HELICOPTER FLIGHT DYNAMICS The Theory and Application of Flying Qualities and Simulation Modelling Second Edition

Gareth D. Padfleld
BSc, PhD, C Eng, FRAeS

Blackwell Publishing

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Contents

Preface to first edition Preface to second edition Copyright acknowledgements Notation List of abbreviations Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Simulation modelling 1.2 Flying qualities 1.3 Missing topics 1.4 Simple guide to the book Chapter 2 Helicopter flight dynamics - an introductory tour 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Four reference points 2.2.1 The mission and piloting tasks 2.2.2 The operational environment 2.2.3 The vehicle configuration, dynamics and flight envelope Rotor controls Two distinct flight regimes Rotor stall boundaries 2.2.4 The pilot and pilot-vehicle interface 2.2.5 Resume of the four reference points 2.3 Modelling helicopter flight dynamics The problem domain Multiple interacting subsystems Trim, stability and response Theflappingrotor in vacuo t Theflappingrotor in air - aerodynamic damping Flapping derivatives The fundamental 90° phase shift Hub moments and rotor/fuselage coupling Linearization in general Stability and control resume The static stability derivative Mw Rotor thrust, inflow, Zw and vertical gust response in hover Gust response in forward flight Vector-differential form of equations of motion

xiii xvii xxi xxiii xxxiii

1 3 4 5

9 10 11 14 15 15 17 20 22 24 25 25 26 28 30 33 36 36 38 41 42 43 46 48 50

Contents Validation Inverse simulation Modelling review 2.4 Flying qualities Pilot opinion Quantifying quality objectively Frequency and amplitude - exposing the natural dimensions Stability - early surprises compared with aeroplanes Pilot-in-the-loop control; attacking a manoeuvre Bandwidth - a parameter for all seasons? Flying a mission task element The cliff edge and carefree handling Agility factor Pilot's workload Inceptors and displays Operational benefits of flying qualities Flying qualities review 2.5 Design for flying qualities; stability and control augmentation Impurity of primary response Strong cross-couplings Response degradation at flight envelope limits Poor stability The rotor as a control filter Artificial stability 2.6 Chapter review 52 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 66 67 70 71 72 73 75 75 77 78 79 79 80 80 81 81 84

Chapter 3 Modelling helicopter flight dynamics: building a simulation model 3.1 Introduction and scope 87 3.2 The formulation of helicopter forces and moments in level 1 modelling 91 3.2.1 Main rotor 93 Bladeflappingdynamics - introduction 93 The centre-spring equivalent rotor 96 Multi-blade coordinates 102 Rotor forces and moments 108 Rotor torque 114 Rotor inflow 115 Momentum theory for axial flight 116 Momentum theory in forward flight 119 Local-differential momentum theory and dynamic inflow 125 Rotor flapping-further considerations of the centre-spring approximation 128 Rotor in-plane motion - lead-lag 135 Rotor blade pitch 138 Ground effect on inflow and induced power 139 3.2.2 The tail rotor 142 3.2.3 Fuselage and empennage 146 The fuselage aerodynamic forces and moments 146 The empennage aerodynamic forces and moments 149

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3.2.4 Powerplant and rotor governor 3.2.5 Flight control system Pitch and roll control Yaw control Heave control 3.3 Integrated equations of motion of the helicopter 3.4 Beyond level 1 modelling 3.4.1 Rotor aerodynamics and dynamics Rotor aerodynamics Modelling section lift, drag and pitching moment Modelling local incidence Rotor dynamics 3.4.2 Interactional aerodynamics Appendix 3A Frames of reference and coordinate transformations 3 A. 1 The inertial motion of the aircraft 3A.2 The orientation problem - angular coordinates of the aircraft 3A.3 Components of gravitational acceleration along the aircraft axes 3 A.4 The rotor system - kinematics of a blade element 3A.5 Rotor reference planes - hub, tip path and no-feathering

152 154 154 158 158 159 162 163 163 164 167 168 171 175 175 180 181 182 184

Chapter 4 Modelling helicopter flight dynamics: trim and stability analysis 4.1 Introduction and scope 187 4.2 Trim analysis 192 4.2.1 The general trim problem 194 4.2.2 Longitudinal partial trim 196 4.2.3 Lateral/directional partial trim 201 4.2.4 Rotorspeed/torque partial trim 203 4.2.5 Balance of forces and moments 204 4.2.6 Control angles to support the forces and moments 204 4.3 Stability analysis 208 4.3.1 Linearization 209 4.3.2 The derivatives 214 The translational velocity derivatives 215 The angular velocity derivatives 224 The control derivatives 231 The effects of non-uniform rotor inflow on damping and control derivatives 234 Some reflections on derivatives 235 4.3.3 The natural modes of motion 236 The longitudinal modes 241 The lateral/directional modes 247 Comparison with flight 250 Appendix 4A The analysis of linear dynamic systems (with special reference to 6 DoF helicopter flight) 252 Appendix 4B The three case helicopters: Lynx, Bol05 and Puma 261 4B.1 Aircraft configuration parameters 261 The DRA (RAE) research Lynx, ZD559 261 The DLR research Bol05, S123 261

Contents

The DRA (RAE) research Puma, SA33O Fuselage aerodynamic characteristics Empennage aerodynamic characteristics 4B.2 Stability and control derivatives 4B.3 Tables of stability and control derivatives and system eigenvalues Appendix 4C The trim orientation problem Chapter 5 Modelling helicopter flight dynamics: stability under constraint and response analysis 5.1 Introduction and scope 5.2 Stability under constraint 5.2.1 Attitude constraint 5.2.2 Flight-path constraint Longitudinal motion Lateral motion 5.3 Analysis of response to controls 5.3.1 General 5.3.2 Heave response to collective control inputs Response to collective in hover Response to collective in forward flight 5.3.3 Pitch and roll response to cyclic pitch control inputs Response to step inputs in hover - general features Effects of rotor dynamics Step responses in hover - effect of key rotor parameters Response variations with forward speed Stability versus agility - contribution of the horizontal tailplane Comparison with flight 5.3.4 Yaw/roll response to pedal control inputs 5.4 Response to atmospheric disturbances Modelling atmospheric disturbances Modelling helicopter response Ride qualities

263 264 268 269 277 293

297 298 299 306 306 310 315 315 317 317 323 325 325 327 327 330 331 332 338 344 346 348 350

Chapter 6 Flying qualities: objective assessment and criteria development 6.1 General introduction to flying qualities 355 6.2 Introduction and scope: the objective measurement of quality 360 6.3 Roll axis response criteria 3*64 6.3.1 Task margin and manoeuvre quickness 364 6.3.2 Moderate to large amplitude/low to moderate frequency: quickness and control power 371 6.3.3 Small amplitude/moderate to high frequency: bandwidth 378 Early efforts in the time domain 378 Bandwidth 381 Phase delay " 386 Bandwidth/phase delay boundaries 387 Civil applications 389 The measurement of bandwidth 391

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Estimating a>bw and rp Control sensitivity 6.3.4 Small amplitude/low to moderate frequency: dynamic stability 6.3.5 Trim and quasi-static stability 6.4 Pitch axis response criteria 6.4.1 Moderate to large amplitude/low to moderate frequency: quickness and control power 6.4.2 Small amplitude/moderate to high frequency: bandwidth 6.4.3 Small amplitude/low to moderate frequency: dynamic stability 6.4.4 Trim and quasi-static stability 6.5 Heave axis response criteria 6.5.1 Criteria for hover and low speed flight 6.5.2 Criteria for torque and rotorspeed during vertical axis manoeuvres 6.5.3 Heave response criteria in forward flight 6.5.4 Heave response characteristics in steep descent 6.6 Yaw axis response criteria 6.6.1 Moderate to large amplitude/low to moderate frequency: quickness and control power 6.6.2 Small amplitude/moderate to high frequency: bandwidth 6.6.3 Small amplitude/low to moderate frequency: dynamic stability 6.6.4 Trim and quasi-static stability 6.7 Cross-coupling criteria 6.7.1 Pitch-to-roll and roll-to-pitch couplings 6.7.2 Collective to pitch coupling 6.7.3 Collective to yaw coupling 6.7.4 Sideslip to pitch and roll coupling 6.8 Multi-axis response criteria and novel-response types 6.8.1 Multi-axis response criteria 6.8.2 Novel response types 6.9 Objective criteria revisited Chapter 7 Flying qualities: subjective assessment and other topics 7.1 Introduction and scope 7.2 The subjective assessment of flying quality 7.2.1 Pilot handling qualities ratings - HQRs 7.2.2 Conducting a handling qualities experiment Designing a mission task element Evaluating roll axis handling characteristics 7.3 Special flying qualities 7.3.1 Agility Agility as a military attribute The agility factor Relating agility to handling qualities parameters 7.3.2 The integration of controls and displays for flight in degraded visual environments " Flight in DVE Pilotage functions Flying in DVE

397 399 401 402 404 404 408 410 413 417 420 424 424 427 429 430 433 433 436 437 437 440 440 440 442 442 444 447

455 456 457 464 464 466 478 478 478 481 484 487 487 488 489

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Contents
The usable cue environment UCE augmentation with overlaid symbology 7.3.3 Carefree flying qualities 490 496 500

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7.4 Pilot's controllers 508 7.5 The contribution of flying qualities to operational effectiveness and the safety of flight 511 Chapter 8 Flying qualities: forms of degradation 8.1 Introduction and scope 8.2 Flight in degraded visual environments 8.2.1 Recapping the usable cue environment 8.2.2 Visual perception in flight control - optical flow and motion parallax 8.2.3 Time to contact; optical tau, x 8.2.4 T control in the deceleration-to-stop manoeuvre 8.2.5 Tau-coupling - a paradigm for safety in action 8.2.6 Terrain-following flight in degraded visibility r on the rising curve 8.3 Handling qualities degradation through flight system failures 8.3.1 Methodology for quantifying flying qualities following flight function failures 8.3.2 Loss of control function Tail rotor failures 8.3.3 Malfunction of control - hard-over failures 8.3.4 Degradation of control function - actuator rate limiting 8.4 Encounters with atmospheric disturbances 8.4.1 Helicopter response to aircraft vortex wakes The wake vortex Hazard severity criteria Analysis of encounters - attitude response Analysis of encounters - vertical response 8.4.2 Severity of transient response 8.5 Chapter Review Appendix 8A HELIFLIGHT and FLIGHTLAB at the University of Liverpool FLIGHTLAB Immersive cockpit environment References Index

517 519 520 523 532 536 538 545 548 559 562 564 564 568 574 576 578 578 579 587 588 593 597 599 601 602 608 633