to win victory
in energy, in

all as other men, and men. Why then dost thou think Both ourselves and they arc equal

tures, in weapons, in the art of war,

prowesst in age, in intelligence, in knowledge of the scripin lightness of hand, and in skill.

All of us are of the

same

species, all being

men by

birth.
?

How
I

then,

O

grandsire, dost thou

know

that victory will be theirs

do not seek

the accomplishment of

my

aims by relying upon thee, or Drona, or

Kripa. or Valhika,

or upon the other kings. Myself, and Kama, the son of Vikartana, and my brother Dussasana, will slay in battle the five

sons of Pandu by sharpened arrows. Then shall we, O king, gratify Brahmanas by performing great sacrifices of diverse kinds, with abundant Dakshinas, and by gifts of kine and horses and wealth. When my troops will drag by the aid of their mighty arms the Pandavas in battle,
like

hunters dragging a herd of deer by a net, or whirlpools drawing a crewless boat, then the sons of Pandu, beholding us their foe, supported

by crowds and cars and elephants, will give up their pride, and not they 'Venerable persons alone but Kesava also.' Hearing this, Vidura said, of infallible knowledge say that in this world self-restraint is highly In the case of Brahmana especially, it is his duty. He whose beneficial. self-restraint followeth charity, asceticism, knowledge, and study of the
Vedai, always winneth
Self-restraint
success,

forgiveness,
is

and the

fruit of his

gifts.

enhanceth energy, and
it.

Freed from sin and his even Brahma through
for

an excellent and holy attribute. energy increased by self-restraint, one acquireth
People are always afraid of those that are
the latter were very
if

without self-restraint, as

Xakshatas.

And

it is

keeping
the four

these
It

Kshatriyas.
all

hath been said that Self-restraint
of life.
I

under check that the self-Existent created the is an excellent vow for
self-restraint.

modes

which owe their origin to
ness, firmness of

regard those attributes as its indications Those indications are forgive-

mind, abstention from injury, an equal regard for all simplicity, control over the senses, things, truthfulness of speech, gentleness of speech, modesty, steadiness, liberality, mildness, patience, contentment, and faith, he that hath self-restraint casteth off lust,

tJDYOGA PABVA

161

avarice, pride, wrath, sleep, boastfulness, self-esteem, malice, and sorrow.

Purity and absence of crookedness and fraud, are the distinctive marks of a man of self-restraint. He that is not covetous, that is satisfied

with a
grave

little,

that regardeth not objects provoking
is

lust,

and that

is

as
is

as

the ocean,

known

as a

man

of

self-restraint.

He

that

well-behaved, of good disposition and contented soul, that knoweth his own Self and is possessed of wisdom, winneth great regard here and
attaineth to a blissful state hereafter.

Possessed of mature wisdom, he

that hath no fear of other creatures and
is

said to

be the foremost of
is

men.

universal friend, and no one

made

other creatures fear not, Seeking the good of all, he is a unhappy by him. Endued with

whom

gravity, like that of the ocean, and enjoying contentment in consequence
of his

wisdom, such a man is always calm and cheerful. Regulating their conduct according to the acts practised by the righteous of olden

times and before their eyes, they that are self-restrained, being devoted to peace, rejoice in this world. Or, abandoning Action, because contented
in

consequence of Knowledge, such a person, with

his senses

under

control

moveth
is

quickly in

this world,

waiting for the inevitable hour

feathery creatures in incapable of being perceived, so the path of the sage enjoying contentment in consequence of Knowledge is not visible. Abandoning the sky
the world he that betaketh himself,

and absorption into Brahma.

And

as the track of

Sannyasa mode
in heaven."

of life,

emancipation, to the hath bright and eternal regions assigned to him
in

pursuit of

SECTION LXIV
"Vidura said, We have heard, O sire, from old men, that once on a time a fowler spread his net on the ground for catching feathery
denizens of the
air.

And

in

that net

were ensnared

at

the same

time

two

birds that lived together.

And
way

taking the net up, the two winged

creatures soared together into the
sky, the fowler, without giving

air.

And

seeing

to despair,

them soar into the began to follow them in

the direction they flew. Just then, an ascetic living in a hermitage (close by), who had finished his morning prayers, saw the fowler running in
that

manner hoping

still

to secure the feathery

creatures.

And
it

seeing

that tenant of the earth quickly pursuing those
ascetic,

tenants of the

air,

the

O

Kaurava, addressed him in this Sloka.
to

O fowler,

appears very
earth, pursu-

strange
est yet

and wonderful

me

that thou, that art a treader of the
that are tenants of the air.'

a couple of creatures

The fowler

said,

These two, united together, are taking away my snare. There, however, where they will quarrel they will come under my control,

162

MAHABEARATA
"Vidura continued,
'The two
birds,

doomed

to death, soon

after

And when the foolish pair quarrelled, they both fell on the quarrelled. earth. And when, ensnared in the meshes of death, they began to contend angrily against each other, the fowler approached unperceived and seized them both. Even thus those kinsmen who fall out with one
another for the sake of wealth
birds
I
fall

into the hands of the

enemy

like the

talking together,

have cited, inconsequence of their quarrel. Eating together, These are the duties of kinsmen, and not contention

under any circumstances.

Those .kinsmen, that with loving hearts wait

on the
those,

old,

become unconquerable
of the
like

O

bull

like a forest guarded by lions. While Bharata race, that having won enormous riches

nevertheless behave

prosperity of

tneir

foes.

Bharata race, are
only smoke when

like

mean-minded men, always contribute to the Kinsmen, O Dhritarashtra, O bull of the charred brands, which blaze up when united but
I

disunited.

will

now

tell

thee something else that

I

saw on

a mountain-breast.
for

Having

listened to that also, do,

O

Kaurava

what

Once on a time we repaired to the Northern mountain, accompanied by some hunters and a number of Brahmanas,
is

thy best.

That Northern Gandhamadana, looked like a grove. As its breast was overmountain, grown on all sides with trees and plants and diverse kinds of luminous

fond of discoursing on charms and medicinal plants.

was inhabited by Siddhas and Gandharvas. And honey, of a bright yellow colour and of the measure of a jar, placed on a inaccessible precipice of the mountainThat honey, which was Kuvera's favourite drink, was guarded by snakes And it was such that a mortal, drinking of it would of virulent poison.
medicinal herbs,
it

there

we

all

saw

a quantity of

win immortality, become a youth.

a
It

sightless

man obtain sight, and an old man would was that those Brahmanas conversant with sorcery And
the

spoke about that honey.

hunters, seeing
all

that honey, desired,
in

O

king,

to

obtain

it.

And

they

perished

that

inaccessible

mountain-cave abounding with snakes. In the same way, this thy son He beholdeth the desireth to enjoy the whole earth without a rival.
honey, but seeth not, from folly, the terrible fall. It is true, Duryodhana desireth an encounter in battle withSavyasachin, but I do not see
a single car

that energy or prowess in him which may carry him safe through Arjuna conquered the whole earth. At the head of

it.

On

their

Bhishma and Drona and other were frightened by Arjuna and utterly routed at the city of Virata. Remember what took place on that occasion. He forgiveth still, looking up to thy face and waiting to know what thou wouldst do. Drupada, and the king of Matsyas, and Dhananhosts
will, like flames of fire urged by the wind, leave no army). O Dhritarashtra, take king Yudhishthira on thy lap since both parties can, under no circumstances, have victory when they will be engaged in battle.

jaya,

when angry,
(of thy

remnant

SECTION LXV
'Consider, O Duryodhana, O dear son, what Like an ignorant traveller thou thinkest, the wrong path to be the right one, since thou art desirous of robbing the energy of the five sons of Pandu, who are even as the five elements of the universe in their subtle form upholding all mobile and immobile things. Without the

"Dhritarashtra said,
thee.

I tell

certain sacrifice of thy

son of Kunti,

thou art unable to vanquish Yudhishthira, the all virtuous persons in this world. Alas, like a tree defying the mighty tempest, thou chafest at Bhimasena who hath not his peer (among men) in might and who is equal unto
life

who

is

the foremost of

Yama
as the

himself in battle.

What man
who
is

of sense

would encounter
all
is

in battle

the wielder of Qandiva,

the foremost of
?

Meru among mountains

What man

wielders of weapons, there whom Dhrishta-

dyumna, the prince of Panchala, cannot overthrow, shooting his arrows

among the

foes, like the chief of

the celestials hurling his thunder-bolt

?

That honoured warrior among the Andhakas and the Vrishnis, the irresistible Satyaki, ever engaged in the good of the Pandavas, will also What man of sense* again, would encounter the slaughter thy host. lotus-eyed Krishna who, as regards the measure of his energy and power,
surpasseth the three worlds ? As regards Krishna, his wives, kinsmen, relatives, his own soul and the whole earth, put on one scale, weigheth

with Dhananjaya on the other.
relieth,
tible
is

irresistible,

That Vasudeva, upon whom Arjuna and that host where Kesava is, becometh irresis-

everywhere.

Listen, therefore,

O child,

to the

counsels of those

Accept well-wishers of thine whose words are always for thy good. Bhishma, the son of Santanu, as thy guide. thou thy aged grandsire,
and what these well-wishers of the Kurus, Drona, and Kripa, and Vikarna, and king Valhika say. These all are It behoveth thee to regard them as much as thou regardest as I myself. me, since, O Bharata, all these are conversant with morality and bear affection to thee as much as I myself do. The panic and rout, before thy
Listen thou to

what

I

say,

troops with thy brothers, after surrender of the king, indeed, that wonderful story that is heard of an encounter at that city between one and many, are sufficient proof (of
eyes, at the city of Virata, of
all

thy

the
will

wisdom

of

what

I

say).

When

Arjuna singly achieves
united together?

not the Pandavas achieve when hand as t