^ A v-^^^

^'^^ ^












Mary Anna Jackson
with an introduction



M. field, D.D.



Copyright, 1891, by

Harper & Brothers.

All rights reserved.










and all that concerned him Avas so sacred. as I AA^ent on. after reaching Avomanhood." I had no heart to truly continue the Avork but.PREFACE. of his only child. for the sake of the pre- cious little ones she In forcing my mind and pen " to do their task. After her departure. the bitterest sorrow and the pleadings does . encouraging me. it. that I could not consent to But time softens. Avhich Avas sorrow's crown of sorroAvs. in every and delighting page that . I '• . For many years after the death of my husband the shadow over my hfe Avas so deep. if it lift the veil to the public gaze. finally prevailed upon me to Avrite out for her of the father she and her chil- dren my memories had never known Avas Avritten on earth. I found some '' surcease of sorrow in carrvmo. out her Avishes. She was m\^ inspiration. and. renewed the effort to finish left. the . but the Avork Avas not more than half completed Avhen God took her to be Avith him Avhose memory she cher- ished Avith a reverence and devotion Avhich became more intense Avith the development of her own pure and noble character. remembering hoAV earnestly she Avished me to Avrite it for her and her children. not heal.

Maky An^^a Jackson.Vi PREFACE. who in no other way could ever know that tender and life. If it be thought that I have been too free in my it revelations of what was so purely personal. in that pertained to his home circle. exquisite ])hase of his inner wJiich was never re- vealed to the world. grand lessons of submission and fortitude of band's life nw hus- gave me strength and courage to ])ersevere to the end. . it must be remembered that this Avas written expressly for his grandchildren.



PAGE General Thomas J. . Father of Stonewall Jackson Birthplace of General Jackson. . Kichmond . at Chancellorsville 446 Facing page 478 The Jackson Statue by Foley.ILLUSTRATIONS. Lexington. Jackson Frontispiece. Lexington "Old Sorrel" 173 Monument AVhere Jackson Fell. Virginia 479 . Jackson's Tomb. Clarksburg. Facing page 8 West Virginia Stonewall Jackson at the Age op Twentyfour 15 View Near Lexington Facing page 48 " 53 54 The Virginia Military Institute 107 The Jackson Dwelling.


General Johnston. who.INTllODUCTION. opened his heart to General Buckner. As they drew near unnatural again. which enmities are In this bearing of our great soldiers towards each . equal partners in one glorious Union. by a singular coincidence. Our heroes. those strife felt who had been separated love the old come back and yearned for mutual recog- nition. on his death-bed. General Grant. survived him but a few weeks. dying wish that all her wounds might be healed and that henceforth the North and the It is South should stand together. The time has come when we can do justice to who were once in arms against us. are nearly in all gone to the grave. which had suffered so much. It was his . eral only a few months since Genstreets. now the great procesall sion to that realm of silence in buried. speaking with the utmost tenderness of the South. side those on the one and on the other. the end. fall into line in Thus the warriors who once "to battle rode" at the head of hostile armies. Sherman was borne through our those and among who followed at his bier was his great adversary.

yet down To in our hearts." as the leaders whom we '- are to follow in the work of re- union. rekindle this feeling. explosion of If it A great Avar terrific all were only as a human Civil passion. Men Avho are honest and braA^e have nothing to be ashamed of and nothing to conceal Avill . cannot It is a fail poor reconciliation which obtained only by It is the agreeing never to speak of the past. — it would have a terrible war has a still more all tragic interest. as it is a war between brothers. first but magtime tlie and sublime. kindly indeed. deep quarrels are proverbially bitter. and. the four years of our Civil they be draAvn together by the mutual attraction of noble characters. terrible. there is a lingering tenderness that other times and other scenes may awaken again. thing of which very we should speak.xii INTRODUCTION. though family the while. the present volume. then. the more Besides. a tragedy of which the world are spectators fascination. they Avho were it "first in war" were also '"first in peace. if it be not the design of to be one result of is it. and the better they know each other. it is true." ''first and were well if they should remain in the hearts of their countrymen. do is we its recall the memories of a ? war that ended. Other. Then for the stuff American people learned Avhat they Avere made . ^Vhy. cannot be forgotten. and that had better be forgotten dead. nificent AAvful." Let the dead past bury But out of that dead past comes the living present. AVar Avere in some respects the grandest since the nation Avas born. but Avithout reserve.

is but recognize them forever past. were Southerners. but by generaits A is generation that was distinguished by is w^ars followed by one that devoted to the arts of peace. did they perform such deeds. must be sunk low indeed if we are capable of most splendid period of American forgetting the histor}^ Nor would we have our annals limited to those who fought on the side that was victorious. xiii For the development of character those four years were better than a hundred years of unbroken Better than all the summer sunshine on prosperity. is counted not by years. there comes a time when the great figures that pass before us on the canvas of history are so blended that ly distinguish friends all we hard- from foes. Never to life. woke a nation its power. A nation's life tions. but as belono^in^" to us. and their of our is names are a part Therefore it tance of glory. and yet not think a part of loyalty to keep alive their hatreds. if 7 claimino: O thev 7^. or We make such sacrifices. tale of that common inheriwe welcome a war which niav be said to be told in the in- . since. ripening harvests were the thunders and lightnings that sciousness of rise and gave it the full conNever did our countrymen to such heights of courage and devotion. as actors in a time that And so we can read it the story of Lee and of Jackson with no wish to depreciate their greatness. of. and sons may be proud of the deeds of it their fathers. Indeed. they were illustrious also Americans.INTRODUCTION.

'' showed such high fortitude. such power command. he united there were two men in one : In Jackson qualities that are not only alien to each other. a silent man of myster}^. if in this a he were ''not with us but qualities. such and such true moral honor of us all. A character is in wliich such contradictions are combined fascinating studies to be found in one of the most history. but that seem almost incompatible — mihtary genius of the highest order .xiv terest of peace. I count a privilege to tribute to have a part. however Christian soldier. American One view of this extraordinary man has already been given to the world. Believing that a generous recognition of ^vhat was true and brave on both sides is the surest pledge of it complete reconciliation. Xot so high in command as General Lee on the one side. describes a career that illustrates qualities some of the noblest of human character. slight. asking no advice. neither had a personality so unique. In the great o})erations of w^ar he was a character apart. as to be worthy of the Stonewall Jackson was the most picturesque figure in the war. wrapping himself reserve as in a military cloak. he was in society so modest and unassuming as to appear even shy and timid. with a religious fervor that bordered on fanaticism union of the soldier and the saint for which a we must go back to the time of Cromwell. against of us. in his and uncommunicative . or General Grant on the other. who. form- ing his own plans. greatness. which those nearest to him could . as it INTRODUCTIOX. A thunderbolt in war.

The author has no thought of adding one more to the histories of the military career of General Jackson. It Avas . and which were disclosed even to his military family only when he gave Such is his orders for the march and the battle. But such is not the figure which it is the purpose of this volume to portray. there was another side to an inner life. her cheek might have blanched with fear. or a shade of anxiety passed over her all countenance that would have set to wondering what it meant. united to him in the human Of the war itself she has but little to tell us for he did not confide his plans even to her. Only when he signified that she should retire to a place of safety had she a forebod- . following on the map those rapid marches in which he was not surpassed by I^apoleon in his first campaigns and finding in his peculiar strategy enough in Italy . and fully the man — known only closest of all to her who was relations. XV not penetrate and hardly dared to conjecture. Stonewall Jackson as his martial figure passes before us on the canvas of history. known but to few. had he disclosed to her the dangers into which he was going. him a place among the great captains of the But with Jackson. to give age. and by military critics at home and abroad who have made a study of his campaigns. That has been written by his old companions in arms.INTRODUCTION. . as with others who have acted a great part in pubhc affairs. in the midst of thousands of watchful eyes. not that he distrusted her womanly discretion but.

for in his even when written from a field of battle. But when the battle was over.Xvi INTRODUCTION. when looked tlie at a little it more closely a revelation of man. that "by the blessing of Almighty a disapis God their this arms have been crowned with victory. he rode back with the tension of his mind relaxed. and entering his tent. even though the thunders were rolling in the distance. which could turn at once from the terrible excitement of war and direct his thoughts into a channel so remote that it carried him quite away in an opposite direction. then the tidings came ! Now we expect to know everything from the chief actor. is But again we are disappointed. there no attempt to describe it. nor when. and prayed only for tlie gift content not to of patience as she waited for the event. . which at first is But pointment. in the expression that often recurs in his letters. nor how. ing of what was to come Avhat direction he though she knew not Diit. Next to the acknowledgment of and ! his Maker was the Avitli thouirht of home. and hardly an allusion to it. she was know." and calmed his spirit in the presence of God. ^vith in was to move. when the the crisis past. " shut to the door. letters. a Avoman's loy- and her faith in God. child in her of the vouno: mother his arms The man of war was at the same . nor where he was to alty to her husband strike. While the battle raged he sat on his horse unmoved was in the very front of danger but . as shows the supreme self- command. and he could be spared from still field. except in a general way." extreme reticence.

^' Such devotion cannot be forgotten even lapse of a quarter of a century. that face was this open as the day. still line of battle. but the husband the same. bosom carries within it a great memory and affection.INTRODUCTION. centred in one spot. come again. was the first and tenderest of human beings . gentlest To her man of iron . All his heart was Many who read these pages will be surprised at the revelation of his passionate love of home. While the world it saw only the breast. best saw under a great human heart. to which he was eager to return. They sit round the old hearthstone. and kneel together in prayer. riding down the of her youth. whose thought was always for her whose strong arm guarded her from winds of harm Avho would not that even the summer should visit her too roughly. it is but the impulse of loyalty to the dead that she should Avish that others . and walk to the house of God in company. as the old days she sits by her desolate fireside. to her who looked up in his face with perfect trust and confidence. the idol of the army. she sees not the military hero. those soldier with a coat of mail over his who knew him Above all. Xvii time the most domestic of men. Filled with such memories." . and they are once more in the home that was always made bright by the sunshine of his presence. In her quiet hours. Still Still after the the yearning the faithful a great heart turns fondly to the past. As she looks bacE through the mist of years. though he never to cross its Avas threshold again.

anv they seem too personal. written out of a woman's ]\r. judged coldly and feeling of those I answer. but the man . this " unveiling. womanly shyness and by saying. . that they are not to be critically. and in every case you can replace the word of endearment by a blank but every time you do this you leave out a touch of ." Knowing.xviii INTRODUCTION. as she only can know. but tender and true. are these words of the dead. indeed. all his w-orth— that he was not only strong and brave. words that are whispered from the And sure we are that those who have read all the the Avar Avill erreat histories of turn with fresh interest to this simple story. for this fond devotion." you can leave it all out. was a part is of the man as truly as his military genius. that the world should appreciate not only the soldier. with a heart as soft as her own. and that the nearer men came to him the more they loved him— she is right to let him speak for himself in these gentle dust. IIeNKY FlKLI). but nothing too sacred to be devoted to such a memory. which those who have If to been permitted to see them privately have earnestly requested to have given to the public. this exquisite tenderness. Stonewall Jackson. know all the irentleness and the tenderness that were in that lion heart. and I have met the timidity that shrank from " Yes. but with the sympathetic who are themselves cajmble of such tenderness . heart. should know liim whose name she bears as she knew that they should him . Sacred. This is revealed nowhere so fully as in his letters to her during the war.

The young man. industry. was about twentythree years of age. THE OLD ENGLISH AND SCOTCH. and he needed only the help as a wife to of the make home in the forest a happy and prosperous one. and when. of quiet but deter. active and energetic. JACKSON I. He was of after he left England. John Jackson. . 1 Scotch -Irish descent. but of good mind and sound left woman whom God gave him judgment. his eldest son. new homes in the British colonies of Amer- In this vessel were a young man and a young woman.LIFE AND LETTERS OF GENERAL THOMAS CHAPTER J. but who were probably unknown to each other when they embarked for the strange land to which they were bound. both from the city of London. bearing a number of passengers who were seeking ica. and the impress upon his generation of great goodness. fifty years George Jackson. He was small of stature.IRISH STOCK. and tranquil courage. In the year IT'lS a ship sailed from the coast of EDgland. and was endowed with many of the qualities which insure success in life — being true and mined character noble his upright.

and then fled from her home. that their ancestors came from the same parish near Londonderry. — a marriage which was so become also her repulsive to her daughter that she could not it. the unfortunate man must have recovered from the broken head. the young woman wlio Avas the fellow passenger of John Jackson. was a member of Congress at the same time that Andrew Jackson was Senator from Tennessee. it is supposed. As the circumstances of Elizabeth's flight made it impossible for her to procure money for her journey. It Avas the custom at that time for emigrants Avho had not the means of paying for their passage as she Avas — — across the Atlantic to bind themselves for a certain term of service on reaching the colonies. Her step-father. young not more than fifteen or sixteen she was not of a nature to do things by halves. and he was supposed to own stances to '' landed estates in Ireland. they found. his widow married her brother-in-law reconciled to uncle. six feet in height.2 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and as remarkable for strength of intellect as for beauty and physical vigor. After his death. She Avas well educated. on comparing notes. with the stature of a man. She scarcely missed her aim. - her father having been in sufficiently easy circum- own and rent out a public-house in London called The Bold Dragoon. for." from which he derived a good income. was a handsome blonde. she proA^ed her heroism by adopting this a life mode of escaping from Avhich had become intolerable to her. However. who was one day aroused her indignation to such a pitch that with her powerful arm she hurled a silver tankard at his head. Ehzabeth Cummins. or family tradition would have recorded his death. . JaCKSOX.

at the place now known as Moorfields. to which they fled with their families in times of danger. But after a short residence in this beautiful valley. but she proudly refused his During the voyage she formed the friendship of a famil}^ bound for Maryland. and thus earned assistance. made an impression upon her heart. ridge. It is natural to suppose that Elizabeth sessions of was the magnet that kept him from wandering farther The until he succeeded in winning her for his wife.THE OLD ENGLISH STOCK. the settlers were often attacked by these treacherous foes. and a year or two later they were married in Calvert the money to County. at a place which was long known as Jackson's Fort. and his purse. John Jackson's devotion. Here. and made their first home upon the south branch of the Potomac. pay her passage. Alleghany contending with the whites for the possession of the lands. who were still them to seek broader lands. surrounded by the Indian tribes. Tradition has pre- which Elizabeth Jackson displayed on these occasions. he also having settled in the posLord Baltimore upon his arrival in the New World. 3 John Jackson Avas so captivated with this stately Saxon beauty. and accepted their offer of a home and employment. and her served instances of the intrepid spirit many . in their desire to find new and cheaper lands. moved at once to Western Virginia. that he eagerly offered her his heart. but is now the little village of Buckhannon. young couple. the county seat of Hardy County. his hand. however. She never quailed at the sound of the war-whoop. the enterprising spirit of the pair led and they crossed the and settled upon the Buckhannon Eiver. Maryland. For their protection the whites were com- pelled to build stockade forts.

. and for a long time was surveyor of that region of country — a business that was very lucrative and he acquired a large estate. by their sagacity and industry acquired the most valuable lands of the country. John Jackson and and at close returned to their homes and devoted themselves to the improvement of their The patriarch.cheering the women and children. by whom he had three sons. and also in Congress. Their eldest son was Colonel George Jackson. When the American Eevolution broke out in 1775. Harrison County. JACKSON. in her own name — lands which proved able property to her descendants. and the other two married brothers of the name of Brake. The second son was Edward. Ohio. and were enabled to endow each one of their eight chilIndeed. Elizabeth. who lived at Clarksburg. the grandfather of the He made his home in Lewis County. life. A second marriage added to his family nine more in those early days. patents are still in existence. John. of whom one married a man named White. where he spent the remainder of his subject of this memoir. David. esteemed and beloved. it is said that several dren with a farm. and his true helpfortunes. meet. was heard. and three daughters. not only in sootliing and . bnt in inspiring the men to heroic resistance. and was a vigorous and energetic man. his older sons bore their part in its it as soldiers. about four miles from the village of Weston. and who received his title in the Eevolutionar}^ war. He represented his State in the General Assembly of Virginia. and Jonathan.4 voice LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. He first married a Miss Hadden. After the death of his father he removed to Zanesville. George. transmitted to Elizabeth valu- Jackson.

and can truly add. whose sister he had married in 1801 " Death. cess of happiness. part in the Revolutionary his farming. until a few days before his death. John Jackson. upon the establishment of which he laboriously pursued until the marriage of his youngest son. and make their decease sincerely regretted by all the good and virtuous. President Madison. who and the had much to do with among whom was Cummins. He was a native of England. to be near their eldest son. 5 kind half-uncle his youth. when he w^as prevailed upon by my father to come and reside near him there he lived several years Avith his wife. put a period to my aged grandfather. John and Elizabeth Jackson. and the death is thus described by his grandson. I saw him breathe his last in the arms of my aged grandmother. tire disposal of He left a valuable estate at the enall the widow. that to live and die as he did would be the ex. sons and daughters. dence. and miin the eighty-sixth this grated hither in the year 1748. the befriended Thomas J. in a letter to Mrs. that his early life. enjoying all his mental faculties and great corporeal strength. John G. removed to the of the aged sire town of Clarks- burg. as his liberality had been amply experienced by them all in his lifetime. Jackson in only one. so far as we know. George. and. In their declining years the old couple. He took an active returned to war in favor of indepenit. The long life of good man was spent in those noble and virtuous pursuits which endear men to their acquaintance. Jackson. with the concurrence of the natural heirs. the existence of on the 25th of September.: DEATH OF THE OLD PIONEER." . year of his age.

for in both of these pioneer progenitors. Bv her rare physical and intellectual stamina. succeeded his father in Congress. JACKSON.: Q LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. energy. living to the extreme age of o?ie hu7idred A great-granddaughter describes her atidjive years! at the age of a centur}^ as being well preserved and verv interesting. He Avas an eminent lawyer. sterling integrity. when one of his relatives was a candidate for some political office. and was appointed . of Clarksburg. for John Jackson himself. Judge William L. taking an interest in eve?y worthy person who had a drop of his blood in his veins. one to his cousin. Before the war. urging his support. this remarkable strong and noble race fitted to be the mother of a and those of her descendants who have met with any success in life have shown the same clear intellect. and he himself was warm in his family attachments. he took the liveliest interest in his election. and courage. was the equal of General his wife in uprightness. and greatly beloved and revered by her long line of descendants. according to tradition. Jackson (at that time LieutenantGovernor of Virginia). Jackson always had a pride in his ancestry. The stout-hearted wife of his youth survived him until 1825. the eldest son of Colonel George Jackson. One of the most distinguished sons of the house was John G. and saying "I am most anxious to see our family enjoying that high standard and influence which it possessed in days He always said his Jackson relations were of yore. and wished ." very clannish. and force of The house of Jackson has much to be thankful will. woman was that the high character of the fathers should be per- petuated in their descendants. Jackson. and wrote several letters in his behalf.

my dear Jackson. the first 7 Federal Judge of the AYestern District of married Miss Payne. I feel scarcely able to hold tell my pen. flattered from them and my owm letter. Oh that Heaven may spare her to you and my brother "I send you Doctor Jones's versed with a great deal. Dolly P. Prepare for the next also. sister whose image and for whose suflferings. "Hasten to tell me your hopes see you leading to us my precious dreary. j the quarrels in Congress. Madison will get time to write I to you. and feels for you as she ought. trust. "Anna well. aged forty-eight years. Adieu. ter of of life * The folloAving letter from Mrs. you. sister of " pretty Dolly Madison. that she would get ! well. D. expressing herself in regard to the illness of her sister (his wife). I could and have been to us. whom I have seen and consister's — You cannot doubt your are revived. " All me here is bustle and confusion." . 1825. How w^orld appear without you all I cannot express to you the desolation that seems to surround since I received yours of the 7th. I can say have never an hour been absent from my mind ? prepared to receive and to is Week after week have I looked and nurse my dear Polly." the much-admired wife of President James Madison. and me " of your sweet little Mary Ever your affectionate is sister. and now. in the deepest my ! dear brother. does this and your children. jDost. distress 12th. alas she I too ill [for me] to expect at all. on account of Rose's arrival. I have consulted everybody. Madison. President Madison to Judge Jackson. He Governor Meigs. w'hose judgment witli the hope. opinion. He died in the prime in the same year with his venerable grandmother.A second wife was the only daughVirginia. C. 1807. January " Oh.. and that I may ! yet how forlorn.: JUDGE JACKSOX. sister love for and her soul-felt sympathy. of Ohio. and the multitude of strangers falls but it upon my senses like the gloom of death "I hope 'My. your letter has plunged me What can I do for that w^itli beloved truth. will be of interest "Washington.

Judge John G. a lawyer. The following also to facts relative to the Jonathan Jackson wei^e furnished . and the father of Thomas Jonathan. the daughter of a merchant of Parkersburg. Among the pupils we found two noble and highly promising young men Edward. John. a thorough scholar with long experience as a teacher. together with his quaint style. Ky. Jackson.: 8 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS of Colonel J. the father of Colonel Alfred H. The other sons studied his profession with his distinguished cousin. JACKSON. •physician. a connection of the Xeales Neale family and by Dr. George were Echvard. David and as they were written in his ninety-first year. He was a lawver. an old Englishman. It appears had had some correspond- ence with him about the history of General Jackson. who was a staff-officer of General Jackson.) and George "Washington. Ohio. William L. whose patronage induced him to settle at Clarksburg. and handsome mouth. pleasing face. He died at Chillicothe. Jonathan Jackson. son of George Jacksolely — . He " wrote The Clarksburg Male Academy was conducted by George Tor vis. was mortally wounded at the battle of Cedar Run. representing an open. was a man of short stature. Creel. only a that General Robert E. this. son of Edward. will add to their interest. blue e3^es. Jackson. having . and lies buried near his beloved commander in the cemetery at Lexington. a and father of the judge of the same name (now living in Louisville. There is a beautiful miniature of him. Lee few years ago.. Virginia. like his grandfather. and soon afterwards he married Juha Beck with Xeale.

) (From a .FATHER OP^ STONEWALL JACKSON. paiiited miniature.


He was also excise master. and Jonathan Jackson read law. Creel continues his account of the jN'eale family : . in for the young cousins. These fathers were brothers. who were as manhood became rival suitors Jonathan carrying off hand of Julia JS'eale. JACKSON. This was about the fall of 1813.EDWARD AXD JONATHAN son. so as to give assurance of peace and freedom from danger. studied medicine. or United States revenue officer of the cessfully county. after leaving school. a mutual attachment was created. presented their claims and got from us the money for them." Dr. In paying the soldiers of the county of Harrison war of 1812. confi- dence. one or two of them. and sincerely lamented when they both died in the prime of life. Both attained to some degree of eminence in their respective professions. and good wishes of all who knew them. senior. in consequence of sickness. at which time he was suc*' in the . Jonathan Jackson. son of Edward Jackson. While at school with these young men. and among the pioneers of the country some time before the Indians had retired. the prize. did not receive their pay but soon afterAvards their friend. and soon became wealthy and independent farmers of high standing and respectability. which was warmly cherished. 9 and Jonathan. Edward Jackson." It is said that these brothers at school. engaged in the practice of law. with the esteem. and became stronger and more endearing while they lived.

Thomas Xeale (the maternal grandfather of General Jackson) married Margaret Winn. six miles large from Parkersburg. Julia. respected and beloved for his noble attributes of character. After our return larl^^ not only because she was our great favorite. in AVestern Virginia. Georo:e Neale. " In the early part of the nineteenth century. who had married one in a daughters. He located in Parkersburg and engaged in the mercantile business. When Julia Xeale became our pupil. removed from the county of Loudon to Wood CounGeorge Lewis purchased a ty. Alfred. and few ye-a-vs became a wealthy and independent farmer. and had a family of five children— two daughters. but especially because of her connection with the history Jonathan Jackson. JACKSOX. endowed with a good natural mind. Alfred. and William. Parkersburg. Minor. and three sons. purchased several hundred acres of land from his father-in-law. which had been located by General Washington. George and Thomas Xeale. who resided on the west side of Bull Run Mountain. tract of land lying on the Ohio River. and gave She was rather a bruus no trouble in her recitations. of '• . George Lewis and two brothers. and the father of Thomas Jonathan Jackson. home from the Academy at Clarkswe commenced teaching school in the village of burg. Harriet and Julia. the daughter of Minor Winn.10 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and among the pupils were three of Thomas Xeale's children— Harriet. who became her husband. soon acquired the habit of close application. and left by his will to one of his of his leiratees. only a few miles from where the first battle was fought in the late war. she was about thirteen years old. and his oldOf Julia we desire to speak particuest son.

affianced lord came to pay her that homage which soon terminated in a matrimonial alliance. express the belief that this extraordinary man. and built a business house upon the ground. and incautious nature. And now.JONATHAN JACKSON. intending in the future for his family more commodious dwelling on the front of the large. when at maturity. when her . and with the comfortable patrimony which he had inherited from his father he had a promising future but. and when he was cut down in the meridian of life every vestige of his property was swept away. when the lot became so valuable with the growth of the town that the owner tore down the Httle cottage. and. H nette. built for a law office. was indebted to us. . dark -gray eyes. he became deeply involved by giving security for others. grassy lot. General Lee. especially as a pleader in the chancery courts. His four children were all born in the cottage. in his kind letter to us. He was an affec. handsome face. with dark -brown hair." Jonathan Jackson began housekeeping with his young wife which he to erect a in a neat brick cottage of three rooms. of medium height and symmetrical form. But his pecuniary misfortunes and untimely death prevented the reahzation of this hope. we still in memory behold her as standing before us reciting her lessons with a pleasant smile and also in the maturity of womanhood. more or less. Jonathan was a successful lawyer. being of a free. at the close of our ninety-first year. was pleased to . . . and it was preserved as the birthplace of General Jackson until a few years since. generous. ' Stoneas the wall ' Jackson. instructor of his mother.

Thomas Jonathan. tionate and devoted husband and father. after reaching the age of manhood. disease who died of the same two weeks before her father. of her descendants. their showed what they inherited from grandmother. which it is said he . Several who are noted for their enterprise. cultivahospitality. of General Jackson's kindred on both sides of the house. Meigs. and was noted for his herculean strength. When his father was engaged to be married.12 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. JACKSOX. " Return. an unfortunate misunderstanding led to a temporary separation. which weighed so hard on the disconsolate lover that tion relented when the object of his devo- and said. and was proportionately strong and powerful. live there and some of the Jackson and keep up the name with also and honor. situated in a picturesque country. erected monuments over the graves of his father and little sister in the cemetery children that survived at Clarksburg. Elizabeth. The three him were Warren. was six feet and seven inches in height. fell upon his and he therefore commemorated his crowninghappiness by giving his first son this unique name." he declared those were the sweetest words that ever ears. and Laura. and warm-hearted members of Edward Jackson's large family. Clarksburg family credit still is a pretty and thriving town. One of who bore the singtilar name Eeturn Meigs. in physical stature. There is a little romance in the family about the way he got his name. and lost his life by a malignant fever which he contracted in nurs- ing his eldest child. Cummins Jackson was also of lofty stature. At Parkersburg are found many tion. His son Thomas. Elizabeth Cummins.

ily as were the brothers. ." was as remarkable as natural force was much abated. when she thought her ful industry. and wonderIn her old age. "Aunt Katie. AYhite. more marvellous still. that he could take up a barrel of flour under each one of his arms and carry them out of his mill One of his sisters. 13 proved by lifting a barrel of cider and taking a drink from the bung-hole and.! STRENGTH IX OLD AGE. she was known to spinning-wheel twenty-eight "cuts" of spin upon her Twelve flax a day. Mrs. physical strength. for her size. in addition to milking her cows ! cuts a day was the usual task for servants. known in the fam.

she spent the greater part of the few years of her widowhood. at least. been very trying to her delicate frame relief in but she found spending a good deal of her time with her . and he did not remember dates with accurac}^ of TTest Virginia . without a home or means of supBut her own and her husband's relations assistport. The weight of the cares and struggles must have . FATHER OF THE MAX. Here she taught a little school. with her fatherless children. that on the 21st of January. was»the supposed date of his birth. Thomas Jonathan Jackson. for in consequence of the early breaking-up of his father's family no record of the event was ever found. and his mother was left a widow with three helpless children." moir. the subject of this mewas born in the town of Clarksburg. a Virginian. He was only in his third year when his father died (of whom he was too young to have an}^ remembrance). they now gave her a small house of only one room and in this huilible abode. ed her and as he had been an officer in the order of Freemasons (who had presented him with a gold medal in token of their respect). Clarksburg is now in the State but as he did not live to see the Old Dominion so cruelly sundered in twain. as he . and also added to her support l)y sewing. he died was born. Virginia. 1S24:. .CHAPTER "THE BOY IS 11.

. her easy. She was look- TrtW BIRTHPLACE OF GENERAL JACKSON." where her brother. CLARKSBURG. A friend wrote : " I met her in summer of 1827. WEST VIRGINIA ing as cheerful and ani- mated as usual. in Wood County. Minor W. to Captain Blake B. graceful manners and pleasant cunversation always making her a wel- come guest. and a widower without fortThe relatives of her first husband oflPered to une. a lawyer of good education. always accompanied and remained with the her. against the wishes of her friends. of Cumberland County. and of social. . popular manners but he was much her senior." In the year 1830 Mrs. father in 15 Wood County . Jackson was married a second time.BIRTHPLACE. and in the heat of summer she went to a place called ^'The Ridge. Woodson. Neale.

her delicate health completely giving way after the birth of a son. good " Uncle Kobinson.16 LIFE OF if GENERAL THOMAS J. time a rosy-cheeked. and necessity soon compelled the poor mother to give up her two boys to the care of their father's relations. blue-eyed boy. at this behind one of his father's former slaves. to be sent to the house of his He was It was a heart-breaking separation. temptations to the boy in town. help her her that she would remain a widow. who wished to relieve the mother of his support. with waving brown hair. That parting he never forgot nor could he speak of it in after-years but with the utmost tenderness. So Thomas. and the result was what they had preif Though Captain Woodson was always kind means were inadequate to the support of a family. at the age of uncle. Their mother lived only a little over a year after lier second marriage. while warning she married again they should have to take her children from her to support them. her yearning heart called him back once more. and. Isaac Brake. Warren had been sent some time before to the home of his aunt. where he had dicted. and bidding him goodby. wlio was named Wirt. to whom she clung with all a mothShe had him mounted on horseback. Mrs. to the children. Laura. and after the marriage Captain "Woodson removed to Fayette County. six years. and she had consented on account of the greater . she kept wath her. The youngest child. er s devotion. she gave vent to her feelings in a flood of tears. As she lingered . But all Avas of no avail. his slender received the appointment of clerk of the county. JACKSOX. had to take leave of his mother. clasping him to her bosom. and after providing him with every comfort." of whom he was very fond.

17 two fatherless boys. could have died with more fortitude. and her prayers. 1855.. see the . that a 2 who had the kindness to go with us. and in your fam- have not been dissipated. stated foot board with her wooden head or name on . to find her grave and erect a monument over it but nearly all who had known her during her brief residence there had passed away. There was no stone to mark the spot. " Though I have reached home. no matter what evidence he might have had of a happy hereafter. Perfectly in her senses. w^hich her son visited in after-years. counsels. she met her fate without a murmur or a struggle. Neale. who was then seven ^^ears of age. yet the pleasures enjoyed under jonr hospitable roof. Parkersburg " Sept. and the gentleman with whom I put up was at my mother's burial. After his return to his home in Lexington. I stopped to Hawk's Nest. none of superior. Mrs. to and blessing.. merit." Her remains were buried near the famous " Hawk's JN'est " of New Kiver. at several weeks. he wrote to his aunt. Another ily circle. gentleman. and triumphant death made an indelible impression upon the mind of Thomas. . calm and deliberate. Captain Woodson says " No Christian on earth. Death for her had no sting. In a letter announcing her death. and no one could be found who could point out the spot with certainty. and accompanied me to the cemetery for the purpose of pointing out her grave to me but I am not certain that he found it. I have known few women of equal. she sent for her receive her farewell : . the grave could claim no victory.: HIS MOTHER'S rxRAYE. 4th.

Kansom. one of his old soldiers. giving the dates of her birth and death. that for. Please give left to me the date in your next letter. Fayette County. When to which standing by her grave. This grave. greatly neglected. was so anxious to do himself. But no stone was erected until a gentleman of Staunton. JACKSOX. Captain Thomas D. and the commands so extensive and exquisite. for- — merly of Albemarle County. still used as a buryingIt is place by the dwellers in this mountain region. had been put up. On Saturday last I lost my porte-monnaie. West Virginia. there. — . in preserving his what he mother s : grave from oblivion. though a few are protected by fence-rails. after General Jackson's death. it little pens of view^ it The location is so beautiful. and man}^ graves are scarcely to be found. seeing the neglected condition of the grave."' It was the generous impulse of a Confederate soldier to do.IS it LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS it J. I experienced feelings I was seeking I was until then a stranger. Stevens M. is an old graveyard. the spot partly for the purpose of erecting something to her precious memory. is w^orthy of being well cared lie Among those who buried here is the mother of that noble Christian soldier. or General Stonewall Jackson. spot— for the grave is scarcely to be recognized has been kindly cared for by Mr. but was no longer A depression in the earth only markKl her resting-place. near the mining village of Anstead. " One who visited the spot writes On the top of a beautiful wooded hill. had prepared a simple but a tall slab of marble with an suitable monument inscription. and in it was the date of my mother's birth. Taylor.

White. and loveliness and when. and later with their kind to them. the children were er sent back to their Jackson relatives— AYarren returning to Mrs. w^hich left no ladies in the Laura was sent to find a home among her household. and Thomas and Laura finding a home for a time with their aunt. two daughters. Mrs. Jonathan Arnold. 19 and adding that it is 'a tribute to the mother of Stonewall Jackson." After the death of their mother. by one of his old brigade. and not Thomas. fatherless child. and lived with them until she was married to Mr. while he was in the midst of the army. does not re- ever lived with either of their uncles-in-law Brake. because they couldn't a statement which accords with the characasrree" Thomas and Laura lived with their ter of the bo}^ step-grandmother until her death and after the marlittle boy from his " uncle — .' sion Such a mother could not but leave a deep impresupon the heart of such a son. he wrote that he wished her to be called " Julia. grace. and says that it was their brother Warren." saying. step-grandmother Jackson. before his death. who was always Laura. a little daughter was born to him. a few months . Arnold. His recollections of her were of the sweetest and tenderest character. Thomas Jackson and Stark Yirs-inia. To the latest hour of his life he cherished her memory. W. were the only nephews of General Jackson. I^^eale relatives. To his childhood's fancy she was the embodiment of beauty. " My moth- was mindful of me when I was a helpless. who is still living. who ran away when a member that Thomas Brake. and I wish to commemorate her now. Brake. riage of her ." SEPARATED FROM BROTHER AND SISTER. West Her two sons. of Beverly.

all alone. left the house of Mr. and walked four or five miles into the town of Clarksburg to the house of Judo^e Jackson. truly. he and I don't agree I have quit him. sang a great but in after-years he did not show any musical talent. and asked Mrs. Jackson to give him his dinner. tried to persuade him to return. and at her death her son stead. Jackson was surprised and. and being a large-hearted. his sister says. The boyhood " though very fond of hearing music. While eating at the table he very quietly said " Uncle Brake and I don't agree I have quit him. and told her the same story. and Thomas and Laura spent much time eighteen miles mins. The child is father of the man/' . He was a cheerful deal . when only nine or ten years old. Brake." Mrs. of Jackson showed that. when there were any schools in the neighborhood. more. lived at the old Jackson homeCounty.: 20 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and shall not go back any : . JACKSON. who received in play. The next day he walked to the home of his uncle Cumhim with great kindness. he not only kept Thomas with him to rear and educate. not go back any more. but his unvarying answer was '' Xo. and the two orphan boys were very happy at being together under the same roof. disapprov- ing of such independence in so young a lad. his fathers cousin. Warren. bo3^ and. asked He if then went to the house he could spend the night. in Lewis Cummins became the head of the house. and shall . The story runs that this boy. but he also gave AVar- The grandmother ren a home after he ran away from his uncle Brake. he always having a care over his little sister. Avho had offended him by sternness. Here the three children went to school. generous man." of another cousin.

nothing daunted. but his reply was. and when the bell rang for resuming study he worked away as if he did not hear it. whether At school. he would place Laura at one end and himself at the other. totally oblivious of his duty to return to his lessons. when and boiling down the sugar. determination.BROTHER AND SISTER TOGETHER. bird-traps. and after com- ing into possession of one of his own he made faithful . for it 21 was marked by the same energy. rabbit-snares. " Wait till I finish this fiddle !" and not until the teacher went out and compelled obedience did he relinquish his task. our young hero went to work and framed a little raft. Laura followed him everywhere. and in this way they often caught the little creatures w^ith their hands. he became absorbed in making a cornstalk jfiddle. upon which he and Laura would cross daily. In his childhood he violin. The children wandered all over the farm. but. and en- gaged in many of the making youthful enterprises. and busy themselves in drawing the sap In after -years. The trees stood on the other side of a creek which had no bridge over it. during recess. he often had occahe became the leader of sion to build bridges across streams for his troops. armies." day. No matter what he undertook. he " never gave up. even in his rabbit After runhunts. in which he showed the same indomitable perseverance in overcoming obstacles that he had shown when a boy. He busied himself in making and was extravagantly fond of the in other rustic diversions. one of which was maple sugar. ning a rabbit into a hollow log. one of work or play. and perseverance that were to distinguish him in his future career. Laura was sent to call him. in which he was quite an expert.

among them a military efforts to learn to play upon it. and lie could not have been treated with more kindHe gave the lads ness if he had been his own son. it is said. when same home have the or two. all the advantages though these were not great in that new and unimproved region. Thomas was studious and persevering. showing a great desire to make the best of his advantages but Warren was the reverse. so the boys were engaged during the remainder of the year in assisting their uncle in the operations of the farm and mills. Cummins Jackson was a bachelor of middle age. With monev he saved from West Point he bought her a silk dress as a present upon his return home during his first vacation. AVhen a boy. endowed with the gift of music. pay at and being a man of independent fortune and a kind heart. . happy ter did not continue of the little brother and sis- more than a year they were separated. JACKSOX. was his favor ite. and as he grew up his strong will. and his independent and restless spirit impelled iiim to launch out for himself and seek his own fortune. this was one of the few things he attempted in which he did not succeed. he did learn a few songs. relations with her his and kept up the most affectionate as lono' as he lived.'' life This united. It was the custom to have schools for only about three months during the winter season. airain.22 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. called '' Xapoleon's Ketreat. but. never to Bat he cherished a warm attachment for her. not being one. At school . The latter. His uncle thought it best not to thwart him in this. which liad never been controlled. he was disposed to do all in his power for Warren and Thomas. of education his county afforded.

in the Ohio. Here they spent the summer alone. for a flight farther down the Ohio. Their story was that. but in the autumn they came back. wood for the passing Their lodging-place was a miserable cabin. which made such ravages upon their . Several months passed. after floating down the Ohio. and the island being exceedingly malarious.— IN . worn and soiled from travel. Thomas was very reluctant to go. and were most kindly received by him and his good wife but as this uncle prescribed for tliem the same excellent discipline as their uncle Cummins that they should work on the farm and go to school AVarren again rebelled. that like repentant prodigals. they contracted chills and fever. and earning their living as best they could. were too great Thev went first to the home of their to be resisted. glad in enough to return to kindred and friends. and their faces bore the marks of sickness and suffering. and spread his unfledged wings . to accompany him. But the saddest part of this exodus was. they landed on a small island in the Mississippi. and was happy in his free and. and their friends heard noth- ing of the young wanderers . near the southwestern corner of Kentucky. SEARCH OF ADVENTURE. taking Thomas with him. of only twelve. for he loved his uncle. uncle Alfred Neale. but such a sad phght Their clothes were it was touching to see them. and sup- ported themselves by cutting steamboats. bountiful home but his affection for Warren. that he persuaded his young brother. and perhaps the latter's authority over him as an elder brother. who lived on James Island. 23 and so the boy left this kind uncle and good home when he was about fourteen years of age.

. with the brother. which had been his home after his separation from his mother. until But Warren was too proud or ashamed to seek he had so rashly left. JACKSON. Before his death he sent for Thomas and Laura to come and see him once more. greater desire than ever for self- Thomas showed a improvement. if not better. consumption at the age of nineteen. so he went to the house of his aunt. and the recovery of his health. who gave them passage no on his boat. mounted on horseback. and he became a valuable assistant to his uncle in the management of his farm and mills. Classical academies had not then been introduced into that part of the country. where he received the kindest treatment but he never recovered from the effects of the exposure and hardships encountered during that disastrous trip. and here he remained ceived an appointment as a cadet at AVest Point. for their escapade. Thomas determined at once to return to his uncle — Cummins. Isaac Brake. frames that they could stand it no longer so by the kindness of a captain. influence of his sainted mother. but there were good English . had changed the ungoverned boy to such gentleness and submission that he no longer wished to live.24 teDcler LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. trip After the wholesome experience of his adventurous down the Ohio. they were enabled to reach home doubt wiser. they rode across the country to pay this last visit to their dying They found that this long illness. where the comforts of home and him to the fine air his of his native climate soon restored wonted he rehealth and strength. but was able to depart in perfect peace. and. Mrs. and after hngering a few years he died of asrain the shelter of a roof Avhicli .

yet he ahvays " stuck to it '' with a tenacity that would not lesson unmastered. acknowledge frankly that he knew^ nothing of that lesson. not having yet perfected the previous one. and in a boyish combat would never yield to defeat. his sense of justice was very strong. In this way he sometimes fell behind his class but as he had a retentive memory. and he soon proved so capable that he was intrusted with the duties of overseer of the laborers in Thomas getting the largest trees out of the forest. but in his other studies he had to work hard. and convey- ing them to the mill to be sawed into lumber. in any game his side was pretty sure to come off victorious. the knowledge that he gained w^ith so much labor was indelibly impressed upon his mind. He was a ringleader in boyish sports. His temper as a boy was cheerful and generous. when his time to recite. early learned to put his young shoulders to the wheel. 25 and he was a diligent. an expert in climbing and jumping and whenever he was captain his associates. as endur- . but he was quick to resent an . ment from able. ''let if go. and found no difficulty in excelling his classmates. and came he w^as gentle and peaceinsult.OVERSEER OF WORKMEN OX THE FARM. in all which he showed great intelligence as well ance and efficiency. though In arithmetic he was quick. There was an instinctive courtesy in his conduct." He never left a he had not been able to finish a task with his class. and his truthfulness was proverbial. he would. was slow in development. hav- ing a strong mind. and as long as he met with fair treat. it plodding scholar. In the management of his uncle's farm and mills. schools .

and to ride his uncle's racers as soon as he was old enough. His uncle kept a number of blooded horses.. of fox hunts and horse racing. a horse had any winning qualiTom Jackson never failed to bring them out on the turf!" races for his uncle. was somewhat dismayed at such a ghostly apparition. But though he won and won a good deal of money. too. and so well taught was he to ride that he was never thrown. Naturally he came to share in the pleasures of the chase. he never had the least propensity to the vices that belong to s])orting characters. which he soon discovered. but. lie grew very manly and independent for a youth in his te(Mis. was his trainer. 26 LIKE OK GENERAL THOMA^i active life j. ties '' determination to succeed in everything he fail in. and "Thomas. AVitli his undertook. AVhen riding home late one night.'' as he always called him. for If whatever in him. The lu^rse ^J'his free life he could enjoy without l)(Mng at all . became frightened and plunged backward and Thomas confessed that at first he. he was startled at beholding a tall white spectre flitting across the road. were fond of sport. and had a fourmile race-track on his farm. This free aii<l was well adapted to both his physical and moral development. His bachelor uncles. it appears. determining to conquer all fear. he put whip and spurs to liis lioi*se and forced him to gallop past the object of tvri'or. this accomplishment. was one of his uncles. and as his uncle treated liim as a companion. trusting and relying upon him. from the shouts of lau":hter from the roadside. he did not his neighbors said. JACKSON. who Iiad tried to ])lay a joke upon him by wrapping himself in a sheet and taking his stand at the foot of a hill he was to pass.

27 spoiled by it and tliougli he spoke of himself as having been " a Avild boy. In his afterof his child- years he was not disposed to talk much hood and youth. when he made up his mind to do a thing. refused. and gave him a ' severe pounding. suponce. He and was not quick then it to decide. Losing first his father and then his mother. Thus. conduct. to at this time says : He was a habits. for the reason that it was the saddest He had been very early left an orperiod of his life. AND TENACITY.' posing that he was an overmatch for him. matter-of-fact persons Avho would never give nowadays termed up when he engaged complished his object. at school. while on his way to school. whereupon Jackson pitched into him. and his . and told him he must apologize at cowardly The big fellow. honesty. but when he got learning into his head. and truth. he had no home life. while acknowledge — 'give him not what time' is —to solve an}" proposition. industry. he did on short notice and in quick time. phan. so sad that he sel" dom One who knew him youth of exem^Dlary undoubted courage. of indomitable will and He possessed in an eminent dehis incapacity gree a talent for mathematics. an overgrown rustic behaved rudely Jackson was fired at his to one of the school-girls. except when excited." This manly and independent spirit impelled him at an early age to seek a support for himself. brilliant. he never forgot it. or he would thrash him.WILL." he was always noted for his uprightness. but grew up among remoter kindred. CX)URAGE. He was but he was one of those untiring. All this referred to made the memory it. and was unwilling. . in an undertaking until he ac- He learned slowly.

The next morning the upon the scene. and it was contrary to law that a minor should hold this olfice. he seized the horse. This at first disc<jncerted Jackson. The young deputy. without fail. lie tain day. and 'kept it by paj^ing the money out of his own pocket. and it was hoped that the out-door life and horseback exThe duties of the office ercise would invigorate him. but it had to be done. during Avhich he succeeded in remounting. upon a cerfriends procured for Lewis County. Ijut. but as tlie i)\\ man young officer waited until he saw the dismount. but the debtor was again missing. Collecting debts is always a thankless task. him the position of constable of was but eighteen years old. riding a fine custom of the country did not permit a man's horse to be taken from him while he was delincjuent appeared horse. with his own good character. he enforced the same upon otliei's. but would never keep an appointment for the purpose. and then reproaching him for his breach of faith. In one case a man had made repeated promises to pay. overcame this objection. the creditor that on that young constable pledged himself to the day he should have his money. The man rehis back. JACKSOX. and the constable and creditor were on hand. the sisted. however. qualities that he soon showed that he possessed. The day came. and a furious struggle followed. had given his word. but the influence and guarantee of his uncle. not to be outwitted bv this . At this time his health was somewhat impaired. After exacting one more promise that he would pay. Pronq^t in meeting his own engagements.28 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and Jackson did it kindly. required both courage and determination. and w^as not seen in the village all day. but iirndy.

by wagon-train across the plains. and caused a emigration to the Far West. with a spirit of adventure. and he gladly resigned it on receiving an appointment to the Military Academy at West Point. and after resisting and begging. who was a second father to Thomas in his the close of the^ Mexican war and the annexation of California. he led the horse up and quietly told the man he must " get off or be knocked off.his in his fiftieth year. he finally slipped off and left the horse in the possession of the young representative of the law. it although the end it will be anticipating may be of interest. and inflamed. he held on to the bridle. 29 manoeuvre." the door being too low for him to go tlirough on horseback. but lived only a few months after reaching the Pacific coast. the discovery of gold created great excite- ment throughout the country. Mrs. in gratitude for having given him a home when he was mother. which he gave to his aunt. to know boyhood. who was then in Virginia travelled home and straitened circumstances. White. His nephew. Thus the fugitive was fairly caught. a stable door standing open. tide of Catching the popular enthusiasm. Before closing this chapter. first separated from his . this uncle. and seeing near b}' to it. But this business was distasteful to Jackson. Thomas.DEATH OF UNCLE CUMMIXS. inherited a few hundred dollars from his estate. perhaps. a few years. After of the good Uncle Cummins. though left.

CHAPTER AVhii. the blacksmith looked up and . told his as he is so anxious to get an education. gressional A came in a way he young man from the Con- district in which he lived had received an appointment to the Military Academy at West Point. and resigned in disgust and returned home. which lired his heart with such eager hope that . His uncle caught and going home nephew of the opportunity to get a cadetship at AVest Puint. A desire for knowledge had been the passion of his youth.over the hills of his native countv. this was the talk of the neighborhood and one day that Uncle Cummins was having his horse shod. the vouno^ Viro^inian was ridino. and was ambitious to make a position for himself. Of course. said '• : Xow here is a good chance for Tom Jackson. enforcing the law." at the suggestion. He had determined to earn the means to procure a liberal education.e III. he felt deeply the disadvantages which his early orphanage and poverty had entailed upon him. when the opportunity had not anticipated. AYith the pride of descent from a family that had stood high in the country round. and keep up the prestige of his name. he was dreaming of other things. FOUR YEARS AT WEST POINT— 1S42-1 846. but after entering had found that the discipline and the hard study were too severe to suit his self-indulgent tastes.

at least. and were ready to help him and all joined in a letter to the Hon. who made it a labor of love. and I want you to help me. promising to do all in his power to secure the appointment." his countenance fell. 31 he began at once his efforts to secure tJie vacant posiHe had many friends who had observed his manly spirit. but. packing his plain wardrobe into a pair of saddle-bags. and continued his journey. the 3^oung applicant felt at liberty to request a asked " if sufficient more confidential testimonial. and Jackson resolved at once to go to Washington.APPOINTED TO WEST POINT. looking up. but he was he did not fear that his education was not to enable him to enter and sustain himself at For a moment : West Point. in which he was assisted by a lawyer in Weston." This friend did help him. hurried off to Clarksburg to catch the stage-coach. In due time the answer came from Mr. I hope that I have determined to try. So eager was he to start that he did application necessary to succeed . . Upon his arrival he found that the coach had already passed. member of Congress from the district. I am not wait for any preparations. and. Of a prominent law^yer connected with tion. Samuel Hays. As soon as the letters were despatched to AYashington. Hays. he replied the capacity "I know that I shall have the . and wrote a letter of hearty commendation. asking him to use his influence to have him appointed. his own family. . in w^hich he dwelt especially upon his courage and resolution. but. he began to review his studies. but. nothing daunted. to be ready to proceed to West Point without a moment's delay. he mounted a horse near sundown. accompanied by a servant who w^as to bring the horse home. he galloped on and overtook it at the next stopping-place.

at the age of eighteen. this young Jackson was neither to be l)luired nor driven from his purpose. hilt begged for him favor on account of his manly (kHermination. you have a good name. His friends had done for spirit. The Secretary pHed him with ques- tions. lie went straight to Mr. Mr. and took a view of the magnificent panorama before him. and an eye-witness describes the parley between them as being "gruff and heroic. Arrived at AVasliington. bearing testimony to his excellent character and courageous and asking that due allowance and his letter had such weight that the authorities were very lenient in Here then. West Point. and then immediately proceeded on his journey. and in pre- senting him. with the grit of Old Hickory. he declined. ex])hiined the disadvantages of his education. 18-12. and he was admitted. their examination. but. Havs. and the first man who insults you knock him down. and have it charged to my account I" Mr.32 I'I^'K OF GENERAL THOMAS J. in June. Ilavs crave him a letter of introduction to the faculty. but with the one all-absorbing thought now in his mind of that long-desired education coming within his grasp. be made for his limited education : . Hays kindly invited him to spend a few days with him in Washington to see the city. JACKSON. who showed his interest and kindness by taking him iinniechately to the Secretary of War. saying that one view from the top of the Capitol time. Ave find him where he had so longed to be." and so much pleased was the Secretary with his manliness and resolution that he gave him the apppointment and Go to said to him: ''Sir. a cadet in the Military Academv at West Point. would be all that he could treat himself to at that Accordingly he ascended the dome.

and in He himself 3 . in geniality. : trying ordeal of the four years at ever having a hard or professor to surpass . West Point without word or a bad feeling from cadet and while there were many who seemed in the graces of intellect. ' the night. An old " He had a rough friend and fellow-classmate says : time in the Academy him at first. he was made at once to feel his deficiency in preparation. lying prone before it on the floor. "old Jack" would be at the head of the class. he fully expected to be dismissed at the close of his first year.' and just standing.. till a late hour of Avere studying algebra. henceforth his career was to de- When he entered upon his studies. . which scorched his very brain.' . and it was all he could do to pass his first examination.." and after entering and seeing the amount of study he had to do. would work away at his lessons by the glare of the fire. for his want of previous training placed at a great disadvantage. This evident determination to succeed not only aided his own efforts directly. that winter. till we used to say another 3^ear. 33 him all they could pend upon himself. and the large number of cadets who failed annually. there was no one of our class who more dence of absolutely possessed the respect and confi- all. before the signal he would pile up his grate with anthracite coal. I believe he went through the very instructors in his favor.FOUR YEARS AS A CADET." said that he " studied very hard for what he got at West Point. him and in good-fellowship. and Jackson was very low in his class All lights were put out at taps. and. We and maybe analytical geometry. but impressed his and he rose steadily year by 'If we had to stay here 3"ear.

and is described as being a slender lad. they would have failed too. thoughtful face but when anything interested or excited him his form became erect. P. except Avith a few congenial friends. and found it as hard as he did. Reno. his eyes flashed like steel. of the Federal army and Generals A." He was always amused when speaking of this period of his life. and presented a fine. soon developed his frame. and he became very erect. and punctuality was ever regarded by him as a virtue. Pickett. and AVilcox. He had a grave. . and of the importance he then attached to the But opinions of his young friends and companions. Maury. D. and he even prepared what he would say to his young friends. Stoneman. and from that time he made steady progress until at the end of four years he graduated. Couch. but had not yet attained his full height. with his head bent forward.34 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS all J. JACKSOX. but he was invariably kind and courteous to all. who walked rapidly. soldierly appearance. Hill. " If they had been there. grew rapidly. and the constant exercise of drilling. Foster. D. of the Confederate army. would illumine his whole face. intending to tell them. R. ." The life he led there. to his surprise he passed his first year. anticipation he endurrd the mortification of going . In his intercourse with his associates he was not sociable. Among his classmates were Generals McClellan. and a smile. When he went to AY est Point he was fresh and ruddy in complexion. Jones. seventeenth in a large and distinhonu' and l)eing laughed at guished class of over seventy. Smith. W. The habits of neatness and system wdiich are taught at West Point clung to him through life. and Gibbon. and alwavs readv to aid in nursinsr . as sweet as a woman's.

Endeavor to do well everything which you undertake.'^ but others will show the standards by which he shaped his own conduct and character these maxims was. varied and lovely landscape. He said he remember to have spoken to a lady during the whole time he was at West Point. he found recreation in walking. manners. Endeavor to be at peace with all men. which he had not incurred himself. Xever speak disrespectfully of any one without a cause. but he chose rather to bear the blame silently than to expose unjustly cast it upon him. for his the aims of West Point he compiled in a private blankown use. While at book. or "Old Put. and the the cadets called this great cliff.'.RULES OF MORALS AND MANNERS. choice of friends. a set of rules and maxims reand life. dress. lating to morals.— Sacrifice your life rather than your word. After his arduous daily studies. — — — — — . and de- lighted in climbing Fort Putnam. and with a companion or alone he wandered over the beautiful hills and valleys around West Point. the sick and in helping those 35 During his second year he was who were in trouble. interferes with — Disregard when your duty.as which is a very striking feature in the scener}^. giving those who had did not but little time or thought to anything else. Spare no effort to suppress selfishLet your ness. but he devoted himself with all his mind and soul to his studies. : "Through life let your principal object be the public opinion disit charge of duty. Perhaps the most characteristic of " You may he whatever you resolve to he . unless that effort would entail sorrow. known to receive some demerits. and from which he greatly enjo3^ed the fine view of the majestic river.

be always employed in Sincerity: Use no hurtful off unnecessary actions.— SiSpeak but what may benefit others or yourlence self. The for- mental. be- longs to the first . solve. and if you speak. cutno time. drink not to elevation. Regard to your own happi- ness. . 3. or attempt which Infinite Wisdom has laid The means by which men are to attain great elevation may be classed in three divisions —physical.eneral tuomas j. ** It is to violate. Be not disturbed or unavoidable. — : — . si)eak accordingly. acter. mation of go(jd manners and tutes the third. : — Moderation: juries ness: Avoid extremes.— Justice Wrong no man by doing injuries. Tolerate no uncleanliness in body. '• common : Motives to action 2. something useful. nor at accidents. and moral. or Tranquillity : habitation. — Temper- ance Eiit not to dulness. forbear resenting inCleanlias much as you think tliey deserve. the rules down. 1. Whatever relates to health. ter. at trifles.36 LItK OF (. deceit think innocently and justly. avoid trifling conversation. conduct towaids : men have some uniformity. or omitting the benefits that are your duty. belongs to the second. Regard for the family to which you belong. jacksox. clothes. Fix upon a high standard of action and char- Strive to attain a very great elevation of charac4. whatever relates to the improvevii'tuous habits consti- ment of tlic mind. what you ought .— Resolve to perform : perform without fail what you reMake no expense but to do good Industry Lose to others or yourself waste nothing. man's highest interest not to violate.— Frugality : .

es- pecially in " 5. 37 the "Choice of Friends. proved by good company. POLITENESS AND GOOD-BREEDING. but virtue of the same kind not only the same end must be proposed.: . whenever it is done. but few intimate friends. Always look people in the face Avhen addressing them. keeps. is danger of catching the habits of your sociates. and generally when they pride. and affable. if Seek those who are intelligent and virtuous possible. " Be kind. imAve have for them. " Good-breeding is opposed to selfishness. is the art of showing men by external signs It arises from good sense. in the manner of expression. A man is known by company he 3. If you have one who is what he should be. Be cautious in your selection. those who are a little above you. . or true politeness. 2. condescending." intimate friends : He had also copied the following rules from a book of etiquette on Politeness and Good-breeding ''Good-breeding. vanity. 1. or Never weary your company by talking too long or too frequently. to say it with kind feelings and sincere desire to please and this. there must not only be equal virtue in each. is you may have many acquaintances. but the same means must be approved. " That friendship may be at once fond and lasting. Any one who has anything to say to a fellow-being. It must be acquired by practice and not by books. and. you are comparatively happy. It moral excellence. will atone for much awkwardness the internal regard . not desirable to have a large number of . as- There " 4.

he quietly bided his time until that evening at the inspection of arms. possil)le. Jackson graduated on the 30tli ul" June." •' Make sideration Dui'ing these four years at the Military Academy he had but one personal difficulty. Jackson. to yourself. both cadets and professors that he could be induced to give up his determination.3S I'll-i^ OF GENERAL THOMAS J. trick was very soon discovered by the latter. so after telling the cap- tain of the circumstances. clean. The disgrace of the man whom he had young man overtook him. when he was ex])elled from the Academy for violating his ])arole of honor. declaimed that he was a disgrace to the Academy. This was caused by another cadet changing his uncleaned musket for Jackson's. attempted to shield^ liimself by telling a falsehood. but endeavor to remain within your own proper sphere. who was disgusted with the indolence and meanness of the cadet. but as his gun fortunately had a private mark upon it. Xever try to appear more wise or learned than the rest of the com})any. in a short time after. ISiO. which was alwa3's kept in perfect order. and that he would have him court-martialled and disIt was only by the urgent remonstrance of missed. when he was accused of the dishonorable deed. Never engross the whole conversation Say as little of yourself and friends as it a rule never to accuse without due conany body or association of men. wha. shining when his musket was found in the hands of the suspected. however. JACKSON. he The knew it couid be identified . address you. at the . Xot that you should affect ignorance. whose suspicion fell at once upon the real culprit.

West Point. 39 the brevet rank age of twentv-two years. his the place. his very strong. that he did not visit in and around reminiscences. and upon revisitmg summer of 1857. dales of Hudson. and with the latter he manv At of Fort Putnam. and received His attachment to of second lientenant of artillery. in the reunion with his old was unbounded. on a bridal tour. The Alma Mater was delio-ht professors and and brother-officers was most cordial talks and had long gratifying. Avinding among the hills and of the There was scarcely a spot that enchanting region. hearty laughs over old barrack was off to climb the heights the dawn of day he and once more to enjoy the view .HE GRADUATES FROM WEST POINT.

1847. it was a sj)ectacle that impressed Lieutenant Jackson as exceeding in brilliance and animation any that he had ever witnessed. thirteen thousand five hundred men landed in one day upon the open beach near Vera Cruz. and in the battle Captain John Hankhead Magruder greatlv distinguished himself as tery of light field artillery. and went directNew Orleans. ci])linarian. WAR WITH MEXICO— 184G-1S48. which ended hostilities. The w^ar continued two years. Our lieutenant had orders to report innnediately for dut\^ ly to with the First Regiment of Artillery. and as they disembarked from the manv vessels of the squadron. w4th martial music and colors flying. General Winfield Scott was the commander-in-chief army of the United States. and Jackson was in most of the battles of the that were fought from Yera Cruz to the fall of the capital. commander of his bat- He was a very strict disand the position of second lieutenant being . amid the cheers of the enthusiastic soldiers. and marched in perfect order. On the 0th of March. "When young Jackson graduated at AVest Point. under a cloudless sky. and his whole class was ordered to proceed at once to the scene of action. and took their positions by sunset. from w^hich he sailed for Mexico. the war with ^lexico had begun.CIIAPTEE THE IV. The city was taken in a few days.

and recom- mends him for promotion thus : " I beg leave to call the attention of the major-general If devotion. there were not many young oificers w ho desired the place. and I cannot too highly commend him For to the major-general's favorable consideration. in whom we his will leave to describe the manner which acquitted himself. who had opened front. Johnstone. In his official young lieutenant report. Mr. commanding to the conduct of Lieutenant Jackson of the First Artillery. Captain Ma- gruder says: "In a few moments. who saw that dangers and hardships offered advantages for quick promotion. Captain Magruder again compliments him highly. of course. where his dash and heroism won him great distinction. and gallantry are the ." his gallantry in this battle he was promoted to the advanced in handsome style.. had the opportunity of winning glory for themselves. the whole day. and. THE BATTLE OF CHERUBUSCO. kept up the fire with great briskness and His conduct was equally conspicuous during effect. 41 vacant in his battery. alwavs in the thickest of the light. Lieutenant Jackson. In storming the Castle of Chapultepec. industry. in which his subordinates were bound to its share. Mao-ruder was a darin^: officer. In the battle of Cherubusco Captain Magruder lost his first heutenant. talent. apphed for and received the appointment. early in the action and as Jackson had to take his place. commanding the second section of the battery. fire upon the enemy's works from a still position on the right. But Jackson. he was advanced next in command to the captain. brevet rank of captain. hearing our fire further in and being assigned me to the post so gallantly filled by Lieutenant by Johnstone.

although he had lost most of his horses and manv of his men. The little six-pounders could effect nothing against guns of the Mexicans. one section of which was served with great gallantry by himself and the other by his of the brave Lieutenant Jackson. JACKSON. when circum- stances placed him command. Jackson. gives the following details of sault •. then he entitled to the distinction which their i)ossession confers. did invaluable service." General Worth speaks of him as the gallant Jackson. is highest qiuUities of a soldier. . crruder's batterv. I have been al)ly seconded in all the operations of the batterv by him. The horses were killed or disabled. combating with noble courage. in his assault. but an actor in the storming of Chapultepec. who was not only an eye-witness. who. he proved himself eminently worthy of it. under : makes honorayoung Jackson bore in this Pillow and Worth both add their official report." A brother officer. General Pillow says '' The advanced section of the battery. and almost disabled." General Scott. of mucli heavier califrom an elevation. brave lieutenant. and the men became so demoralized that tlie bre. Jackson's part in the as- •* hieutenant Jackson's section of Magruder's battery sul)jecte(l to was a plunging fire from the Castle of Cha- ])uhcj)ec. ble mention of the part and (rcnerals testimony to his meritorious conduct. for a short time. in face of a galling '' fire from the enemy's position. . command was dreadCaptain Mafully cut up.42 I^I^E OK GENERAL THOMAS J. of an inde])endent section. firing- . . continued chivalrously at his post. and upon in this occasion.

See. many of the stormers dispersed in search of plunder and liquor. forlorn hope. pursuing Americans was harmless. The ofiicers and non-commissioned officers were induced to volunteer by the promise of promotion. Lieutenant Jackson came up with two pieces of artillery. as the division of General AYorth was far in the rear. When the castle was captured. and joined the two young officers. and the men by the promise of pecuniary re' ward. He expressed a fear of losing the two guns. Smith. a cannon-ball passed be- tween them.' The assaulting columns for the storming of Chapultepec consisted of 250 regulars from Twiggs's Division and 250 reguThese were all volunteers for the lars from Worth's. Every shot told on the huddled and demoralized thoufire back upon the thirsty. Hill and Barnard Bee followed down the causeway towards the Garita of San Cosme. and this fact probably prevented him from having any confidence in what the soldiers playfully called being stung by a bomb. !' ing with his legs wide apart. the Palmetto Regiment. Lieutenants D. They now pressed on vigorously. but no additional guns.THE STORMING OF CHAPULTEPEC. and the Marine Bat- under Major Twiggs (brother of the general) supported the storming party from Twiggs's Division. A few pur- sued promptly the retreating column of Mexicans. and kept saying. talion The rifle regiment under Colonel Persifer F. but their . 43 they deserted the guns and sought shelter behind a wall or embankment. Captain Magruder himself soon appeared with caissons and men. After the chase had been continued over a mile. there is no danger I am not hit While stand' . walking back and forth. H. but he yielded to the sands of Mexicans. Lieutenant Jackson remained at the guns.

who retreated without attacking the artillery. on the 13th of September.44 I'lFE OF GF:." Jackson Avas among this number. " Major. JACKSOX. won him the brevet of major. It was not judged prudent to guns. Lieutenant Jackson had been bre vetted a captain and now this storming of Chapultepec. and these first tions were the first who were promoted on recommendafrom the field." In the storming of Chapultepec. However. and continued the Magru- der a cohimn of two thousand cavah'y. solicitations of the march. when one of them exclaimed. and a rapid fire was opened ui)on the ^Mexicans. lie refused to retire without orders from his commander. and was the only one of his class who rose to this " distinction. made a demonstration of charging upon the Thev were unlimbered. when his pupils at Lexington were asking him for the particulars of the scene. proceed farther. lie was soon relieved by reinforcements. in astonisliment.VERAL TIIOMAS J. on the 20th of August. when at the moment of greatest danger he was almost deserted by his men. he modestly described it. In tioned in the official reports. Shoi-tly after the ariival of Captain young men. day by the battery at The part played later in the the Garita of San Cosme is men- For gallantry in the battles of Contreras and Cherubusco. under General Amjuidia. . the batch of brevetted promotions there Avere only five or six who received double brevets. why didn't you run when your command was so disabled T' With a quiet smile . Years afterwards. Xo other officer in the whole army in ^lexico was promoted so often for meritorious conduct or made so great a stride in rank. and the eral command halted until Gen- Worth came up.

had their quarters in the national palace. If I had been ordered to run. which was very refreshing and delightful to Major Jackson. " I was not ordered to do so. that "their soldiers should lodge in the halls of the Here to the his Montezumas 1" life of ease and luxury was his quite a contrast stormy period through which he had passed adopting the Spanish cus- and when we hear of . he described one of those awful casualties of war when. he felt that he had no right to " ask the reason why. TO OBEY ORDERS. men when the cannon-ball Avilful passed between his legs. in consequence of some misunderstanding on the part of the besieged in observing directions to clear the streets of the city of non-combatants. the guns of his battery were ordered to sweep a street which was filled by a panic-stricken crowd. I should have done so. and I had no right to abandon it.T "MY DUTY IS ." 45 he replied. he used to say jocularly that no one came nearer to realizing the boast of the politicians the United States troops. was the only ! falsehood he ever told in his life In speaking of the storming of Chapultepec to a friend. and after the smoke of the charge had cleared away he tion his could trace distinctly the track of destrucIS'o own guns had made. As he often said. with a number of other officers." In after-years he confessed that the part he played in stepping out and assuring his that there was no danger." or to stop to consider the consequences. "My duty is to obey orders After the occupation of the city of Mexico by was a season of rest for several months. . and as he. but I was directed to hold ray position. there of the day. with his high sense of a soldier's duty. one felt more than he the horrors of war but.

and there was soon a friendly commingling of the two nations which had so lately been in deadly conflict. toms taking his morning cup of coffee before rising. After the cessation of hostilities and the peaceful possession of the capital by the United States army. JACKSOX. whose pride Avas Castilian blood. for the sidered the city of mere Mexico to surpass delight of Uving. much as he could feast his eyes. until he soon learned both to speak and read Spanish fluHis admiration for the language Avas great. the lected his duties. as he was ignorant of their language. there was one drawback to his perfect enjoyment. he conall others he had ever known. ently. 4. and delighted in lavishing them upon those dearest to him. for. But notwithstanding his luxurious and attractive surroundings. and he always said it was meant for lovers. However.6 I^II"'E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. But to a go-ahead young man this was a trifle easily overcome so he went to work and studied under a Spanish gentleman. were opened in cordial welcome to the American officers and the charms of society never had greater fascination for Major Jackson than when in the presence of the beautiful and graceful Mexican women. Indeed. the peo]5le began to yield kindly to the advances of the conquerors.. he could not have the pleasure of conversing with these charmers. he acknowledged that he came very near losing his heart . young soldier never neg- which he performed with the utmost punctiliousness. his hue dinner. He adopted them for his own use. in which Spanish art ahnost rivalled the delicious fruits of that semi-tropical climate — — it does not surprise us that. . the terms of endearment being so musical and abundant. The homes their pure of the old noUesse.

and thus escaped capture. but no eye but that of his wife was ever permitted to witness this recreation. the midst of Yet in and all this gayety he had his sober thoughts. and brouo^ht home little souvenirs with which they presented him among them a handsome paper-knife. for the purpose of testing poison knew him afterwards stinence as so strict compartment in the Those who and rigid in his ab! know ing. The commanding officer of his regiment. the fascinations of at least 47 one dark-eyed senorita proving almost too great for his resistance but he found safety in compelling himself to discontinue his tion is " Discrevisits. Years later. the First . gold pencil." as he called them. SOCIETY IN THE CITY OF MEXICO. in Mexico. the better part of valor " was a maxim that he often quoted. he used frequently to dance the polka for exercise. The delicious climate and beautiful scenery of Mexico. was while still in Mexico that he began that religious life which was so marked in all his future it career. it having a curious little centre. He formed some warm a number of interestino^ : attachments for his " fine Spanish friends. and the civil and religious privileges as those of his own country. with its wealth of flowers and tropical if fruits. he would have preferred a home there to any other part of the world. card-cases. so charmed him that he often had been as great said that the people had been equal to their climate.. that as a from worldly pleasures may be surprised to young man he was very fond of danczest in the balls of and participated with great the pleasure -loving Mexicans. in the privacy and freedom of his own home in Lexington. and a massive silver spoon that might have been designed for royalty.

lie believed him to be a sincere and de- vout man. an earnest Christian. in the army had been his . Asa Brooks but if this be so. Being then in the midst of educated Roman Catholics. and for this purpose he sought the acquaintance of the Archbishop of Mexico. or he would not have had the rite administered to him after he was grown to manhood. chiefly of that denomina- and friend Colonel Taylor was a devout all Episcopalian but he determined to examine the religious creeds. with whom the sense of duty was so strong that once convinced that a thing was right and that he ought to do it. who labored much the for the spiritual welfare of liis soldiers. Artillery. was Colonel Francis Taylor. the Rev. and decide for himself which came nearest to his ideas of the Bible standard of faith and practice. as the chaplains at West Point and tion. he resolved to investigate their system. but after his separation from her at an early age it is not likely that he received any religious instruction. and His no special preference for any denomination. but the venerable prelate failed to convince . JACKSOX. he immediately undertook it and so he resolved to study . with whom he had several interviews. At that time he had but little knowledge of creeds. and seek all the light within his reach. it is supjwsed. lie had been more accustomed to the Episcopal htul . had been a member of the Metliodist Church. service than an}^ other. One statement is that his mother the ]>i])le him baptized in infancy b}^ a Presbyterian clergyman. it is probable that he did not know it himself.48 I^IFK OF GENERAL THOMAS J. for he believed in infant baptism. He was first man to speak to Jack- son on the subject of personal religion. and was impressed with his learning and affability . mother.



I baptized : Thomas Jefferson Jackson. S. Parks. on Long Island. The chaplain of the garrison at that time is said to have been a Eev. but that he was baptized by Fort Hamilton a few years ago. a friend of Major is him a mistake. examined the records of the church. and their intercourse was delightful and instructive to the junior officer. to Major Jackson became much attached. The United States troops returned from Mexico in summer of ISJrS. but acknowledged that he went through his Bible reading and prayers with no feeling stronger than having performed a duty. and especially with the ladies of the garrison. 1849. Mr. 29th day of April. John's Episcopal). His prefer- ence for a simpler form of faith and worship led him to wait until he could have the opportunity of learn- ing more of other churches. re- He attended with more diligence than ever to his ligious duties. " Army. wdio always spoke of his colonel with gratitude and reverence. 49 him of the truth of his tenets of belief. and with the aid of one of the wardens. Colonel Taylor was residing near him. Sponsors. I visited Jackson. Here he led a quiet. major in the U. and at whose hands it has whom been reported that he received the sacrament of baptism. M. That he had such a friend and spiritual adviser is doubtless true. where appeared the following entry " On Sunday. Colonels Dimick and Taylor." 4 .STATIONED AT FORT HAMILTON. and sought out the little chapel in which he worshipped while there (St. and Major Jackson's command was stationed for two years at Fort Hamilton. uneventful life. forming some pleasant friendships among the resithe dents. SCHOFIELD.

and along the •' shores of the beautiful bav. JACKSOX. braced by Baptism in the Episcopal Church gave him the right to become a communicant." he rode all over the country. his mind was not yet made up on the subject of churches. he wished to of that men. vestryman in The names of the rectors of the parish np to that time were given. made the mistake of name was Jefferson. and became a member is emall evangelical denominations. and he did not apply for the rite of con- avow his faith before "Holy Catholic Church" whose creed firmation. Lee. the illustrious President of that name havUpon the church recing had so many namesakes. this is most probable. . Parks had chai'ge of a church in the city of Kew York. and. and he chose to wait for further opportunities of acquainting himself with the creeds. It is my impression that Mr. But having accepted Jesus Christ as his Saviour and Redeemer. as a 1S42. Captain Corps Engineers. Fancy. Parks does not appear among them. instead of Jonathan.50 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. mounted on a favorite little horse. One of the pleasant experiences of his garrison life at Fort Hamilton was the horseback exercise he daily indulged in. Parks was an alumnus of AVest Point. but that of Mr. and as Mr. as I have heard Major Jackson speak warmly and gratefully of a ministerial friend in that city. and with this privilege he was content. Although he had applied for and received the sacrament of baptism in the Episcopal Church. ords it was also interesting to find the name of Robert The minister very naturally sup]^osing his second E.



which lies Ridge and Alleghany Mountains. since here was centred all the romance of my life here were spent my happiest days and it is still to me the most sacred of all places. . . into whose depths the beholder looks down with awe. This great of the Blue valley. adding a tender grace and beauty to the surrounding sublimity and between the two ranges grandeur. Lexington describing this little is the capital of a place. in gem seem extravagant. . Major Jackson was ordered to Fort Meade. near Tampa Bay. PROFESSOR IX THE VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE— At the close of his two years' terra of service at Fort Harailton. this famous county. where he remained about six months. The county of Rockbridge derives its name from the Xatural Bridge. removing him to the . is justly celebrated as the most beautiful. Of town. the reader will pardon me. as here the mountains keep watch and guard around the home and the tombs of those who were dearest to me on earth. where a massive and sohd arch of rock spans a chasm. and fertile part of the State.CHAPTER 1851-1861. The warm climate he found enervating and injurious to his health but a delightful change soon came. At the bottom of the ravine a little stream ripples along. picturesque. I If. in Florida. Y. bracing air of the Yalley of Virginia.

from some It fancied resemblance. The wealth of green in spring and sumful. have improved the spacious grounds till they are as attractive as a city park. W. and the snowcap})ed peaks of winter present a perpetual feast to the eye. when General Lee became its president. This is to the visitor the chief attraction of Lexinoton. in s])ite of its unromantic the western horizon. The former built the chapel. as seen from the town. and name. was made a memorial chapel and a mausoleum. JACKSON." It is a is very striking feature in most beautiful when lighted up by the setting sun. Custis Lee. which. who succeeded him in the presidency. General Lee. from which it was called AYashington College a name that it continued to bear until after the late war. suggests the form of a large building: hence *' it is called the House Mountain. and valleys. the resplendent tints of autumn. General G. is called the " Hog's Back. The scenery around Lexington is exquisitely beautibeing varied by ranges of mountains. after his death. mer. Some of the mountains take their names from the objects which they are supposed to resemble." is a fine mountain ridge. institutions. Lexington has long been noted for its two grand one of which ^vas founded before the Revolutionary War. Another ridge. in which is placed Valentine's exquisite recumbent — statue of the great soldier. so that what was before Washington College is now Washington and Lee University. hills. and received a large endowment from the father of his country. with fine forests and fertile fields of fruit and grain.52 LII-'E OF GENEHAI> THOMAS J. . upon which his name was also given to it. The most distinctive one. and his son.

Of fol- and subsequently his brother- General D. with its castelThe barracks lated buildings and extensive grounds. and is called the " A West Point of the South. stands the Virginia Mihtary Institute. In the Military Institute Major Jackson was elected Professor of JSTatural and Experimental Philosophy and Artiller}^ Tactics on the 2Tth of March. vals so cultivated and intelligent that ri- that gathered round the State University of But apart from the professors' families. It will be remembered that General Scott withdrew from General Taylor the greater portion of his regular troops for the invasion of by the Vera Cruz line. but of general cultivation. command a magnificent view of the country for miles around.: THE VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. where ico MexThe troops withdrawn took river steamers the}^ . refinement. gives the lowing account in-law." The society of Lexington. and thus Lexington became his his election his friend. 53 few hundred yards beyond the University. home for ten years. H. This school was founded upon the model of the United States Military Academy. but farther out of town. " The circumstances attending the election of Major Jackson to a chair in the Virginia Military Institute will be of interest to those who believe in the special providence of God. attracted bv these opportunities of education. 1851. is as is usual in seats of it learning. marched to Camargo. and Virginia. . have made Lexington their home so that it has become known in all the count rj^ not only as a seat of learning. upon the same elevated ridge. Hill (then major). hospitality. others.

Captain Taylor said: Lieutenant Jackson.' The young men were introduced. I envy you men who have said. Lieutenant He Jackson admiring the grandeur of the ocean. TIIE VIRGI>. He was constantly rising in the class at West Point. strolled over one afterWhile n(jun to see Captain Taylor. and if the course had been a year longer he would have He will make his irraduated at the head of his class. .54 I^IFE OF (JKNEliAL THOMAS J. at the mouth of the Rio Grande. mark in this war.iA MILITAKY INSTITUTE. and waited there for ocean transports to take them to Vera Cruz. among other things been ill liattlc. II(jw I would like to be in ofie battle!' : ' and expressed the fear that the war might come to an end then b^. 'Here comes in conversation. and was waiting with his regiment on the beach at Point Isabel. and soon after took a walk on the beach. Little did he know many scores of battles he would direct. I w^ant you to know him. A young officer who had served with General Taylor.'loi'e his liow wish could be gratilied. to Point Isabel. of the artillery. JACKSOX.

but at that time in CumProfessor Stewart had declined. and the conversation with Captain Taylor instantly occurred to him .If berland University. P. perplexed in consequence of a difference between him- and the Board of Yisitors. They were side by side in the pursuit of the Mexicans after the fall of Chapultepec. Major Jackson remained in the service. — . self a graduate of West Point. and Colonel Smith apprehended a renewal of the old trouble. and they met again some time after the capture of the city of Mexico. and accepted a professorship in the " College " at Lexington. his eye fell upon the name of Jackson. They wished to elect as a professor R. Smith.HOW HE CAME TO BE A PROFESSOR. and nearly ended their earthly career. E." Major Hill himself resigned. 55 and how breathlessly the two divided sections of the nation would watch his terrible movements! The young officers parted to meet under the walls of two Yera Cruz. and he preferred a graduate of West Point. not the Mili- A few years after he had been here he went one morning to see Colonel F. and asked him to suggest a suitable officer to fill the chair. There was a good deal of feeling among them. and the chair was offered to Professor A. when an enormous shell from the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa came crashing through their shelter. Stewart. Rodes (afterwards major-general in the Confederate army). but a compromise was finally effected. As he glanced over the catalogue. The war closed. After a night of toil they sought shelter under a sand-bank to snatch a few hours' sleep. and found him much tar}^ Institute. II. superintendent of the Institute. He handed an Army Catalogue to his visitor.

was Major Jackson's connection with the Virginia him his career It identified him with the Valley. member of the Board. to elect a proination. the disagreement between Colonel Smith and the the chance Board Professor Stewart's declining these were the subvisit to Colonel Smith's office It Military Institute which opened for I . most of the cadets then coming from the East. especially. It made him familiar with the ground upon Avhich his earliest victories were won." Colonel In a Smith was pleased with the name suggested. fessor from Western Virginia to secure patronage from that quarter. started for Eichmond. a friend asked him if it was not [)resumptioii in him to accept the place when he was of professorshij) his health At the time . . Thus crippled foi' his work.— 50 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. — sequent links. never doing so at night. representative in Congress from Western and a connection of Major Jackson. and in the war. Major Jackson's acceptance of this was not good. gave him Valley men for his soldiers. and his eyes. Carlisle. But by what a chain of apparently fortuitous circumstances was he led to Lexington The conversation at Point Isabel was the first link the intercourse betw^een the young men in Mexico. the course had been one year longer. too. were so weak that he had to exercise great cauti(jn in using them. JACKSOX. Professor Gilham \'irginia. So Major Jackson was elected unanimously to the chair of Natural Philosophy. The Hon. John S. Jackson would have irraduated at the head of his class. wliere there was few days he an adjourned meeting of the Board. was a and heartily endorsed the nomIt was thought desirable. retaining that of Chemistry.

w^hose kindness devout and earnest man and aifability made him very winning to the young and to strangers. which may be some time hence. I knew that Avhat physically incapacitated to fill it. from which he wrote to '' his uncle Alfred Xeale I have reported at Lexington. and you see I have. and am delighted with my duties. It would have given me much pleasure to have visited yoti during the past summer. "the appointment came unsought. His impressive and persuasive style of preaching attracted and S. the place. he spent a to regain his and August of 1851 : Episcopalians. embracing many of the most intelligent families." In removing to Lexington. I CAX " DO. although the professors of the Institute to which he belonged were mostly strength for his I could doT In order new work. At present I am with the corps of cadets at this place. So I resolved to get well. / loilled to do. William of God. and w^as therefore providential and I knew that if Providence set me a task. As to the rest. Up to this time he knew scarcely anything of Presbyterianism. was his . I recruited very rapidly at Lake Ontario. Dr." prompt answer. Here he found that church the largest and most influential. w^as a church. and attended one and another to see which he liked best. and the rest of the summer in charge of the corps of cadets at the Warm Springs of Virginia. he would give me the power to perform it."WHAT I WILL TO DO. he found there a number of churches. and the people. where we may remain until the company shall leave. . part of July on Lake Ontario. but I am anxious to devote myself to study until I shall become master of my profession." 57 Xot in the least. The pastor of the Presbyterian White. where I passed part of July and August.





his ac-

interested the



who soon sought

quaintance, and then his counsel in rehgious matters. The simplicity of the Presbyterian form of worship

and the preaching of her well-educated ministry impressed him most favorably, and after a careful study of her stan(Uirds of faith and practice he gave his preference to that church. It has been said that he became a Presbyterian by marriage, but this is incorrect, for he had made his choice of a churcli before he made choice of a wife, and he was of too independent and inflexible a nature to be influenced even by a wife
in so

important a decision.

In his frequent interviews with Dr. White, the latter

became more and more interested in the earnest, candid inquirer; and although some of his theories Avere
not in strict accord with Presbyterianism, yet his pas-


was so impressed with the genuineness of his faith his extreme conscientiousness that he did not hesHe made a itate to receive him to the communion. the 22d of November, j)ubhc profession of his faith on 1851, and became more and more attached to the

church of his choice with the lapse of time
culties of doctrinal belief all vanished,




and he was a most loyal and devoted member and officer. But he was the furthest possible remove from being a bigot. His views of each denomination had been obtained from itself, not from its opponents. Hence he could see excellences in all.. Even of the Poman Catholic Church he had a much more favorable impression than most Protestants, and he fraternized with all During a visit to New evangelical denominations. York City, one Sabbath morning, we chanced to find <jurselves at the door of an Episcopal church at the




hour for worship. He proposed that we should enter and as it was a day for the celebration of the communion, he remained for that service, of which he partook in the most devout manner. It was with the utmost reverence and solemnity that he walked up the chancel and knelt to receive the elements. In his church at Lexington it has been said that he was an elder, but he never rose higher than a deacon, whose duties are purely temporal, to collect the alms of the church and to distribute to the destitute. These humble duties Major Jackson discharged with scrupulous His pastor said he was the best deacon in fidelity.
the church.

With a soldier's training of obedience to command, he followed out the same principle

going to his pastor, as his chief, " reporting " his performance of them in a military way. He never permitted anything to interfere with his attendance upon the monthly meetings of deacons; and to a brother-deacon, who excused his absence by pleading that he had not the time to attend, he said " I do not see how, at that
in his church duties,

for his




we can

possibly lack time for this meeting, or

can have time for anything
for this business."


it is

set apart

would a

his pastor

confidential relations, and he consulted

and himself existed the most him as he

father, regarding him as a man of great worldly wisdom and discretion, as well as a faithful leader of his flock. " He always acted on the princi-

ple that he


as really

bound to ^report' the condi-

tion of himself and family to his pastor as the latter


to minister to their spiritual wants."

Few men had

such reverence for ministers of the







and he often said that, had his education fitted him for it, and had he more of the gift of speaking, he would liave entered the pulpit. In a letter to his aunt, Mrs. Neale, he said: ''The subject of becoming a herald of the cross has often serioush^ engaged my attention, and I regard it as the most noble of all proIt was the profession of our divine Eedeemfessions. er. and I should not be surprised were I to die upon a foreign field, clad in ministerial armor, fighting under

the banner of Jesus.

that I

could be more glorious?





that for the present I

am doing good here, and am where God would have me

AVithin the last few days I have felt an unusual

I do rejoice to walk in the love of God. Heavenly Father has condescended to use me as an instrument in getting up a large Sabbath-school

religious ioy.
. .


for the negroes here.
I trust, all


has greatly blessed



are connected with it." So scrupulous performance of his duties that he would not neglect even the smallest, saying, " One instance


was he

in the

would he a precedent for another, and thus my rules would be broken down." After his conscience decided u})on questions of right and wrong, his resolution and
independence enabled him to carry out his principles with a total disregard of the ojiinions of the world.

He thought it was a great weakness in others to care what impression their conduct made upon public opinion, if their consciences were only clear. The fear of the Lord was the only fear he knew\ After he became a (hristian he set his face against all worldly confoi'mity, giving up dancing, theatre-going, and every amusement that had a tendency to lead his thoughts


away from holy



a question






raised as to the right or Avrong of indulgences that


consider innocent, he would say pleasantly

" Well, I


it is



ing to be on the safe side."

not to do it, so I'm goHis rule was never to

But there gloom in his religion. It shed perpetual sunshine upon his life, and his cheerful serenity was like the full-flowing of a placid His faith and trust led him to feel that nothstream. ing could happen to him but what was sent in wisdom and love by his Heavenly Father. One of his favorite texts of Scripture was " We know that all things work together for good to them that love God." Soon after he united with the church, his pastor, in a public discourse, urged his flock to more faithfulness in attending the weekly prayer-meeting, and enjoined upon the church officers and members especially their duty to lead in prayer. Hearing this, Major Jackson called to inquire if he was among those who were admonished not to be deterred from their duty by modesty or false shame. He said he had not been used to public speaking; he was naturally diffident, and feared an effort might prove anything but edifying to the assembly " but," he continued, " you are my pastor, and the spiritual guide of the church and if ?/ou think it my duty, then I shall waive my reluctance and make the effort to lead in prayer, however painful it may be." Thus authorized to call upon him if he thought
his principles.

make any compromise with
was not a

particle of asceticism or




proper, after a time the pastor did


In responding

to the request, his embarrassment Avas so great that

the service was almost as painful to the audience as


was to himself. The call Avas not repeated, and after waiting some weeks, the major again called upon Doc-







White to know if he had refrained from a second call from unwillingness to inflict distress upon him through his extreme diffidence. The good pastor was obliged to admit that he did shrink from requiring a d^ity of him which was rendered at such a sacrifice, lest his own enjoyment of the meeting be destroyed.

His reply was: ''Yes, but

not the question


if it is

my my

comfort or discomfort duty to lead in prayer,

must persevere in it until I learn to do it aright and I wish you to discard all consideration for my The next time he was called upon he sucfeelings." ceeded better in repressing his agitation, and in the course of time he was able to pour out his heart before God with as much freedom in the public meeting
as at his


family prayers.
in public speaking,

To improve himself

he joined a

debating society in Lexington, called "
his first efforts there

The Franklin,"

were on a par with those

the Presbyterian lecture-room

but his perseverance

and determination overcame his difficulties to a great extent, and he acquired considerable ease and fluency
as a speaker.


cong-res-ational meetino: of the church

was held

to determine the best


of increasing the rev-

After several speeches, in which was a good deal of diversity of opinion, ]\Iajor Jackson rose quietly, and in a short but stirring address recalled the old command, not " to rob God in tithes and offerings," emphasizing the point that {f they did their duty as church members all their difficulties would come to an end, with such earnest persuasion as led an eminent divine who was present to remark, " Why, the major was really eloquent to-day !"

enue of the church.



In his

own giving

for religious purposes, be adopted
of tithes^ contributing every 3'ear

Hebrew system

one tenth of his income to the church. He was a liberal giver to all causes of benevolence and public enterprises, and during the war he gave bounteously of his means to promote the spiritual interests of the

During a summer spent
erly, "West Yirginia (the

in the little village of



of his sister), he


troubled to find that there was but
influence in the place, and that a



of the friends

and acquaintances he made there were professed infidels. So great was his desire to convince them of their error and danger, that he prepared and delivered a brief course of lectures upon the evidences of ChrisA military man was not often seen in that tianity. remote region, and this led him to hope that some might be drawn even by curiosity to listen to something from him more favorably than from others,

mio^ht be




did succeed in

attracting crowds of hearers, but the delivery, he said,

had ever had. Major Jackson was not what is called a '' society man;" indeed, the very phrase seems an incongruity as applied to him. But before his marriage he mingled constantly in society punctiliously performing his part in the courtesies which are due from young gentlemen more, perhaps, from a sense He w^as not naturally of duty than from inclination. social, but he was a most genuine and ardent admirer of true womanhood and no man was more respectful and chivalrous in his bearing tow^ards the gentler sex. He never passed a woman either of high or low deof the greatest trials he

was one

In social







whether he knew her or not, without lifting his cap. and he was never lacking in any attention or AVhen a lady entered service that he could render. the room he always rose to his feet and remained standing until she was seated. But with all his politeness and thorough breeding, he was so honest and conscientious that he could not indulge in tliose little meaningless flatteries with which young people are so prone to amuse themselves hence he was not so popular in general society as young men who have no scruples of that sort. But he had his friendships among ladies who could appreciate him, and was a frequent visitor, delighting in throwing off restraint and making himself very much at home. In a letter

to a friend he said


The kind

of friends to




most attached are those with


I feel at


and to



can go at

proper times, and infor-


them the

object of


with the assur-

ance that,

practicable, they will join


in carrying

whether they are for an evening promenade, a musical soiree^ or whatever they may be and all this, Avithout the marred pleasure resulting from a conviction that afterwards all my conduct must undergo a judicial investigation before Judge Etiquette,' and that for every violation of his code I must be cenplans,
; '




not socially ostracized."

Southern lady thus describes the impression that Major Jackson made upon her '' There was a pecu:



about him which at once attracted your attenDignified and rather

as military



apt to be, he was as frank and unassuming as possible,

and was perfectly natural and unaffected.




upright in his chair, never lounged, never


crossed his legs, or


made an unnecessary movement. The expression of his soft gray eyes was gentle, yet commanding, giving you a delightful feeling of the
sweetness, purity, and strength of his character. His dress (in times of peace at least) was always in good


faultlessly neat.

Everything he wore was

of the best material.

'A thorough gentleman' was

not exactly the expression to describe the impression

made upon you


of greater distinction than this

a modern knight of would have more properly conveyed the indelible picture he fixed upon your mind. IS'othing unworthy,

was something more— a title must describe him— King Arthur's Eound Table,

nothing ignoble, nothing of modern frivolity and littleness—any thoughtful observer could have seen, even
before the war, that

Stonewall Jackson was as true a hero as Bayard, or Ealeigh, or Sidney." The following picture is one of the best that have ever been drawn, and may well have the merit of ac'


by one who was a constant observer, staff, and thus a member of his military family. It is the Eev. Dr. Dabney who thus sketches the figure of his chief His person was tall,
curacy, since
it is

as he was on his



and muscular, with the large hands and feet characteristic of all his race. His bearing was peculiarly English; and therefore, in the somewhat free

society of America,


was regarded as constrained. Evmovement was quick and decisive; his articula-

was rapid, but distinct and emphatic, and, accompanied by that laconic and perspicuous phrase to which

was so well adapted,




the impression

of curtness.


practised a mihtary exactness in

the courtesies of good society.

DiflFerent opinions ex-






isted as to his comeliness,


varied so


with the condition of his health

brow was


and animal spirits. and expansive his eyes were blue;

grav, large, and ex])ressive, reposing usually in placid

His calm, but able none the less to flash lightning. nose was Roman, and well chiselled his cheeks ruddy

and sunburnt
his chin



mouth firm and

full of

meaning, and

covered with a beard of comely brown.
sterner and

remarkable characteristic of his face

The was the contrast




gentler moods.

As he

accosted a friend, or dispensed the hospitalities of his


house, his serious, constrained look gave place to

a smile, so sweet and sunny in

graciousness that

he was another man. And if anything caused him to burst into a hearty laugh, the effect was a complete metamorphosis. Then his eyes danced, and his countenance rippled with a glee and aha?ido?i literally

This smile was indescribable to one



saw it. Had there been a painter with genius subtile enough to fix upon his canvas, side by side, the spirit of the countenance with which he caught the sudden jest of a child romping on his knees, and with which, in the crisis of battle, he gave the sharp command, Sweep the field with the bayonet he would have accomplished a miracle of art, which the spectator could


scarcely credit as true to nature.

"In walking, his step was long and rapid, and at once suggested the idea of the dismounted horseman. It has been said that he was an awkward rider, but


sufficient evidence of this is the fact

that he

was never thrown.

true that on the

march, when involved

thought, he was heedless of

the grace of his posture

but in action, as he rode



with bare head along his column, acknowledging the shouts which rent the skies, no figure could be nobler than his. His judgment of horses was excellent, and it was very rare that he was not well mounted."

His passport, which he procured at Washington for
a European trip in 1S50, describes him thus '' Stature forefive feet nine and three-quarter inches, English


head full; eyes gray; nose aquiline mouth small; chin oval hair dark-brown face oval complexion dark." The last is a mistake, as his complexion was nat; ;


urally fair, but

was very

susceptible to sunburn.



who was a relative, with whom he

lived under the

same roof several years, says " He was a man siii generis ; and none who came into close enough contact with him to see into his inner nature were willing to own that they had ever known just such another man.-' After she was allowed unguarded insight into ''the very pulse of the machine," she recalls the incredulity with which her declaration that Jackson was the very stuff out of which to make a hero was received, before any sword


lifted in

the contest.

She describes

him upon

his first entrance into Lex-

ington society as " of a

very erect figure, with a military precision about him which made him appear stiff, but he was one of the most polite and courteous

of men.

He had

blue-o-rav eves,

a handsome, animated face, flashing and the most mobile of mouths. He
professional circle,

was voted

eccentric in our little

because he did not walk in the same conventional grooves as other men it was only when we came to know him with the intimacy of hourly converse that

and tended to give angularity and stiffness to his style.' When would be playfully represented to him that this needless precision interfered with the graces of conversation. the higher rose our respect and reverence. •* interlard he would induce him to make the impression that conversation. and compelled a respect which we dared not withhold.'' witli wliich so " Xothing.gg LIKK (H GENERAL THOMAS J. he laid as much stress upon truth in the most insignificant words or actions of his dail}' life as in. JACKSOX.'" many said. we found that much that passed under the name of eccentricity was the result of the deepest underlying principle. when really there was no appeal made to his knowlin edge except tlie common "you their know. but he chose to sacrifice all minor charms to the paramount one of it absolute truth."' His crystalline truthfulness was equally noticeable admitting that he did vot I'now facts or things. Not drawing the sight of the perspective of things. What may have provoked a smile when the motive or i)rinciple that lay behind the act was entirely misapprehended came to be regarded with a certain admii'ing wonder when the motive of the act was made We sometimes used to charge him with losing clear. After he became an inmate of our household." . He weighed his the most solemn and important. we were not long in discovering that the more rigidly and narrowly his springs of action were scrutinized. liofhtest utterances in ' the balances of the sanctuarv. he knew what he did not. his reply would he that he vras perfectly aware of the inelegance it involved. distinction that men generally do between small and great.

I asked him to step over the fence and treat ourselves to some of the tempting apples. I do not think it would be right to do that. and I could not sleep comasked. " Simply because I have discovered that it was a misstatement. and al. he would lose no time in hastening to correct it. An inOne stance soon after our marriage will show this.EXTREME CONSCIENTIOUSNESS." No man carried his conscientiousness to a greater extreme. and never forced his convictions upon any one. fortably to-night unless I corrected it. stroll. He never even inadvertently fell into the use of the expressions so common upon our lips that he " wished that any event or circumstance were different from what it was. 69 So in conversation." To do so would." His ideas of honesty were just as rigid. My rebuke can be imagined when in the kindest manner he answered: "]^o. many may though he laid down these stringent rules for his own governance. " Why. and passing autumn afternoon we were taking a a large apple orchard where the ripe fruit had fallen plentifully upon the ground. but I cannot take sure that Colonel E them without his leave. in his . as soon as he discovered his mistake. I am would have no objection. if he unintentionally made a misstatement about a matter of no moment whatever. he did not set himself up as a guide or model for others. and would gladly give them to us if he were here. even if he had to go upon the mission in a pouring rain. in the name of reason. and say that he did it to an unnecessary and even morbid degree but his humility was as pre-eminent as his conscientiousness. Upon being do you walk a unimportant thing ^ mile in the rain for a perfectly his reply was.

detraction. However. punctuality was regarded by him as a virtue: " Xo one could ever charge him ^vitll loss of time through dilatoriness on his part.meeting. for he remember that he was as punctual as a clock in being in his seat before the o])ening of the services of the church. his faith was not as easily restored. . and his ahandon was beautiful to see. he religiously kept the not permitting a word of censure or . envy. if it was impossible for him to do so. he would take any amount . have been to arraign Providence. He never failed to fill an engagement or. of ti'oiible it. or discovered deception and fraud on the part of one whom he had trusted. JACKSON. he would not speak of him at all. drew himself door much as possible and he withfrom any further dealings with him. He opinion. . . Only in the innermost circle of home did any one come to know what Jackson really was. Bin if he once lost confidence. all if was and uncharitableness. of his lips. his severest him was that he believed him to be a " deceived man." . provided there were only one or two people to see it.. and certainly kept his rule that he could say nothing good of a man. casion. to give notice beforehand of his inabilit}^ ." who was so blinded that he could not see the error of his ways. On this oc- when he found that the worship had combe- menced (although we were only a few minutes . Once only do I was late in getting to prayer . denunciation to pass them that a asrainst and even when convinced sentence man was a hypocrite. ." As may be supposed. His natural temperament was extremely buoyant. utterly free from censoriousness.70 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J.. to kee]) .

He ate. and durvisited several summer vacation he hydro- pathic establishments in and New Engand invariably gained strength from the baths exercise. " When sometimes at parties and receptions a friend would entreat him."I HAVE NO GENIUS FOR SEEMING. he declined to enter. saying we had no by going in daring the service. and nothing could tempt him to partake of food between his regular hours. he " No. as he did everything else. and for that reason had to practise absolute control over his appetite. from a sense of duty." He had suffered much from dyspepsia. for courtesy's sake and the gratification of his hostess. and so we returned home. to seem to accept some delicacy. or at least venture upon a grape or an orange. and on his his return home he found his double-breasted coat (a major's uniform) incapable of accommodating increased dimensions. He always wore citizen's dress new when ofi" . New York and the One summer his chest several inches b\^ his performances in the broadened gymnasium." 71 hind time). nothing would ever tempt him to swerve in the slightest degree from it. He became ing his land. dyspepsia. His personal habits w^ere systematic in the exlie studied his physical nature with a physi. he found none that proved so beneficial as the hydropathic treatment. cian's scrutiny and having once adopted a regimen which he believed perfectly suited to himself. so he had to have a one made. dutv. no I have no genius for would always reply : . a strong believer in the system. seeyningP In all the means that he sought for relief in subduing his arch-enemy. right to disturb the devotions of others " treme.

and sup])osed a case " Imagine that the providence of God seemed the to direct you to drop every scheme of life and of personal advancement. having a fondness for them. During the Avar." '' " I can give you. I thank you." if As an instance of the alacrity with Avhich." he said. he replied " Xo." Xor did he use tobacco in any form. " If absolutely. he provided himself with some of his favorite apphances for gymnastic exercises. when he had been talking of self-abnegation and making rather : light of it. as he himself confessed. I never eat it. once convinced that a thing was right to do. and for that reason never daring to in- He dulge his taste. I : airrees with me. but I never use it I am more afraid . and go on a mission heart of Africa for the rest of your days. and greatly invigorated himself by their use. if you . and for many years not even tea and coffee.ere injurious to his health. JACKSOX. on one occasion. he would say of it you follow my rule. abstained from the use of all intoxicating drinks from principle. believing that they w. a friend sug- gested that he had not been called upon to endure it. when asked by a : brother officer to join him in a social glass. than of Federal bullets. When he had a home of his own. When persons about him complained of headaches or other consequences of imprudence.: 72 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Avhich is to govern yourself do not think you would have these My head never aches if anytliing dissufferings. he did it. my idea of by illustration. would you go r' His eyes flashed as he instantly re" I would go xoithout my hat /" plied This same friend once asked him what wa?^ his unto : derstanding of the Bible command it to be '' instant in prayer " and to " pray without ceasing.

when we take our meals. " I can hardly say that I do the habit has become almost as fixed as to breathe. that my time to act of intercede with the day I have " God for them. I have so fixed the habit in my own mind that I never raise a glass of water to my lips without lifting my heart to God in thanks and [)rayer for the water of life. When I break the seal of a letter just received. I stop to ask God to prepare me for its contents. I send a petition along with it for God's blessing upon its mission and the person to whom it is sent. however severely it might be tried. that he always said he pre- ferred God's will to his own and his perfect assurance of faith never forsook him. knowing tliat his health was a source of . Whenever 1 drop a letter in the post-office." he believed he Thinking this a bold if assertion. Then. And so in every made the practice habitual. And don't this ?" asked his friend.PRAYER WITHOUT CEASING. the pressure of untoward circumstances." you sometimes forget to do . and will not think that I am setting myself up as a model for others. and the assurance that " all things work together for good to them that love God " Avas to him such a blessed reality. and remarked that he did not think any combination of earthly ills could make him positively unhappy was suffering the will of God. and make it a messenger of good." His submission to his Heavenly Father's Avill was so perfect. " He used to express surprise at the want of equanimity on the part of Christians under . When ment I go to my class-room and await the arrangeis of the cadets in their places. there is the grace. a friend ventured to touch him m a vulner- able pomt. Y3 will allow it.

as if to weigh fully every word he uttered. as he always attendIlls busiest ed church twice a day and taught in two Sabbath He refrained as much as possible from all schools! of the decalogue. anxious care. and an exalted expression over it was urged : " his whole face. JACKSON. Since the Creator had set apart this day for his own. But if." ''Well. you had to receive grudging charity from those on ^vhom you had no claim— what then ?" There was a strange reverence in his lifted eye. I should could be liai>py still r He answered : ])e ha]»i)v stili. he believed that it was as wrong for him to desecrate it by worldly pleasure. suppose you should lose your health irreparably.illness.: 74: LIFE OF GENKRAL THOMAS : J. as he replied. and commanded it to be kept holy. in obeying the divine comwas not less scrupulous " mand to '• remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy " than he was in any other rule of his life. unclouded ?" vou believe your serenity would remain He paused a moment. I think 1 could lie there content a hundred years P^ General Jackson's extreme rigor in the observance of the Sabbath has been much commented on. suppose. as to break any Sunday was other commandment (lay of the week. do you think you " Yes. you should become suddenly blind. with slow deliberateness n it were God's will. . in addition to blindness antl incurable infirmity and pain. a misfortune could not make me doubt the love of God." Still further to test him. or secular employment. and he Certainly he has been called a religious fanatic. idleness. and knowing his impatience of anything that even bordered on dependence. in addition to life- do lono. and then said " I am sure of it even such : . and asked him '^ Major.

but were kept over until Monday morning. and I write to express the hope that something may be accomplished by you at the meeting of that influential body towards repealing the law requiring our mails to be carried on the Christian Sabbath. in his opinion. if seculai* topics were introduced." He never travelled on Sunday. Va. . One so strict in his own Sabbath observance naturally believed that it was wrong for the government to carry the mails on Sunday. 18G3. Just before his last battle he wrote the following letter. Any organization which exacted secular labor of its employees on the Lord's day was. Recently I received a letter from a member of Congress (the Confederate Congress at Richmond) expressing the hope that the House of Representatives would act upon the subject during its present session and from the mention made of Colonel Chilton and Mr. touching upon this matter. and in his family.. Preston J. to his friend Colonel T. "Near Fredericksburg. with a kindly about that to-morrow. I infer that they are . Curry of Alabama. nor permitted a letter of his own to travel on that day. '' We will talk lating the time it required to reach its destination and even business letters of the utmost importance were never sent off the very last of the week. — I am much gratified to see that you are one of the delegates to the General Assembly of our Church. April " 27th. never took his mail from the post-office.: . Dear Colonel. 75 worldly conversation. STRICT OBSERVANCE OF THE SABBATH. a violator of God's law. unless it was a case where distance required a longer time than a week. L. always before posting it calcusmile. he would say.

and there had been no previous correspondence between 11 is letter is of a cheering character. membei*s of the committee which recommends the A few days since I received a repeiil of the law. Very trulv 3^oar friend. I trust that you will write to every member of Congress with whom you have any influence. Xow appears to me an auspicious time for action. and he takes us. and the press of other business.MAS J. '' T. JACKSOX. which was vol- untary on his part. will prevent the desired action this session. as I was a stranger to him. hope and pra}" that such may be our country's sentiment upon this and kindred subjects that our states- men will see their way clearly. I have said thus much in order that is you may see that Con- to be looked for at the next meethence the importance that Christians act ])romptly. And please request those with whom you I correspond (when expedient) to do the same." In another letter to his pastor he says lightful to see the Congressional '' : It is de- Committee report so stnjngly against Sabbath mails. I reirret to sav that he is fearful tiiat the anxietv of members to return home. I gressional action ing of Congress. and do all you can to procure the ado])tion of the report. so that our legislators may see the current opinion before they take up the subject. Cuny. For nearly fifteen years Sabbath nuuls have been. as our people are looking to God for assistance. througli God's blessing. very gratifying letter from ^Mr. . tians will but beheve that (lod will bless us with success if Clirisdo their duty. occasion to say that divine laws can be violated with impunity neither by governments nor individuals.y(j LIIK OF (iENEKAL TlJo. Jackson. J.

but." He said afterwards that his tranquillity and spiritual enjoyment were unusually great during the day. When he became engaged. " Where is it ?" asked his friend. and his Jiancee lived in another State. "Here. " obstinacy exclaimed his companion. to depart from your rule would promote a true Sabbath observance.HE WOULD NUT BREAK THE avoided by me. and contrary. quietly. 77 am it thankful to say that in no a source of pure enjoyment instance has there been occasion for regret. : '- Assuredly not. it was a subject of amusing speculation among his friends whether he would break this rule. In the autumn of 1855. in this case. "AYhat Don't you know that your curiosity tract to learn its contents will dis- your attention from divine worship far more than if you had read it ? Surely." " No. I expect the divine blessing upon it. he organized his Sabbathschool for the instruction of the colored people of Lexington. . instead of injuring it. His interest in that race was simply because . on the God has made For a long time he kept his resolution not to use and it was his custom never to break the seal of a letter which came to him late on Saturday night until the dawn of Monday morning. A friend in walking to church with him one Sunday morning. But it was found that even to the excuse " The woman tempted me " he did not yield." he answered. " I shall make the most faithful effort I can to govern my thoughts and guard them from unnecessary distraction and as I do this from a sense of duty." tapping !" his coat -pocket. to me. knowing he had received a letter the evening before. said to him " Major. surely you have read j^our letter ?" his eyes b\^ artificial light ." said he." I SEAL.

but he preferred that my labors should be given takino. 78 LIFE OF GEKERAL THOMAS . Dr. and he soon inits sessions were short fused interest and punctuality into both teachers and ini])ils. Upon my removal to Lexington I proposed Sunday-school for white children. have always felt thankful that his wishes guided me in this matter. and never did his face beam with more intelligence and earnestness than was more imporhand of the Gospel I to lift them up. This school was held in the afternoon of the Sabbath and spirited.a class in the to the colored children. JACKSOX. the major explained are my at the top are your regulars. This school in suc- cessful operation. The Rev. they had souls to save and he continued to instruct them with great faithfulness and success up to the breaking-out of the war. White said he was once both gratified and amused when Major Jackson came to him to report the result of a collection which he had made in At the foot the congregation for the Bible Society. Upon inThese (^uiring who they were. In this missionary work he was assisted by a number of ladies and gentlemen. believing tant and useful to put the strong under the ignorant African race.. and expressed great its prosperity. of the long list of the church-members and other of additional citi- zens were a number names in pencil- marks with small sums attached to them. J. and those below '* : . When in the army he inquired of every visitor from the church to his camp how his colored Sunday-school satisfaction at is still was getting hearing of on. it when he was telling the colored children of his Sab- bath-school the story of the cross. for it was a privilege to witness his great interest and zeal in the work.

This gentleman was an elder of the church. This activity for the good of others brought its own reward. to whom he was more indebted for spiritual profit than to any one else except his pastor. Indeed.A BELOVED CHRISTIAN militia. his pastor said. and increase their interest in the study of the Bible. some and the counsellor of the doubting. and not prosperous. a bachelor." FRIEND. The story of Major Jackson's life in Lexington would be lacking in one important link of the chain without the mention of his dear and honored Christian friend. but his magnificent Major Jackvoice ^vas almost equal to an organ itself. both in temporal and spiritual matters. and he was known as the comforter of the afflicted. arguing that their money was more profitably spent in this way than in tobacco and whiskey." His faith and trust were so implicit that his own will was in perfect subjection to that of his Heavenly Father. large-hearted Christians whose lives are full of love and sunshine. His genial face and ready sympathy made him a great favorite with young and old. but he was one of those whole-souled. of his colored friends. and he was generally the confidant and adviser of his numerous friends. Lyle. past middle-age. John B. and that it would elevate them. The church at that time had no organ. so busy in '' good works. He was fond of music. the restorer of the wayward. and led the church choir. to this good cause. as the world goes. This man. and no suffering or trial could make him wish it had been otherwise. his heart was big enough to take in all who sought a place there. . even if it were but a mite. was the happiest man he ever knew. Y9 In bis round of visiting. he had called u})on and encouraged them to give. The young ladies made a special pet of him. Mr.

" The name of Dr. ton " and his smiling and hearty '' welcome to Lexingwent directly to the heart of the stranger. Mr. White. that Major Jackson attained that perfect assurance of faith. which shed such sunshine over his latter years. one who was not connected with him by any tie of blood had him buried in his own family lot in the cemetery. breath. John B. "prayer was his vital . Lyle. he never parted from his wife without engaging in prayer before go^ ing to his Sabbath-schools he always knelt in prayer. son rarely passed a day without a visit to Mr. coming under the constant as his outward ence of one whose inner Christian hfe was as elevated was active. his own religious character became moulded into that exalted type for which he was so consi)icuous. in every act of life. the bravest man. It was largely due to Mr. In taking a journey. He also taught him to cherish a high sense of the value of prayer. the good pastor. will long be fragrant memories in Lexington. Lyle's guidance in religious reading. and to expect an answer to it.go LIKE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. the hearts of all who knew him. He was then a partial paralytic. and thus. faithful .'' The ter first visit that my arrival at my husband took me to pay afmy new home was to his friend. and his under -shepherd. and so. Lyle's influ- sanctum. his own bright example and instructions. JACKSOX. and marked the " He spot by a monument bearing this inscription was the truest friend. and the best : Christian ever his known to him who erects this stone to memory. and it was not many months until a final stroke removed him to a better As an evidence of the strong hold he had on world. Lyle.

CHAPTER YI. he replied: ''jS'o: I expect to be able to study sufficiently in advance of my classes . His extreme conscientiousness constrained him to carry out to the very letter all the regulations of the school. and his friends in Lexington and elsewhere. THE PROFESSOR. for one can always do ivhat he vnlU to ac- romplish. teachinrj was a new profession to him. Francis H. and when he came into conflict either with superiors or inferiors. Smith.— 1851-1856. officer.— TRIP TO EUROPE. With high mental endowments. Major Jackson had never been a teacher before he became a professor in the Virginia Military Institute. give their testimony to his character as a teacher and an that he did everything else he undertook in The superintendent of the Institute. But we will let some of his colleagues in office. and when asked by a friend whether he did not feel distrustful of himself in undertaking so untried and arduous a course of instruction. says '* : .^^ In this spirit he entered on his duties as a teacher. and by an unobtrusive yet earnest spirit. General The professorial career of Major Jackson was marked by great faithfulness. it was because they were disposed to practise more policy and expediency than the rules prescribed. and discharged them with the same painstaking fidelity life.

government was that a general rule should not be any particular good and his animating rule of action was. in the important department assigned him. The habit of mind of Major Jackson. but no one ever possessed in a higher degree tlie confidence and respect of tlie cadets. and from slothful in busi- ness. in no questionable form. for his unbending integrity and fearlessness in the discharge of duty. and deinaiuled. and at times stern. fervent in spirit. submis11 ill! as his Divine Teacher and Guide soon matured into a confession of faith that moment the 'triple cord' — 'not in him. was reverential.32 Llt^E ^^^^ (JF. and especially from the weakness of his eyes. Conscientious fidelity to duty marked every step of his life here. on optics. pline (though ever polite and kind). If he were exact in his demands upon them. that a man could accomplish what he willed to perform. long before he made a ])ublic profession of religion. an amount of labor which. •• sion to Devoutly recognizing the authority of God. and Avhen called to active duty in the field he had made considerable progress in the preparation of an elementar}^ work which he proposed to publish for the benefit Strict. they knew he was no less so in his own respect His great principle for and submission to authority. such an i/njjress upon those who. making during that period. unwearied labors as a professor. he })erformed at great sacrifice. from the state of his health. For ten years he prosecuted his of violated for . when the war broke out the spontaneous senti- ment of every cadet and graduate was to serve under him as their leader. he was not always a ])<)])ular professor.NERAL TllUMAS J. from time to time. JACKSON. were under his that command. serving the Lord' —bound him . in his disciof his classes.

daughter of the Rev. the mother died also. she had every qualification to make a happy home. under parental culture. Dr. August 4th. and conscientiousness ripened. Major Jackson was twice married the first time in 1853. is remembered by all who knew her as a person of singular loveliness of character. Thus into a beautiful type of Christian womanhood. to Elinor. but. President of Washington College. . that never breathed. his Christian character God's will was unshaken. — who George Junkin. Professor Bledsoe. and so elected teacher. and became more mellowed and consecrated by this sad .THE DEATH OF HIS FIRST WIFE. which Avas developed in a family of high cultivation while her native modesty . an older and more experienced In the end it proved better that Major Jack- son remained at Lexington. family ties were more But his resignation to to him than to most persons. in giving birth to a child. in simple ter/' 83 and trustful obedience to liis Divine Mas- in the Military Institute a In the third year of Major Jackson's professorship vacancy occurred in the Chair of Mathematics at the University of Virginia by the death of Professor Courtenay. the directors prely ferred an alumnus of the University. so that all that was dearest to him on earth was This was a terrible blow. for he was laid in the grave. bereavement. a devoted husband isolated and his early life having been so from home influences. as was quite natural. and he Avas high- recommended by General Lee and others for the position. But this happiness was not to be of long duration. About fourteen months after the marriage. as possessed of great natural intelligence.

sympa- She has left me and deep dependsuch monuments ence upon her Saviours merits.' T human attribute. tains her pure. of her love to God. that were I not to believe in her happiness. human affections there.. and . 1855. and .. '' A Your kind letter. do you not long to leave the flesh and go to . hope ever cheerfully to submit. If she re. I can my dear EUie is no more — that Avelcome my return — no more love. words. Mrs. few extracts from his letters to his aunt. merciful Father. I feel that she will derive pleasure who in this from the acquaintance of any one world loves me. made she a dee}) impression on liardly realize yet that Avill never again my stricken heart. I feel that had she lived she would have been in correspondence with you but now that cannot be in this sinful world. . but all a. . And ( ' does she not retain love there believe that she retains every pure. . or whom 1 love. and prcmiises change not. God's She w^as a child of God. I have sutTered so mucli with my eyes lateh^ that 1 have had great fears that I might lose things are in the hands of to His will 1 them entirely.S4 LIFE UK GENERAL THOMAS J. neither Avould I believe though one were to rise from the dead and declare it. will show the spirit in which he bore his affliction: ''February 16th. and in a \u^Vi\ higher state than when trammelled with flesh Oh. soothe my troubled spirit by her ever kind. . so full of sympathy and love. when living. spoke of the beauty of your letters. God is love. Xeale. though it may be that an intimate friendshi]) will exist between you in yonder world of bliss whither she has gone. as such she is enjoying Him forever. thizing heart. JACKSON. . My dear EUie.

I frequently go to the dearest of earth's spots. absorbed al- in tender and loving memories. and less of the things of earth. which covered a period of nearly five months. think more of the things of heaven. Major Jackson made a tour through Europe. who withholds no good thing from them that love Him. . but I think of her as having a glorified ex- — istence. by Elbe's death resentment . and mingle with the just made perfects Of all the moments of life. To eradicate ambition If to eradicate desire to be to produce Immility. and with uncovered head." During the summer and fall of 1856. AYhen I stand and lovely over the grave. I do not fancy that she is thus conlined. there are none around which 1 cluster so much that is joyful. with its castellated banks and luxuriant vinetrip. the grave of her who was so pure but she is not there. Yet I feel that I do not wish to go before it is the will of God. In one of his note-books '' : appears the following entry. 85 God." He then goes on to speak in the most rapturous terms of '' the romantic lakes and mountains of Scotland. I thank my Heavenly Father that I can realize that blessed declaration.AT HIS WIFE'S GRAVE.'' For a long time he ways stood Over it visited her grave daily. '' To a friend he wrote : I was so urged visit cumstances to by a concurrence of favorable cirEurope as to induce me to believe that the time had arrived for carrying out my long- contemplated with which I was much charmed. the imposing abbeys and cathedrals of England the Rhine. showing his desire to profit by his great : sorrow Objects to be effected . . you more heavenly-minded.

de . leave art.: g6 yards . with the finger upon the lip. the sculpture and paint. with her the lofty Mont Blanc and massive Mer . : .' me these enis trancing productions of And similar to this the influence of painting." His trip gave him boundless although it he managed to visit a great num])er of places in the space of four months. : you never to name my European trip to me unless you are blest with a superabundance of patience." In another letter he statue of II is enthusiastic over Powers's '^ Penseroso.Glace vestitJ-es of Venetian beauty. will show Avas a hurried one. Mrs. illuminated Rome . ings of Italy. which are far the most impressive. Passing over the works of the Creator. JACKSON. the sublime scenery of Switzerland. and. and how there " I Avould advise I ' beo-an to realize the sentiment of the Florentine Take from me but leave my liberty. me my statuary. a train. Neale. it is difficult to conceive of the influences which even the works of His creatures exercise over the mind till one loiters amidst their master productions. who is represented as walk- ing al)r()a(l wliile of one ries hand I'esting absorbed in thought. LIKK OF (iENERAL THOMAS J. AVell do I remember the influence of sculpture upon me during my short stay in Florence. while the other car])leasure. Again he writes with . as its very mention is calculated to bringup with it an almost inexhaustible assemblage of grand and beautiful associations. the beautiful Bay by Vesuvius and lovely France. the ruins of of Naples. her gay capital." etc. take from me what you will. as the following letter to his aunt.

months he acquired such a knowledge of French that for 3^ears after it was his custom to read his Scripture morniui^ lesson in a French Testament. like other enthusiastic travellers. London. he began with a resolution to When keep a journal. and Thun. Brussels. Paris.. . 87 Oct. I80G. After my leaving Liverpool I passed to Chester and Hall. "Lexington. Eaton and from there. It appeared to me that Providence had opened the Avay for my long-contemplated visit. Freiburg. London. and then home. Lleidelberg. Antwerp." Marseilles. as time was too short to see well all that came within the range of my journey. and Liverpool again. Berne.on . absence. he set out on this foreign tour. Florence. crowded upon his attention that his ''Journal" subsides into mere jottings of places and objects which During these are of interest chiefly to his family. Edinburgh.. Geneva. Waterloo. Cologne. Aix-la-Chapelle.- VISIT TO EUROPE. Baden-Baden.. York. Basle. Your kindness and that of uncle has not been forgotten but when you hear Avhere I have been during my short with much pleasure that to write to you from my . Lochs Lomond and Katrine. " It is God again permits me adopted home. he found himself so absorbed with the sights and scenes that scription of all that he . returning. . Bonn. Strasburg. I visited Glasgow. Frankf ort . the ]\Ier de Glace. Milan. in which he would give a minute desaw from day to day but when he was fairly in the heart of Old England. Lakes Lucerne. Xaples. Stirling Castle.the Main. Eome. Brience. over the Alps by the Simplon Pass . you will not be surprised at not having heard from me. Venice. 27tli. and I am much gratified at having gone. Ya.

but the steamer failed to ber of days. but when the steamer was delayed by Trovidence." lie replied.^ J. his health Avas perfectly restored. and he was ready to resume his work. make the tri]) in the usual numto At tliis his friends. . "1 did all in my power to here at the appointed time. as soon as the lii-st greetings were over. expressed their AvonUpon liis der at his failure to '' come up to time. and he had explained the cause of his detention. who knew him be the very soul of punctuality. haven't you been mis: erable since the beginning of the month i You are so particular in kee])ing your appointments that ^\e imagined you were beside yourself with imi)atience.'Aside from the pleasure of seeing foreign tained. my responsibility was at The great object of his journey was atan end." "Not ])e at all. Major. the ocean he gave at tlie liiniself ample time to reach home expiration of his furlough." arrival. one of them exclaimed "But.SS In UVK OF (JENERAL THOMAS cTossin^i. JACKSON. countries.

R. had in been a pastor in towns. year 1818. arising solely from the fact of my having been the wife of General Jackson. in Xorth Carolina but. SECOND MARRIAGE. where he was able to preach to a group of country churches. of Mississippi. Dr. old-fashioned house. I trust it will not be out of place to give a very brief full insight into my early life. Korth Carolina. He was graduated from the in the Universit}^ of Korth Carolina. the Rev. The home of my girlhood was a large. knowing is well that what- awakened in me is only a reflected one. Morrison.— HOME LIFE. bound up with that of my husband that the reader will have to pardon so much of self as must is so necessarily be introduced to continue the story of his domestic life and to explain the letters that follow.CHAPTER In writing these memoirs. it has been my aim. Bishop Green. H. a Presbyterian minister. up to this period. on a plantation in Lincoln County. in a class with President Polk. and was the first president of Davidson College.— 1857-1858. and reared his large family of ten children principallv in this secluded spot. and several other men of em- . to keep myself in the background as much as possible but in what follows. he sought a country home for . my own life . surrounded by an ever interest extensive grove of fine forest trees. his earlier life My father. YII. rest and restoration. his health having failed.

William AVilberforce (of the Confederate army). Susan. Virginia. Alfred married Portia Lee Atkinson. in 18G. of Charlotte.J. K C. where his labors had been greatly blessed. C. C. and followed Him Four sacred times a year he read the Bible through from beginning to end. he gave promise of great usefulness in the church.00 LII'K OF GENERAL THOMAS state. in and flower of the Gifted in followed the sacred mind and person and winning church in Selmn. and own home furnished the best school for his children until the girls sent off * were old enough to be to boarding-school and the boys to college. life. and the reading tlie devotional books. J. C. f)f Those. IIill. Laura. C. who married of the war. married General Ruius Barringer. were sources of his truly heavenly piety. J. he obeyed the voice of the grafaithfully to its close. Robert Hall. 2d. James P. Alfred. Atkinson. Jackson. Dr. As he died since this biography was commenced. flock. Literary tastes were sanctified. Irwin. 8th. C. Laving attained the age of ninety years. N. Avifc of General Thomas J. and mind and heart found their . I cannot refrain from quoting a brief tribute by : my " pastor to his memory Descended from a sterling Scotch-Irish ancestry. study- ing all the commentaries that could throw light upon its pages. made him an honor to the age and a blessing to the world. Brown. J. 4th. married Mr. ineiice in church and liis lie Avas always a good student. of Hampden Sidney College. N. Harriet. Ala- manner. 5th. he inherited those qualities of mind and heart which.. 9th. a victim who died 3d. settled as pastor of a Presbyterian at the He was bama. P. of X. daughter of Rev. mtirried 7th. Judge A. E. hallowed by grace. JACKSOX. Eugenia. 31. of Iredell County. Mary Anna. married Lucy Reid. 6th. N. 10th. of Charlotte. married Jennie Davis. C. with daily communion with God.^: The nauK'S of those children were 1st. H. of Salisbury. Avery. the Benjamin calling of his father. IsabeUa. of N. My honored and beloved father long outlived his son. General D. but end of six months his career was cut short by typhoid fever. Joseph Graham. Called by the Saviour in the morning of cious Shepherd. married Colonel J.

borhood in Avhich excellent my father lived and the was noted hospitality. and many fervent prayers v/hich have been. In Lis latter years all of his income after providing for his personal wants was dedecided but — — voted to the Gospel. descendants the rich legacy of an honored life. a holy an elevated Christian character. of which he was the founder. answered in —a legacy infinitely more precious than the diadems and treasures of earth. and the church to Davidson College born will " rise monument. active and zealous. . moulded his Christian experi- and made him humble and prayerful. Its liigh risen to standard fluences the respect of the whole country. for which generations yet unup and bless the name of Dr. neigli- for its society. immovable. a name well known in our Revolutionary He entered the army at nineteen years of age. it has given to the church two hundred ministers of the Gospel Who is able to compute the ! commands sum all total of blessing accruing to the ? world from influence for this one source alone Who is able to measure its good through noble founder coming time? is And who his is able to estimate the indebtedits ? ness of society. has eminence among the institutions of America. but ing other denominations of Christians. relinement.daugliter liighest satisftxction of General Jo- and enjoyment in the green pastures of divine still truth and beside the waters of divine consolation. and My mother was Mary Graham.DR. steadfast. GenJoseph Graham. but returning health annals. He has left to his name. not restricting himself to his own. 91 In those good old times before the war many wealthy families lived upon their plantations. During the fifty-two years of its existence. Robert Hall Morrison. The grand doctrines of grace entered into and ence. whilst the moral inwhich govern and surround it are unsurpassed. cheerful and strong. At the end of two years of arduous and responsible service he was stricken down by a severe and lingering illness."' eral *The name of Graham recalls that of my mother's father. liberal. the state. MORRISOX AND GENERAL GRAHAM.. blessings on their heads all and are yet to be. and always abounding in the work of the Lord. assist- "Davidson College.

and sister of the Hon. but. and so he continued in the field as long as there was an enemy in the country. and though. sepli (4niliain. came out sisters as young ladies together. he recked not of means. My and beautiful younger sister Eugenia and I left school at the same time. suftering. he was confronted For many miles famous cavalry. ing. said to be the best in the British service. he fell. Of commissary nay. his command often had none the necessity of supplying their own horses and j^urcluising their own equipments. JACKSOX. The many im- portant positions filled by capacity and character. who Avas successively Governor of North Carolina. there being six we had to take these trips by turns. he ha<l commanded in fifteen different engagements. Avas practicable . treneral durin'' the him aff"ord the highest testimony to his He received the commission of major- war of 1812. AYe Avere simple coun- found hira again in the field. In civil life he was scarcely less distinguished. when ])eace was declared. When the war invaded his own section. he had but entered on the threshold of manhood. liter- But no sooner did he recover than he which now fell to his lot was one of peculiar privation.90 I'1I"^K or CENERAL THOMAS J. The obstinate resistance wliich he op- posed to their advance had nearly closed his career. But his patriotism was entire and uncalculatally covered with wouuds. and Secretary of the Xavy Having durinf^" President Fillmore's administration. and we were indulged it in charming trips whenever daughters. Gra- ham. my mother was anxious to give her daughters the same pleasure. and the army nuder General Greene withdrew towards Virginia. to him was assigned the command of those troops which witli Tarleton's sustained the rear-guard nnder General Davies. health. seen a good deal of the Avorld in her young days. After many gallant but ineffectual attempts to drive them back. field. . again took the The service . or life itself in the cause to which he had devoted himself. United States Senator. and sacrifice. were sometimes under stores. ^^illiam A. never were two ual affection happier or more united in mut- and confidence.

and though none of us were dancing girls (for myself. being equal in cultivation and accomplishments to any one w^ho has filled the position of " first lady of the land. AYashington was then a rather with little its small. peace. wdio had married Major D. of course. Hill (afterwards general in the . Two most other young ladies were guests of my uncle at the same time. but to a girl. where contentment. and My first revelation of the gay Avorld was a visit to my uncle Graham. one lady singing ''Auld Robin pathos. Being "Cabinet ladies. Virginia. We had some very delightful music on the harp. and we formed a most congenial and hap- country trio during: mv delio^htful stay of four months. all was purity. Avhich at that time was the home of our oldest sister. were invited to all the grand entertainments. but the latter was hostess to her young friends on this evening. 93 try raaidens.VISIT TO WASHINGTON. during the last year of Mr. old-fashioned city compared present expansion and magniticence. Upon my return home. Gray" Avith exquisite beauty and Eugenia. the charming hostess. my younger sister. was to have a trip to Lexington. it was the grandest and charming place that she liad ever seen. as a minister's daughter. H. of course. in 1853. it would not have been considered proper). and. Fillmore's administration. knowing little of the world outside of our father's home. Miss more. One of our red-letter evenings was a select social tea Fill- at the AVhite House. in Washington. certainly we did not need it to complete our enjoy- pv ment.'' Ave. took precedence of the daughter." Her mother was living.

instead of proving wearisome to was a source of genuine enjoyment. from going anywhere alone.. going north had only a few railbut there was one . . and always shrinking. and kindly oifered to escort Eugenia on her jourHaving recently returned from so hjng a visit ney. : accompany her that was irresistible. was a (lel(\i:-ate to the General Assembly at Philadel- phia. via Charleston. JACKSON. nr»nc near to us. but. and Richmond. AVe spent one night in Columbia. with its enchanting old private gardens. Confederate army). McDowell. to AVashiugton. rather than travel by coach across the country. but our drive through it to take the steamer gave us a glimpse of this city us. the me to events. which we had time to see in its lovely May dress. father says you may go. Eobert I. on account of shyness. I'unning from Charlotte to Charleston. too Being a very dejiendent younger sister.4 I>n'E OF (JEXERAL THOMAS J. that time North Carolina At roads. especially as we took it by easy stages. ex!" claiming '' Oh. it never entered into my head even to 1 might be permitted to accompany my sisand mv astonishment can be imagined when she came bounding into my room in a perfect ecstasy. sister. This long journey. at all no plan could have been more delightful than for us to make this visit together. One of my father's elders and friends. Wilmington. a professor in Washington College. and two more joyous young creatures never set out upon a journey. entire unexpectedness of filling my being one of the party the cup of our happiness. and our escort chose this circuitous route. South Carolina. At Charleston we spent only a few hours. it may be that she had put in a plea for wish that ter.. with tlieii' w('.iltli oF flowers and evergreens.

and accompanied us ington. when and had a sail of twenty-four hours ui)on it to Wihnington. and to know him as a friend. its acme. Of course. without the remotest idea. being permitted to take the ing only one of her young trip. so that before we met him we knew that he was soon to be married. but we beheld he chivalrously volunteered to see us to our all the way to LexFrom Staunton to Lexington we travelled by stage-coach. for she was expect- sisters to visit her that summer. his regard for our relatives giving us. and he very soon offered his services in the kindest manner. General Hill has told of the links in the chain of Providence that led Major Jackson to Lexington. It was a perfect afternoon. my sister. Mrs. Major Jackson. tellino. Upon our arrival. 95 by the seca. From Wilmington to Eichmond we travelled by rail. was as much surprised at seeing me as I was at journey's end. and expected at the latter place to part with our escort. Hill.FIEST VISIT TO LEXINGTON". Hill. and his engagement to Miss Elinor Junkin had been confided to them before we went to Lexington. He was very intimate at the house of Major Hill. that we could ever be to each other anything more. I cannot but look upon it as a special Providence that led me there to meet him who was to be future husband. my Through the letters of Major and Mrs. we had heard of their friend. him a very friendly feeling towards His greeting was most cordial.us that if Major Hill was ever too much engaged to give . Our rapture then reached for the first time the ocean. as we escaped seasickness. we were able to enjoy everything. and was the first gentleman to call upon us. and. the sunset was superb. on his part or mine.

large and finely life. tinged were still moi'e pleasing. and when in robust health he was a handsome man. and His profile was very fine. his erect bearing and military dress being quite striking. which surely ought to be true to Ilis head was a splendid one. his beard being a heav}^ and handsome His forehead l)rown. and always fair. and he was at all times manly and noble-looking. All his feathis face oval. animated countenance. and his clear complexion. hair. double-breasted. allowed to grow to any length. and buttoned up to the chin with brass buttons. from its His eyes were blueprotection by his military cap. and clung to the conventional style. After he was per- suaded to turn out a full beard. call US every needful attention. The descriptions of his perso much that I must be perv»^ith mitted to give mine. large. His manners were rather stiff. impression was that he was more soldierlylooking than anything else. consisting of a dark -blue frock-coat with shoulder-straps. d la mUitaire. His nose derful chano:es with his varvino^ emotions. but upon engaging in My first conversation. a shade lighter than his hair.96 I^It'K OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and covered with if soft. ures were regular and symmetrical. curled but he had a horror of long hair for a man. his open. formed. was noble and expansive. we must upon him as we would niK)n a brother. II is uniform. which. and fault- . JACKSON. but they had a certain dignity which showed that he was not an ordinary man. of Avearing very closecut hair and short side-whiskers. sonal appearance differ the ruddy glow of health. it was much more becoming to him. and well-formed. his mouth small. capable of wongray in color. was straight and finely chiselled. dark-brown .

as he always kept out of the way if any other young men wished to pay their respects." less 97 white linen pantaloons. were at the age when girls and while fully appreciating the warmth of his kindness. With My young sister and I can see fun in everything.OUR "MILITARY ESCORT. but never once admitted to us the fact of his engagement. but neither of us had any greater hesitation in accepting his escort than we would that of Major Hill. so fell to my lot to share the brotherly wing of the major oftener than to her. which he always took goodnaturedly. I always felt that he would have chosen her first if the opportunity offered. But he often took us on long strolls into the country. this perfect understanding of the situation. a day rarely passing without his calling for a few moments. than was more of a and was scarcely ever without an engagebeautiful it ment of this kind. and we never looked upon him as a beau any more than we would upon a man who was already married. belle if we were provided with young sister escorts for My I. and having adopted us as his protegees^ he came every Sunday evening to see church. We both felt that he was a delightful and never-failing stand-by. was very becoming to him. and contributed in every way that he could to our enjoyment as long as he remained. We teased him a great deal. and his fiancee and he were rarely This Avas in deference to her seen together in public. 7 wishes. we came to know him very intimately. we were silly enough to make ourselves very merry over the role he had assumed in offering himself as a brother to us. only offering his services when they were needed. and they both kept their secret so well guard- .

it when their marriage was announced in took Lexington at the AVe were the town by surprise. that mountain country was arrayed in all its spring beauty. as w^e were to return him back. Arriving there. the greater part of our acquaintances left for their homes. there w^ere a succession of entertainments and a round of parties. Llt'^^ ^^'' GENERAL THOMAS J. But even after the cessation of the round of gayety. at which there w^as always music. and there could not have been a more propitious season for social enjoyment to young people than just before the commencements of the two in large institutions. that being the gay season of the town. and our many exclamations of wonder at seeing him r)ne when (jur friend . ing or card-playing. embracing professors. beinnning of his summer vacation. cadets. there were enough residents left to afford us a very delightful. and. and the numerous community young men there at the time.98 ed that. to us. He had bidden us good-by. and citizens. was as charming as charming could be. though quiet. time to the end of our visit. and w^hen the College and the Institute were em])ty. We were there long enough advance to make many pleasant acquaintances. August morning we were taken by surprise Major Jackson suddenly dropped in. as we did. were over. That visit to Lexington. in the month of May. JACKSOX. and gone off in the time. but never danc- A more cultivated and religious was not to be found. of whom there Avas an unusually large After the commencements circle there that summer. or for new scenes of recreation during the vacation. theological and college students. seemed to vie with each other in showing courtesy to the young ladies. and we thought we had seen the last of home before his professorial duties called the major.

spent an hour or more. we lost sight of him entirely and as Major and Mrs. although we plied him with all sorts of teasing questions. Hill removed from Lexington. . thy of the death of Mrs. and had gone Xorth on a bridal tour After our return home. who during the war became a general in the Confederate army. Rufus Barringer. and in revolving this problem in his mind his first impulse was to open communicafriend — . and he .! . Mr. the g-reatest trial of my life. and after returning from Europe with restored health and spirits he began to realize that life could be made bright and happy to him again. The loss of her sweet companionship was. calHng for his favorite songs and seeming genuinely happy but not even a liint did he give us as to the object of his return. A SISTER'S MARRIAGE. fancyfree" little dreaming what the future held in store for me for I can truthfully sa}^ that my fate was as much of a surprise to me as it could have been to any one ^Ye had heard with sincere sorrow and sympaelse. my sister and I became absorbed in our old associations. . We saw him no more. For three years after. Jackson but afterwards nothing was heard from the major. Eugenia was married to a young lawyer of Korth Carolina. 99 amused him astonished us. up to that time. and while retaining the most pleasant and grateful recollections of our kind Major Jackson. I lived at home '' in maiden meditation. The following spring after our return. our communication with the place was cut off. as much as his unexpected appearance The reunion was a merry one. except in an incidental way. However. but were electrified the next morning at hearing that he and Miss Ellie Junkin were married. he was given to surprises.

promising to return on a certain day. brief. especially with his extreme politeness. he would not indulge himself one moment beyond the limit of his time. and my mother was also favorably impressed. me the first letter I ever received from him came to expressing such blissful memories over reminis- Ave had been together in LexEugenia laughed most heartily over it. My father was highly pleased with him as a Christian gentleman. and how affection were mingled a boundless . to my great surattaining liis desired happiness. appreciating the gentler sex so highly that whenever he met one of the "unappropriated blessings" under the type of truest elor friends could be fortunate womanhood. tion with his old friend Miss Anna Morrison. and it mattered not how much success or fascination enchained him. and predicted an early visit from the major. and see if she could not be induced to become a participant in So. extracts from his letters after our engage- Some ment will with this human show the tenderness of his nature.100 I-Il-'^^ ^^'I*' GENERAL THOMAS J. Still. he would wish that one of his bachenough to win her. so that his visit was one of mutual congeniality and enjoyment. prise. His visit was I could scarcely believe my senses. and when her prediction was verified in a very short time. I was always thankful that our acquaintance and friendship had been formed in a perfectly disinterested way. and I saw a tall form. in military dress. walking up from my father's gate. JACKSON. Tie was a great advocate for marriage. as he had asked for a leave of absence in the midst of the session. I was incredulous. without a thouglit on either side that we should ever occupy cences of the summer sister ington that my a closer relation.

my morning walks were and ren- dered very delightful by the singing of the birds. We may not . or can be. nowhere Him so intensely as to have no will but His. yet you are in the hands of One who will not permit any evil to come nigh you. ments are '- all designed for our good. The morning carolling of the birds. . In my daily walks I think much of you. and my prayer is that I this heavy affliction may be sanctified to them. Hill a few days since. the son of Major Hill. commit all our friends in Jesus to the care of our Heavenly Father. their sweet notes . I do not believe that an attachment ever is. as I have long regarded his father's attachment to him as too strong.. he writes " I wrote to Major and Mrs.EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS. with an assurance that all will be well with I have been sorel}^ disappointed at not them hearing from you this morning. was not surprised that little was taken away. absolutely too strong for any object of the death of Upon hearing M of our affections. though God should call for his own. Is there prayer which is else to be not a comfort found?" "April 25th. and indulge feelings of gratitude to God for all the sources of natural beauty with ^vhich he has adorned the earth. but these disappointknov\^ that ! . 1S5T. Him who was : the giver of an idolized little boy. that is. so strong that he would be unwilling to give him up. . but our love to love God may not be in strong enough. It is a great comfort to me to although I am not with you. What a consoling thought it is to know that we may.. I love to stroll abroad after the labors of the day are over. love and gratitude to 101 all. Some time since. with perfect confidence.

. There is something very pleasant in . and in I the knowledge of Him. I love to give it a devotional turn. though very cUtferent in their nature. and thus disposes the mind to meditation. In the morning. yet in I spirit I shall be present. I ill believe. all is ce])ted) God : in the hushing into silent slum])er. and tliat the glory of God may be the controlling and al)Sorbino: thouo-ht of our lives in our new relation. by thinking of you as a gift from our Heavenly Fatlier. And as my mind dwells on you. . and my prayer will be for take prayers in which I your growth every Christian grace.100 I. to feel that we have such a ! friend. How delightful it is thus to associate every pleasure and enjoyment with will God to the Giver in He bless us.s woi'ks greatly enhances his en- joyment. all animated nature (man exappears to join in expressions of gratitude to evening. and make us grow Thus grace. am persuaded. He How delightful it is shower His blessings upon us.. acknowledo^ino: Him all oui- ways. awaken in nie devotional feelings of praise and thanksgiving. JACKSOX.iy l<Uli.IlK nF GENERAL THOMAS J. 1 wish I could be with you to-morrow in your communion." •• M. in Though absent body. wlio changes not The Christian's recogni- tion of (iod in all Hi. special pleasure in the part of my beg that every temporal and spiritual blessing may be yours."' whom know aright is life "May at Tth. eternal. that if we but in walk His commandments. in the evenino-. It is to me and will a great satisfaction to feel that our Heavenly Father has so manifestly ordered our union.

Whether or not it was in his usual formula. Drury Lacy. to Avhom I looked up as my Heavenly Father. tions but I am disposed to think that it consisted in the idea of the intimate relation existing as the object of my tender aflPection. " June 20th. . so as to arrive at the cause of such emoI ness. . . . or whether he was impressed by the very determined and unbending look of the mihtary bridegroom. Dr. Dr. and the ceremony was performed by a favorite old ministerial friend of mine. . Lacy made him promise to be an indulgent husband. My father could not trust his emotional nature enough to marry any of his daughters." laying special stress upon the adjective but he was '' . wiiat would not our country be ? prayer for you last Sabbath. 1857. It was a quiet little home wedding. Oh that all our people would manifest such a regard for his If Ave would idl strictly observe his holy holy day When in laws. ! . . between you. must be well-pleasing in the sight of God." On the 16th of July.'' . and God. we were married. 103 the thought of your mailing me a letter every Monday such manifestation of regard for the Sabbath . There is something very delightful in such spiritual communion. ingly as last never remember to have felt so touchSabbath the pleasure springing from the I thought of prayers ascending for my welfare from one tenderly beloved. I felt that day as if it were a communion day for myself. and reahzed an unusual degree of emotional tenderI have not yet fully analyzed my feelings to my satisfaction. the tears came to my eyes.HIS SECOND MARRIAGE. Eev.

equally emphatic in exacting obedience on the part of the bride. and entirely and the trustful major had reassured me This was one all along that they would come in time. in Xew York to improvise a bridal outfit. York. No man delighted more in viewing the grand and wonderful works of the Creator. sparkling rivers. JACKSON'. The most memorable incident of the occasion to which had been ordered ample time. and in looking "through nature up to nature's God. the old adage "All's well that ends well" w^as verified in this case. and Niatjara. arrived only a few hours before the ceremony.1(»4 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. His bridal gifts to me w^ere a beautiful gold watch and a lovely set of seed pearls. In Xew York 'vje saw almost everything that was to be seen in the w^ay of sight-seeing. A few^ days after our marriage we set out upon a Xorthern tour. the bay and sound. studded w^ith vessels in motion and at and beautiful rural scenery stretching out as far rest the whole city — : as the eye could reach. even climbing to the top of the spire of Trinity Church. However. The trip included visits to Richmond. of the "special providences" w^hich he loved to rearticle of my . view of the magnificent panorama which The view Avas indeed grand. Philadelphia. combined the greatest amount and pleasure w^ere Niagara and Saratoga. to take Baltimore. and I had been compelled me was from that my trousseau." At Saratoga he took not a particle of interest in the gay and fashionable Ihit the places that of interest . embracing graceful. in the certain expectation of disappointment. satisfactory count. Saratoga. as every ordering was a perfect fit. a bird's-eye it New overlooks.

I have taken the first important step by securing a wife capable of making a happy home. and it was a favorite Upon our return to Lexington w^e lived resort of his. where we may have the pleasure of receiving a long I shall never be content until I am visit from you. at the head of an establishment in which my friends can feel at home in Lexington. we wended our way ver}^ pleasant to the Kockbridge Alum Springs. amidst the details of '' in . 105 throng. covered with water-lilies. Here we remained several weeks. and sitting the delicious mountain air and fine in the woods scenery giving a zest to existence. and sending us away regretfully when duty called us home. and the next thing is to give her an opportunity. but the natural beauties of the place charmed him. He Avho saw only the stern. whose placid waters were. at that time.IX THE VALLEY OF YIRGLVIA. ginia. and he found a delightful recreation in rowing me over the lovely lake. but he for the time when he could have a letter to a friend he says : home " I time we shall be able to call In a of his own. walking. and longed . for a few months at the best hotel in the place was not at all fond of boarding. . Major Jackson derived great benefit from the mineral waters of the Eockbridge Alum Springs. a mountain resort in the Valley of Virand only a few hours from Lexington. selfdenying soldier in his quarters." Doctor Dabney truly says of General Jackson that no man were the domestic affections ever more tender and noble. or until the beginning of the session at the Institute enjoying the quiet. and spending the time in reading. hope in the course of some house our home. . After completing this delightful Northern tour.

his small fjiniily. he did also the Confession of Faith but his '' chief study was the Bible itself. could scarcely comprehend the gentle sweetness of his home There the cloud. This he had not been taught in his youth. it was genuine happiness to him to have a home of his own it was the first one he had ever possessed. which to his enemies was only life. half " sadly 'Ah that is not the way to be happy Bayard Taylor's beautiful lines own ])attern : I I' : •* The bravest are the tenderest. and it was truly his castle. the commander's duties. of which his letters will be the best proof." After boarding more than a year. was to say. JACKSON. he finalh^ succeeded in ])urchasing a house in Lexington. old house was for time. A we few months after our marriage he proposed that it should study together the Shorter Catecliism as a Sabbath-afternoon exercise. : . displayed nothing but the silver In his household the law of love reigned his lining/ ' : was the chief stimulus to duty. although he had read it carefully before committing himself to Presby- terianism. when he beheld any recession from gentleness or ]n'opriety. and his sternest rebuke. or on the field of battle." found a true exemplification in him. night and tempest. half tenderly. He lost his feet. and was not long reciting it until we committed it to memory —he to me with perfect accuracy from beginning to end. The loving are tlie dariug. as He considered it a model of sound doc. which was truly a lamp unto and a light unto his path. trine.106 LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. and it was his intention to sell it and build one to suit himself in the course of r>ut unsuitable as this large. the only available one he could obtain.

and everything in its place ." as he "a place for everything. His tastes were simple. on golden hinges softly turning. his dered as vants. for which he spared . household soon became as regular and well-orit was possible for it to be with negro ser- His furniture was very plain. He believed in providing his family with every comfort and convenience. LEXINGTON. no time 107 in going to work to repair it and make it comfortable and attractive. but simplicity article. but he liked to have everything in perfect order— every door expressed it '* . itself though of ex- cellent materials." and under his methodical management f^-i^K ~^^l' THE JACKSON DWELLING. marked every A lady said it was just lier idea of a Chris- tian home.UNDER OUR OWN ROOF-TREE.

lOS LIFK OF GENERAL THOMAS J. ill entertaining ministers of the Gospel. and nothing gave him more pleasure than to welcome his friends to his simHe particularly delighted ple and hospitable home. corn. JACKSON". His garden was a source of very great pleasure to him he worked in it a great deal with his own hands. shedding sweetness and light over his household. whicli was given him by an enSo successful thusiastic brother-officer iu the army. Those uho knew General Jackson only as they saw him in public would have found it hard to believe that there could be such a transformation as he exhibited He luxuriated in the freedom in his domestic life. and it was not long until he gratified his desire to possess a little farm of his own. and There happiness. He was generous but unostenhis mode of living. Here. and liberty of his home. was he as a gardener tliat he raised more vegetables His early training than his family could consume. it was there he found his greatest all that was best in his nature shone forth. and his ness of nature often ran into a playfulness buoyancy and joyousand ahan- don that would have been incredible to those who saw him only when he put on his official dignity. he raised wheat. He was intensely fond of his home. He studand had an elaborate calenchir fur planting. : and cultivated way. and other it in quite a scientific ied Buist's K'dfJien Garden^ . and he always said we could not only loved tatious in love an earthly creature too much if we God more. which embraced twenty acres near town. no expense. with the aid of his negroes. ujxjn his uncle's farm had instilled into him a love for rural pursuits. The overflowing sunshine of his heart was a reflection from the Sun of Eighteousness.

except for a few weeks before the close of the session. perfectly regular and systemknelt in He arose about six o'clock. which he read with a commentary. o'clock. which he required all his servants to attend promptHe never waited for any one. in rain or shine secret prayer with a pair of india-rubber cavalry boots and a heavy army overcoat he was independent of the weath(for and he returned. looking the picture of freshness and animation. Breakfast followed prayers. life at home was . His atic. From he turned to his text-books. This farm he sold during the war. which was never omitted even in the coldest days of winter. and first then he took a cold bath. and stood all that time in front of a high desk. at one o'clock. which he had had made to order. and invested the proceeds in Confederate bonds to assist the government.ORDER OF THE DAYS DUTIES. Seven o'clock was the hour for family prayers. 109 products. not ly and regularly. and the many pencil-marks its upon it showed with what care he bent over pages. after which he left immediately for the Institute. and every year his crops and land improved under his dihgent care. The book he took up daily was his Bible. the artillery practice demanded an additional hour in the afternoon. er). even his wife. He was when engaged in teaching only three hours a day. This was followed by a brisk walk. During these hours of study he would not permit any interruption. which engaged him until dinner. and upon his Bible lesson . his classes opening at eight o'clock and continuing until eleven. first Upon his return home at eleven he devoted himself to study until one.

and much of our time in the even- . if the weather In summer permitted. He was very fond read to. which he kept his books and stationery. and this was one of the He then went brightest periods in the home life. there could be no more delightful wa. and remain in perfect abstraction until he finished his mental task. ask that he might not be dis- — — turbed by any conversation. and in that beautiful Valley of Virginia the queen of night seemed to shine with more brightness than anywhere else. but. thinking it was injurious to health to go to work imAs it was a rule with him never to use his mediately. we often took our drives by moonlight. for an evening walk or drive. JACKSON. servants. he formed the habit of studyAfter ino. if alone with his wife. and in order to abstract his thoughts from surrounding objects a habit which he had cultivated to a remarkable degree he would. he always returned in time to take me. and he would then take his seat with his face to the wall. After dinner lie gave himself up for half an hour or more to leisure and conversation. he would indulge himself in a season of rest and recreation after supper.y of spending the long summer evening. eyes by artificial light. he thus re- viewed them at night. to the work of the field. or out to his going over his lessons in the morning. and find a shady spot for me under the trees.XIO LIKE OF GENERAL THOMAS J.raentallv for an hour or so without a book. into his garden. leaving all romance out of the question. He would often drive me out to the farm. when he would emerge with a bright and face into social of beinff cheerful enjoyment again. farm to superintend his and frequently joined them in manual labor. while he attended AYhen this was not the case. When at home.

pleasings was passed in first At ant living-room his study. his spirit of submission was greater. though was select. 1X1 my ministering to him in this way. small. sorrow to him. either in his morning work." And he concludes by sayfather being the judge. view to future reference. or when he sat with face to the wall. commences thus Dear mother. Xearly all of them w^ere full of his pencil marks. ing I hope it will not be many years before our little few^ years spent so happily this little home : . very great. but it pleased God to transplant it to heaven before these hopes could be realized. with some of a lighter character. in announcing the arrival of the '' infant to its grandmother.HIS "STUDY" AT HOME. reviewing his les- He had a library. The . moved his up- having become assured that he would meet with no interruption. One little bud of promise was sent for a brief period to awaken new hopes of domestic joy and comfort. and But its loss was a great. and finally right desk into it. here. he gradually came to making our large. but having no children. which. The father." The child hved only a few weeks. as always. composed chiefly of scientific. as silent and as dumb as the sphinx. and some in Spanish and French. her . '• : Mary Graham sages to you will be able to send sweet little mes- all. made with a sons in the evening. w^e have in our home circle a darling little namesake of yours. religion . subdued every murmur. he fitted up a study for himself. and rehgious books. Great as was his love for children. and she is a bright little one. and peacefully in were unmarked by any events important to the outside world. and even in this bitter disappointment he bowed uncomplaining to his Father's will. historical.

He always returned home much refreshed and benefited bv these excursions. so united and happy had been our early lives together. and his own beautiful example of resignation and cheerfulness was a rebuke to me. of trial suggest to alleviate a first grief sympathy could was done for me by my good husband. summer of 1S5S wus ushered in witlx sorrow. who had always been to me like a twin sister. unless was full. travelling.CHAPTER HOME TiiK LIFE VIII. He was never willing to be separated from his wife." and this he gratified every summer after our marriage. CONTINUED— 1858-1859. That summer was spent at the Xorth. without whom it would not be complete. . But all that love and duty or necessity required it his desire being to share his every pleasure with her. and I was not permitted to be with her at the time of her death so it seemed as if my cup . Soon after the loss of our first-born. and liked the bracing climate of the XorthAVhen worn down by the labors of his professorship. brintring my first taste of bitter bereavement. — ern States. until the beginning of the war. His vacations were seasons of great He Avas fond of recreation and enjoyment to him. She left two little children motherless. another crushing stroke came in the death of my sister Eugenia. he used to say that he had "a periodical longing to go North.

He generally went out alone in the morning on an exploring expedition. The opening 8 . the interruptions of this kind. and he was a most and appreciative listener. and he seemed to. Thus the time was passed most agreeably in driving and seeing every place of The Diisseldorf Art interest in and around the city.attentive sage struck him.IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK. and our return tute home was a joyful time both to us and our domestics. "Mark that. where we spent several weeks. being an indefatigable walker. where he luxuriated in the surf bathing. He was affected ^vith a sho'ht bronchial trouble. Whenever a pas. so this summer of 1S5S we took that point in our route. in enjoyed nothing so quietly at much in the evenings as to stay home and have me read to him. it. he had a natural love After spending the mornings in this way. think that was a duty he owed liimself. for the purpose of having his throat treated by a specialist. This sum- mer was devoted to Shakespeare. and spent a few days there he passing much of his time in the fort." and many were ings cert. and acquainting himself with every — part of We then went by steamer to Cape May. he would say. for Avhile he Gallery was a had but httle knowledge of art. he for it. and then he would return and take me to the places which he thought would most interest me. While in the city. favorite place of resort. Another delightful trip by steamer took us to New York. II3 He had never visited Fortress Monroe. but was not at all an invalid any other respect. a part of each day was devoted to sight-seeing. The even- were sometimes varied by attending a con- of the fall term of the Military Instialways found him at his post.

The next servant that came into his possession was . bert.servants. As these servants Avill frequently be mentioned in his letters. .114 LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. he complained of their neglect and ill-treatment. JACKSOX. alinstalments. for Albert had no family of his own. except on one occasion. enough for their services. as he would be able to pay it in annual Major Jackson granted his request. a short account of them may not be un- interesting:. and his master took him to his home to care for him as an act of humanity. The first slave he ever owned was a man named Albert. Alfully paid when the war broke out. hired himself as a hotel-waiter. or their tender mercies towards him may have grown cruel. his face was so convulsed with laughter that he had to drop into a seat and give full vent to the explosion before he was able Albert had been committed to explain the cause of it. with the expectation that he would be well cared for by these colored sisters but probably he was not grate. which he summed up by saying that he ''had never heen so ful hedevilled hy tico icomen in Ms life /" It Avas this disgusted and dolorous recital of his woes that had amused the major so intensely. as he came in from one of these visits. and was never an inmate of our family. when he had a long spell of illness. At all events. Every morning my husband paid him a call to see how he was getting along and what he needed and one morning. who came to him and begged that he would buy him on the condition that he might be permitted to emancipate himself by a return of the purchase-money. though he had to wait several years before the debt could be paid. to the ministrations of our two maid . and my impressi(jn is that it was not This man.

HIS SERVANTS. Before it reached me.— DEATH OF "AUXT AMY. and was a real treasure to me our in my new experience as a home was broken up by the housekeeper. with of. and comforts. wondering spirit before the Throne. her woman master paying all her expenses of board. She was one of the best of colored cooks. when he had no use for her services.." I could have wished that your letter had earlier. She was not suffered to want for anything. as I believe. come a few hours that poor Aunt Amv's heart might have been refreshed by the evidences of your Christian remembrance and kindness. and gave her a home in a good. medical attendance. the friend who had been engaged to care for her wrote to General Jackson to inform him of her other things to think he was then in the field. old After Aunt Amy languished and died in the house of a colored in Lexington.. and. until he had one of his own. She died last night at midnight without any fear. and who sought from him a deliverance from her troubles. Hardly had this poor old servant breathed her last when death." In it the friend writes : And though . w4th a simple reliance on Jesus for salvation. who was about to be sold for debt. Avar. a kind friend then looking after her. She proved her gratitude by serving him faithfully. he said the reading of it " moved him to tears. and providing for her suitable burial. and he yielded to her entreaties. It was . This was some time before our marriage. and I do trust was an adoring. but his kind heart was moved by her situation." II5 an old woman. she had passed beyond the need of earthly aid or sympathy. xVniy. Christian family. at his request.

and from this fact there had always bond of mutual interest and at- tachment. So differently do man and his Maker judge I" portation from North Carolina. which was . my father transferred to me the ownership of herself and her two Hetty was sent as a nurse to our first child.' . . The I am cup of cold Avater you have ministered to this poor disciple may avail more in the Master's eye than all the brilliant deeds with which you may glorify your country's battle-fields. was an imShe had been my nurse in infancy.. our chandjcrnuiid and laundress.. I knew that it will..11 r» LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. She told me that she wanted to thank you for that money. a few minutes last Friday one in Avliom — though suffering much. and to let you know She expressed entire resignation to God's al)out her. only the death of a poor slave— a most insignificant and yet may ^ye not hope that tliint'. As she wished to live with me. from her ])lantation-home in North Carolina to Lexington. and my servants tell me that it is many a day since so large a colored funeral has been seen in Lexington. would be your wish that she should have a well-ordered bui'ial. I called to see her found her sitting up. JACKSOX. gathered from your own household. existed between us a Hetty. and trust in Christ alone..in men's eyes in heaven over another ransomed soul there uas joy — the Saviour saw the result of 'his travail' and Avas 'satisfied. White attended. but sure your true Christian feeling will appreciate all that I have told you of the humble faith of this saved soul. and made the journey all alone. It may seem very needless to write so minutely about a poor old servant. boys. so Dr.

around : : little. she was asked Avhere she was going. and was so rejoiced at finding her young mistress at last that her demonstrations were quite touching. particularly as she felt her importance in being so tress.HETTY AND HER BOYS. and while changing trains she saw a man pick up her Eichmond (aUhough she did not go down Carolina. and back again into North Carolina." in which capacity she had served for years. That she was fully equal to taking care of herself is instanced by the following On her return to Xorth Carolina during the war. I'm going to Virginia^ but the Lord knows whether I'll ever get there or not !" She did. '' much the senior of her realized. she " Put down that called out to him peremptorily trui)k . but inclined to selfassertion. ing this lesson she toned useful domestic. quite a feat for one so inexperienced as a ••' 117 corn-field hand. and indeed she became a factotum . with some fine traits. as my sister Eugenia and I had done). and being sorely bewildered in finding her train. she had to change cars. as she laughed and cried by turns. and her discouraged reply was " Why." that her only After learnin course must be that of implicit obedience. : with a determination to stand up for her rights. After travelling by stage-coach and railroad as far as into South Eobin Hood's Barn. old hair trunk all taining her valuables —her own personal property. down into a well-mannered. quick-tempered woman. con— and suspecting his honesty. turn up all right at the end of her destination. new master and mis- But she soon his from the spirit Avhicli commanded household after him. she was again travelling alone. impulsive. however. that^s General Jacksonh truiik. P^ Hetty was an energetic.

and church. her tears flowing freely. never to threaten. lie thought the best rule for both parents and masters Avas. stood. and she said she had lost her best friend. and was a sincere mourner for him. Avas her favoi'ite held of labor.11^ LIFK OF (lEXERAL THOMAS J. thereby giving him extra trouble. Sunday-school. and then call him back to sliut it." but exacting of them prompt obedience. were pure. Cyrus (called Cy) and George. garden. una(hdterated Africans. When door. for first offences. and ^lajor Jackson used to say that if these boys were left to themselves they would and yet he was tm])e sure to go back to barbarism wearying in his efforts to elevate them. giving to his servants " that which is just and equal. for the freedom of the country was as sweet to her as to the birds of the air. which generally insured his remembrance tlie next time. was the nurse to time of his death. JShe Ijecame his infant child at the Hetty's two boys. rendering valuable service in the house. and u\)(m the farm. and liis system soon showed if good They they did their duty they woidd receive the best of treatment from liini. and make such an impression that the offence would not be repeated. He was a very strict but kind master. and he required them to attend regularly family worship. the household. At his re(juest I taught them to read. however. but punish. At Christmas he was realized that . devoted to her master. Ills training made its the coloi*ed servants is as ])olite and ])unctual as that race capable of being. JACKSOX. The latter. after making prohibitory laws and knowing they Avere under. lie a servant left a room without closing the would wait until he had reached the kitchen. effects. be- tween the ages of twelve and sixteen.

though never a treasure. Bay was also bought during my absence. she would make a nice little maid for me in the future. and without my knowledge. The arrangement was made during my absence from home. on our homeward ride I commented on the nice appearance of the horse. She was not bright. which. two splendid milch cows. whom the master took under to tering roof at the solicitation of an aged lady in town. On my return he took great pleasure in surprising me with this new present. and reciting her answers with the drop of a courtesy at each word. and it was a most amusing picture to see her standing before him with fixed attention. proved rather a troublesome one at first. There was one other little servant in the famih^. but it was such an effort for her to learn that she assumed this motion involuntarily. 119 generous in presents. his shel- named Emma. and after coming to meet me at Goshen with a horse and buggy." He had a playful way of applying the pronoun your to all the common possessions of the left : whom . from his color. the child became a care after having been an orphan. and frequently gave them small sums of money. for he is your own property. and a lot of chickens. by the way. Avhen my husband smilingly replied " I am very thankful that you like him. The other animate possessions of the family were a good-looking horse (named. although Emma was of the tender age of only four years. as if she were straining every nerve.LITTLE EMMA. She had not been taught to do this. Bay). but he j)ersevered in drilling her into memorizing a child's catechism. but Avitli the lapse of time she became useful. my husband thinking that.

i:ht a rockaway. These demonstrations and ])layful endearments he kept up as long as he lived time seeming only to : intensify instead of diminishing them. and his buoyancy and sportiveness were quite a revelation to me when I In his ijecame a sharer in the privacy of his inmost life. sujrcrested that she should be committed to my care antry tliat he ai)plied it to himself during the night. and so persistently did he practise this pleas- and all his individual l)elongings. but she clung to her father. strained home no man could have been more unreand demonstrative. and my husband. unexpectedly^ to me. who felt anxious lest his guest should miss her mother's guardian care un- der his roof.'."your house. . JACKSOX. l)()U. of Avhich he always spoke to me as '•your husband. he went out and. It was only little his thoughtful host. It was the first time the child had been separated from her mother. fearing she might miss the watchfulness of a woman's heart. with us was accompanied by his daughter. saying she was not strong enough to walk all over town. more closely around her. A little incident will show the kindness and tenderA gentleman who spent the night ness of his heart. the father was aroused by some one leaning over his little girl and drawiuG: the coverino. After his iruests had both sunk into slumber.l^O LIFE OV GENERAL THOMAS J. for wliieh he had donned full regimentals. family. One morning lie returned from a very early artil- lery drill. but four years of age. and he could not go to sleep himself until he was satisfied that all was well with the child. and he wanted her to see and tMijoy everything while she was with us.*' '\vour cap." and even " your salary I" Upon the occasion of a visit from my mother to us.

121 as it was during commencement time. During the spring of 1859 I was not well. He playfully be- gan to brandish the sword over his Avife's head. he took me to Xew York for treatment. for a moment. the timid little woman did quail. was so realistic that. He would often hide himself behind a door at the sound of the approaching footstep of his wife. 1859. so he had to return to his duties and spend all those weeks by himself. he could not stay with me. where I was obliged to remain several weeks. and lie never looked more noble and handsome than when he entered his chamber. sword in hand. but would not open until I gave my name. It was our first separation. His acting and asking her if she was not afraid. and. which he no sooner saw than he threw down his sword. when I gave Hetty and Amy came to the door when I rang. and I hope that I do not trespass in delicacy or propriety in permitting others to see so ing- much of these letters as will show the aboundhis return.HIS ABANDON IX HIS OWN HOME. after : sweetness of his home-life. As it was the time of his session. and as he always wished me to have the best medical attention the country afforded. speedily transformed himself into the very an- tipode of a wife-killer. looking as ferocious and terrible as a veritable Bluebeard. Thev made much ado about my not my darling the last . Every day that a letter could make the trip wiihoiit travelling on Sunday he was heard from. in a perfect outburst of glee. he writes health as I c^ot home last nio^ht in as o^ood kiss. in March. On leaving me in Xew York. and spring out to greet her with a startling caress. and our home seemed very lonely to him.

vants api^ear to have been faithful. . whicli was granted. saying he their duties. but this day brings me up with it. while — pet names that recur constantly in his letters. as though you were here. and I am well pleased with the manner in which they discharged George came to me to-day. you home. cheerful and happy. . and I this year. Heretofore I have been behind Captain Ilayden's calendar for gardening. his cHpiiHita (his little wife). . ." . if especially the terms of endearment. whicli are so musical. ." ''April 2Tth. Thus. . . I have arranged under each month its programme for the different days. to talk to you. . . she was accompanied by one fine little representative of his sire. and asked permission You must be to go lishing. but that will not o-ive . JACKSOX. body's sunshine. Our house deserted without my esposar I love Home and is not home Avithout my httle dove. * When in Mexico. esposa. which he wrote out for me. liis wife was always liis he wished to use the diminhe was her cxposo utive. your hot-bed. languai^e that he he had become so familiar with the Spanish was constantly using Spanisli words and phrases. All your fruit-trees are yielding fruit AVhen George brought home your cow this morning. and it would do your heart good to see your big cow and your little calf. so I have but to look at the days of the month. or. . and to see what a fine prospect there is for an abundant supply AVe had lettuce for dinner to-day from of milk. remembering that you are someI love you. and follow its directions as they come.iz: Lin: oK CKXERAL THOMAS J.122 ])rinirin. had iilled all the wood-boxes. you how much During our absence the seryou the news. hope hereafter to follow it closely. . h)oks so Your lnis])and has a sad heart. tell little one.

. . but ' . and thanked our kind and merciful Heavenly Father for the prospect of restoring vou to health again. Yesterday Doctor Junkin preached one of his masterly sermons on the sovereignty of God. and come off before you are entirely well. it was eminently consoling and I wish that you could have heard such a presentation of the subject. Xow. 1 have more than once bowed down on my knees. I send you a flower from your garden. To-day I rode your horse out to your lot and saw your laborers. They are doing good work.. but I thought this one. your husband was esjposo's living. . when the weather commenced changing. made very happy at receiving two letters from you and learning that you were improving so rapidly.. don't get impatient. they turn out to be apricots and just think— my little woman has a tree full of them You must come home before they get ripe. Our potatoes are coming up. . I was mistaken about your large garden fruit being peaches. would be in a better state of preservation when my little dove receives it. which is just opening. I . . Through grace given me from above..' and have only one so far week. LETTERS TO HIS WIFE. . Enclosed are a few specimens. Tth. . although a doctrinal discourse. May I received only three letters last this . and. and to-day we have had some rain. " 123 week. You must not give yourself any concern about your My little pet. We have had very uncommonly drv weather for nearlv a fortnio:ht. You have the greatest show of flowers I have seen this year. and your garden had been thirsting for rain till last evening. and could have sent one in full bloom. hope springs eternal in the human breast so you see I am becoming quite poetical since listening to a lecture on the subject last evening.

JACKSOX. See if you cannot spend a short time after dark in looking (jut of your window into space. I felt that the rain I would come . be cheered by the brightness. and by the eye of faith see that all tilings with you are right and for your The clouds come.. symjiathy. and meditating upon our faith ' heaven. You have your husband's prayers. 124 I^il-'E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. pass over us. Look up to Him who giveth liberally for faith to be resigned to His divine will. . How kind is God to His . and secure that peace which flows like a river. 'All things work together for good to God's children. and love. as for the present one. . '* children ! I feelso tliaiikful to Ilim that lie lias blessed . and think of what the Saviour relinquished in glory when he came to earth. with the apostle. Try to live near to Jesus. and are best interest. even in the most trying dispensations of His ])rovidence. I am so glad and thankful that you received the draft and letters in time. . . But let us. with all its joys unspeakable and full of glory. in God's moral dealings with us. that may be tried and grow stronger. You must not be couraaed at the slowness of recovery. followed ])y l^right sunshine so. which is a little ahead. Try to look up and be cheerful. AVe are sometimes suffered to be in a state of perplexity. he ])ermits us to have trouble awhile. at the right time. and dis- don't recollect having ever felt so grateful for rain . and trust Him for that measure of health which will most glorify Him and advance to the greatest extent your own real happiness. that the afflictions of the present life are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us. and not desponding. and of his sufferings for us and seek to realize. Trust our kind Heavenly Father.

even to anticipate scarcity of money when You are one darling of dar- and mav our kind and merciful Heavenlv Father bless you with speedy restoration to health and to me. I hope you will take my advice. if you are away off in I\"ew York. Take good care of my little dove. except your umYou are very precious to one brella and basket.LETTERS TO HIS WIFE. both temporal and spiritual. . but to wait. He punishes us for violating his physical as well as His moral laws. and bring my little one gently over the rough roads.. but get everything that I sent you a check in order that is necessary there. and with every needful blessing. I want to meet you at Goshen in a private conveyance. and not burden yourself by carrying an3^thing in your hands. My heart is with my esposita all the time. though I well know that I have not that faith which it is my privilege to have. 125 with so much faith. and my prayers are for her safety. and that God works bv means. you may have ample funds. is my oft-repeated prayer. 1 will send 3^ou some summer clothing. When you come home. our garden. How I wish you were here now to share with me the pleasures of home. expecting the blessing at the last moment. and linofs. and remember that the day of miracles is past. . But I have been taught never to despair. Such occurrences should strengthen our faith in Him who never slumbers. If you should be detained longer. Your husband is looking forward with great joy to seeino^ her brio:ht little face in her own home once more. and that when she gets home she will again be its sunshine. I know how embarrass- me ing it is is one away from home. somebod3^'s heart. I trust that our Heavenly Father is restoring my darling to health..

and wouldn't give my little I want to go and stay ])et for all the peo]ile here. so that you might know the whereabouts of your husband. but he felt that he needed the mineral waters of the AVliite Sulphur. and from these sanctities the veil would never have been lifted except to reveal this beautiful phase of his character. .'" . he went to the Sulpliur Springs for a fortnight. . White In the summer of the year 1859. you know. and I should enjoy it so much more if she Avere with me. was my day to write. thought . I am tired of this place. JACKSOX. which is clothed in verdOn AVednesday your esposo hopes ure and beauty to meet his sunshine. . The reader will see how freely he used the Span- In some of his letters he Avould string ish pet names. whether waters are benelicial to me. From there he wrote : " This is a veiy beautiful place. . The railroad not being completed at that time. I would drop you a line to-day. I feel that I must bring her here She Avould enjov it greatly. . he thought the travel by stage-coach would be too fatiguing to me. leaving me to spend the time at the Eockbridge Baths. and the surrounding country. but I had my sometime. .126 LIFE OF CJEXERAL THOMAS J. and I wish very much that I dove here. with my little tlie woman. the ''linked toirether a dozen or more of them — sweetness long drawn out " —at once in playfulness and as the overflow of a heart full of tenderness. nor its brilliancy diminished by spots I" ! . But this sportiveness and buoyancy of temperament were known only in the innermost circle of his home. As yet I am not certain . Tomorrow. and may he never see its brightness obscured.

and to me original manner. a brief account of his own difficulties when a college student. I felt what a privilege it was He to listen to such an exposition of God's truth. He spoke of the educated and accomplished audience it was his privilege to address. And wdiy ? Be- cause his Brother is sitting upon the throne he is a nearer relation to Christ than the angels. Dr. THORNWELL. seventh which he presented in a bold. he took his text verse. as there w^ere visitors Following the example State. standing nearest to the throne. I don't recI having ever before such love to God. profound. from Genesis. seventeenth chapter. . in He comprehending his relation to represented man as a redeemed being at the day of judgment. the angels being farther removed.A SERMON OF ^'Aiio-ust 15tli. He opened with an encouragements and Thornwell. Thornwell. of South Carolina. setting forth the discouragements under which he spoke. yet he felt a special interest in those from his own State. of the apostle Paul. Among the encouragements. he stated that the good effected here from every Southern Avould be widely disseminated. And his righteousness is superior to that of the angels his — being the righteousness of ollect God felt himself. will result . w^as rather surprised at seeing so gesture in Dr. Early yesterday morning the tables in . he observed that whilst he felt an interest in all. from this great exposition of . 127 Last nio^lit I enioyed what I have — listenino^ to a sermon from the Rev. He gave God. After concluding his introductory remarks. introduction. from showed that in Adam's fall we had been raised the position of servants to that of children of God. lontr desired DR. I much grace and hope and pray that much good Bible truth.

with long ringlets of hair hanging from various parts of the The statue can be removed from the chair in face. of plums and other fruits. than I expected. It was taken from one of the churches in Canton after its capture. but (piite interesting. and is said to have been woi'shippcd. and expect to hill some of the celery this Your old man at home is taking good care evening. I w^as invited a few days since to 's and see some pagan idols go to the Misses B which they had received. and hoed another row of turnips. and they are looking very nicely. . which it sits.. . . of one somebody's flower-slips. • . and the following extracts are from his letters during that period desk. I hope they will keep well. and Hetty has put up many jars besides. and is the best-finished piece of w^orknianship of the kind that I ever saw from a pagan land. want to want to get back to my esposita^ and I never go to any watering-place without her again. Among the various Chinese curiosities (for they do not all refer to worship) was an image consisting of a man in miniature in a sitting posture. JACKSOX. Yesterday I went into the kitchen and sealed some jars of tomatoes. your flowers this morning. so that we shall be well supplied this winter. . They were mostly paintings and some other devices... ." I am so high that writing at it my which I have raised I Avatered makes me stand straight." \w the succeeding autumn I paid a short visit to m\' father in North Carolina.128 i^I^'E OF GENERAL THOMAS su]ii)lied J.. the parlor were well Time ]jut I passes more })leasantly here with religious tracts.

28th. w^ho conceived It was in the fall of Brown raid the idea that he could raise an insurrection in the South and emancipate the negroes. '' Charlestown. 1859. in which were included the corps of cadets of the Virginia Military Institute. Wise. and it makes my heart happy I too to think of the happiness of " October 29th. "I reached here spirits." my little somebody feehng as lively as a lark and in another letter he tells her that he wants her to butterfly. Henry A. I have been wishing that you could see our beautiful forests in their autumnal glory. and with their officers at their head they marched to the place of rendezvous. my little darling." be "as happy as a spring " October 17th. 9 am ." 1859 that the celebrated John was made upon the government stores at Harper's Ferry." This morning I buried ninety-nine heads of your cabbage for winter use. Fearing that an attempt might be made to rescue him. The following extracts from Major Jackson's letters will tell the part he had to take in the affair rested. have been greatly enjoying their beauty. last night in good health and I Seven of us slept in the same room. ordered out the troops. 129 is "I hope that . the Governor of Virginia. but my pleasure would be much enhanced if you were with me. I have just been thinking how happy you must be in your old home. Kov. Brown was a fanatic.: THE JOHN BROWN RAID. But he was arand condemned to execution. convicted.

enclosed in a box of poplar same shape as the coffin. He replied tliat it made no difference. for a temporary December 2d. The gibbet was erected in a large field. southBrown rode on the head of his east of the town. provided he Avas not shirt collar.130 i^II-'E OF GENERAL TIIUMAS J. and slippers of predominat- ing red. Captain AVilliams (formerly assistant ])rofessor at the Institute) marched immediately in front of the wagon. and several others rode in the same wamm with the prisoner. . and ascended the scaffold with apparent cheerfulness. highsheriff. The sheriff placed the rope around his neck. He was dressed in a black frock-coat. the people appear to be very kind. Brown had his arms tied behind him. he shook hands with several who were standing around liim. AVe don't expect any trouble. black pantaloons. troo]is here." " am comfortable. white socks. The jailer. The arrangements were well made and Avell executed under the direction of Colonel Smith. much more sand to pleased than I expected to be. militaiy i)ost. and asked him if he wished a signal when all should be ready. There are about one thouand everytliing is quiet so far. black vest. then threw a white cap over his head. John Brown was hung to-day at He behaved with una. black slouch hat. There was nothing around his neck but his The open wagon in which he rode was strongly guarded on all sides. coffin from his prison to the place of execution. The coffin of the was of black walnut. I Do not give yourself any cern about me. about half-past eleven flinching firmness. m. After reaching the top of the platform. JACKSON. The excitement is confined con- more distant points.

commanded by Major Gilman. all facing south. Avas turned a little east of south. into everlasting fire I hope that he Avas prepared to die. his hands clinched and his arms gradually fell. and at six o'clock p. His Avife visited him last eA^ening. AAvful I sent up the petition that he might be saA'ed. and in front of him were the cadets. When it . With the fall his arms. and Avith the other I remained on the Other troops occupied different positions around the scaffold. His body Avas taken back to the jail. ye Avicked. but by spasmodic motions. His face. Avas still in front of the cadets. Avhen the rope was cut by a single blow. Trueheart on the right. upon the scaffold. below the elbows. I Avas much impressed Avith the thought that before me stood a man in the full \'igoY of health. and altogether it was an imposing but A^ery solemn scene. and soon the Avind blew his lifeless body to and fro. and Brown fell through about five inches. but I am doubtful. m. Avho must in a fcAV moments enter eternity. his knees falling on a level Avith the position occupied by his feet before the rope was cut. In this condition he stood for about ten minutes on the trap-door. ' !' Avas sent to his Avife at Harper's Ferry. the thought that he might in a few minutes AA^as receive the sentence.EXECUTION OF JOHX BROWN. 131 kept waiting too long. flcAV up horizontally. which Avas supported on one side by hinges and on the other (the south by a rope. left of the cadets. He refused to have a minister Avith him. One howitzer I assigned to Mr. Colonel Smith then announced to the sheriff all ready which apparently was not comprehended by him. My command side) ' ' — . There was very little motion of his person for several moments. Depart. and the colonel had to repeat the oixler.

l)eautiful country'." This Avas the only expedition after our marriage in which he accompanied the cadets. am living in my own house. ])ut my trust is in (iod that he will permit the madness of men to interfere . ^'I 21st. if you ever have such. I think we have great reason and I cannot think for alarm. Xeale. remains. Jan. to the call of the governor. ."" . just on the confines of the Virginia Springs. until he took them to Eichmond at tlie opening of the war. and sashes to his brother-officers. by the corps to the . capital The next burg : letter is to his aunt. epaulets. state of the country? Viewing things at Washington from liuman ap])earances. arrived. after which it and his wife saw the was again opened at the depot before leaving for Baltimore. JACKSON. after trying both public I and private boarding. so materially Avith at tlie Christian labors of this country home and abroad. Va. 18G0.X32 LIFE OF GENERAL TiiUMAS J. you could pay me a visit during some of your This is a leisure intervals. morrow. Avhile he lent his sword. and we are about fourteen miles from the What do vou tiiink about the Natural Bridge. as. of Parkers- "Lexington. I am thankful to say. the coffin Avas opened. onlv to be found 1 wisli have learned from experience that true comfort is in a house under your own control. . lest there should be an AVe leave for home via Eichmond toimposition. who were more fond of display. to grace state occasions but at such times he always requested that he might be permitted to have his holiday at home. Mrs. .. in obedience Several trips were made and to Xorfolk.

In the old burying-ground. and made some pleasant acquaintcitement. The hotel is built upon an elevation overlooking the town the Connecticut Eiver winding hydropathic establishment. As it . . vacation in the summer of of 1860 Xew England —at Northampton. a time-AYorn. moss-covered tombstone bears the of the saintly name David Brainerd. Major Jackson heard and saw enough to awaken his fears that it might portend civil war but he had no dispute with those who differed from him. Lincoln's election. and there was much to contribute to our enjoyment. — through the loveliest of emerald valleys. On Eound Ilill is a which attracted Major Jackson there. embracing Mount Tom and Mount all together forming a landscape which Ilolyoke Jenny Lind thought one of the most beautiful she — had seen in America. Massahome Jonathan Eel- This was once the wards. IX. notwithstanding the inhospitable elements which Southerners felt in the Xorth at that time of great political ex- was the summer before Mr. The climate also is bracing and delightful. WAR CLOUDS— 18G0-1 861. with fine mountain scenery. treating all politely. and a large old elm-tree which was planted by him is still standing as a memorial of the great American theologian.CHAPTER Major Jackson's was spent in chusetts.

and it was astonishing how I hydropathy. white. and upon the floor were gambolling a large number of tame rabbits. avIio among tliein a Baptist minister. when tiie conversations Avere To our surprise. each had recognized in the other enough to be a bond of union. ]\rajor In these peace- surroundings Jackson's health improved wonderfully the baths with the exercise gave in- creased fulness as well as vigor to his manly frame. often joined us in our walks. under which were seats here and there. Although he was an abolitionist.134 ances. for the pretty creatures. I too was greatly benefited by this novel treatment. The little animals were the pets of the children of the proprietor. hy degrees I came walking five miles a day with ease. and guinea-pigs of all sizes and ages a sight that pected to see — was quite an attraction to the guests of the hotel. JACKSON. had gone there without a particle of faith in I was not strong. my husband persuaded me to try it. made a secure and excellent ful home . and always friendly. and the old reservoir. one day the wife from South Carolina repoi-ted that her husband had had a violent political dispute Avith this same minister. which we ex- with water. brown. having been abandoned for a much larger one. In front of the hotel was a large grove of forest trees. but to our surprise it was dry. Lll-'i^ <^>^' GENERAL THOMAS J. and kept it up . and Major Jackson was a slave-holder. and spotted. whom we had found so courteous. In strolling through grove we came upon filled a reservoir. but as rapidly to to my strength developed. and their pleasant relations continued as long as they remained together. From not being able walk a mile upon my arrival. of a gentleman we this literally lived out of doors.

If you don't meet Avith an opportunity of an escort to ]^ew York or farther. and I told her that as she had succeeded so well I wouldn't touch its culture though when it comes upon the table. do you think j^ou have enough vegetables I am just thinking and thinking about that little some- body away up there. left the doctor that at Avill."' When the time arrived for me to return. he would have come for me. salsify. I was husband had to re" But he " reported but sorely against my own behind for a month after as regularly as if my turn to his professorial duties. except in case of absolute necessity. snap muskmelons. with your husband. there is a very long row of this is due to Hetty. also I to be so chary of You have and some Lima do not expect beans. beets. carrots. until I35 my departure. parsnips. ? beans. and my . if no other arrangement can be effected. though not exactly mestic fashion : in military style. it with me. answer to your question how you are to come. onions. I proved such an enskill of couraging subject to the his suggestion. but after his do- " Little one. celery First : must tell you what is in your garand foremost. upon " In I should say. see if the doctor can't get }ou one to Springfield. turnips. inferior Xow. potatoes. cabbage. and so he writes : " September 2oth. 18G0. Indeed. I den.LETTERS FROM HOME. but he was so conscientious about his duty that he would not leave his chair even for a single day. to me I were his superior officer. little pet is here to enjoy it. .

you may expect him to come for you in double-quick time. to attend the wedding my sister Susan. A.136 the I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS that J. can't you invite him to make one with you to Springfield. as . A few extracts will show the character on this trit) : of the letters that followed me . afterwards a Justice of the Supreme Court of Xorth Carolina. who married Mr. I expect to set off with your rockaway and "Bay. Avery. 18(>1. Avhere you may expect J^e sure to write. JACKSON. sit in the same car until you Xew York." Having arranged for my escort to a place within driving distance of Lexington. you have to change cars there." In Fel)ruary.'' and you must not be left behind. I coiiclitioii you pay the expense. and after he sees you on the right reach the depot in train. brighter. I left him again of for a brief period. so that in our homeward drive you can eat your own '^ dinner. C. as I would rather go all the way to liound Hill than for you to come through SpringYour husband feels bright. You may expect to have your dinner sent from home. don't want you to pass through Springfield alone. and the light field alone. he sends a last mes- September 28th. to find your esjposo waiting for you ? and also telegraph. of his approaching little sunshine makes him still Whenever you write or telegraph for him. and you might meet with some accident but as visitors invite the doctor to make excursions with them.

tell her she it litigious if she finds must be very necessary to engage the serI vices of a Tell her member of the legal i)rofession for life we have them here from a mere tyro up to a judge of the Federal court. My your husband has returned from tlie Institute. with . February 18th. and think of you at the different points of your route. George. alternating between sunshine and sno\v. I follow you in mind and heart. I hope you have taken a carriage. your husband feels a which he can hardly account. but still the feeling exists.LETTERS FROM HOME. though do not mention the subject to her if you think it would be at all unpleasant. '^ . but he darling were here he wouldn't feel thus. I hope the Richmond weather is better. and feels sad enough this afternoon but I trust that my little pet has had a pleasant day's travel. have been busy. ." darling. The day here has been very changeable. loneliness for his knows I if My darling pet. If Sue is approach- able on the Avery question. thinking you might be too much exposed in shopping. I hope that you will be greatly prospered during all your absence. I do delight to receive letters from my little woman. . for I have been. . and have taken good care of my little one. and that the kind providence of God has kept her from all accident and danger. and has spread out before her many enjoyments. 19th." '' 23d. " On Saturday I sent your boy. " 137 precious little Home. I was very thankful to our kind Heavenly Father for his protecting care extended over my little pet. if necessary. had his dinner all alone. 1861. as stated in your letter. However.

. appropriating eight of them. is am working well at home. thankful to say that everything "Your peas is are just beginning to . ance above gi'ound. This is a beautiful day here. and is do. . quite a treat last night in the performance of a company in Druidical costumes. greatly blessed in make their appearThe colored Sabbath-school numbers and teachers. be 'We had if her bridal day is its true emblem. Amy has gone to grace the wedding 's of one of her colored friends George left for C and I haven't seen by her imposing presence." '• March 16th. '* I went down to your henAVhat think you ( house yesterday evening. 2Tth. JACKSOX. jyursu ant to orders. looking into the nests. leaving one in each nest.138 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. name]. and."' '* Feb. and I have been thinking how blissful Sue's married . and brought up a barrel of nice Richmond sweet potaI have laid aside the best. copied from the Druidical instruments in the British Museum. your horse and wagon down to Thompson's landing. I his delectable face since. You had better come home if you want to stop this correspondence. on the morning of March 1st. and. and hope they will toes. . makhig exquisite music upon instruments constructed of ox-horns. I have been working to-day at your garden fence to keep your chickens out. I expect to continue sending you letters as long as you stay away. keep till my little pet gets home. life will . found nine fresh eggs besides the Deai'cr [a porcelain egg bought of a man of that I returned. and also to prevent egress and ingress between our garden and that of Sefior Deaver.

and Texas. Southern States. and was followed by one after another of her sister States in solemn including Mississippi. procession Afterwards all the Georgia. and established a provisional government at Montgomery. Florida. . neutral. and maintained that it was better for the to cast his vote for South to fight for her rights i?i the Union than out of The grand old State of Virginia. and Alexander H." Durino' this visit of mine to Xorth Carohna. John C. Stephens A^ice-President. Alabama. the first seven States formed a Confederacy. Louisiana.SOUTHERX FEELING FOR SECESSION. whose sons had done more than those of any other State to form tlie Constitution which drew all the States under one general government. At this time Major Jackson was strongly for the Union. and was among the last of the Southern States to it. I was surprised to find the people of that State almost unani- mous for secession. except Kentucky. except of Mr. ing a good work. Jefferson Davis was chosen President. . but at the same time he was a firm States'rights man. had boldly led off withdrawing from the Union. . Alabama. for in my Virginia home the feelAfter the election ino^ was very much the reverse. Breckinridge. I39 Your friends here remember my darling with much interest. which remained and on the 9th of Februarj^. South Carolina in — . and took no part in the political contest of 1860. believing that his election would do more to save the Union than that of any other candidate. Lincoln. . He never was a secessionist. but he was never a very strong partisan. was reluctant to withdraw from it. followed suit 1S61. In politics he had always been a Democrat.

but all tlivirattein])ts proved Free . now hesitated no longer. which in a short time was reduced to ruins. In reply to governor of the State was informed by the fort United States government that the garrison of the would be reinforced '• peaceal)ly if they could. and immediately began preparaAfter tions for the struggle which was inevitable. calling upon the States to fur- nish seventy-five thousand men to put down what he assumed to be a " rebellion " against the only author- government of the country. a Peace Conference had been held in AVashington to The Gendevise some terms of mutual concession. the South became almost a unit. and they im- — mediately bombarded Fort Sumter. Assembly of Virginia had proposed this effort at and delegates were sent from both the and tlie Slave States. eral conciliation.140 secede. I^i^'K OF GENERAL THOMAS J. the threat of coercion on the part of the Xorth. which had developed in such rapid succession. and especially demanded the possession of Fort Sumter as this the her only fort for her local protection. ]\rajor Jackson had been deeply impressed by the startling course of events." spirited secessionists as a call to arms. AVith his high sense of duty and devotion to his State. South Carolina. after her secession. and the enthusiasm with which men of all ages and classes rushed to arms was only equalled by that of the women at home. Some weeks before Virginia ized Virginia cast in her lot with the Southern Confederacy. urgently solicited the Federal government for an equitable settlement of the rights she claimed as a State. President Lincoln then issued a proclamation. This Avas regarded by the forcibly if they must. JACKSON. On the ITth of April she seceded.

I shall never forget how he once exclaimed to me. time. and threaten such utter abhorrence of Avar. which has . They do not know its horrors. " let us agree thus to pray. — In a conversation with a friend he described the demoralization of civil strife upon a nation. we shall have no other alternative. yet it is true that I never heard any man express they speak of war. to burst with such fury.'' His pastor fully concurred with him. with all the intensity of his nature. we must fight." (However it may surprise those who knew him only as a soldier. and promised to do his utmost to bring about the concert of prayer he proposed. how I do deprecate war !") " Should the step be taken which is now threatened. there must be war." " MeanIn his public prayers after this. 141 After the failure of this Peace Conference. But while the storm was gathering which was soon Jackson exhibited no undue anxiety praying only the more importunately. I have seen enough of it to make me look upon it as the sum of all evils. his most fervent petition was that God would preserve the whole land from the evils of war. vain. that it might be averted. It is painful to discover with what unconcern it. But do you not think that all the Christian people of the land could be induced to unite in a concert of prayer to avert so great an evil ? It seems to me that if they would thus unite in prayer. " Oh. called Major Jackson sist in upon his pastor and expressed these views: "If the general government should per- the measures now threatened. and that the whole land might be at peace.APPREHENSIONS OF WAR. if it were God's will." said he. war might be prevented and peace preserved.

At this time the Rev. under the pavilion of the Almighty. J. It .' . should Christians be disturbed about the dissolution of the sion. J]. he reposed upon Ilis promises and pi-ovidence with a calm and untiinching reliance beyond any man 1 ever knew.'' lias It been said that General Jackson ''fought for slavery and the Southern Confederacy Avith the unshaken conviction that both Avere to endure. whatever That faith nothing could be their consequences. I was lamenting in strong language the condition and prospects of our beloved country. Ramsey visited him and thus describes his frame of mind " AValking with God in prayer and holy obedience. ' ' ^Vh}^' said he. when the country was beginning to heave with the agony and throes of dissolution.: 142 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. But liis absohite trust in the Ruler of all things kept him from the agitation and fear wliieli weighed so lieavil}^ upon others. Filled with gloom. since seemed sadly prophetic of the very evils that have come upon the country. All things work together I cannot see how for good to them that love God ?" we should be distressed about such things. I shall never forget the manner and tone of surprise and child-like contldence Avith which he once spoke to me on this subject. where at that time I was a guest. Union ? It can come only by God's permisand will only be permitted if for His people's '' good for does He not say. AVe had just risen from morning prayers in his own house. shake. It was soon after the election in ISGO." This statement is true with regard to the latter. but I am very confident that he would never have fought for the sole object of })crpetuating slavery. because he dwelt in the secret place of the ]\Iost High. JACKSON. Dr.

no greater benefactor. Major Jackson was entertaining some of the members of this body. and I have heard him say that he would prefer to see the negroes free. none to the services of tlie sanctuary. The cadets were wild with youthful ardor at the prospect of wai'. were regarded in Virginia as seasons of special social and religious privilege and enjoj^ment. to differ. drilling and equipping interesting religious services . At its the time that the clouds of war were about to burst over the land. He therefore accepted slavery. but owing to the intense political excitement in the town. still more to his disappointment. with their and preaching. but by Providence for ends which it was not business to determine. and slavery was only comprehended amono^ those riHits. the Presbytery of Lexington held Spring meeting in the church which Major Jackson attended. Those who were servants in his own house he treated with the greatest kindness. At the same time. and the constant demands made upon him in militarj^ matters. the negroes had no truer friend. he believed that the Bible taught that slavery was who maketli men and instituted laws for the bond and the it free.NOT TO PERPETUATE SLAVERY. not as a thing desirable in itself. 143 was for her constitutional rights that the South resisted the ]N"orth. but sanctioned by the Creator himself. as existed in the as allowed his Southern States. and never was more happy or more devoted to any work than that of teaching the colored children in his Sunday-school. and the citizens were forming volunteer companies. and. he found but little time to give to his guests. These ecclesiastical gatherings. He found the institution a responsible and troublesome one. and the pleasant hospitalities incident to them.

to the exclusion of his attendance upon a single church service. Having been almost entirely absorbed all the week with his military occupations. and cast in her lot with the Southern Confederacy. without any mention of politics. he expressed the earnest hope. but finding that several hours of preparation would necessarily be required. The governor of the State. paired at once to the Institute. and they must be prepared to go to Eichmond at a moment's notice. ^lajor Jackson's practical wisnuicli sought after. and the order came that AVitliout waiting for breakfast. that the call to Richmond would not come before Monday. But Heaven ordered A])0ut the i^lst. he ap])ointed the hour for starting at one . to make arrangements as speedily as possible for marching. honest John Letcher. on re- tiring late Saturday night. This was the death-knell of the last hope of peace. came the dreaded news from Richmond that Virginia had seceded from the Union. or the impending troubles of the country. it otherwise." as he was called. notified the superintendent of the dom and energy were hope and confidence. of that dawn Sabbath morning. and inspired While the Presbytery was still in session. '' Institute that he should need the services of the more advanced classes of the cadets as drill-masters. he re- Major Jackson should bring the cadets to Richmond immediatehj. and that he might be permitted to spend a quiet Sabbath. JACKSON. and enjoy the privilege once more of communing with God and Ilis people in His sanctuary. under the command of Major Jackson.1^4: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. to enter the service. Avhich he had so much desired. April our door-])ell rang.

he ever had a thought that he should not survive the Ah struggle. when he took a hurried breakfast. M. P. Although he went forth so bravely from his cherished and beloved home. Dr. we have a building of God. requesting him to come to the barracks and offer a prayer with the command before its departure. he took his Bible and read that beautiful chapter in Corinthians beginning with the sublime hope of the resurrection " For we know that if our earthly house for his journey. yet he hoped confidently to be permitted to return again. God would still avert the threatening danger and grant us peace !" So great was his desire for peace that he cherished the hope that the political difficulties might be adjusted without blood- was convinced by stern reality that this hope was vain. All the morning he Avas engaged at the Institute. a house not made with hands. and touching. eternal in the heavens.! TAKING LEAVE OF HIS HOME. and one of his most earnest petitions was that ''if consistent with His will. allowing himself only a short time to return to his home about eleven o'clock. of his home when he departhow the light went out 10 . — of this tabernacle be dissolved. which he believed to be a righteous one." and then. vent. until he . His voice was so choked with emotion that he could scarcely utter the words. kneeling down. with a firm trust in God. it was never expressed to his wife. His faith in the success of the cause of the South. tender. and completed a few necessary preparations Then. never wavered to the end of his life and if shed. White. he committed himself and her whom he loved to the protecting care of I^ever was a prayer more ferhis Father in heaven. o'clock I45 He sent a message to his pastor. in the privacy of our chamber.

knowing his punctuality. and cross tliat his I footstep was never again to threshold A\'lien Dr. I went to her house and remained until my husband lost all hoj^e of an early return. : thing is now ready. and his private becomes public history. Mrs. William N. . JACKSOX. but kind friends did all in their power to prevent my feeling this need. '• Forward. After he had taken his departure for the army. made it a point to close the service at a Everything was then in readiand after waiting a few moments an officer ap'' Major. and not until the hand pointed to the hour of one was his voice heard to ring out the order. for there was home grew more to day.146 LIFE OF it GENERAL THOMAS J. I had not a relative in Lexington. our lonely and painful to me from day and at the invitation of a friend. May we not set out f The only reply he made was to point to the dial-plate of the barracks clock. who had been as a mother to me during all my residence in Lexington). ness. march !" From life this time forth the life of my husband be- longed to his beloved Southern land. and all hearts were drawn together in one common bond of ti'ial and anxiety. everyproached Major Jackson and said quarter before one. when he advised me to go to the home of my father in North Carolina. White went to the Institute to hold the short religious service which the latter told cisely at Major Jackson requested. and the minister. him the command would march preone o'clock. I ed from not on that beautiful spring day it But in tlie painful separation know its that this was was the well for us that final we could break ing-up of our happy home. Page (one of the best and noblest of women.

have been offered in vain is one of those mysteries which can never be fathomed by finite minds. at least. It was a time of keen anguish and fearful apprehension to us whose loved <mes had gone forth in such a perilous and desperate undertaking. The mighty Kuler of the nations saw fit to give victory to the strong arm of power. future. scarcely a houseliokl 14Y upon which had not fallen a part. and He makes no mistakes. that it was a just and righteous cause and our hope was in God. but one feeling seemed to pervade every heart. It w^as was well that I could not foresee the in mercy that He who knew the end lift from the beginning did not the veil.RETURN TO MY FATHER'S HOUSE. But for two years I was buoyed ])rayers should was strengthened by my husband's courageous trust. wdiicli came more and more country. and useful in the service of his God had a work for him to ac- my It trust fident that his precious life and prayers grew more conwould be spared through- out the war." and to Ilim the Christian people of the South looked and prayed. who " could save by many or by few. That so many united and fervent . of the same Aveight of sadness and desolation which flooded my own home. I felt that complish. and when he becheerfulness and up by hope. .

.'' "RicmioxD. The cars had scarcely stopped before a reis intense. and I regard him as a better .CHAPTER X. 1861. 23d. and has been made major-general. HARPER'S FERRY— 1861. This I regard as of more value to us than to have General Scott as commander as it is understood that General Lee is to be our commander-in-chief. "The which is about a mile and a half out of the cit\% on . We have excellent quar- Colonel Robert E. So far as we hear. General Scott. ters. After marching to Staunton. The train will hardly reach Richmond before night. the command left Staunton on a special train at about a quarter-past AVe are now stopping for a short ten this morning. ^[ajor Jackson wrote as follows : "April 22d. quest Avas made that I would leave a cadet to drill a company. parture. cadets are the left side of the road. while they were still en route. Lee of the army is here. but I don't wish to officer tlian . . My little darhng. (rod is crowning our cause with success. the cadets were transThe day after their derail to Eichmond. as well as at other points of the line. time on the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge. and had stopped ported by for a short time. The war spirit here. encamped on the Fair grounds.

The scene here. . 24th. I received your precious letter. who had held an office under the United States government] passed through to-day on his way home. they are so enormous at this date. although they desired him to remain." " 25th. my darling pet. I49 send rumors to you.. though I may not have time to write more than a line or so. AYilliam [my Major W. Major-General Lee is commander-in-chief of all brother. in which you speak of coming here in the event of my remainI would like verv much to see mv sweet little ing:. The governor and others holding responsible offices have not enough tnne for their duties. as my in continuance here is very uncertain. His resignation was accepted.. He says there is great uneasiness at AYashington. I will try to give facts as they become known. made the place for The State troops The Fair grounds are to be a school of practice. W. were pouring into the city. Troops are continually arriving. and looks very well. the land and naval forces in the State. looks quite animated. One day a by his uniform that he Avas an offiaccosted him.'' " Fair Grounds. but my darling had better remain at her own home. face. Morrison. are constantly arriving. . and begged that he would give him seeing .. cer." I am unable to give you the information I Avould like respecting things here..TROOPS GATHERING AT RICHMOND.'' While Eichmond he applied himself diligently to the drilling and discipline of the masses of untrained soldiers that raw recruit. Yesterday about seven hundred came in from South Carolina.

Aloore. he was anxious to begin active duty in worthy of his skill and experience appointment was a disappointment to him. and was ordered to take at Harper's Ferry. when it out in the Convention for confirmation. command was read of The day after receiving his com- mission. dier such a strong hold u})on the hearts of his soldiers. and at their request the Executive AYar Council withdrew^ it." . it a post. because he felt of major. his suj)eri(>r officer. wliich was the :i7th of April. and he received a commission as colonel of the Virginia forces. JACKSOX. if Hon. S. !McD. being in the engineer department with the rank It ^\as distasteful to him. Of course. ])roba]jly as ignorant as himself. and so grateful for his kindness. a member that bod}^ inquired.'' the ''chal- and every detail of his position and the solwas so impressed with his knowledge. that we '* are asked to is commit to him '* so responsible a post?" lie one. that he was heard to say that " he should always respect that man.'^ It was this readiness to do all in his power for others that gave him lenges." replied the member from Kockbridge. will never leave alive you order him to hold to be occupied by the enemy. "Who is this ]\[ajor Jackson." .. he could not render as much service in it as by that some position first hut his more active service in the field. He had just been assigned as corj)oral of the guard for the day. and was in total ignorance of wliat was required of him. some instruction as to his duties. not having explained what he was to do. taught him all the ''salutes. Major Jackson at once went with him around the whole circuit of sentrv posts. 150 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. who. Some of his friends saw that the appointment was not one suited to him.

Ferry was simply a love of his heart. At present I am living in in mansion.'' ''May Massie is 8th. 151 His next 27tli letter was from Winchester. room. you must not expect to hear from me very often. a little better than usual. expressing all the The second was not much " I but in it he said : am am very much gratified with my any I command. and expect to two o'clock this afternoon On last Saturday the Governor handed me my commission as Colonel of Virginia Vol- which I prefer above all others. and gladden your husband's heart. line of Spanish. I had enough tell haven't time now to do more than to you how much '' I love you. if probably sleep." The first news from him after reaching Harpers longer. having got more sleep than usual last night. for Eich- on mv staff. came from Richmond yesterday. but don't be concerned about your husband. and left this morning . Little one. and has given me an independent command. and would rather have other in the State. dated April '• I leave here about half-past for Harper's Ferry. for our kind Heavenly Father will give every needful aid.: TAKES COMMAND AT HARPER'S FERRY. I feel better this morning than I have for some time. the post same length of time before. with Major Preston my an elegant Mr. Your precious letters have been reaching me from time to time. I this post tlian in tolerable health.'' May 3d. as I expect to have more work than I have ever had in the unteers.

Avho had sent one of my young brothers to bring me to them just as soon as m\^ husband advised the remoA'al. IlumanIv speaking. packing our furniture and closing our house. Up to this period over Avithout bloodshed hoped that the gathering storm might pass but Virginia had noAv adopt- ed the Constitution of the Confederate States. in am Colonels Preston will l)e more regular in the future. and the loss of sleep to which I am subjected. I don't see how I could have accomplished the amount of Avork I have done Avithout them. Oh. and trust that my habits the enemy. the excitement of the times proved so demoralizing to them that he deemed it best for me to provide tliem Avith good homes among the permanent residents. and arrange our home he had interests. and all hope of escaping Avar died even in the most sanguine hearts.152 I^^FE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. considering the great amount of labor which devolves upon me. with the blessing of Providence. Our serA^ants. so that I could return to my father's sheltering roof in still North Carolina. how I would love to see your precious face . repel I good health. as bearer of despatches. . and if at- tacked shall. . supervision. under my . mond days. but I hope to have a good sleep to-night.V. !*' In his next letter he advised me to make every all nec- essary provision for the servants. thus uniting her destiny Avitli theirs. . my bur- dened. After doing this. anxious heart found sweet relief and comfort upon reaching the home of my kind parents. and Massie have been of great service to me. Init will return in a fewI am strengthening my position. . had up to this time remained at home but Avithout the firm guidance and restraint of their master. JACKSO.

" flows forth from the grand and exquisite Yalley of Virginia. and commands a view of the whole upper valley of of it. I53 was with them throughout visits which I was perhusband in the army. In consequence of the greatly superior elevation of the heights of Loudoun and Marjland to is that of the Bolivar Heights. N'ortli ground. was held as a fortress by a with heavy artillery to croAvn all the . except during the few my home along a tongue of land between the junction of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers. unless it attacked by an army. mitted to pay my Harper's Ferry is surrounded by scenery of rare The httle village occupies the beauty and grandeur. slope of a ridge called Bolivar Heights.HARPER'S FERRY. overlooking the village. The Potomac is the boundary line between Mar^dand and Virginia. along the western base of the Blue Ridge. a picture of surpassing beauty is revealed in verdant. when they unite and rush through the mountains towards the ocean. it will all be seen that Llarper's Ferry was not at if a position that was strong for defence. upon which the village built. large garrison. undulating plains. whose signification in the Indian language is " sparkling waters. a twin mountain of name of Maryland Heights. stretching far away into the distance. which runs Thenceforward the war. and across the Potomac. presenting a striking con- trast to the wild and gigantic scenery of the fore- East of the Shenandoah the Blue Ridge rises immediately from the waters. worn ages ago by the waters forcing their passage through the range of mountains. Through the great cleft. and this eminence is called Loudoun Heights. until it meets the Potomac. The beautiful Shenandoah. equal altitude bears the the Potomac.

as the secreted a large number of arms. and many \vere unprovided with arms. after setting to the factories ffre and store-houses. The place had long been used by the Federal government as a point at which to manufacture and store fire-arms. JACKSON. companies of the surrounding country resolved to but while they were assembling for this purpose. and to unite was a matter of triangle of mountains that surround those crests with each other. the possession of Harper's Ferry. and it was the command of these and others sent to reinforce them that Avas given to Colonel Jackson Avhen he received his commission in the service of Virginia. and as they had already removed and factories However. There were eifirht . with its arms and munitions of war. all of whom w^ere filled with ardor and enthusiasm. be- came such tia a necessity to the A^irginians that the mili- effect its capture.— 154 LJFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. but the majority Avere without training or disci})line. were saved by the efforts of the Virginians. Many other companies of volunteers flocked from the valley. the Federal officer in command of the place heard of their design. it. deserted the town. Still. it paramount importance to the Confederates to secure and hold this post. Harper's Ferry now became the rendezvous of all the troops in the Valley of Virginia. and the banks of both streams w^ere lined with factories and arsenals where thousands of arms were annually made and stored. Altogether the force at Harper's Ferry consisted of about twenty-live hundred men four liundred Iventuckians and the rest Virginians but volunteers from the South afterwards swelled the number to fortv-live hundi'ed men. As soon as war became imminent. and. he did not inflict such a blow as he had intended.

in war. that. Preston and Massie and two cadets whom he had . and it was expected that blood would first be shed there. Colonel Jackson showed that reticence and secrecy as to his military operations tliat was so marked in all his campaigns. ernment. This dignified body w^as received with courtesy. and con- From the very first. tributed so greatly to his success. if attacked. he declared his determination. As matters then stood. and through that pass it was surmised the invaders would pour into the State. on one occasion. Eegarding it as a necessity to the protection and defence of his post. with the aid of Colonels take command. In his despatches to the govbrouo-ht as drill-masters. he was visited by a committee from the Legislature of Maryland. 155 companies of cavalry. order chaos and confusion. It was his maxim mystery was the key to success. as a large force under General Patterson was threatening an attack. whose object appeared to be to learn his plans. which towered so far above the village and Bolivar Heights as greatly to endanger his force should they be seized by the enemy. as the co-operation of their State Avas earnestly de- . While in command at Harper's Ferry. and four battalions of field arbut all was a confused tillery with fifteen light guns mass when Colonel Jackson came as a stranger to However. and bv his own tireless enand consistency soon took the place of ergy. to make such a resistance as should convince the enemy of the desperate resolution of the people of the South. of all the Southern forces. Colonel Jackson had taken possession of the Maryland Heights. Harper's Ferry was regarded as the most important position Its command was the advance guard in Yiro-inia.SECRECY IN MILITARY OPERATIONS.

a city rich in historic associafrom the days of AVashington. educated at West Point. '* one of the delegation Colonel. Alabama. trained in the Mexican war." ihiii of the lirst acts of the CVjnfederate authorities . his whole life has been a preparation for this struggle. and the strongest man becomes stronger when his heart is pure and his ' ' I' liands are clean. iron-nerved man than he. : how many troops have you f lie })romptly replied '• I should be glad if Lincoln thought 1 had fifteen thousand." I^pon the formal union of Virginia with the Southern Confederacy. A brother officer says of him: 'Jackson does not know fear Above all. and some of how lie would stand the upon miUtary matters and keep his secrets. C'olonel Jackson's by the South. The capital of the Confederate States was transferred from Montcromerv. for Old Hickory himself was not a more determined.: 156 sired I'll-l-^ <»!' (iKXElLVL THOMAS J. while yet showing the utmost politeness to his guests. to Eichmond. Among the very first notices of Colonel Jackson that appeared in the papers was the following "The commanding officer at Harper's Ferry is worthy of the name he bears. he is a devoted Christian. After pumping him for some time friends ^vere curious to see test of being questioned without an}^ satisfactory ventured to ask directly ' : result. JACKSON. all her forces and armaments were turned over to that government. and now destined to be the centre of the South in the momentous struo:tions gle of the next four years. Born in A^irginia. occupied since at the pet military institution of the Old Dominion.

A^irginia troops. The latter was too true and honorable a soldier himself not to appreciate the conduct of a man Avliose inexorable and unflinchtheir ing devotion to duty threAv him into a momentary collision official Avith himself. and Colonel Jackson at once recognized this as official evidence ston as that he Avas superseded. You must . age. has been placed in command here. of the Confederate army. This Avas an embarrassing situation for both officers. My precious darling. whose higher rank.: SUPERSEDED BY GENERAL JOHNSTON. Accordingly. but fortunately a communication soon came from General Lee. I suppose you have heard that General Joseph E. General Johnston Avas sent on to take command. Johnston. To this change of command Jackson thus alludes in his letters and pleasant. Johnston to the command at Harper's Feny. both and social relations Avere cordial and the superior officer ous supporter than his predecessor at Harper's Ferry. and as promptly yielded the command to General Johnston. in which he referred to General Johncommander at Harper's Ferry. and. had no more faithful and zeal- '•Harper's Ferry. and greater experience as an officer it Avas thought woukl render him a more suitable commander for this most impor- tant post than Colonel Jackson. without any from the government to turn it over to him and as he had been placed there by the authority of General Lee. 1861. after taking possession at Ilichmond 157 was to appoint General Joseph E. " May 27th. as commander of the instructions to the latter . his fidelity as a soldier constrained him to hold his position until he should receive orders from the same source to resign it into other hands. ever after.

Tebbs have the horse and rockaway at his own you so satisfactorily to arrange our I just love my business little price . and if he is not able to pay for them. I am in command of the A^irginia troops stationed here. Colonel Presof a post. . I and I am doing have been supei^eded by General letter." 158 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. I hope to have more time.kind Providence for enabling matters. . you may . that but. ni}^ little pet. to come on I should be delighted to see you." He had a great desire to go to his native section of Virginia. and saving it to the South. home woman. not concern yourself about the change." The A^irginia regiments at the different posts now oriranized into a l)rio:ade. JACKSON. do not think of coming. I have not been ordered to the Northwest. and that she may have that 'peace wdiich passeth all under. . give I them to him. as he is a tninister of the Gosjjel. is that our kind Heavenly Father Avill give prayer unto my darling every needful blessing. 'as stated in a former but so far as have yet learned. Avhilst if you were there. standing !' The next and letter touches reticence in his militarv affairs upon the persistent secrecy which has already . . Let Mr. . as long as I am not in command write longer letters to my darling pet. to ton will explain it all to you. well. Johnston. its were and Colonel Jackson lie Avrites '' : was appointed commander. '* I am very thankful to an ever. and devote his energies to rescuing that part of the State. yet if you have not My habitual started. have Avritten as you requested to Winchester.

" The Eev. how much we could enjoy it together! But do not attempt to come." I59 been noticed. Little one. green yard. and now just prepare yourself to have your wish gratified. I suppose you meant military news. of which I am in command. you are so precious to somebody's heart I have been greatly blessed by our kind Heavenly Father. you wrote me that you wanted longer letters. and the Virginia forces under (leneral Johnston constitute the First Brigade. but my sweet. and the roses climb even to that height. The troops here have been divided into brigades. little sunny face is what I want to see most of all. rector of . for I have written you a great deal about your esposo and how much he loves you. and shows that even to his wife he did not confide his phms any more than to his comrades in arms ''June 4th. since leaving home. when I want to lower it. in health and otherwise. My chamber is on the second story. and if you were only here. William X. You say that your husband never writes you any news. I wish you could see with me the beautiful roses in the 3^ard and garden. What do you want with military news? Don't you know that it is unmilitary and unlike an oihcer to write news respecting one's post ? You wouldn't wish your husband to do an unofficer-like thing. so that I have to push them out. vrould you? I have a nice.: "THE STONEWALL BRIGADE. Pendleton. and come into mj^ window. as before you could get here I might be ordered elsewhere. and upon the wall of the house here." ! This afterwards became the famous " StoneAvall Brigade. Little one. Dr.

which it Avas known as the the Stonewall Brigade. JACKSON. thither General Johnston resolved to remove his army.: 160 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J.. who were among the noblest young men of the South. Doctor Dabney's explanation of that the this movement was. ston has withdrawn his troops General Johnfrom the Heights . nineteen theological stuand others (including a son of General Lee). and. many of them taking the place of privates. but did not think it prudent to attack the enemy. This battery contained seven Masters of Art of the University of Virginia. fortvdents.he determined to abandon the place. there. the Episcopal Church at Lexington. hail command of a battery of hght field-guns. June 14th he wrote from Harper's Ferry "We are about leaving this place. count of this march. In his retreat he offered battle. two other college graduates. and a proportion of Christian men as surprisingly large The very best blood of as it was highly gratifying. the South was represented among these volunteer soldiers. in Eockbridge Artillery. being the true strategic point for the defence of the upper regions of Virginia. its chester. a graduate of West Point. whose force Avas very greatly superior to In his letters Colonel Jackson gives an achis own. On the 16th of June General Johnston evacuated Harper's Ferry. Confederate commander speedih^ learned the untenable nature of his position poses of having accomplished the temporary puroccupation by the removal of the valuable machinery and materials for the manufacture of fire"Winarms. which was manned chiefly by the young men of the It was attached to college and town of Lexington.

but up to the present time the order has not come. General Johnston made some disposition for receiving the enemy if they should attack us. will devote myself to writing to my precious pet. passed tlirough Charlestown. marched towards Winchester. and. I am looking for it at any moment. instead of doing so. " June 18th. I was directed to get ready to evacuate the place. The the enemy. and that you found the family all well. which is about three miles . we should have engaged the enemy but. and halted for the night about two miles this side. Yesterday morning. Ig. Maryland. and say you have heard throuo^h others that I am a brio^adier-^eneral. On Sunday. and in the evening expected to march. as I am at leisure. by order ston. Yesterday morning we were to have marched at sunrise. I am very thankful to our kind Heavenly Father for having sent Joseph [my brother] for you. and I hoped that in the evening. has blown up and burnt the and is doing the same with respect to the public buildings. when he gave the order to return towards Winchester.LETTERS FROM CAMP. or this morning. Near sunset we reached this place. and thus we were kept until about noon. next morning we moved towards 11 . By this time I suppose you have found out that the report owes its origin to Madam Kumor. You speak of others knowing more about me than my darling does. who were between Martinsburg and Williamsport." railroad bridge across the Potomac. and I trust that you are now safely and happily at Cottage Home [my father's place]. the entire force left of General JohnHarper's Ferry.!^ (Maryland and Virginia). and encamped for the night at Bunker Hill.

June 22cl. but this the second time the advance. when our troops were to Martinsburg. A By great number order of General Johnston I have de- stroyed a large number of locomotives and I cars on the Baltimore and Ohio Kailroad. Ave left Harper's Ferry. JACKSON. Camp Stephens.162 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. we may have an engagement any the Federal troops as concentratof families have left their Eumor reports ing near Shepherdstown. north of Winchester. but side of the river. I "My me the dsirlmg esj)osita. homes." that through the blessing of God we shall soon " Headquarters First Virginia Brigade. marching on the enemy. their reluctance was manifested by their snail-like pace.. But when they were ordered to retire. they were so inspirited as apparently to forget the fatigue of the march and though some of them were suffering from hunger. and on the road leading to Williamsport. of course. enemy withdrew from our Our is troops are ver}^ anxious for an engagement.. and the march continued at the rate of about three miles an hour. expected. I trust be given an opportunity of driving the invaders from this region. repelling the enemy is. this and other privations appeared to be forgotten. . to Martinsburg on last peared to be a prospect for General Johnston ordered Wednesday. and there apa battle on Thursday. on the Maryland side of the Potomac. day. am at present about four miles north of Martinsburg. Maryland. enemy have retreated before our However. an active movement towards . Since I hope the general will do something soon. have just learned . on the turnpike leading thence On Sunday.

P. who had been sent to Komney." I am bivouacking. and the other at nine hundred. Allen's regiment and Captain Pendleenemy retreated across the river. as far as I is but I do not intend to wear them. "Berkeley County. 1^3 enemy are again crossing into Virginia at Williamsport." am show that such protection unnec28th.. I sleep out of doors without any cover except my bedding. You spoke It is of the cause of the South being gloomy. I shall essary in this climate. and I am making the necessary arrange- ments for advancing to meet them. I regret to see our ladies making those things they call Havelocks [a covering to protect the head and neck from the sun]. for." Colonel "Monday morning. The enemy ' lost two guns and their colors. I not so here. as their time and money could be much more usefully employed in providing haversacks for the soldiers. Last evening. A few days since Colonel A. after reconnoitring their camp. am well satisfied that the enemy are afraid to meet us. opposite Williams- . I advanced with Jo W. and our troops are anxious for an engagement. my The Federal troops were in two camps. June . despatched a detachment to burn a bridge eighteen miles west of Cumberland.MOVEMENTS IX THE that the FIELD. The enterprise was successful.. I have been presented with three Havelocks. many of Avhom have none in which to carry their ra' tions. ton's Battery. Hill. concerned. I returned to present position. but the and. one estimated at about six hundred. but have not felt any inconvenience from it that I am aware of in the way of impaired health. June 24:th. four miles north of Martinsburg.

sent a letter via here to Williamsport which required us to send a flag of truce. It was bordered all around with an edge of bright red. that the enemy had packed their wagons with baggage. and am feelYesterdav Lieutenant ins: the effects of it to-day. was a gaydy colored picture of the statue of Liberty. although ]\rr. J. and I trust will recover. who was captured some time since opposite Williamsport by Colonel alry. I am inclined to think it was done by a Virginian rather than a Xortherner. thus indicating a move in aid. Stuart. holding over her head a United States flag. one of our men was shot in the abdomen by the enemy. There is a great deal of dislovalty in this county. . Bowman. son-in-law of General Pendleton. learned that the enemy had day before yesterday I crossed the Potomac and . LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and at the top of the first page. All went off well. in the left-hand corner. Last night the news came. is my ordnance officer my and acting adjutant -general. of the cav- and now in Richmond on his parole of honor. I had my rest disturbed. B. is Edwin Lee. July 4th. it has diminished. and beneath her !" feet were the words " Onward to Victory " Darkesville.164 port. '-' My precious darling. but merely gave such orders as were necessary to prevent their approach without giving me timely notice but. and Sand}^ Pendleton some direction. after I had retired." The next letter was written upon a sheet which had been captured from the Federals. of the Eighth Regiment. JACKSOX. Pennsylvania Volunteers. but he is still living. I didn't trouble my command. in consequence. E.

as one of my obfrom reaclijects in advancing was to keep the enemy of ing my camp before my wagons could get out camp the way. and with regiment of Virginia volunteers advanced to meet the After proceeding to the locality Avhich had been indicated as occupied by them. my cavalry. I made the Fecleral troops. Besides . which was occupied by [It is said that. and gave such instructions as I heard from desired to have carried out until I should be Captain Pendleton^s Battery and one again. if pressed. though I had ordered ment engaged. before firing this first the enemy. the reverend officer lifted " Lord.THE FIRST ENGAGEMENT. I immediately ordered my command under arms. and I directed Captain Pendleton to take a favorable position in rear and return their fire with one gun. I had only one regiand one cannon. he must fall back. and the advance Soon action. the firing and were repulsed. of the enemy was driven back. being endangered." his ball upon the enemy. His cleared the road. movement for bringing a small part of my force into commenced. I gave the order to their colonel He obeyed. which gave them a covered position and an but finding that the enemy were eneffective 'fire get in my rear and that my men were deavoring to . opened upon me. They again advanced. 165 were advancing upon me. The artillery of the foe fell back. and that. baggage to get into column before I should arrive there. and ascertainnecessary ing the position of their advance. up two other regiments. have eyes to heaven and uttered the prayer. My men got possession of a house and barn. first ball mercy upon their souls I''] '' I still continued to fall back. so as to use them if necessary. checking the enemy when so as to give time for at my it became necessary.

1 desired." . I wrote out my official rethat of " Falling Waters. July " 3d. after ascertaining that the Federals were in force. while the . K."] port last night. May your advancement increase your usefulness to the State. 1861. The enemy are celebrating the 4th of July in Mar- my . but we are not observing the day. so as soon as I ascertained that obeyed my instructions. to my ammunition. but I do not A number of the know how many. Yery truly. and were anxious for a battle. dear general. JACKSOX. tinsburg. Va. and fell back. as far as practicable. My officers and men behaved beautifully. . [The affair Avas known as this being only a skirmish. Lkk. the killed of the ene- did not fall into our hands. . and " to feel that you merit it. enemy As I obeyed my orders. E. My fired cannon about fired only eight times. This morning one of his staff-officers told me that the general had recommended me I am very thankful that an for a brigadier-general.." fol- Upon his return to Winchester he received the lowing note from General Lee "Richmond. My ston required me to retreat in the event of the advance he was enemy. were killed. and think General Johnston forwarded it to Eichmond. I have the pleasure of sending you a commission of brigadier-general in the Provisional My Army. I had twelve wounded and thirteen killed and missing.: 160 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. My cavalry in force of the in force I took forty -nine prisoners. Providence made me an instrument in carryever-kind ing out General Johnston's orders so successfully. enemy of Cap- thirty-five times but the first fire tain Pendleton's Battery was probably worth more orders from General John- than save all of theirs.

and exceedingly thankful to our kind Heavenly Father.. My letter from the Secretary Thinking it would of War was dated 17th of June. but I had and my duty was to obey. Try to live near to Jesus.. May his blessing ever rest on you is my fervent prayer.: : IS MADE A BRIGADIER-GENERAL. If the cost of . I send the letters of Generals Lee and Johnston. On the 3d I did nothing more than join General Johnston. and [the opportunity] of serving my country more efficiently. and secure that peace which flows to desire in the line of promotion. ungrateful if I like a river. and railroad property was a sad work. My promotion was beyond it what I anticipated. his 1^7 His surprise and gratification at expressed in the following letter " I promotion are have been officially informed of my promotion to be a brigadier-general of the Provisional Army of the Southern Confederacy. I have had all that I ought I should be very were not contented. my orders." It was your husband that did at Martinsburg. From the latter you ^vill see that he desired my promotion for my conduct on the 2d and 3d instant. be gratifying to you. but it was prior to my skirmish with the enemy. desires for One of my greatest advancement is the gratification it Avill give my darling." In the next letter he alludes to the destruction of the property of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad by the command of General Johnston . To destroy so so much mischief many fine locomotives. cars. as I only expected to be in the volunteer forces of the State.

God am well satisfied. is . much to my but the field-ofiicer of the day went over to examine into the case... and generally found that it agreed with me well. am we have been able to very thankful to our Heavenly Father for having given me such a fine brigade.. about ten miles from us. except At we present I am in a very are destitute of furni- such things as I gather together. as you have probably seen in the papers. comfortable building. and found the oflScer in command was one of his friends. and even . In reply to your queries. One of his fair daughters took it into her head that the cavalry belonged to the enemy. not be concerned at our falling back to this place [Winchester]. ." Last evening the enemy encamped at Bunker Hill. except when it j-ained. . discom- whereupon she wrote me a fort . but I have been sleeping out in camp several weeks. I am sleeping on the floor of a good room. Last night I was awakened by a alry messenger from the house of a friend where some cavhad stopped. The people here are very kind so much so that I have to decline many invitations to accept their hospitalities. . I we must not be discouraged. Juh' 16th. note. but ture. 16S LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. but we have heard nothing respecting their is movements but to-day. .. . . The news from the Northwest unfavorable. One of the most trying things here the loss of sleep. how You must much good might have been expected I . in His own good time and way. will. and this mornmg we would have given them a warm reception had they advanced. give us the victory.. JACKSOX." ""Winchester. the property could only have been expended in disseminating the gospel of the Prince of Peace.

I am in the path of duty. poor. to regret our system. is sister I gets letters from her husband every my esjyositaf Look Heavenly Father has prospered us! I how our kind feel well assured that in following our rule." but he He . is more reMy table is rather freshing than sleeping in a room. . But when my sweet one writes." always wrote and talked in the same hopeful... 169 I find that then it was but slightly objectionable. bereavement. cheerful strain. though day. All things work together for my good. air. however. with the greatest fervor and tenderness. I am doing Avell. so as to when it on Sunday. mail letters which would can be avoided. and he often expressed the hope. never expressed a desire to live so strongly as not to From the very thought of such a survive his -wife. that whatever trial his Heavenly . and that no evil can she any happier than come nigh me. All things considI get corn-bread. and your e.^poso hopes to send you full ones in return and when the wars and troubles are all over. With the apostle Paul. but usually ered. his affectionate nature seemed to shrink and recoil more than from any earthly calamity. let the letters be long. I trust that. through divine mercy. HOPEFUL SPIRIT. we shall have many happy days together. As travel to writing'. he could say that " living or dying he was the Lord's. never seeming to entertain a thought that he might fall or if he had such a thought. which is Biblical.. he was too unselfish to overshadow his w^ife's happiness by intimating it to her. sleeping in the open with no covering but my blankets and the blue sky for a canopy. I have never had occasion. Al- after years of experience. HIS CHEERFUL.

could bear every privation. after exhausting every means he could think of for relief. J. T. as a soldier. we transmit to them the freedom we have enjoyed. this might be spared. and his . quisite tenderness of heart of the man who. ^•Your sympathizing friend. his anxiety became so overpower- manlv frame Such was the exshook with convulsive emotion. From me you have a friend's sympathy. A beloved member of his family had another was dangerously ill and he asked just died This was the reply for an extension of his furlough."" Among the stores captured at Harper's Ferry. during a painful though not dangerous illness in his family. It is necessary that you should be at your post immediately. . and I wish the suffering and wish I could relieve condition of our country permitted me to show it.: 170 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. " My dear Major. This mingling of tenderness and strength in his nature is illustrated by a letter to one of his ofiicers who had obtained leave of absence to visit a stricken household. JACKSOX. he was the most devoted of nurses— his great and loving heart having not a fibre of selfishness in it. and there was no end to the self-sacrifice he would endure. — I have received your sad letter. Jackson. but human aid cannot heal the wound. your sorrowing heart. Father sent upon him. But we must think of the living and of those who are to come after us. In sickness. not . iner that he burst into tears. with God's blessing. Join me to-morrow morning. and see that. Once. and on the march and in the field set his men an example of the most heroic endurance. What Degradation is worse than is life without honor? death.

Dr. He had a i^eculiar habit of lying down like a dog when the command halted for His master made a pet of him. apples from his own hand. Morrison. and kindly sent . thinking his size and gait were admirably suited for the use of a lady. General Jackson had several other horses. he seemed absolutely indefatigable." as he has often been described). for he was anything but a fancylooking animal but he was well formed. he selected the smaller one. he was found by a Con- by Governor Letcher to the family of General Jackson in North Carolina. and often fed him rest. except two which Jackson purchased and. compactly built. gaunt. father-in-law of the general.'' He rode him in nearly every battle in Avhich he was engaged. Indeed. as he horses for the government." as a present for his wife. and was at once turned over to the Confederate army." I7I the least valuable was a train of cars on the Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad. bound for Washington. and lived many years in Lincoln County on the farm of the Eev. upon the fall of his master at Chancellors ville. and as soft as a gazelle's. His name of " Fancy " seemed rather a misnomer. and his powers of endurance were perfectly wonderful.*'OLD SORREL. and with whom his family made their home. expressed it. . loaded with This was a lawful prize. round and fat (never " raw-boned. Here he was treated to the greenest of pastures and federate soldier. His eyes were his chief beauty. but he preferred the little sorrel to them all. After being lost for a time. " as easy as the rocking of a cradle. which he called " Fancy. . and grim. finding his gait. which had been presented to him. being most intelligent and expressive. hoping that hostilities would soon blow over. one or two being superb creatures.

them all behind him. liberate each one." of his mouth in hfting latches and letting down bars as a man could of his hands. like a soldier leading his command. lift off the rails one by one until the fence was low enough to jump over uallv getting into mischief. the best of care. . and then o-o deliberately to the doors of all the other horses and mules. and for a lono. and then march off with his country churches.time was the ridintr-horse of the venerable min- "OLD SORREL ister to One of the young Fancy (as he was called Morrisons used to say that Old on the farm) "had more sense^ and was the greatest He could make as good use old rascal he ever saAV. with his mouth. and did excellent service as a family horse.a 172 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. for he could. and it was a frequent habit of his to let himself out of his stable. so that he was contin- But he was such a pet . to the green fields of grain around the farm — fence proving no obstacle to him. both in harness and under the saddle. JACKSOX.

for he was over thirty years of age when he died. much at the Soldiers' Home in Eichmond. still the enthusiasm for the old war-horse that his body It was sent to a taxidermist to be mount- now stands in a glass case in the library." that he was allowed to do anything. and such was ed. and I73 taken to county fairs. it. was often where he was an object of as interest as one of the old heroes of the war. . as they look upon agine that they see again their beloved can imas commander they have seen him so often on the field of battle. where the veterans. in 1886. His hardiness was shown by his great longevity. Virginia ."OLD SORREL.

and was manifestly the strategic point for the defence of Xortheastern Virginia. others of great importance were being made elsewhere in the State. and calling upon him to hasten to his assistance. and on the 18th of July Johnston received a telegram from Beauregard that the enemy was advancing in force upon Bull Run. from Alexandria. and all the energies of the Confederate authorities were concentrated upon preparations to repel the inOn both sides Manassas was the centre of expectation. THE FIRST BATTLE OF MANASSAS. the on which was the organization of an army by General Beauregard at Manassas Junction. General McDowell. to cover the approach to Richmond. was marching forward to attack the Confederates with the confidence of an easy victory. . AYhile General Johnston's movements were going in the lower Valley of Virginia. The United States troops were now massed in and around Washington. before them when the arrival of Johnston's troops turned the fortune of the dav.CHAPTER XI. Generals Beauregard and Johnston were acting in concert. preparing for an advance into Virginia. with a large army. the capital of the Confedchief of This Junction was about twenty-five miles eracy. They had already driven back General Beauregard's advance guard. and seemed likely to carry all vaders.

rolled them up. as exhausted that I let them sleep while I kept watch myself. gallantly we arrived Shenandoah River about dark. He '' writes: On the ISth of July I struck my tents. The commanding : ' general hopes that his troops will step out like men. This halting and crossing delayed us for some time but about two o'clock in the morning we arrived at the little village of Paris. About an hour and a half after leaving. and there we took a lunch. and left them on the ground. where we halted for an hour or so. "We continued our march until we reached Millwood. and make a forced march to save the this stirring country. After pacing around the camp. or leaning upon the watching the slumbers of his men until nearly . 175 We of the will now let General Jackson give his account of his movements command at this juncture. ON THE MARCH TO THE FIELD. I had the following order from General Johnston published to my brigade Our gallant army under General Beauregard is now attacked by overwhelming numbers. and the march. waist-deep. as I had been encamped on the other side of the town. and about noon marched through Winchester.. having found an abundance of good water. but the men The w^ater was waded the river." fence. at the my brigade continuing in front. where we remained sleep- ing until nearly dawn. in Clarke County. my men were I so mean the troops slept. Eesuming shouts of joy.' At appeal the soldiers rent the air with all was eagerness and animation where before there had been only lagging and uninterested obedience.

" When command halted for the night. JACKSOX. after which he rose at dawn and roused his men to insisted who own continue their march. The drowsy pipe of evening birds Was liushed upon the hill. With deep and sombre brow. James R. all lie ' General. Whose dreamful eyes seemed hoarding up Some unaccomplished vow. and the officer of ' the day went to General Jackson and said. His wistful glance peered o'er the plains Beneath the starrv liuht. A grave and solemn man was he. of his staff. Randall. and he then threw his wearied frame down upon a bed of leaves in a fence corner. the soldiers awoke fresh and ready for action. . " The Lone Sentry.— 176 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. the poor fellows sleep. and when the glorious morning broke. he yielded his post to a member on relieving him. and all I will night. which appeared the after his death. daylight. said to have been written by Mr. the lone sentinel for that brave but weary and silent body of Virginia heroes. and snatched an hour or two of sleep.' And those hours till the daylight scious of the noble vigils kept over their slumbers. he replied.' and asked should not awaken some of them to keep guard. the men are if so wearied that there is not one but is asleep."^ * in This Night-watch by the Commander has been and is celebrated a poem. The darkness grew so still. Athwart the shadows of the vale Slumbered the men of might And one lone sentry paced his ]-ounds. let watch the camp todawned he walked around that camp. the To watch " camp that night. dying of tlie " Twas in the day. all unconNo.

much suffering to my men or to The next day we rested.. . without myself. the future opened unto The him grand and awful scroll Manassas and the Valley march Its Came heaving o'er his soul Eichmond and Sharpsburg thundered by With that tremendous fight Which gave him to the angel hosts Who " watched the camp that night. July 22d. battle fire for which all the Although under a heavy only one several continuous hours.—Yesterday we fought victory. on the Manassas After getKailroad. the brigade cars. . " My precious Pet." : 177 '• Bright In his letter General Jackson continues and the head of our and early we resumed the march. and the same day all that could be aboard of the o'clock in the carried arrived at Manassas about four afternoon. I recei ved And with " murmured name of God He watched the camp that night. commenced going ting our breakfast. and the following day was the memorable 21st of July. While up the valley of the Lord He marches to the Throne He kept the faith of men and ! saints. for a great and gained a great glory is due to God alone." '' Manassas. "THE LONE SENTRY." . about six o'clock in the morning. Sublime and pure and bright He sleeps— and all is well with him Who 12 watched the camp that night. Gap column arrived at Piedmont. We mourn for him who died for us With that resistless moan.

It was broken about midway between the hand and knuckle. The troops of South Carolina. not Though he was battle. At one moment it seemed as if all was lost. " we will give them the bayonet I" This cool reply showed the unconquered mind of one who never knew that he Avas beaten. The battle was the hardest that I have ever been in. and he rode up to Jackson in despair. the linger. has so far repaired show very much. but the doctor says the finger can be saved. and glory. God made my particularly.— 178 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. but it my that who is very handv. doesn't though one of my regiments extended to the rig-ht for some distance. Whilst great credit is due to other parts of our gallant army. commanded by General Bee. the breaking of the longest linger of ray left hand." said Jackson. Your coat got an ugly wound near the servant. to whom be all the honor. My preservation was entirely due. I should have lost finger. and put fresh courage into the heart of hini who was almost 1'' . the credit of which was justly given to its commander.'' Let others speak praise. My horse was wounded. There were other commanders on my right and left. JACKSOX. it hip. but not killed. had been overwhelmed. is for your information only say nothing about myself. it so reticent of his own part in the was well known that his brigade saved the day. the ball passing on the side next the foreHad it struck the centre. but not near 1 commanded in the centre more so hot in its fire. as was the glorious victory. exclaiming. praise. This it. to our God. wound. brigade more instrumental than an}" other in repulsing the main attack. " '' They are beating us back Then.

christened his companion in arras. he cried out to them to " There he stands like a stone wall '/' saying. and William Page (son of my dear friend) were killed. when their leader But with his last fell dead with his face to the foe. 179 ready to acknowledge defeat and. part of our State. and I hope we may soon hear that our God has again crowned our arms with victory.. I have an excellent campingground about eight miles from Manassas on the road to Fairfax Court House. considerably. and the broken ranks were reformed. and renders . as the wind blows my paper." Soon " Mr. but in history. not only in the Southern army. it My finger troubles difficult for me to very me write. which was in the breast-pocket of his coat. and led to another charge. and have requested that the one which my darling had the loving kindness to order for me should not be sent. with the name that he was henceforth to bear. while the troops that followed him on that day counted it glory enough to bear on their colors the proud title of the " Stonewall Brigade. we can use it in time of General Lee has recently gone to the western . as he rode back to " look at Jackhis command. If it is already made. in the breath he had baptism of fire. after the battle he writes : James Davidson's son. of Stonewall Jackson. I am sleeping in a tent. and I can only use my right hand. Young Riley's Hfe was saved by his Bible. son Rally behind the Virginians !" The cry and the example had its effect. peace. And so you think the papers ought to My brigade is not a say more about your husband " ! . Frederick.." August 5th.! "JACKSON STANDS LIKE A STONE WALL!" .

and Thirt\^third regiments of Virginia Volunteers. never distrust our God.' When the official reports are pub- lished. to boldly take its position with the artillery was under my command to arrest the victorious foe in his onward progress to hold him in check unand finally to charge baytil reinforcements arrived that — — — onets. which is all His people should desire. be expected that I should receive the credit that Generals Beauregard and Johnston would. Gordon. JACKSON. all the upper part of the paper ]My darling. If my brigade can always play so important and useful a it did in the last battle. Kenton Harper. respectively by Colonels commanded James F. I was under them but I am thankful to my ever-kind Heavenly Father that He makes me content to await His own good time and pleasure for commendation know- — ing that part as all things work together for my good. Fifth. Johnston and Beauregard. not before. because . Allen. and A. pierce the I am well satisfied with what it did. C. Twenty-seventh. I send a specimen. As you think the papers do is not notice me enough. In due time He will who doeth make manifest all His pleasure. which you will see from a leader. . things Tvell. consists of the Second. You must army is not be concerned at seeing other parts of the lauded. thus advancing. I trust I shall ever be most grateful. and and my if brigade not mentioned. I expect to see justice done this noble body of patriots. enemy's centre. Preston. W. I brigade of newspaper correspondents. Fourth. know that the First Brigade was the first to meet and pass our retreating forces to push on with no other aid than the smiles — of God .180 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. W. My command James W. and so are my It is not to generals. ' Truth mighty will prevail. and.

Lieutenant A. colonel J.: : A CHARACTERISTIC LETTER. Harman. . Captain John A.m. commissary. ston. awaiting with intense interest of the mail. ^V. I only saw him at a distance. Massie. White. who deserve to be includGeneral Jackson continues August 10th. " staff. passing here about . news of the victory people.'' Dabney says " It is due to the credit of Jackwisdom in the selection of his instruments. Pendle- ordnance officer . Jones. W. and to the gallant and devoted men who composed this staff. en route from Washington He spent the night with General Johnto Manassas. took a view of the battle-field yesterday morning. ." A number of other officers subse- quently served upon his ed in this eulogy. the post-office was thronged with after the battle of Manassas. we have Colonel Pendle. aide. the opening letter was handed to the Kev. and exclaimed to the eager and expectant group around him Soon a Dr." A day or two fore the in and behad reached Lexington authentic form. Hawkes. acting adjutant-general ton. to state that all of them who survived rose Avith their : son's illustrious leader to corresponding j)osts of usefulness and distinction. immediately recognized the wellknown superscription of his deacon soldier. and." ITpon opening the bulletin read thus . Prince Napoleon passed here on the evening of the 8th. eleven o'clock a. igx Cummings . and then returned to Washington. Avho : " it Xow we shall know all the facts. J. My staff-officers are Lieutenant-colonel Lieutenant- Francis B. ton's Battery. in addition. S. quar- termaster. and Captain Dr.

as an humble instrument in the hand of Providence in retrieving the downtrodden loyalty of that part of my native State. If General Lee remains in the Northwest. ticruino: remembered that This little note is a revelation of character. I mv tent last night. after a faI had failed to send you my contribution for our colored SundayEnclosed you will find my check for that obschool. and the board would fill them. . for It is remarkable. JACKSOX. the 1st of at the opening of the that September. My dear pastor. tell if I me any more don't ahvaj^s that I See remem- though I do not my owm. the Board of Visitors will designate two and if they decline. much for what it says as Not a w^ord in it about the what battle or about himself field to — he who turned the defeat into victory. J. . I would like to go there and give my feeble aid. away from the ac- In that hour of triumph his heart turned the poor negro children in the whom he had been " I customed to teach Sunday-school in Lexington. their seats w411 thereby be declared vacant. and staying there for the remainder of the war ? I am glad . : In his next letter General Jackson writes received a circular to the effect that have two if professors must return to the Institute session. and that number do not consent to return. . not so it does not say. that the battle [First Manassas] was fought on your birthday. and I am ber it. ject." ience. But I desire to be wlierever those over me may decide. which please acknowledge at your earliest convenT. Jackson. How would you like going back to Lexington in September. I declined returning. and oblige vours faithfully. so 3^ou can never forget your birthday. .182 " LTFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. in dav's service.

as might make the troops feel my own pleas. as mv attention is should it be required . First his friend. The success I am and.4e badlv treated. and that I consult theirs: so you had of ure and comfort regardless Home for the present. Colonel this time he wrote to Auditor of the Commonwealth have greatly for our section of the State has gone there.: : NEVER ABSENT FROM UV1Y. and as troops for hard fighting not permitted to go and officers and soldiers are see families. their wives and lough Tou want to know whether a fur- Mv my my mv my esposita. and have is at the service Bennett. I hope mine wil this anny for the brilliant from of course be the one selected." August 17th he writes to " his wife I could get comfrom darling. may be expected in that " Mv hopes thing to ask for a brigade Should vou ever have occasion Northwest. as natural boyhood and family. Abou of my country. and serve wherever I may be it is my dutv to But it is where most needed I desire to be always turn to the home of his for one's affections to is confidential. I ought not to se. I can't be absent necessary in preparing mand. if I know mysel all object near my heart . This placed. 183 of our cause is the earthly content here. Somebri-htened since General Lee region. army at the beginthe time he entered the asked or received a furning of the war he never From . as I do it that hey better stav at Cottage not know how long I shall remain here.

both instrumental it vocal. .the T paid him in camp he requested me to sing liim until he could impress it upon his memit know ory. but he had so little talent for that it was he with difficulty he could distinguish tunes. so as to be able to recognize service. so durino. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. wi'ites Auofust 22d he espow would get sick. I have been able to Still Don't you wish vour and have to get a sick leave : " continue in command much remains undone that I of my brigade. he felt that he ouo^ht the air to when he heard it. ." in a short But time I serving my country. in order that. it. JACKSOX was never absent from duty for a single day. but. It is an excellent band. I wish my darling could be with me now and enjoy the sweet music of the brass band of the Fifth Regiment. through the blessing of God. the Confederates as a national to be able to first visit When learned that the tune of " Dixie " had been adopted by air. It was a tedious and became so perfectly ridiculous from his oft-repeated command of "again" and "again" that it fmallv ended in hearty laughter on both sides. so that you couldn't envy sister Sue ? ISickness may compel me for a time to retire from camp.ISi lougli. He delighted and in listening to music. and go home. and never slept one night outside the lines of his own command. hope to be more instrumental in Every officer and soldier who is able to do duty ought to be busily engaged in military preparation by hard drilling. desire to see effected. . whether sick or well. . through the blessing of God. we may be victorious in the battles which in His all-wise providence may await us.

AT FAIRFAX CODET-HOUSE. . and I had a ride of trust finger suffered from it. the its sun scenery.I had a kind of longing not want to enter its desolate our house. request to move sent me a ets and General Longstreet my brigade. and with mellowed light greatly . which is quite a friends and some of my House is The country about Fairfax Court pleasure beautiful As I came in sight of the place. for I did was near setting. so say I now.at the top for the The weather fires in the house. will be no more fighting till His and God grant that. it may never be. and not merely because may be enabled to to the peaceful I prefer the strife of battle . and the consequence was forward with six advancing beyond Fairfax Court-House that after miles not intend to turned out that the enemy did twelve miles for nothing. that it I said before leaving my of duty— it is from a sense I fight for my country. though openino. is quite cool at lot-not to see our mornino. which fire to be used. tliere will. In liis 185 letter he continues : any faith in the assertion that It may not be October. I meet with a classmates. as yet ! have had my Tins think ^ What do you night. blessing of Providence I a hope that through the serve her. • enjoyments pickYesterday the enemy drove in our of home. " Don't put . I am writing contributed to beautify the is of a conical form. it will with the blessing of an ever-kind number of old army soon be well. if consistent with till then I desire no more. if our Surely. without it. but I it and my wounded Providence. having an constructed as to allow escape of smoke. so under a Siblev tent. attack. As country's independence can be secured darling.

through the blessing of an ever-kind Providence... to chambers. Pendleton preached at my headquarters in the morning. I think that. little one can come but you must not spare any expense in making your trip comfortable. The family is exceedingly obliging. and think I miglit probably be able to get a room for you with a kind family in whose yard I have my tent. it will not last long. in the event of your coming. under the blessing of God.. and we could have de{ have to stay about quaron account of my wounded finger. . it is now much improved. in reference to coming to see your ei<poso^ what would I tell you there are you do for privacy in camp more inconveniences attending camp life for a lady than little pet is aware of. However. Peyton Harrison preached in the evening. You must hire a carriage whenever you haven't a safe and good conveyance. as would be too sad not Und my little sunshine there. At present it would be improper for me to be absent lightful times together. love to have my darling here at this time. and 1 am just going First.186 LIl"^!^ OF GEXEKAL THOMAS it J. to read them over and over again and answer. . though we may frequently have little local troubles along the frontier." From Camp Harnian. as the cars But I would dearly are so crowded with soldiers. JACKSOX. as I ters . Last Sabbath Dr.. near Manassas. he wrote '' : Yesterday I received two letters from one little jewel of mine at Cottage Home. and Rev. . and worst of all is the danger 3^ou might encounter in such a trip. Should there be a good escort coming on and returning. If the war is carried on with vigor.

where I desii^e to remain inactive. as will be seen \)y my experience in making this journey through a beleaguered country. but no one was permitted to leave without a passport.PERMISSIOX TO PAY HDI A VISIT. I was unaccustomed to travelling alone. We reached Richmond safely and without much discomfort. for it is the have had. Little one can come on with the first good opportunity. in compliance with my husband's somewhat doubtful permission. but I do know that I am your doting esj)osoy to stay as long as I best am encampment I It was my good fortune to find an escort to the army. if she is willing to bear the unexpected occurrences of war. after coming so near to him (and yet so far !) . But he was not mistaken in apprehending the difficulties I should encounter. so he was refused a Like most of the Southern ladies in antepassport helium times. We are blessed with excellent water and a good drill-ground. my young was man did not come under either head (although he going upon an inspecting tour with a view to findingsome position among his friends). The reason of my changing my advice about your coming was probably in consequence of orders respecting a march. which the government was exceedingly strict in granting to men unless they were engaged in the service of the or Avere going into it. However. Within the last three weeks I have had to march off will permit I several times. I know not one day what will take place the next. ! and my husband was much opposed to my doing so. army Unfortunately. but in each case I have been privileged to return to my present encampment. to pay him a visit. I87 from my brigade a single day. but just as soon as duty hope to see my sunshiny face. and I joyfully set out.

finding no accommodation there for a lady. the train remaining stationary there until the next morning. "A husband failed to receive my telegram in time to meet me at Manassas. and from that from my seat moment my mind was at ease. thinking that point was still nearer to General Jackson's headquarters. passing through the car and rushed after him. One other female. yet filled wnth apprehension crowded with soldiers. so I was compelled to spend the night in the car in which I came up. was my joy and relief to see a friend from Charlotte. and. and scarcely a Avoman to be An hour or two after leaving Eichmond. the place teem\wz with soldiers. I started with my passport as bravely as I the cars being couk]. and advised me to go on with him to Fairfax Station. and I determined to venture on my way So after telegraphing him to meet me at Maalone. good woman. I sprang Korth Carolina. and Captain White. a plain. what seen. Captain White was unwilling to leave me without protection. was of the party." My . Harvey — I White (a gallant officer. my husband did arrive at Manassas very soon after we passed on. and the distance too great for him Fairfax Station we found to follow us that night. for Captain J. I could not give up this long-coveted opportunity of seeing him. friend in need is a friend indeed. and it was then too late. A lady seemed to be a great curiosity to the soldiers. JACKSOX. and the only house visible from the depot being used as a hospital. Not a place to accommodate a lady was to be found.1S8 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. who was in search of a sick relative among the soldiers. who afterwards fell in defence of his country) verified in my case the old proverb. our kind protector. nassas. converted into a vast military camp. However.

and my relief the brightest vision ness were truly inexpressible when in the person of that could be to me on earth appeared my dear husband. There w^as no the house that was used as a hospital. whom I had not seen for five months. and all the staffto get into the house and be seated to me a host of others. the one small winthe outlook was still dow in the room revealing the spectacle of a number . w^ere speedily driven assembled for dithere. forward to welcome their general's w^ife. annoyance became so great that Captam White locked the doors. feet. The next morning was the hastening to a Sabbath. and it seemed A . He in. so it can be imagined that anxious and dreary hours spent in that little place of and happihorrors seemed an age. and the tramp of men's entrance. Ave found his whole brigade Johns w^as just vine w-orship. busily engaged in 7naUiig coffins all alone. came ofiicers. sick brother. to my my The bishop conducted a delightful service in the . and as Captain White was on his mission. w^e drove up in an ambulance. scores of until the 189 whom filed through the car to take a look. of soldiers in the yard. much embarrassment. taking me Arrived to his headquarters. as they lock on the door. passed continually to and fro and threatened and was not conducive to a peaceful frame of mind more dismal. and. and had for their dead comrades ! I was the few nothing to read. for I felt most unpresentable after experience of the preceding night. and the venerable Bishop farm-house on the about to begin service in a small delay was made in order to give us time grounds.MEETING AFTER FIVE MONTHS' SEPARATION. he was compelled to go me a small room. which was first procured for but he in vacated for a few hours just for my accommodation.

gade was encamped on a beautiful hill near Centreville. Bull Run is a small. The briIt was an interesting and imposing scene. credit to his noble pine-trees. I for the first time General Joseph E. and their general's part in it was rehearsed with pride by every one who called upon his wife. and the soldiers swarmed around like bees. and both officers explained the different positions and movements of the two armies. him porch of the house. gave all the men. when the camp-fires were lighted. standing and sitting in the grassy yard. and the grand review of the whole of General Johnston's command was the most imposing military display that I had ever witnessed. General Jackson was justly proud of his brigade. They all felt so inspirited by the great victory they had just gained. JACKSON. with many open spaces and while he. insignificant stream. He took me over the battle-field of Manassas. w^hich was somewhat undulating. especially at night. from the crest of the hill the encampment met there of that splendid Stonewall Brigade. and talked the : battle over in a very interesting manner. and him was beautiful to behold. General Pendleton accompanied us in the ambulance. and General Jackson's tent was in the yard of the farm-house at which he secured lodging durIt was a grand spectacle to view ing my visit. Johnston.190 LIFE OF GE-VERAL THOMAS J. the officers and soldiers gen- made the impression of fine specimens of the Southern gentleman. their affection for with his characteristic modesty. There was nothing remarkable about the ground. Much of the debris the old Henrv house of the conflict still remained . and was impressed erally much pol- with his soldierly appearance and ished manners. Indeed.

many of whom were the very flower of our Southern youth and manhood. was that these now silent plains battle. ily named Utterbach. But all things have to come to an end in this fleeting world. The fare was plain. His staffofficers were all most agreeable and intelligent gentlemen. and although my husband was unremitting in his duties to his command. it was abundant and substantial. yet he had sufficient leisure to devote to my pleasure to make the time pass most delightWe had a nice room in a kind. My visit was made in September. with the exception of the absence of milk. and my !" de niggers in dis army delightful visit shared this fate all too soon — the army being ordered to change night after its location in less than a fort- fully to my arrival and I was sent back sorrowNorth Carolina. and I took my meals with him and his staff at their mess-table under the trees. . ^9^^ and shell the carcasses of the and even some of the bones of the poor human victims. but. who so felt the importance of his position as the head of the culinary department at headquarters that his boast was " I outranks all : Every moment of the time I was privileged to remain was full of content and enjoyment. a hired man named George. and that camp life had a charm for me that I never would have broken myself. scene of a great had so recently been the and that here the Keaper Death had gathered such a harvest of precious lives. His cook at that time was a very black negro. All was quiet in the army during my visit. were to be seen. obliging famf\il\y.: VISIT TO THE BATTLE-FIELD. It was difficult to realize riddled with shot horses. and General Jackson's next letter was written the 24th of that month — .

superintendents and all. with four regiments. I know she would enjoy General Jones's band. and at night I went over to Colonel Garland's regiment of Longstreet's Brigade. to endure the cam- paign. Dr. I greatly enjoy after our cold. feel doubtful of which has made me my capacity. and took a peep at the Yankees. JACKSON. am who face I going to write a letter to my darling pet esjpopaid me such a sweet visit. and will do. We are still at the same encampment as when ^'ou left. and whose dear can still see. which plays very sweetly. Yesterdav Eev. though she is 'way down in the Old Xorth State. things well But God. but does not bring. or will you let them fill your chair ? Colonel . hope my little sunshiny face I is as bright as this lovely day. to finite minds. and I have the promise of three more wall tents. Suppose they ask you to go back. . and General Wise was fifteen miles in advance of him. does. William Brown visited Munson's Hill. General Floyd was only about thirty miles west of Lewisburg. He I will give me the ability to endure all its fatigues. should we remain long all in tents. .192 " I sita^ LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. our and if it is His pleasure that I should remain in tlie field. our Echols returned this morning. Are you going to do so. chilly weather. This beautiful emblem is a beautiful and lovely — of the morning of it eter- nity in heaven. very good news. General Lee. had gone on to General Wise. humanly speaking. The Board of Visitors of the Institute met in Richmond. Yesterday heard a good sermon from the chaplain of the Second Regiment. God. . and decided if the professors did not return they would fill their places. . If my darling were here." " morning Monday morning.

desiring directions I received how to send a second from Colonel Ruff a box of beausupply." .. and then drew a graphic picture of his probably broken limbs. think about eight days since a gentlea half -barrel of tomatoes. God. permitted him to see the heavens opened. standing on the right hand of God.. Dabney's sermon yesterday. bread. of whom he was speaking. . Calling upon and saymg. and Jesus. also a tifully packed and delicately flavored plums . '* Strangers as well as Lexino^ton friends are verv I kind to me. text was from Acts. seventh chapter and lifth verse. He stated that the that it was not in have been better not to have been in the translation.. heard I did me speak in times past. and as forci: word God being in italics indicated the original. Mr. Granberry.SERMON OF DR.. 13 . Was not such a heavenly vision enough to make him forgetful of his sufferings ? He beautifully and forcibly described the death of the righteous. to write as much as His I desired about Dr. dying by the hand of violence. the first martyr under the new dispensation. sufferino^s. in His infinite wisdom and mercy. etc. conspiring to heighten his a2:onizino. the first under the old. like Abel. ter. It would then have read Lord Jesus. not have room enough in my hist let- nor have I time this morning. receive my spirit. 193 and heard an excellent sermon from the Eev. man and sent me I received a letter. and he thought it would ' bly that of the wicked. DABNEY.. of the Methodist chureh.' He spoke of Stephen. mangled flesh and features. of whom you may have " 20th. I am inclined to think from the same. so that he might behold the glory of God. But in the midst of this intense pain.

He Avas soon met by a troop of horse. stopped at the Junction to unload.' Giver of every good and perfect " '' " Camp near Fairfax Court-House. 11 is He looked quite thin. was quite an imposing pageant. a more grateful heart to the gift. Yesterday I rode down to the station. arrived in a single car I . spoke of my native region. and while there President Davis. the remaining part of the train. Jones. but does not seem to be as feeble as yesterday. where. bottle of blackberry vinegar AVliat I need is from the Misses ' B . The President intro- duced the subject of the condition of my section of the State. George Cocke. very unexpectedly to me. . in company with Colonels Preston. he proceeded on his way. liad His voice and manners are saw no exhibition of that fire which I supposed him to possess. I called upon him this morning at about half-past ten o'clock. from the troops. when he designed sending me there. . and Philip St. JACKSOX. very mild. suppose. that I felt a very deep in- . E. and a horse for Leaving his carriage and mounting his horse. about four thousand of the First Corps (General Beauregard). escorted by the cavalry. Harmon. himself. The troops belonged to Generals LongIt street. Oct. He took up his quarters with General Beauregard. and Echols. reception was a hearty cheer He took his seat in an ambulanceand as he passed on his Avay to the Courtlike carriage. Ilouse the air rang with the soldiers' welcoming cheers.194: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. " Yesterday I saw President Davis review. D. but did not even so much as intimate that he I told him. 1st. He I looks thin." .

even this brightest ^ly finger has been healed over for some time. I very sweetest heart I have I . will little ex -Anna Morrison come and keep house for me.. I am very thankful to that God who Avithholds no good thing from me (though I am so utterly unworthy and ungrateful) for making me a major-general in the Provisional Army of the ConfedThe commission dates from the Tth of erate States. 195 lie spoke hopefully of that section. and stay with me till the opening of the camjDaign of 1862 ? Now. tliat I shall be again blest with its perfect use. little am going to write a letter to the woman I know. including large portraits on . and then I can use the parlor for my office. For several days your esposo has been here. The enemy are gradually approach- ing us. I hope. Grigsby. pictures The hung with and paintings. the parlor of a Mr. in the course of time. I don't want to change housekeepers. with the use of it. I w^ant the same one all the time. though it is still partially stiff." " . If I get into winter -quarters. and highly of General Lee. He has very kindly offered walls of his parlor are me the use of his library..LETTERS TO HIS WIFE. . . who has promised that he will also let me have another room for my chamber. and I am blest by an ever -kind Providence of days. however. October 15th. and has an extra nice room. terest in it. Oct. October. ." '• October 14th. the only sweetwho she is ? can you guess I tell you." " '' Centreville. would like to see my sunshine. remember. 21st.

and I am very His wife is much pleased with him.196 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. . but an abundance of seats have been is left.yws-o and esjjom. on the right-hand side of the road. 22d. They are both nice gentlemen. Looking around the room. . Marshall Avent with him. writing to his sweetheart. seated on the left of a hickory fire. a globe lamp. and you have only to come into the first door on your right if you wish to see your husband. on the opposite side of the room. two settees apparently a man of among them. an oil painting of a beautiful boy. after crossing which you enter a hall about ten feet wide. and two of his sons have typhoid the disease. I am going to tell you just where your esposo is living for the present. but are past the crit- ical stage of lie has not yet consented to my staff moving into the house. a street turns the riofht Following the street from the Warrenton road. Utteroff to bach's on the "Warrenton road towards the battleo^round of Manassas. you will see upon the mantel a statuette of a mother with a child in her arms. I suppose of the e. about one hundred yards brings you to a large stone house. opposite sides. Starting from Mr. delicate. Oct. probably for fear of disturbing the sick. and two vases. Passing up a flight of steps of nearly eight feet brings you into the porch. two candelabra.-' " '' Centreville. fever. JACKSOX. On either side of the fireplace is a window. Avhichever you may choose to call her. and Mr. . or to his eqyostta. The carpet has been removed. Grigsby much character. Above the mantel are two rose ])ictures. Mr. and on . Colonel Jones has resigned and gone home. with four chimneys.

art. McFarland the greatest possible . Drs.' Xear is this hano-s a thermometer. On ern wall. Dr. 1«37 the left of the fire are a pair of bellows and a large the right are a pair of tongs. and a handsome feather broom for your esposo to sweep the hearth with. but on the right. The Evening Prayer. you will two Avindows on the western wall. which is kindly my a disposal. My desire is to get a staff spewill render cially qualified for their duties. So far I have described only the southshovel. and that amount of service to their Last night. White and McFarland country. see Turning yowv eyes to the right.. ' On the oil paintis Beatrice Cenci. to join me. Our I success at Leesburg reflected credit upon Colonel Evans and his heroic brigade.' with the inA^ocation.. They are just from Synod at Petersburg. . reached here and are staying with me. and give a very gratifying account of things there. On the right of the right-hand painting. is the library desk. 'Defend us from all j)erils and dangers of ' the niofht. of Lex- ington. On and the right of the door are two other works of between them placed at end. left end of this wall hangs the celebrated ino-.' is Xear it.BEFORE HIS HICKORY FIRE. Grigsby. large portrait of Mr. is About its is the centre of the wall is a large mirror — on here right a picture called 'Innocence' I — and your loving husband '' .' Between the windows a large portrait (as I suppose) of Mrs." have written to Colonel Preston. Upon the eastern wall. looking towards the battle-ground of the 21st July. Grigsby. . . window is a landscape XJpon the northern wall to the left of the door is a picture. left a picture of 'Holyrood.

Jackson took the sacred . Dr. and without a moment's dallying passed on to execute his duties. volume. and prayed that He would own and bless my ministrations.: 19S is LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Jackson modestly proposed to his pastor to lead in this worship. ' : . Dr. so that many souls might be saved. both to officers and privates. JACKSOX. to the usual request of pra3^ers. communicating in person General Jackson merely some important orders. nights with him. After a length of time he returned. pleted. you have often prayed with and be so kind as to do so to-night. preaching daily. a noble specimen of character/' Tliis was the Kev. as regularly held as work of the evening comwelcome with a beaming In the general's quarters he found his morning and evening worshij) it had been at home. and read and pra3^ed. he stay answered General. heaping upon them affectionate attentions. paused to give them the most hurried salutation consistent with respect. White spent live days and their households.' ' And never while life said the pastor. all the and renewed his face and warm abandon of manner. Dabney thus describes the '• They arrived at nightfall. . Dr. White (General Jackson's pastor) had come at his invitation to preach to his visit command.' for me at home Without a word of objection. Francis McFarhxnd. which he did until the last evening of his when. lasts. He gave thanks for what it had pleased God to do for the church in Lexington. and incjuiring after all Dr. He thanked God for sending me to visit the army. and found the com- mander-in-chief on the spot. ' can I forget that prayer.

HIS FERVOR IX PRAYER. gratitude. Avhicli Avas continued long after the hour of midnight. apart tinued in command To his Avife of my brave old brigade. He then prayed for the pastor. Such a degree of public confidence and reit spect as puts in one's po\A^er to serve his country . He then pleaded Avith such tenderness and fervor that God would baptize the whole army with His holy spirit. men is only a temptation and a Had this communication not come as an should instantly have declined it. for the ruling of elders. and conbut. the deacons." he Avrote on the ^tli of XoA^ember: ." Dr. and the private members the church. X99 "to which both of us belong" specially for the reHe had mercifully granted to that church. and for the many preachers of the Gospel sent forth from it. and ever}^ vivals — member of his family. it is candidly confessed. and said: "Doctor. order. and praise. such as were at home. the pastor received more instruction than he imheart parted. I Avould be glad to learn more fully than I have 3^et done Avhat your views are of the prayer of faith ?•" A conversation then commenced. in Avhich. When we had risen from our knees he stood before his camp fire with that cahii dignity of mien and tender expression of countenance for which he Avas so remarkable. and especially such as then belonged to the army. that my own hard was melted into penitence. White Avas Avith him order to go to his ncAV trict. I from that. when he received his command of the A^alle}^ Dis- and : after reading saying " it he handed it to his pastor. should be accepted and prized promotion among trouble.

through the blessing of our ever-kind Heavenly Father. but. My trust is in God for the defence of that country [the A^alley]. last refuge of indepen- Proudly had they vindicated the historic fame of their section at Manassas. of action An article in the Richmond Dispatch : of that date thus describes the separation '' Tlie writer never expects to witness a more touch- ing scene. How do you like the programme I trust I may be i able to send for you after I get settled. militar}' am of assigned to the command of the district the Xorthern frontier. I is don't exto travel pect all much sleep to-night. and now thev had . and I hope to have my little dove with me this winter. I trust that He Avill enable me to accomplish Colonel Preston and Sandy Pendleton go with me. and opposed with the combined courage and discipline of veterans the advance of the confident foe tlie men who were all Virginia troops. as if my desire night." One great trial to him in going to this new field was that he was to leave behind his " brave old Brigade. between the Bkie Ridge and the Alleghany ^Mountains. necessary. altern Drawn up in close columns stood the subofficers and men who had rushed with loud cheers into the very thickest of the bloody 21st of July day.200 '* LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS I J. for the purpose of reaching ])efore Winchester day to-morrow.-' as they were not included in the order. and from that West Augusta to which Washington had — looked in olden days as the dence. it. This morning I received orders to proceed to AVincliester. I shall have great labor to perform. JACKSON.

General Jackson briefly and feelingly addressed his assembled comrades as follows Officers and soldiers of the : ' First Brigade. and lit up their was gone. but to Jackson's brigade she owes her largest debt. spect for the rights and property of soldiers. the tented field. You have already gained a brilliant and deservedly high reputation throughout the federacy. that you will gain more victories and add . you have not only to defend.PARTING FROM again formed to say ' IIIS OLD BRIGADE. but able and Avilling both to defend and protect. I am not here to make a speech. ' 201 good-by to their loved leader. Avhether on the march. The appearance of General Jackson was retheir faces The glow which brightened flashing eyes in the fire of battle ceived with not the slightest applause. The officers and men he commanded knew for Avliat purpose they had been formed. I first met you at Harper's Ferry in the commencement of this war. by your own deeds on the field and by the assistance of the same kind Providence who has heretofore favored our cause. by your refate of the battle. but simply to say farewell. where you gained the Avell-deserved reputation of having decided the Throughout the broad extent of country over Avhich you have marched. citizens. They looked like children separating from a father. and striking indeed to those who saw those brave men in the battle was the contrast in their bearing then and to-day. shown that you were army and the whole Con- and I trust. Virginia has reason to be proud of all her troops. and I can- my not take leave of you without giving expression to admiration of your conduct from that da\^ to this. the bivouac. or on the bloody plains of Manassas. in the future. and felt not like cheering.

Unable to stand such evidence of affection any longer. and then three loud and prolonged clieers rent the air." . and thus ended a scene not often witnessed. Army of the Potomac you were the First brigade in the Second Corps of the army you were the Fird brigade you . JACKSOX. of the Shenandoali were the First brigade in the . General The Jackson waved farewell and galloped away. and I trust whenever I shall hear of the First Brigade on the field of battle it will be of still nobler deeds achieved and higher reputation won. said: 3^ou *In the Army . I You have already gained a proud position in the history of this our second ^var of independence. and which makes upon spectators impressions not easily eradicated. and I will be different regiments returned slowly to their quarters. with an emphasis which seemed to thrill throughout '' the brigade. are the First brigade in the affections of your general hope by your future deeds and bearing that handed down to posterity as the First 3^ou brigade in this our second AVar of Independence. Farewell I' For a moment there was a pause. and Iiis bridle reins upon the neck of his steed. additional lustre to the reputation you noNv enjoy.' casting Here General Jackson.: 202 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. It was followed by three and three more. rising in his stirrups. shall look ^vith great anxiety to your future move- ments.

and with but He lost no time in calllittle training or experience. about the middle of these new recruits . incr out all the remaining militia of the district. To the instruction and drilling he devoted himself with the utmost energy and. already forming plans for a vigorous forward movement. In response to this request he had the great gratification of having his own Stonewall Brigade sent to him. to leave behind him . and in a few weeks his little army was increased to about three thousand men. together with the Rockbridge Battery. without troops being assigned to him having. The attachment which General Jackson felt for the men that had been trained under him. his invincible Stonewall Bricrade. He had been ordered to the command of the Yalley District. He found at Winchester only a small force. consisting of a part of three brigades of militia and a few companies of cavalry. all of which were imperfectly organized and poorly equipped. and his pride in them. were fully reciprocated as one of them ex. now commanded by Captain McLaughlin. . of November. AVe will now follow General Jackson to Winchester. which he made his headquarters during the winter of 1861 -1S62. as we have seen. Jiis chief reliance in battle. he sent a petition to the government for reinforcements.CHAPTER XII. WINCHESTER AND ROMNEY EXPEDITION— 18G 1-1 862.

JACKSOX. appreciates the condition of a fatherly protector in common endures soldier as a as one who . . as a politician. hardships common with his followers who never commands others to face danger without putting himself in the The confidence and esteem of the soldiers are always made known in exulting shouts whenever he van. They enjoyed the free and easy lives natural to those living in a land of plenty. the more he saw of it in his campaigns. fine forests. The people of the Yalley were not unworthy of it. we are ready to follow. with its chains of mountains. limpid streams. dales. I Iiave read of the devotion of soldiers to their com- tion manders. and enjoy that domestic life which was so dear to him. which destroved and des. were to him charming beyond description. . that he used to say that when tlie war was over he wanted to have a home in the Shenandoah ^"alley. AVe do not look upon him merely as our commander do not regard him as — a severe discijilinarian. The beauty and grandeur of the scenery. as a . and dispensed their hospitalities with grace and generosity but it was in adversity that their noblest qualities were illustrated. and fertile fields. and there indulge his taste for rural pursuits. makes his appearance. a brave all man seekman who . ing popularity — but as a Christian . " Wherever the is voice of our brave and beloved general heard.— 204 pressed LIFE OF it : GENERAL THOMAS J." General Jackson was so captivated Avith the Yallev of Virginia. Dispkiying a loyalty that death only could quench patience under hardship and toil calmness and heroism amid the storms of war. but history contains no parallel case of devoand affection equal to that of the Stonewall Bri- gade for Major-General Jackson.

enlarged. this district constitute the Army of the Valley but my command is not alto- . . it will be deferred for the next letter. that I may live to tion. If you were only here. and embraces the Valley .. and the troops of . And if your husband stays here this Avinter. the description of which I Avill post- Heavenly Father than pride or elation pone until after answering your letters and if there room."! trust that my wife feels more gratitude to our kind at my promoContinue to pray for me.' for an answer to your questions Avill And now without stating ^^our questions.. from the beginning to the end of the war. by serving Ilini and our country. and the last to give up— who can ever do justice to the nobleness and magna? nimity of those people of the Yalley tribute. that the Virginians. as it will take nearly a whole letter to tell you how verv nice it is. is and answer them. On the 9th of November General Jackson wrote his wife from Winchester to darling little :. You know very well who I mean by ... the to rally to it the defence of the South. would share it with the soldiers from other States. olatecl their 205 first homes and country . for it But it seems unfair not to take in the whole of Virginia in this was the universal testimony of the Con- federate soldiers. isn't ' little '' somebody. glorify God more and more. as long as they had a crust of bread. and that the noble women of Virginia never wearied in their ministrations to their necessities.LETTERS TO HIS WIFE. he hopes to send one of his aides for one little somebody. 3'OU would have a very nice house. I My command District. especially in nursing the sick and wounded.

206 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS it J. as is embraced ment of ]Vorthern Virginia. . and the third under my command. . My promotion places me between a brigadier and a will be paid full general . States. but I ex- pect to have general. as far as possible. as I think. so as to lieve the government from any pecuniary pressure. in the Depart- gether independent. JACKSON. making in all S-101 per month. My headquarters are for the present at Winston has the chester. There are three armies in this department— one under General Beauregard. I send you a check for $1000. another under General Holmes. At all events. but let the Confederacy keep the gold. which I wish invested in Confederate bonds. You had better not sell your cou})ons from the bonds. a have not seen. of Avliich General John- command. there no pay and no I staff appointed for at least it . but I don't full think that either a major-general or a general any more than $301 per month (the pay of a brigadier). so far as I have seen but there may be some law embraced in the Army Eegulations which I full general. the President appoints of the tliem in the Provisional Army army Confederate for the war. and some of them being at a distance. and am making up my an adjutant- staff slowly. two aides. A major-general's rank The rank is inferior to that of of major-general does not appear to be recognized by the laws of the Confederate States. Citizens should not re- as I understand they are paid in gold. and these appointments are only As is the regulations of the of the Confederate States do not require the rank of major-general. but as commander of an army my additional pay is 8100. re- persons should take Confederate bonds. in conse- quence of desiring to secure a good one.

if practicable. Major W. they are payable in gold. please hire him to some suitable person. I am '* glad to hear that they are both well. if it is still in operation. It is gratifying to . that my boys shall have the opportunity of attending the colored Sabbathschool in Lexington. he be required to attend Sabbath-school and wherever . . even in the midst of absorbing military occu- pations : I desire. . my servants shall be attended . out of the Treasury. .LOOKING AFTER HIS SERVANTS. they will serve you faithfully. that. regiment of cavalry presented a fine apsend you a letter announcing that Amy to [his faithful old servant] The ing tears it. from the government Avhen it is The only objection to parting with your if coupons is. I thank you for your kindness in taking such good . [his brother-in-law. his promotion. he may be. it will be taking just so all it has. know that they are in such good hands as yours. W. Should you not need George. as I interests of am very desirous that the spiritual to. let him be required to attend church at suitable times. with the condition that. more than once while read- extracts from letters to a gentleman Lexington will show that he took time to attend both to the temporal and spiritual interests of his serin The following vants. much when it needs Give my I love and congratulations to Will- iam sas.- came my eyes has gone to a better world. . ceive a cent of gold 207 so scarce. Morrison] upon saw Captain Barringer at Manas- and his I pearance. through the blessing of an overruling Providence. and I trust. if in or near town.

into service zeal. may incur in me know. Hon. etc. the best thing for him to do is at once to pitch somewhere. But if a person desires times.208 care of LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. but the country. I think you might not only do him. you again. Please the wheat and deposit the pro- ceeds in the Bank of Eockbridge. Mr. My desire is to make merit the basis of my recommendations and selections.. personally. and work with such energy. and : rela- In writing upon this subject he says desire is ''My possible to get a staff specially qualified for their specific duties. .'' . suffer. I knew Mr.'' field of labor to which GenJackson had been promoted required some additions to his statf and in consequence he received many The new and enlarged . . at present. and success as to impress those around him with the conviction that such are his merits he must be advanced. my I lot. I can properly assign him. settle it. place to which. good service by reading this part of my letter to him. and I will did not expect to hear of the grass taking sell so well. Any expense that you please let keeping up fences.'' In response to "' another request his reply was: and also that of my much-esteemed in behalf of Mr. and that will render the greatest amount of service to their country. or the interest of the public service must should mention the subject to If Mr. reached friend. eral applications from persons desiring to secure these positions either for themselves or their friends tives. and was favorably imoffice in these pressed b}^ him. JACKSON. me to-day and I hasten to reply that I have no Your letter.

and tlie Eev. Was favoritism or friendship. his door being only you this is This house belongs to Lieutenant-Colonel Moore^ of the Fourth Virginia Volunteers. The building is of cottage I have two rooms. the most minute inquiries. and has a large yard around it. no feeling of friendship. The style situation is beautiful. Graham.IN WINTER-QUARTERS AT WINCHESTER. and contains six rooms. And you wish ? could have my headquarters at Mr. one above the other. My lower room. 209 He never appointed a all man to a responsible position He would make he intelligent i Was he faithful? Was he industrious? Did he get up early? This Avas a great point with him. November " Don't you tremble when you it see that you have that I I tell to read such a long letter. for Tni going to write it just as full as can hold. You can have plenty of society of charming ladies here. our Presbyterian minister. To 16th: his wife he writes from Winchester. Grigsby's a much better place for my pet. Mr. He felt that the interests at stake were too great to be sacrificed to without knowing about him. I The walls are papered Avith elegant gilt don't remember to have ever seen more and there are five paintings hangH I only had my little woman beautiful papering. or office. he would reject him. about thirty yards from our gate. a large fine table. was allowed to interfere with his duty. ing on the walls. K a man was wanting in any of these qualifications. six chairs. and a piano. liowever highly recommended. 14 . has a matting on the floor. paper. No feeling of personal partiality. lives in the second house from here.

and General Jackson was not there. I have much work to perform. procure a passport.. by a flue from the office below. where I spent a few days to shop. only re- markable for being heated in a peculiar manner. I joined some friends who w^ere going to Eichmond. before reaching Winchester. ii|)i)er room would be The I room is neat. 5 on the Chesapeake and Ohio ( anal. It was therefore Avith a feeling of sad disappointment and lonelitrunk! ness that T alighted from the stao-e-coach in front of . having gone with his command on an expedition to demolish Dam No." It can readily be imagined with what delight General Jackson's domestic plans for the winter were hailed by me. occupied himself so assiduously in taking care of the little Avoman he had in charge that he entirely forgot to look after her baggage (a very necessary precaution in the upturned and disjointed condition in which the country then was). and the result was a lost who ^Ye travelled l)y stage-coach from Straswere told. I am quite comfortable. but not a full story. the I^ll*'^ ^^' GENERAL THOMAS set off. and Avoukhrt have much time to talk to but then there agreeably. hope to send for you with the assurance that just as soon as I 1 am in winter- (juarters. 21U here. I is my darling except at night pleasant society so much among the ladies here that you could pass your time very can do so. The latter was soon found in a kind-hearted but absent-minded old clergyman. is. antl may say. and without waiting for the promised " aide '' to be sent on as my escort. and to await an escort to Winchester. JACKSON. Through the blessing of our ever-kind Heavenly Father. J. that burg.

doubtless feeling disappointed himself that he still had me on his hands. and she Avas kissed again and again by her husband. but they remained as silent spectators. Just before reachino: the landinor I turned to look back. and was no doubt a sincere sharer in the joy and relief experienced by his charge. as he didn't want to commit the blunder of kissing anybody else's esposa. he sent a number of telegrams in search of the missing trunk. following us in rapid pursuit. while in Richmond. but as he felt that I must be mistaken. and by the time we were upon the top step a pair of strong arms caught me in the rear the captive's head was thrown back. contained some valued treasures. He had returned but a few hours before to spend the Sabbath in Winchester. I However. before she could realize the delightful surprise he had given her. . "When I asked my husband why he did not come forward when I got out of the coach. cold December. and my escort led me up the long stairway. The good old minister chuckled gleefully. 211 Taylor's Hotel at midnight in the early part of dreary. On Monday morning.MEETING AT LAST. By the dim lamp-light I noticed a small group of soldiers standing on the sidewalk. and with the hope of my arrival upon the midnight stage. for one figure among that group looked start- had not come forward. he said he wanted to assure himself that it was his o^vn wife. and cap drawn dov*m over his eyes. which. and no husband to meet me with a glad welcome. by the way. bright and early. . been replenished Avith numerous new and pretty additions to its wardlingly familiar. and had also. my backward glance did reveal an officer muffled up in a military overcoat.

giving up in despair. my happi- was privileged to be with my husband and the charming friends I found However. J. but notwithstanding this great loss. My husband was fortunate enough to engage board for us both with the Rev. had not ceased to continue the search for it. weeks. what was my surprise one day to see whole my long-lost trunk safely placed within my room. It was. such things prized. I addressed myself to the task of supplying the necessities of the situation. of course. R. the congage tents found to be intact. just for that winter in AVinchester and in those were But the telegraj^li failed to bring any doubly tidings of the trunk. (rraham. Winchester was rich in happy homes and pleasant people. discouraging report that he was unsuccessful in every war times of blockade and scarcity. and were all the more appreciated on account of the deprivation endured by their temporary loss. So. and his letters to officials and friends had proved instrumental in finding the trunk securely locked up in Richmond as lost bagIt Avas speedily sent on by express. JACKSON. . impossible to replace the beautiful Richmond outfit. and forthwith the aide who was to have been my escort was despatclied to Eichmond In a few days he returned with the in pursuit of it. robe. in whose delightful Christian family we spent as happy a winter as ever falls to the lot of mortals on this earth. effort to trace the lost piece of it baggage. and its recovery was all the more gratifying because my good husband. after the lapse of three in "Winchester. in social refinement and elegant hospitality and the extreme kindness and appreciation shown to ness was unalloyed so long as I ! .. during all those weeks. 212 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J.

Conrad. their mother's grace Mrs. in addition endowments. of brunette style. Both were descended from old Vircalled the place our " — — — ginia families. Magill was of the house of John Randolpli. of Roanoke. blood." Among the many excellent matrons there were two who specially won our hearts Mrs. Several of her sons were gallant soldiers in the army. as in the very front rank of Congress and of statesmen.THE HAPPY HOMES OF WIXCHESTER." I once heard the face of a woman. and a sister of Hon. true specimens of patrician life. even in the decline of retained much beauty." but withal an earnest Christian. These ladies were conspicuous for their lovely Christian characters being foremost in all good works. General Jackson by closely all. Magill. to high mental This family seemed to possess as an inheritance the richest vein of humor. John Randolph Tucker. Kobert Y. Conrad and Mrs. Virginia's honored statesman a man known not — only in Virginia. and her young daughters inherited beauty. to describe the sunshine '* described as ''a love letter to all the world. and in a man " of infinite jest. whom General Jackson designated as inimitable. and in manner was two and a most gentle and gracious lady. who united the rarest beauty to the utmost sweetness of disposition. Mrs. 213 bound us both to them so and warmly that ever after that winter he war home. but in social life all the South. Anne Tucker Magill. in tlie hospitals ministering to the soldiers and wherever they went their lives were devoted to the relief of suffering and to doing good." This . It would be difficult which irradiated the very presence as well as the whole life of Mrs.

daughters.214 LIFK OF GENERAL THOMAS J. showing Mrs. and soon everybody in the room took sides. ridiculous battle— the captain seizing a chair as his cannon and pointing its back at Mrs. She was the mother of mv hostess and Mairill!" friend. and I shall never forget those She was blest with several deliirhtful reunions. Magill. Mrs. and so A number of visitors. and as thev were about breaking up. came down Taking in at a glance to see what it was all about. I recall a very amusing scene which occurred in Mr. Graham. and when I became a member of her daughter's family she said she must adopt me as her daughter too. and during all my sojourn she lavished upon me the loving attentions of a mother One day in every week our whole houseto a child. Magill. Magill and a young captain of artillery began to fight a most officers. congenial to his own. drawmg out the chairs as pieces of artillery. lie hoped she Avould be ''just like Mrs. Mrs. sharply when the engagement is ovei\ you will : . humor of the occasion. who was in his room up-stairs. MagilFs playful humor. amid such noise and laughter that General Jackson. JACKSOX. the broad '• Captain Marye. who was the impersonation of love and kindness. In her General Jackson found a admired her bright and radiant disposition that he often said to his wife that when she grew to be an old lady. The fun became contagious. would applv exactly to Mrs. and her natural buoyancy of temperament was heightened by her beautiful Christian faith spirit and trust. he said. including several young were spending the evening. whose cordial manners and sweet nmsic made their home charming to visitors. Graham's parlor. hold dined with her.

and yet. permitted to be the longest time after he entered the army. and noble -hearted. armies. The memories of that sojourn in our " war liome '' are among It the most precious and Avas there that I Avitli sacred of my whole life. and this he promised them so soon as he could get more reinforcements. side of his mother-in-law if I mistake not. was destined to do so many times during Under the rose -colored light in which I viewed everything that winter. there Avas nothing mar the perfect enjoyment of those three blessed months. and lived in a great deal of The town had not then chano-ed hands with the old-fashioned elegance and profusion. as it old border confiictino- the war. than petitions came pouring in from the loyal people along the border counties of Virginia.' preacher's house. At the beginning of the war young . Avith his gallant Stonewall Brigade. my was husband He Avas in such fine health and spirits that." The uproar of this niirth- provoiving scene was heard far out into the street. taken up his headquarters at Winchester. Avith the exception of the to Eomney expedition. send in 215 an official report. his rever- ence was one of the most furious combatants on I The Winchester ladies were among the most famous of Virginia housekeepers. Avhom General Jackson placed his cavalry after consolidating all the command this of companies into a regiment. attractive. it seemed to me that no people could have been more cultivated. Xo sooner had General Jackson.AN INTERVAL OF REST AND PEACE. In the small body of caA^alry Avhich he found at Winchester. AYOuld not have been suspected as and coming from a th(. praying for protection. a conspicuous officer AA'as Lieutenant-Colonel Turner in Ashby.

whom he had loved with unusual tenderness and devotion. a ])rief glance will be given The camat the situation in Northwestern Virginia. and made it one of terror to his enemies. He was as brave and chivalrous a gentleman as ever drew sword. and this terrible stroke inspired Turner Ashby with a fearful resolution to avenge his brother's death. which had been a source of great grief to General Jackson and his anxietv to be sent as a defender to the loved son he kept cause it the to '• — . 216 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and distinguished himself by his gallantry and courage. JACKSON. and when he received his trust from General Jack- with unwearied zeal until he fell in which he had given his life. and his daring and intrepid exploits soon shed a halo of romance around liis name. Confederates in that region had been atpaigns of the tended with disaster almost f j'om the beginning. earnest gray eyes. had fallen by the hand of the foe. and untiring vigilance being as remarkable as his daring and bravery. He was an invaluable auxiliaiy to General Jackson in guarding the outposts of the army his coolness. discretion. his lithe and graceful form mounted upon a superb steed. soldier raised a the first company of volunteers. Captain Eichard Ashby. Before proceeding further with an account of General Jackson's movements. The sound of his well-known yell and the shout of Ashby !" from his men were the signal for a tremendous charge that was generally victorious.. and who was his equal in courage and heroism. he was a typical knight of the Golden Horseshoe. His brother. and during summer cam})aign he had been engaged in the capture of Harper's Ferry. With his sad. jetblack hair and flowing beard.

Such was the situation in the Northwest when Gen. under General Eobert E. success but owing to the nature of the country. crossing the Ohio. who had succeeded McClellan. . the condition of the roads. The high reputation of General Lee raised great hopes of ert S. and was succeeded in the Northwestern Department by Brigadier-General Loring. that there should be no delay eral was he . and. they were finally forced to retreat to a position on the Shenandoah Mountain. these hopes disappointment. Garnett. Jackson and Colonel Edward Johnson. had each gallantly repulsed the enemy but their successes proved to be fruitless on account of their forces being too small to hold any ground the}^ had gained and the enemy having occupied the counties of Hardy and Hampshire. who was gagements of the war. the Confederate government sent out a larger force. numbers of the enemy. and the superior . Avere doomed to After this second failure of the campaign even in hands so competent as General Lee's. BrigadierGeneral Henry R. had attacked a small force under General Eob- killed in one of the first enAfter his death and the defeat of his troops. forty miles to the rear. And so anxious to engage in the work of protecting his native region that he urged the government to let him have the troops under Generals Loring and Johnson. thereby threatening the rear of the Confederates. of this command. Lee. the mountains.SITUATION IX NORTHERN VIRGINIA. '' 217 home of his boyhood and family " has ah-eady been shown in his letters. that distinguished officer Avas assigned to a more important command. General McClellan. to oppose Kosecrans. Jackson arrived at Winchester. if his request were granted.

upon his return from (leneral Loring. but did not furnisli him with all the troops (hsease than a sedentary hfe — he desired. '' 20tli. versing witli Lieutenant -Colonel J. buth in force and plish all that he the War reflected was impossible for him to accomhoped and expected. A letter to Department will show how much he had upon this subject. them at once to him and with these reinforcements he proposed to undertake a vrinter camlie remembered the saying of Xapoleun. he was eager to do all in his power. llox. and ascertainall ing the disposition of the general's forces. and what bold plans he had formed: '•Headquarters. that paign. Secretary of AVar '' Sir. that it hihi. and so restricted authority. J. J. military operations. in hurrying "an active Avinter's can'ipaign is less hable to produce by camp-tires in winterquarters" and seeing the imminent dangers that were threatening the country from dela}". I have little Deeply impressed with the importance of absolute secrecy respecting made it a point to say but respecting my proposed movements in the event but since con- of sufficient reinforcements arriving. 18G1. request. feeling that the issues involved jiistihed him in making the exThe government ])artly acceded to his periment. Preston. Valley District. an attempt should be made to captui-e . T. Eexjamix. — I hope you all will pardon me for requesting that at once the troops under General Loring be ordered to this point (Winchester). P. JACKSON. I venture to respectfully urge tliat after concentrating his troops here. together with the immense resources of the Northern Army. Nov. L.: 218 LIFE OF (iEXERAL THOMAS .

^induce McClellan to believe Komney Avould probably weakened that the Army of the Potomac had been so on Centreto justify him in making an advance as but should this not induce him to advance. ville. I do not believe anything will during the present Should the Army of the Potomac be atwinter. . Lorings. the 219 The attack on Federal forces at Komney. a few cavalry. and the resources to referred greatly exhausted. it tacked. and a small be recpiired field -pieces. and w^e may expect to find the enemy which I have pared for us. return to the troops that marched on Komney waters the Yalley and move rapidly westward to the of the Kanawha. what I be an arduous undertaking. Should and especially should he General Kelly be defeated. to cover repairs on the Baltimore * Ohio Railroad. Postpone the occupation of that section until prespring. Monongahela and Little disposition be captured. let After repulsing the enemy at Manassas. I deem it of great im- portance that Northwestern Virginia be occupied by Confederate troops this winter. and I know that General Kelly was then at Romney with a force reputed to and be five thousand men.PLAN OF A WINTER CAMPAIGN. no additional forces would for some time in this district. At present it is to an be presumed that the enemy are not expecting necesattack there. I would be at once prepared to reinforce increased by General with my present volunteer force. have proposed will cannot be accomplished w^ithout the sacrifice of much personal comfort but I feel that tlie troops will be . I believe that by a judicious number of of the militia. and the resources of that region greater sary for the subsistence of our troops are in in almost any other season of the abundance than year.

the general has only to fall back towards the Virginia and Tennessee is it Kail- road. Northwestern Virginia Valley. It when animated by be urged airainst the prospect of important results to our cause and may this plan that the enemy will advance on Staunton and Iluntersville. To avoid this. much more may be expected from General Loring's troops according to this programme than can be expected from them where they are. I am well satisiied that such a step would but make their own destruction more certain. I all trust that. or that from other causes all cannot be accomplished that has been named. "T. P. and have completed their telegraph from that place to Green Spring Depot. If you decide to order them here. Again. J. C. the and artillery will be directed to move immediately upon the reception of the order. port are estimated as high as five thousand. part of must be evacuated by the Federal Avill or otherwise their safety be endangered by forc- ing a column across the Little Kanawha. Their forces at and near Williamsinfantry. ^Majoi'-Gencral. yet through the blessing of God. but as yet I liave no reliable information oi' their strength beyond the Potomac. S. for the purpose of saving time. about five thousand strong. The enemy. it may be said that General Floyd will be cut off. cavalry. A. Admittins: that the season is too far advanced. have been for some time slightly fortifying at Romney.'' .220 LIl'E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. the Kanawha be the lower forces. if necessary. When it. between them and the Ohio Kiver. " Your most obedient servant. who has thus far so wonderfully prospered our cause. unless occupied in force. prepared to make this sacrifice distinction to themselves. JACKSON. Jackson.

said " In opposition to all this. we have the views of impliedly given in the General Lee and guard the passes through the recommendation to of winter.: : GENERAL LEE DOUBTS THE WISDOM OF IT. If upon full consideration you think the proposed movement objectionable it. General. and the President wishes you to exercise that discretion. and too hazardous. I submit that the troops under General Loring might render valuable services by taking the field with General Jackson. you approve it. Nov. you will decline to make and so inform the department. " J. as now proposed. In the meantime. under such a state yourself things. 21st. in sending General Jackson's General Loring. disguising your purpose as well as you can. If. General Jackson determined not to . E. instead of going into winter-quarters. while awaiting the result of this remain decision. Johnston. AYe do not desire." of AVar. with- out feaving you a discretion. and expressing concurrence letter to of the in the opinion that it would be the destruction The Secretary enemy for him to advance at that season upon Mon- terey and Staunton. " Kespectf ully forwarded. then proceed to execute it as promptly and secretly as possible. 221 General Johnston endorsed this letter as follows " Centreville. to direct the movement above described. and forwarding to me by express an explanation of your proposed action to be communicated to General Jackson." on the contrary.

with the Federal cannon-balls booming over their heads but only one poor fellow lost his life from the guns Captain Ilolliday (afterwards an honof the enemy. This was to f^o into the river and cut out the cribs. great importance to the enemy in affording them the means of transporting their supplies especially since the railroad bridge at and troops. which ran down the Potomac from CumberThis canal was of land. they proved themselves true soldiers — them volunteering to enter the chill waters of the Potomac. repaired to the dam. but to act . with a large force.. as Jackson had rcnpiested. Howmany of ever. JACKSOX. but at the expense of great personal discomfort and suffering to his men. 222 inactive. numbering about six thousand men. while he. Avas upon the other side of the Potomac. 5 on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. under fire from the Maryland bank. volunteered. arrived in Winchester the latter part of December. early in December. Maryhmd. the destruction of which was accomplished. ored Governor of Virginia). and working like beavers for four cold winter days and still colder nights. The government did not send Colonel Edward Johnson's troops also. done General Loring decided to join General Jackson. with the rest of his troops. and directed Loring to retain command of his own forces. with the companies. General Jackson despatched his militia to make a feint upon Williamsport. and Captain Eobinson. As General Banks. and taking the small force then under his command. of the Thirty-third Eegiment. Harpers Ferry had been burned. he went to work to destroy Dam No. to AVashington. Avaist-deep in water. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and with his troops. of the Twenty-seventh (all Virginia troops).

unless the teams were specialh^ shod for the purpose. His own command bore up with great fortitude and without murmuring. and inspire them to press on. the roads being in good condition. shared with the and tried to encourage them in patient endurance. who had from the first been disinclined to a A\ inter campaign and an unfortunate jealousy springing up between the two commands. 223 under orders from Jackson." The sufferings of the troops were ions. as the frozen state of the roads rendered it impossible for the wagons to come up in time. The enemy having possession of the towns of Bath. All these hardships and privations Jackson troops. . caused an immense amount of trouble and disappoint. and. which on the first day had been so propitious. terrible. The morning of IS'ew Year's Day of 1862 dawned upon Winchester with all the glory and mildness of a spring day. and the snow and sleet made the roads almost impassable for loaded wagons. five battal- and a few companies of cavalry. and Romney. which was their strongest point. Jackson's plan was to move swiftly upon the first two named vilhiges. and for several nights the soldiers bivouacked under the cold Avinter sky without tents or blankets.NEW YEAR'S DAY. but the adverse weather had tlie effect of greatly intensifying the discontent and disgust of Loring and his men. which gave them control of the fertile valley of the south branch of the Potomac. on the second " suddenly changed to be very severe. General Jackson started out with his little army of about eight thousand five hundred men. all moving forward with alacrity and fine spirits. and then to attack Romney. Hancock. Bat the weather. 1862.

and at the end of a three days' hard march they reached Bath." as they called the Stonewall Brigade. ment and frustrated much of the success Many of the for Avhicli he had reason to hope.224: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. the great object of the expedition. in drao-crino. and taunted ''Jackson's to Jackson. for their foolhardiness in following a leader Avhoni they did not hesitate to denounce as rash and severe. this much-abused man and his brave followers pressed on. as Itomney. but fled without stopping to make behind them all their stores The Confederates pursued the fugiprovisions. name had so often caused dismay and confusion among their troops that their curiosity was greatly aroused at a sight of the dashing young cavalryman. but he says in his reOn the 6th the enemy were reinforced to such port '• '' : an extent as to induce me to believe that my object could not be accomplished without a sacrifice of life. Avhereupon General Jackson cannonaded the town. . Nevertheless. posts on the plea of sickness malcontents left their and returned to AYinchester. leaving sent on the to surrender. JACKSON.men throuo-h a Avinter cam]>aii>:n in such arctic weather. found the enemy had any and resistance. and speedily drove the Federal forces out of it. and soon Colonel Ash by was drove them into that village. and tives. might require for its recovery." The Federal commander refused to surrender. which I felt unwilling to make. and as they thronged around him he heard whispers of That is the famous Asliby. morning of the 5th to summon the i:>lace and was led blindfold through the streets His into the presence of the Federal commander. overtook them near Hancock. It was his design to cross the Potomac and enter Hancock. pet lambs.

. but also of receiving reinforcements from the east. retreated to a point between the railroad bridge across Patterson's Creek and the northwestern branch of the Potomac. As the United States troops had repeatedly shelled Shepherdstown. The Federal forces. twenty-eight. 7th. and the town was soon occupied by Sheetz's and Shand's companies of cavalry. which fell into our possession.MOVING OX ROMNEY. " The next day. abandon. across the Potomac. which was as far as they could retire without endangering ing a large the safety of the pedition in killed two bridges. . I The invader having been defeated and driven points. . Our loss in the exwas four in wounded. . number of tents and other public property. and directed a few rounds from McLaughlin's battery to be fired at Hancock. which were subsequently followed by other troops.. the telegraph line broken at several and the railroad bridge across Great Cacapon destroyed. 225 and especially for the capture there. the motion. and had even done so while there were no troops in the place. The Federal loss in killed and wounded not ascer. under Colonel Monroe. and it was not used as a means of defence. . arrangements were made for moving on Romney. thus throwing material obstacles in the way. the . 15 . but captured two guns. where the enemy not only defeated our militia . The enemy evacuated Romney on the 10th. Before night a command was put in despatch reached me giv- ing inteUigence of our disaster that morning at Hanging Rock. determined to intimate to the enemy that such outrages must not be repeated. not only in transmitting intelligence from Romney to Hancock. all the force at of the troops in and near my disposal.

After the arrival in Romney of General Loring's leading bri- gade. the factories. much of In their track of retreat they left ruin and desolation everywhere. was one continuous scene of smoking ruins and dev. The dwellings of the rich and poor alike. tied from Romney in such haste that they left their tents standing. Sixteen of tliem were captured. — — astation. mills. and other forces on an im- portant expedition against the enemy. have not only burned valuable mill jU'operty." On hearing of the approach of Jackson. under Colonel Taliaferro. JACKSOX. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. I designed moving with it. though superior in numbers. and the torch applied to them and even the domestic animals everything that could be useful to man were For fifteen miles it either taken away or shot down. I determined to put in winter-quarters in the vicinity of Romney. but such Avas the extent of demoralization in the lirst-named bri- gade as to render the abandonment it of that enterprise necessary. and their equipage behind them. but also private houses. many The track from Romney to Hanging . the Federals.226 tained. Believing imprudent to attempt further it movements with Loring's command against the Federals. even when they were over a day's march distant. and churches were burned or wantonly desecrated widows and orphans driven from their homes. In his official report General Jackson thus : alludes to these atrocities " I do not feel at liljerty to close this report Avithout alluding to the conduct of the reprobate Federal commanders. Garnett's brigade. who. in Hampshire County. .

Within less than four days the enemy had been defeated. been shelled the railroad communication with Hancock broken all that portion of the county east of the Great Cacapon recovered Eomney and a large part of Hampshire County evacuated by the enemy without the firing of a gun the enemy had fled from the western part of Hardy. fruits of this expedition will General Jackson's estimate of the value of the be shown by a quota- tion from his report " On eTanuary 2d there was not. Order him back off to Winchester immediately. which had repeatedly before.' From mand. where they had been shot by the enemy. . had been forced from the offensive to the defensive under these circumstances. though not since. . it the report of General Loring and his com- seems that the military circles of the Con- federacv at Eichmond had been made to believe that . . from the informa- tion I could gather.: " — . 227 Rock. FRUITS OF THE EXPEDITION. judge what must have been my astonishment at receiving from the Secretary of War the following despatch Our news in. : ' dicates that a General Loring's movement is being made to cut command. a single loyal man in Morgan County who could remain at home with safety. exemplified the spirit of that part of the Northern army. ." tion. a distance of fifteen miles. that a town claiming allegiance to the United States lay under our guns Shepherdstown protected. was one of desolaThe number of dead animals h'ing along the roadside. their baggage captured and by teaching the Federal authorities a lesson.

. besides. had returned to 'Winchester. . how inex})licable to him seemed this order from tlie AVar Department. which Avas the larger part of his command. and able to defend himself against any future attack. In his report he continues '• I promptly complied with the order. . . except part of General Loring's. great success to the efforts for ^irotecting loyal citizens in their rights. Avith the Stonewall Brigade. Several nights the troops had to bivouac. but in do- ing so forwarded to the Secretary of ditional resignation. if not for the country. who has had given so wonderfully blessed us during the war. '* . since he had cleared out all that region of the enemy. who up to that time had been acting on the defensive. drove our troops . in this district It is and in recovering and holding territory which had been overrun by the enemy. notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather. in winter-quarters near Romney. their tents not coming up on account of the bad condition of the roads yet every command. bore up under these hardshi])s with the fortitude becoming patriotic soldiers. leaving Loring's force. Up to that time. they were tlie victims of a crazy leader. he was near enouHi to o-o to him in case of danger. War my conGod. JACKSOX. Loring would be safe. with the confident expectation that. General Loring's evacuation of Eomney and return to the vicinitv of Winchester was the beo'innimi: of disasters. and. The enemy.: 228 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. true that our success caused much exposure and suffering to the command. suddenly changed to the offensive and advanced on Eomney next. whose mad career must he stopped at once for the safety of Loring and his men. It can readily be seen. General Jackson. therefore.

" This letter was. 229 month [Februtwo days after forced our mihtia from Bloomery Pass. thus coming to within twenty-one miles of Winchester. in somewhat surprised at receiving the follow- ing reply to his peremptory order to General Jackson " '' Headquarters. P.a number of prisoners. Sir. General. of course. very respectfully. the chief commander of the department.: JACKSON" RESIGNS HIS COMMAND. War was. " Major-General. Bexjamin : Jan. sir. I don't know how General the loss of this officer can be supplied. With my command. am. —Your order requiring Loring to return with his such interference in me to command direct General to Winchester has been received and promptly complied with. " T. S. A. P. Johnston. wrote upon it this endorsement 7tb. E. Headquarters. officers are much wanted '' in this department. Should this application not be granted. " Eespectfully forwarded with great regret. '' J. C. who. and I accordingly re- spectfully request to be ordered to report for duty to the Superintendent of the Virginia Military Institute at Lexington. I respectfully request that the President will accept my resignation I from the army. submitted to General Johnston. 31st. out of Moorefield on the 12th of this Perhaps the honorable Secretary of his turn. Cextreyille. 1862. Hon." . Jackson. Valley District. and capturino. in forwarding '' it." ary] . J. your obedient servant. 18G2. I cannot expect to be of much service in the field. as has been done in the case of other professors. J. Feb.

I receive my information of the order of which you have such cause to complain from an official wrong to you? Let us dispassionately reason with the government on this subject of command. Major-General Jackson My dear Friend. your letter of January 31st to the Secretary of War asking to be relieved from your present command. I liave taken the liber- ty to detain your letter to patriotism. and with profound regret. '^ Very truly yours. and if we fail to influence its practice. either by an order to the Virginia Military : " '' — your resignation. Is not that as great is me as the order itself to responsibilities are left to us. I have just read. '* J. E. the danger in which our very existence as an independent people lies. the great energy exhibited by the government of the United States. then ask to be relieved from positions the authority of which is exercised b}^ the War Department while the your letter. JACKSOX. require sacrifices from us all who have been eduInstitute or the acceptance of me . but from the official opinion which makes me regard you as necessary to the service of the country in your present position. as well as care for professional character and official rights. Johnston.'' . a due sense of one's own dignity. General Jolinston General Jackson : wrote the following letter to " FebrufiiT 3d. cated as soldiers. would demand such a course as yours but the character of this war.230 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS iilso J. Let beg you to reconsider this matter. not merely make this appeal to your from warm feelings of personal regard. Under ordinary circumstances.

" J. E. Valley District. he had with his heroic little band succeeded in driving the enemy . General. rigors and hardships of an exceptionally severe winter. Feb. The disaffection of General Loring and his men had been enough to discourage and seriously affect the success of the enterJackson had endured with his command all the prise. in the order requiring General Loring's this place immediately. 231 General Jackson also addressed the following note to General Johnston's adjutant-general " '' Headquarters. S. Such danger. 6tb. J. Feb. Johnston. commanding. " Kespectfully referred to the Secretary of War. exist at the time the order Avas given. that command to fall back to he had been informed that danger of being cut off. whose orders I cannot countermand. nor did it.— The Secretary of War stated. does not exist. 1862. C.. And yet. in my opinion. P. I am well satisfied. Jackson. 1862. " Major-General. 1st. General Jackson had received but little aid from the government. Khett. Major Thomas G. Assistant Adjutant-General " Major. A.: : : REASONS FOR DISSATISFACTION." In his late expedition. the command was in and I therefore respectfully recommend that the order be countermanded. in the face of all these obstacles. " Eespect fully." " Endorsement " Centreville. and that General Loring be required to return with his command to the vicinity of Komney. " T.

and implies a want of confidence in my capacity to judge fall when General Loring's troops should an attempt to control military operafrom the Secretary's desk at a distance. and tions in detail like that of the fruits of a Secretary's I campaign. for the reasons set forth in the accompanying paper. much A sense of duty brought . the country is ruined. in any way which am jDermitted to do it if with this effect. My shall utter my protest against duty to her requires that I it in the most energetic form in m}^ power. from every point he liacl attacked. and had recovered AVhen it was urged upon him that his entire district. and is abandoning to the enemy what has cost much preparation. and is in direct conflict with my military plans. As a single order is back. saying the order from the War Department "Avas given without consulting me. to be of service in the field. even of if it be as a is private soldier." He also wrote to Governor Letcher.232 LIl-^E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. where they avail anything. But method making war to prevail. he should be wiUing to make sacrifices to serve his country in her time of sore need. I have. requesting him to use his influence in having him ordered back to the Institute. he exclaimed '' Sacrifices liave I not made them ? What is my life here : I but a daily sacritice fices for ? Xor shall I ever withhold in sacriI I my country. and if this is denied me. me ordered back to the Institute. if my operations are thus to be interfered with. JACKSON. may destroy the entire cannot reasonably expect. which they seek to establish in my case. requested to be ordered back to the Institute. and exposure to secure. then to have my resignation I ask as a special favor that you will have accepted. expense. intend to serve her anywhere. and that is to resign.

J. If I ever acquired. A better man will soon be sent to take my The government have no confidence in my capacity. NO: I MUST RESIGN!" 233 and has thus far kept me.' " . It now appears to be my duty to return to the Institute. been secured at such a sacrifice of the comfort of my noble troops in their hurried march through the storm of snow and sleet. but I regard such a policy as ruinous. I must resign. and I hope that you will leave no stone unturned to get me into the field. insj^iring confidence and arousing enthusiasm.. me there. or they would not thus countermand my orders. through the blessing of Providence. — — ' fulness. Jackson. "T. sir."NO.' said he. cess. that in- I regard the recent expedition as a great sucI desire to say I . '' Yery truly your friend. When urged to upon the ground that the country could not spare his services that his name was alike a terror to our enemies and a tower of strength to our cause.. this undoing my work by the Secretary may greatly diminish fluence." A gentleman this critical who had an interview with him at moment thus gives the result " Xever : can I forget an interview held with him the night that he forwarded his resignation. nothing against the Secre- tary of War. and throw away the fruits of victory that have place. even among the doubtful and wavering 'Xo. any influence over troops. No. take it for granted that he has done what he believes to be best. no. and give my place to some one in whom they have more confidence. you greatly overestimate my capacity for usewithhold it.

both in public and private life. of course. he wrote so. 1862. Feb. from persons of all grades. begging him to reconsider his decision. Your letter of the ith instant was received this morning. your o]iinion remains unchanged. and wrote at once. as we well remember it. But our far-seeing and sagacious governor knew the worth of Stonewall Jackson to the army. and sent one of his most influential officials to remonstrate with him in person against his leaving the army. and the cause itself lost. can teach them this lesson now by my resignation. to act so hastily without a full I knowledge of the facts.: : : 234 LItE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. you are authorized to withdraw my resignation. If I fail to do an irreparable loss may hereafter be sustained. . among them some aged ministers of the Gospel all imploring him to withdraw his resignation. — — — "Winchester. JACKSOX. as General Lee afterwards expressed it.'' This was nearly his exact language. when the lesson might have to be taught by a Lee or Johnston. If my retiring from the army would produce tliat effect upon our country which you have named in your letter. would not desire to leave the service and if. that he had lost his right arm the whole army would be paralyzed. The same protests poured in from other quarters. Governor of Yirmnia " Governor. unless the Secretary — . But little he knew that when his services were lost to the cause or. I. " His 6th. Excellency John Letcher. "When urged that perhaps the government had been misinformed as to the facts. upon the receipt of this note. In reply to a second letter from Governor Letcher. and the country Avill be no loser by it. he responded " Certainly they have but they must be taught not .

'' Upon that it receiving assurances from the government did not intend to interfere with his military plans. his resignation in the name of Virginia . Yery truly your friend. " T. 235 War desires and that it should be accepted. rather his strongest possible protest against my opinion. my views remain unchanged and if the of. Jackson. in tion. J. Secretary persists in the ruinous policy complained I feel that no officer can serve his country better than it. by making which. for resigning were set forth in my letter of the 31st ultimo. to am much obliged you for requesting that I should be ordered to the " Institute. Governor Letcher deemed it best to Avithdraw . and it was thus that Stonewall Jackson was preserved to the army. and to this he yielded with true soldierly obedience. is done by tendering his resignathan be a wilful instrument in prosecuting I the war upon a ruinous principle. My reasons .WITHDRAWS of HIS RESIGNATION.



KERXSTOWX, Mcdowell, and Winchester—


the hardships and trials of the late ex-

pedition, General Jackson returned

from Romney to
spirits, gal-

"Winchester so full of animation and high

loping along on his

little sorrel

with such speed through


mud and

slush, that

one of his elder

laughingly said to him

AVell, general,

/ am

not so

anxious to see Mrs. Jackson as to break

my neck

ing up with you, and with your permission I shall

back and take
this officer,




As they were not

in pursuit of the

enemy, the request was granted, and

with some others, did not reach AVinches-

day following, Avhile General Jackson, with tlie younger members of the staff, rode the whole After going to forty miles in one short winter day. a hotel and divesting himself of the mud which had bespattered him in his rapid ride, and making as perfect a toilet as possible, he rang the door-bell of Mr. Graham, who admitted him, and in another moment he came bounding into the sitting-room as joyous and
ter until the

fresh as a schoolboy, to give his wife a surprise, for

he had not intimated when he would return.

As soon

as the first glad greetings w^ere over, before taking his

with a face all aglow Avith delight, he glanced around the room, and was so impressed with the cosy and cheerful aspect of Mr. Graham's fireside, as we all




sat round it that winter evening, that he exclaimed The bright " Oh ! this is the very essence of comfort /"

was exceedingly refreshing to him after all the discomfort and exposure through which he had passed since he left us three weeks before. He never looked better and more radiant than on that evening. Mr. Graham had an interesting little family of children, who afforded him much pleasure, and it
picture of home-life
special privilege of one of the little boys to ride down-stairs in the mornings upon the back of the general, the performance provoking as much glee on

was the

his part as


did on that of the
tlie trip


In making

ever charmed with

from Eomney, he was more than Little Sorrel," whose powers of

endurance proved quite remarkable. After bearing him along with so much fleetness and comfort, he said the horse seemed almost as fresh and unwearied at the end of the journey as at the beginning. When the Loring troubles came, and General Jackson thought he might be ordered back to the Institute, the anticipation of returning home gave him unbound-

ed happiness— the only consideration marring it being a feeling that his paramount duty was to be in the

when his country was in danger. Duty alone constrained him to forego the happiness and comforts of his beloved home for the daily hardships of a soldier's life. For the next month after his return he remained

quietly in Winchester.

* It is

After Loring^s evacuation of the Federal troops again took possession, and
liistory that the little

an interesting item of the fomily


to manhood, became a minister of the Gospel, and, as the Hev. Alfred T. Graham, was married to Miss Isabel Irwin, a niece of Mrs. Jackson.

who was

thus honored,

when he grew








spread in such numbers along the border as to threaten Winchester on ev^ery side and the difficulties of

General Jackson's position Avere greatly enhanced by
a diminution of his small army, Loring and all his troops that were not Virginians having been or-

dered elsewhere

and in order to induce re-enlistso that, ment, furloughs had Ijeen freely granted at the time of the most imminent danger. General
; ;

Jackson's force was reduced to about four thousand

men, exclusive of



informed the

commander-in-chief that his position required at least

men for its defence, threatened as it was by Banks on one side and Lauder on the other. But as Johnston was himself preparing to retreat before the advance of McClellan, he had no troops to spare. To a friend in the Confederate Congress Jackson wrote
nine thousand

''"What I desire
practicable until


to hold the country as far as


are in a condition to advance

and then, with God's blessing, let us make thorough work of it. But let us start right. ... In regard to your question as to how many troops I need, you will probably be able to form some idea when I tell you.
that Banks,

who commands about thirty-five


has his headquarters in Charleston, and that Kelly, who has succeeded Lander, has probably eleven thousand, with his headquarters near

Paw -Paw.


you see two generals, whose united force

near fortybut

thousand troops, already organized for three years

or the war, opposed to our

force here


Let me have what force do not feel discouraged. you can. McClellan, as I learn, was at Charleston on Friday last; there may be something significant in



You how many

observe, then, the impossibility of saying


I shall require, since it is


for nie to

know how many

will invade us.



lighted to hear j^ou say Virginia
crate all her resources,

resolved to conse-

necessary, to the defence of


we may

look for


in earnest.




for a letter respecting the Yalley.


satisfied that



you can say much more about it than I much more forcible terms. I have only to



this valley

is lost,


is lost.


truly your friend,

T. J. Jackson."

Jackson meanwhile remained at Winchester, watching closely the advance of Banks, and doing
possible to

what was

General Johnston thus describes duty assigned to him " After it had become evithe dent that the Yalley Avas to be invaded by an army




too strong to be encountered
that officer

was instructed

to endeavor to

by Jackson's division, employ the

to the danger of defeat,
as to keep

invaders in the Yalley, but without exposing himself by keeping so near the enemy

him from making any

considerable detach-


to reinforce McClellan, but not so near that he

his stores, baggage,

might be compelled to fight." General Jackson sent and the sick to the rear, but continued to hold his position to the last moment. Early in March, when he found that he would be compelled

from Winchester, although his heart was yearning to stay and defend the place, he thought it was no longer safe for me to remain, and I was sent away on the same train which conveyed the sick to a In the midst of all this terrible menplace of safety. my husband maintained the most perfect tal strain
to retire








and cheerfulness, throwing off (^when in presence at least) the heavy burden under which

he labored

— talking as


as j^ossible about military

matters, and showing


of his old



and abandon. lie told me tliat when his ''sunshine*' was gone out of the room which had been to us the holy of hohes on earth that winter, he never wanted to enter it again; and yet to the last moment he lingered at the door of the coach in which I left Avith bright smiles, and not a cloud upon his peaceFor thirteen months we did not meet again. ful brow.
Xever, as long as
life lasts,



forget the harrowI left

ing scenes of that day upon Avhich


Many of the poor soldiers looked as
at the point of death.

they were almost

Some were

so helpless that they

pale, emaciated,

had to be carried on the backs of their comrades their and despairing faces and moans of suffering being pitiful and heart-moving beyond descripAt Manassas there w^as a delay of an hour or tion. more in transferring them to another train, and as I sat and watched that procession of concentrated misery, with my own lieart so heavy and anxious, I was
never so impressed with tlie horrors of war. Xo i^y of sunshine lightened the gloom.


I jour-

was attracted by the conversation of a lady and gentleman Avho sat immeHe was a Confederate officer, diately in front of me. and she was plying him v»'ith questions about the army,
neyed sadly along,
its officers, etc.


After freely discussing Lee, Johnston,

And what do you think and others, the lady asked I almost held my breath, but of Old Stonewall f^ could not have been more gratified when the answer came, for it Avas this: "I have tJie iiiod iinpllcU conji-





hi him,



first I

did not


to think of his bokl

but since I

and aggressive mode of warfare I'now the man, and have witnessed his abil-


patriotic devotion,







How my



to tliat stranger,



that General Jackson's wife was a

listener. to

a commendation which could not have been
if it


had been given for her benefit!

This was to

me the

brightest gleam of sunlight on that

dreary journey.

To show General

Jackson's extreme reluctance to

from the loyal old town of Winchester Avithout

striking a blow in its defence, he conceived the bold

idea of becoming the attacking party himself, and to

end he called a council of

his chief officers,


proposed to them a night attack upon Banks.

In the

meantime, while they were assembling, he went, all booted and spurred, to make a hasty call on his friend Mr. Graham, whose family he found oppressed with
the gloom which overspread the whole town.

He was

so buoyant and hopeful himself that their drooping

were revived, and after engaging with them in family worship he returned to meet his council of However, his proposition was not approved, and war. he hurried back to correct the impression he had made upon his friends by his cheering words and sanguine his countenance and bearing, v\'hich at predictions time beamed with hope and the fire of patriotic that devotion, were now changed to deepest perplexity and depression. Still, he was so loath to give up his coveted scheme that he said, with slow and desperate earnest;

ness: ''But






not yet carry


plan into execution

As he

uttered these Avords he








liilt of his SAvord, raised his face with a look of determination, and the light of battle glowed in his eyes but the next moment he dropped his head,

grasped the

and, releasing his sword, said





cost the lives of too

many brave men.

must not do it; I must

and wait for a better time." March General Banks approached within four miles of AVinchester, and General Jackson drew up his little force in line of battle to meet him but the former withdrew without attacking. The activity of Ashby and the boldness with wdiich Jackson


the Tth of

maintained his position impressed his adversary with
the conviction that the Confederate force Avas
larger than

in a

Avas in reality.

Banks advanced

cautious and

wary manner, refusing
left Aving so as to

to attack, but

pushing forward his
son's flank

threaten Jack-

and rear. By the 11th of March this movement had gone so far that it Avas no longer safe to hold Winchester. Jackson remained under arms all day, hoping for an attack in front, but none Avas made; and late in the afternoon his little army Avithdrew from the toAvn, and it Avas occupied by the Federals the next day, March 12th. The Confederates continued to retreat sloAvly to Woodstock and Mount Jackson, forty miles in rear of Winchester, and Shields's diAision Avas thrown forward in pursuit to Strasburg on the ITth. To his Avife General Jackson Avrote on the 10th of March from Winchester

My darling, you made a timely retreat from here, on Friday the Yankees came Avithin five miles of this place. Ashby skirmished for some time Avith them, and after they fell back he followed them until


they halted near Bunker




twelve miles




they are at present.
. .

The troops
does bless ns

are in excellent spirits.

How God

wherever we are [This was in reference to the kindI am very ness we had received in Winchester.] thankful for the measure of health with which He blesses me. I do not remember having been in such good health for years. My heart is just overflow.


ing Avith love for



darling wife."
ITtli, 1862.

"Woodstock, Marcli

The Federals have possession of Winchester. They advanced upon the town the Friday after you left, but Ashby, aided by a kind Providence, drove them back. I had the other troops under arms, and marched to meet the enemy, but they did not come nearer than about five miles of the town, and fell back to Bunker
Tuesday they advanced again, and again our troops were under arms to meet them, but after coming within four miles of the town they halted for the night. I was in hopes that they would



advance on me during the evening, as I felt that God would give us the victory but as they halted for the night, and I kneAV they could have large reinforcements by morning, I determined to fall back, and sent my troops back the same night to their wagons in rear of "Winchester, and the next morning moved still

farther to the rear."

The retirement

of Jackson

and the unopposed occurelieved McClel-

pation of the lower valley

by Banks

lan of all fears in that direction

and in pursuance of President Lincoln's requirement, Banks was ordered






to intrench liimself in the vicinit}^ of Manassas, in or-

der to guard the approaches to AVashington. Sliields's division was accordingly recalled from Strasburg, and
the Federals began their

movement towards Manassas

on the 2<ith of March. On the evening of the 21st Ash by reported that the enemy had evacuated Strasburg. Jackson, divinino- that this meant a withdrawal towards AVashington, at once ordered pursuit with The whole of his little army all his available force. reached Strasburg on the afternoon of the :^2d, the greater part after a march of twenty-two miles. Meantime the indefatigable Ashby Avas following close behind the retreating enemy, and late in the afternoon of tlie 22d, as Jackson was entering Strasburg, Ashby was attacking the Federal pickets one mile south of

After the skirmish, Ashl^v camped for

the night at Ivernstown, three miles south of Win-

Ashby had

General Shields, w4io commanded the troops attacked, and who was himself Avounded
this fact,

in the skirmish,


had displayed but a small part of his combined Avith information ob-

tained Avithin the Federal lines, misled the Confederates.


reports brought out led


to believe


but one brigade had gone, and that


to leave for Harper's Ferry the next

but the fact

was that
AA^ith all

Shields's division of three brigades still re-

This information caused Jackson to push on
haste the next morning.
his Avhole force.


daylight he sent

three companies of infantry to reinforce Ashby, and



teen miles he reached

had made his kept up an active skirmish with the adA^ance

After a march of fourKernstown at 2 p.m. Shields disposition to meet attack, and Ashby



But though thus Shielcls's force during the forenoon. making ready, the Federal generals did not expect an
attack in earnest, beheving that Jackson coukl not be

tempted to hazard himself so far from his main supWhen he reached Kernstown his troops were port. Three fourths of them had marched very weary. He thirty-six miles since the preceding morning. therefore gave directions for bivouacking, and says in

Though it was very desirable to prevent from leaving the Valley, yet I deemed it the enemy But subsequently best not to attack until morning. ascertaining that the Federals had a position from
his report


Avhich our forces could be, seen, I concluded that


would be dangerous

to postpone the attack until the

next day, as reinforcements might be brought up during the night.'' Jackson, therefore, led his men to the His plan was to gain the ridge upon which attack.
the Federal right flank rested, turn that flank, and get command of the road from Kernstown to Winchester He gained the top of the ridge, but in the rear.

check until he could hurry other troops to that flank, when Jackson in turn became the attacked party. For three hours of this Sunday
Shields held




afternoon the sanguinary and stubborn contest conBut bravely as the Confederates fought, they

were finally overcome by the superior numbers of the enemy, and were compelled to retreat. Weary and dispirited vras the little army which had marched fourteen miles in the morning to attack a force more than double its own, and which had for three hours wrestled for victory in so vigorous a manner as to astonish and
deceive the enemy.
ly retraced

and overpowered, it slowpath for six miles more, and sank to

The Federals picked up two or three hundred prisand as they marched them through the streets of Winchester the inhabitants turned out almost en masse to show them their sympathy. Jackson shared the open-air bivouac with his men. toils. made a roaring fire. and was making a bed of rails. and their friends captives. fearing to find their off one of own loved ones. JACKSON. Yon seem determined to make yourself and those around 3^ou comfortable. Dr. Can you stay to protect '' us ?" Make yourself easy about that. His faithful commissary. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. when the general wished to know what he was doing. to send them to the rear. the major soon obtained some bread and meat from the nearest squad of soldiers. for there was scarcely a family in the county which had not a relative in Jackson's command and many of among the The next day the . The wounded had been taken the battle-field by their general. " As the army was retreating. the soldiers threw themselves down. the surgeon said But that requires time. many too tired to eat. and persons of all ages and conditions flocked thither.'' was the reply. (ind after they had satisfied their hunger they slept soundly on tlie rail bed in a '' '' fence corner." replied he . McGuire. : 2^6 rest. In the fence corners. under the trees. and kindred were recognized citizens asked and obtained permission to bury the Confederate dead on the battlefield. who ordered his medical director. Major Hawks. dan- and disappointments of the day.'' said Jackson. and forgot in slumber the gers.. Avith torturing anxiety the women looked into the it face of every prostrate form. Fixing a place to sleep. Knowing the general had fasted all day. and around the wagons. oners.

." Tth.." eral them to the enemy I will lose many The next morning after the battle. great concern but so live that and all your ' tri- may be sanctified to you. After God. '' 247 is this army stays hero until the hast wounded man : removed. superior numbers of the enem}^ repulsed me. to Mount Jackson. once more. in my opin- ion. To-day I night bivouacking. rendered it necessary to attack the action enemy near 3 p. N^ear Mount Jackson. here. .• precious pet. His protecting care is an additional cause for gratitude. remembering that our .: RETIRES TO MOUXT JACKSOX. but the lasted until dark. The loss of the enemy in killed and wounded was probably superior to ours. Allen. Winchester. To his wife he wrote on the 24th of March " Yesterday important considerations. again blesses us with peace. and enjoy "April its beauty and loveliness. Gen- Jackson gradually retired before the advancing enemy. me als. I stayed in My lit- in excellent spirits." " tle March army is 2Sth. The commenced about and Our men fought bravely. I lost one piece of artillery and three caissons. where beautiful country. I am quite comfortable. My . Our God was my shield." And then with deep f'eehng he said " Be- fore I will leave more men. Many valuable lives were lost. our God. your sickness gives it. camp This is last am in the house of a is Mr. It feels that it inflicted a severe blow upon the enemy. I hope to visit this country with my darling. a The celebrated Meem farm near and is the most magnificent one that I know of anywhere.m.

as he fell back from Strasburg. tlie the great enemy. beautiful. Congress has jmssed a vote of thanks. . object which required In addition to to follow this. I am well satisfied with the result. light afflictions. which are but for a moment. and General Johnston has issued a very gratifj^ing order upon the suljject. knowincj that all thino:s work together for the good of His people. Yesterdav was a lovelv Sabbath dav. I am very much concerned trust is at having no letter this week. complete.24S LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. work together good to them that love God God gave us a glorious victory in the Southwest [at Shiloh]. I do not remember having ever felt so sad at tlie death of a man whom I had never seen. All wanted was the church-bell and it God's services in the sanctuarv to make . JACKSOX. but is my in the Almighty. Altliouofh I had not the privilege of hearing the word of life. . one which will have a fine effect upon my command. but the loss of the great Albert Sidney Johnston is to be mourned. serene. yet the enemy's loss appears to have been . ." " x\pril 11th. work out more exceeding and eternal Aveight of glory/ I trust you and all I have in the hands of a kind Providence. three times that of ours. . for us a far '" yet it felt like a holy Sabbath day. The great object to be acquired me up . Our gallant little army it is increasing in numbers. Although I was repulsed in the attempt to recover Winchester. . . and my prayer is that may be an army of the living God as well as of its country. seems to have been accomplished very thoroughly. How for precious the consolation flowing from the Christian's assurance that ^all things I' . it and lovely.

Had I fougbt tbe battle on Monday instead of Sunday. but I felt it my duty to do in consideration of tbe ruinous effects tbat migbt result from postponing tbe battle until tbe morning. You appear mucb concerned I at attacking on Sunday. I believed tbat so far as our troops were concerned. and yet. tbouofb unsuccess- . it. if success is to be attained.FIGHTING A BATTLE OX SUNDAY. I fear our cause would bave suffered . I wisb times more tbankful. tbe most essential frnits of tbe battle are ours. So far as I can see. my feel- bope and pray to our Heavenly Fatber tbat I may never again be circumstanced as on tbat day. my tbe best tbat I could do under tbe circumstances. according to military experience. And tbis fact of its being necessary to success. suggests tbat it must be rigbt. my my too . views and object in iigbting and its fruits v^'ili tben become known. tbougb very distasteful to . For tins and all of our Heav- by tbe battle enly Fatber's blessings. course was a wise one ings . and tliat I sball never again bave to take tbe field. as tbings turned out. and tbat a departure from it is accompanied witb disaster. I do bope tbe war will soon be over. necessity and mercy botb called for tbe battle." His bold attack at Kernstown. requires an officer to do what be fears may be wrong. was greatly concerned. I consider our cause gained mucb from tbe engagement. Avbereas. 249 demanded time to make known its accomplisbments. Arms is a profession that. if its principles are adbered to for success. and being accompanied witb success. I could be ten tbousand Sbould any report be publisbed. must I and be done. Time bas sbown tbat wbile tbe field is in possession of tbe enemy.

Frederick County." of Winchester. and are hereby tendered. JACKSOX. from the midst of saddened and deso- homes. The noble women war. and detained McDowell's corps its in front left of the city. during the whole devoted themselves to nursing the sick and wounded soldiers with tender care and self-sacrilice. was the accomplishment jects of the Confederates of one of the principal ob- — the recall of the Federal marching from the Valley towards Manassas. to Major-General Thomas J. 1S62. Besolved by the Congress of the Confederate thanks of Congress are due. that the command. Virginia. although General McClellan had forty thousand troops for over defence ! For this achievement at Kernstown the Confederate Congress passed the following resolution of thanks " 1. It had also the effect of chantrinir the disposition of several of their divisions and corps. Jackson. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. they continued their self-denying care for . And after the war late Avas over. 2. Resolved. Its first effect led to many important results. and producing such consternation at AVashington troops then that President Lincoln did not consider his capital secure.: 250 ful. and by him to his States. and their compassion failed not even in administer- ing to the wounded of the enemy. for gallant and meritorious services in a successful engagement with a greatly superior force of the enemy near Kernstown. and the officers and men under his command. on the 23d of March. that these resolutions be communicated by the Secretary of War to Major-General Jackson.

which he wrote on the 21st of March to Governor Letcher's aide-de-camp. they gathered the thousands of Confederate dead from the surrounding battlefields and placed them in the *' Stonewall Cemetery " a memorial not more to the patriotism of man than to the devotion of woman. in the year 1880. which nearly doubled the number of his troops since the battle. but even yet he had only about five or six thousand His great desire to press into service every man in Virginia will be seen by the following letter. Colonel French men. and by whose suffering cots they had often watched in sorrow. Under the leadership of Mrs. danger.: MEMORIALS TO THE DEAD. He spent it in recruiting his forces regiments. Philip Williams. and death. his ranks filling and reorganizing his up under the new impe- tus given to enlistment b}^ a new conscription bill. — '' — Carolina has more upon Virginia battle-fields than any other Southern State a fact which speaks for itself in showing the heroic part borne by the good Old North State in the struggle for independence. and by the return of furloughed men. the ashes of the brave 251 men to whose comfort and encouragement they had contributed so freely in life. They also erected a handsome monument to The Unknown Dead " and the State of Maryland. likewise placed a beautiful monument in this cemetery in memory of her brave soldiers who fell in defence of the South. —Please request the governor to order three thousand muskets to Staunton at his earliest . The next m^onth after the battle of Kernstown was It is said that the State of jS'orth soldiers buried — to General Jackson one of comparative inaction. available ''CoLoxEL.

. as represented to me. in addition to arms. for the will not shoot. so that in case circumstances should justify it. hire substitutes. Xone of the mihtia beyond the county. They can be made but can very easilv take bad aim." . officers. but will also save many valuable horses and other public property. rank and file. determined to organize them into companies of one hundred men each. faithful laborers and careful of property. be given them. except five Imndred from Augusta. If these men are. into ser- them to the various staff departments without issuing arms to them but if at any time they have insufficient labor. but I understand some of them say they to iire. as these command tlie highest degree and securing loyal feelings and co-opera- non-combatants are said to be good teamsters and faithful to their promises.252 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. who are opposed to Eighteen [men] were recently arrested in endeavmake their escape through Pendleton County to the enemy. but they are turning out encouragingly. others will turn out in obedi- ence to the governor's call ' . and after mustering them. JACKSOX. liave yet arrived. and not permit ])crsons to use their names for the purpose of keeping out of service. but witli the condition that they shall act in good in other employ them faith with me. to some oring to extent. Those who do not desert will. So. with the legal number of company vice. to have them drilled. I have. . convenience for the militia of this district. arms may assign . as far as prac- ticable. this ar- rangement will not only enable many volunteers to return to the ranks. I will wavs than fighting.' purpose of giving to this of efficiency. There are tliree religious denom- inations in this military district v:ar. tion. . All I have pledged myself is that.

E. ho attempted no further serious advance until the 17th. Kext day he was informed that no troops could be spared to him beyond the commands of Generals Ewell and Edward Johnson. Shenandoah. On the 16th of April. and a good road from that point to Swift Tarn Gap placed it in easy reach of Jackson. which addition to his force he deemed necessary to justify him in marching out and attacking Banks. and to This division was now aid Jackson in case of need. Banks followed Jackson but slowly. is warm and spring-like. with a brigade. near Gordonsville.eket. and here they remained through ten days more of rain and mud. He reached and having pushed Ashby's cavalry back to Edinburg. "This morning country beheld. and Jackson retired to Harrisonburg. took up his position at the western base This camp of the Blue Eidge. crossing the main fork of the Woodstock on April 1st. . then acting as commander-in-chief under President Davis. in Swift Pam Gap. EwelFs division alone remained on the Rappahannock to watch the enemy. where he had taken command in person. for a reinforcement of five thousand men. one of the most beautiful that I ever On last Wednesday the enemy advanced . the Confederates reached on the 20th of April. General Jackson wrote to " his wife as follows Kear New ]\Ls.: BAXKS FOLLOWS JACKSOX SLOWLY. General Jackson applied to General Lee. . at West View. and this is . the latter of whom was seven miles west of Staunton. five miles beyond. He then moved forward in force. 253 On the 2Stli of April. and. Johnston had transferred the mass of his army to the front of Kichmond. General J.

I w^ould like to see the cave. but fear such a privilege Avill not be enjoyed for some time to come. armies is within a few miles of each other. and I am very He comes up to my highest to God for it. and thus entered into Eastern Virginia. The enemy did not advance as far as Harrisonburg The advance of the two on the Valley turnpike. I am about midway between Harrisonburg and Stannardsville.. On Saturday the march was resumed.. which is about three miles from Weyer's Cave. My route Avas through Xew Market and Harrisonburg. near Swift of the On Wednesday last I left my position Eun Gap. and that gave me a deeper interest in the great curiosity. . The road up the river was so treacherous that 1 could only advance about six miles per day.. and moved up the south fork Shenandoah to Port Eepublic. for I remembered that my little pet had been there. May 5th. The countr}^ is one of the loveliest I have ever seen. and to leave the road was at the risk of sinking yet deeper in the quicksands. but on Sunday morning I received a despatch stating that part of the . in which that locality abounds. '• Swift Run Gap... . at one o'clock a. Dabney is here. Here I expected to pass the Sabbath.'' on me place. m. tions as a staff-officer. I stopped with a very agreeable family named Pace. and we crossed the Blue Kidge at what is known as Brown's Gap. I do want so much to see my darling.25. and I fell back to this where I arrived on Friday. " Since I last wrote to my darling I have been very busy. JACKSOX.1: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J." '• thankful expecta- Stauntox." Dr.

with the main body of his force of about twenty thousand men. 255 enemy's force had arrived Avithin one day's march of Brigadier-General Edward Johnson's camp. in which case Staunton would be an easy capture. and on the Harrisonburg and Warm Springs turnpike. General Jackson had about six thousand troops. Banks. Jackson determined to anticipate such a movement. occupied Harrisonburg. twelve or fifteen miles in front of General Jackson. making the total of Fremont's movable column some fifteen thousand so. and General Ewell. if possible. and I arrived here last evening. The troops coming in. with a force of about sixteen thousand men (including Ewell and Edward Johnson). Fremont was already preparing to move in that direction. by uniting his own force to that of Johnson. with an equal force. . commanding Fremont's advance of six thousand men. were in front of son. Such was the Confederate position. The corps Mihtary Institute is here. Under the circumstances I I felt it incumbent upon me to press forward. Fremont was preparing to join them from the Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad with nearly ten thou- sand men. was in the vicinit}^ of Gordonsville. and fall. The Warm Springs turnpike afforded Banks a ready mode of uniting with Milroy and Schenck. General Jackson had on his hands the thirty-five thousand under Banks and Fremont. Schenck and Milroy. On the other hand." still of cadets of the Virginia General Edward Johnson was seven miles west of Staunton with about thirty-five hundred men. where are am stopping at the Virginia House.POSITIOX OF THE TWO ARMIES. their pickets Edward John- already east of the Shenandoah mountain.

and seeing their position unten- made a fierce attack in the afternoon to retake the hill or cover their retreat. and made his dispositions to enemy during the night. united eTohnson's force with his own. drove in the Federal pickets and foraging parties. lie gave his troops one day to rest. and on the next he hurried forward. TJien lie Avoiild join Ewell. The movement of this attack l]anks. and on the 5th of May he reached Staunton with his army. ing upon Milroy. and marched up the east bank of the Shenandoah to Port Eepublic. able. like Banks. all his strength Ewell was ordered to cross the mountain and occupy the position Jackson had held for ten days at Swift Eun Gap. and at nightfall quietly withdrew. To accomplish devious route mystified friends as Avell as foes. while Ewell kept Banks in check. pushed on to McDowell. The good people of Staunton were almost as much astonished when General Jackson made his sudden appearance in their town as if an angel had dropped down from the clouds for. were repulsed at every point. The Federals. and camped . As Ewell approached.256 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. no one knew Avhither. For three or four hours Sit ling- a bloody struggle took place on the brow of ton's Hill. On the morrow (May 8th) he ton's Hill. after a toilsome march through the mud and frequent quicksands. twenty-five miles west of Staunton. This was known as the battle of McDow- . road in But Milroy and Schenck had united. thus keeping up the menace of Banks's flank. though inflicting severe loss. JACKSOX. they thought he had Avithdrawn from the valley and disappeared into Eastern Virginia. and with this. Jackson left camp on the 30th of April. seized Sitlingwhich commanded the town and enemy's seize the rear of the camp.

favor. Jackson followed to sible to attack to this point . he turned back (May 13tli). Valley District.: THANKSGIVIXG FOR VICTORY. with his ten thousand men against Fremont's fourteen or Screening completely his movefifteen thousand. I telegraphed 3^ou God had blest us and apparently designs making a stand beyond Franklin. near Franklin. 257 in the dark- The enemy lit their camp-fires. The enemy has been reinthat " My precious darling." "Near Harrisonburg. "We have divine service at ten o'clock to-day (Monday) to render thanks to Almighty God for having crowned our arms with success. finding it it impos- advantage. then turned towards Harrisonburg. deemed inadvisable to attempt anything further in this difficult country. On the 12th of May he wrote thus to his wife " Headquarters. retreating twenty-four miles to Franklin. writing on my knee for w^ant I . and sent a despatch to General Ewell that he was on his way to attack Banks with their united forces. and ness evacuated the town. Here I am sitting in the open air. where they met Fremont advancing with the main body of his forces. I expect to reconnoitre to-day. but do not know as yet whether I will attack him thus reinforced. marched rapidly to within seventeen miles of Staun- ton.. but. ments with cavalry. which is about three miles from Franklin. do desire to see our country free and me that I would appreciate home more than I have ever done before. ell. May 19tli.. in Pendleton County." How ! at peace It appears to 17 . on the 9th with victory at McDowell. and to implore His continued forced. I have followed the enemy to this place.

and I Avill give you It is a great privilege to have him with me. acknowledging will of llim the supremacy of who controls the destinies of to con- men and and chooses the weak things of earth found the mighty. he granted his soldiers a rest of half a day on Monday. all unmoved nations. bent in humble praise and While thanksgiving for the success vouchsafed to their arms. . lending a genial.m. and the bright sun.: : : 258 LIFE OF . with the blue and towering tlie mountains covered with the verdure of spring." ^ The day after the battle he sent the following announcement to the government at Richmond * brief A writer thus describes this scene: "Tlierc. in valley of tlie tlie beautiful little South Branch. I request you to unite with me this morning in thanksgiving to Almighty God for thus having crowned your arms with success. and issued the following order and Northwest I congratulate you on your recent victory at McDowell. day in their respective regiments. The '' Soldiers of the '' Army of the Valley this chaplains will hold divine service at ten o'clock a. refreshing warmth — that army." . JACKSOX. and in praying that He will continue to lead you on from victory to victor/. unclouded. this solemn ceremony was progressing in every regiment. until our independence shall be established. the enemy's yet artillery was occasionally belching forth tlie its leaden death . Yesterday Dr. Dabney preached an Come unto me. stood that worshipping army. and make us that people whose God is the Lord. equipped for the stern conflict of war. . all excellent sermon from the text ye that labor and are heavy laden.' of a table. GENERAL THOMAS J.'' rest. the green -sward smiling a welcome to season of flowers. : ' Before beginning his march on his return.

" But Ewell proposed that if Jackson. and in the conference both were sorely perplexed as to w^hat was their duty under the circumstances Jackson not questioning the right of . Jackson. his route. and meantime they united in a vigorous pursuit of Banks. which was decided upon. while he comThe latter. Ashby had followed close on Banks's heels. he would remain until the condition of affairs could be represented to General the privilege of striking a decountry." Station yesterday. would take the responsibility. Major-General.TAKING THE RESPONSIBILITY. and now occupied with constant skirmishing. crossed the Massanutton Mountain to Luray. But Ewell. He accordingly rode a day and night to see him. an order came from General Johnston calling him with his force back to Gordonsville. and saying regretfully : Providence denies cisive me blow for my with the humble task of hiding my little army among these mountains to w^atch a superior force. having marched rapidly to New Market. suddenly changed his outposts pletely screened Jackson. knowinowhat a disappointment it would be to Jackson to thus have all his plans destroyed by want of his support. J. " 259 God blest our arms with victory at McDowell " T. determined to have an interview with Jackson before moving in any direction. and I must be satisfied Johnston. . as if about to follow the foe to Strasburg to attack him there. About the time General Ewell received the message from General Jackson to join him at Harrisonburg. where Ewell joined him. " Then superior authority. and poured down the narrow Page Yalley by forced marches towards Front Ptoyal. as his ranking officer.

attacked. in ten days. too imlatter place patient to wait for his tired infantry. he followed on after the main ter. to find the road filled with Federal trains and troops. body. route. was forced across the bridges which he vainly attempted to destroy. who had charge of large stores. which had already passed him. by which his flank was turned and his communications threatened. and arrived at the on the 23d of May. Baylor. and pressed on the next morning to Middletown. and pushed after the foe. Jackson anticipates this. Exhausted nature could do no more. This force covered the flank and rear of Banks's position at Strasburg. amazed at this irruption. a village between Strasburg and Winchester. Capturing or scattering these in every direction. The weary and march-worn army sank down to rest. the greater part were taken prisoners. Avere not allowed to lie down at all. a distance of one hundred and twenty miles. towards Winchespushed lie overtook them in the afternoon — Banks's rear-guard before him all night. placed himself at the head of a few companies of cavalry. while their . to The Confederates marched from Franldin by Jackson's Front Eoyal. General Banks. JACKSOX. and of the railroad and the important railroad bridges on the Shenandoah. whom he overtook. but after making what resistance he could. Front Royal was held by about one thousand Federals under Colonel Kenly. and fled to Winchester. Jackson. Kenl}^ was taken by surprise. under Colonel their arms. that of those who were not killed or wounded. began during the night a precipitate retreat from Strasburg to Winchester.260 I^Il'E Of GENERAL THOMAS J. giving the main body of his troo})s only one hour to rest upon The advance regiment. and dis- persed so effectually.

he gave in an undertone the command. The Confederate as in- fantry foUoAved for several miles. but the Federal lines soon began to yield. of prisoners. At dawn. as General Jackson expressed it. 261 vimlant and untirino: commander stood sentinel himself at the liead of the column. and. ^'. and the Federals emerged from the town a mass of disorganized fugitives. and. making their way with enemy all speed towards the Potomac. listening to every sound from the front. " Forward March !" wdiich w^as passed down the command. bounding upon the crest of a : shouted to his and with a face men aflame with animation and triumph. derelict at this crisis The troopers who proved had yielded to the temptation of the rich spoils they had captured from the enemy. !" See- ing the '' break. deserted their colors and abandoned themselves tent as to to pillage to such an ex- make it necessary for the gallant Ashby to discontinue further pursuit. hill. and as he w^atched the flight of the multitude of fugitives. seeing himself about to be overwhelmed.BANKS DRIVEN ACROSS THE POTOMAC.forgetful of their high trust as the ad- vance-guard of a pursuing army. Banks retreated through Winchester. he galloped Forward ! After the enemy amidst the foremost pursuers. capturing a large number cient. and by daylight on the 25th of ! May he reached Winchester to find the Federal forces drawn up across the approaches to the town from the south and southeast. General Jackson pressed closely. and saw^ the ." This was a painful dis- appointment to General Jackson. Jackson set spurs to his horse. vigorous attack was at once made by the Confederates. which for a short time was A bravely resisted. and. and had the cavalry been effi- but few of Banks's troops would have escaped.

making a total of about three thousand and fifty. JACKSON. sick. driven between fifty and sixty miles.000. months been Winchester. Hundreds of An immense quantity of quartermaster. These stores were estimated by the Confederate quartermaster as worth $300. whom they welcomed as their deliverers and greeted with the wildest enthusiasm. Some twenty-three hundred prisoners were taken to the rear when General Jackson fell back. and left in the hospitals at Winchester and Strasburg. besides seven hundred and fifty wounded. commissary. and proved of inestimable value to the Confederacy. and Jackson allowed his exhausted men to rest at WinIn forty-eight hours the enemy had been chester. w^ith the loss of more than one third of his entire strength. The victory was glorious. and ordnance stores had fallen into the hands of the victor. Universal rejoicing was manifested by all ages in the . he exclaimed with bitter regret '' Oh that my cavalry were in place Xever was there such a : ! chance for cavalry I'' In his official report he says "Kever have I seen an opportunity Avhen it was in the power of cavalry to reap a richer harvest of the fruits of victory I'' side of the Potomac. paroled. er thought possible. His army had Banks halted on the north crossed that river a disorganized mass.: 262 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. the joy of the inhabitants knew no bounds when they caught sight of the victorious Confederates. medical. from Front Eoyal and Strasbui-g to the Potomac. golden opportunity for cavalry to make the victor}^ complete. even if the weary and march-Avorn command had not achieved all that their tireless and indomitable lead- wagons had been abandoned or burned. having for several hands of the enemy.

was spent. and gratitude. the day after the en fj^a elements around Winchester. and his thanks for their brilliant gallantry in action and their patient obedience under the hardships of forced marches. He receives this proof of their confidence in the past with pride the future. ordnance. and army stores and. with numerous prisoners. FOUR WEEKS. which Avere endured by them with such cheerful confidence in him. driven the boastful host which was ravaging our beautiful country into utter The general commanding would warmly exrout. finalh".: — IX WHAT HAD BEEX DONE and sexes. is to recognize devoutly the hand of a protecting Providence in the brilliant successes of the last three days which have given us the results of a great vie- — . in religious services and thanksgiving. the following general order being issued by the morning " of that him on day this Within four weeks rapid marches. according to General Jackson's custom. The explanation of the severe exertions to which the commanding general called the army. town and its beautiful by the afternoon of May 25th. . is now given in the victory of yesterday. and that of the army. an aspect of quiet and repose strangely in contrast with the storm}^ scenes of the morning. 263 That historic old environs presented. often more painful to the brave soldier than the dangers of battle. and asks only a similar confidence in But his chief duty to-day. and vast medical. fought six combats and signally defeating army has made long and two battles the enemy in each one capturing — several stands of colors and pieces of artillery. press to the officers and men under his command his joy in their achievements. Mondav.

beating them into Winchester yesterday evening. by the most energetic diversions possible. His loss during the Avliole expedition was four hundred men. to meet the forces of Jackson and Ewell. The total rout of Banks at AYinchester created such a panic in Washington that President Lincoln sent a despatch to McDowell to lay aside for the present his movement upon Richmond. . he says "Banks ran a race with them." While President Lincoln was thus "taking counsel of his fears" and promptly ordering troops from all directions to overwhelm Jackson. JACKSOX. to McClellan. and put twenty thousand men in motion at once for the Shenandoah. and the chaplains of regiments will hold divine service in their several charges at four ox-lock r. and probably is broken up in a total rout. in Avhich Banks was beaten back in full retreat towards Martinsburg.M. the latter Avas resting from the fatigues of his forced marches at AVinch ester. This morning a battle ensued between the two forces. tory without great losses and to make the oblation of our thanks to God for His mercies to us and our country in heartfelt acts of religious worship. For this purpose the troops wiJl remain in camp to-day.26i LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. to draw away troops from Richmond. in order. suspending as far as possible all military exercises." — The next day was devoted to rest and on the third he moved on again towards Harper's Ferry. of the 25th of And in a despatch : May. ." A " favorite aphorism of General Jackson's was: Kever take counsel of your fears.

and come to the rescue in saving the national capital from the grasp of the redoubtable Confederate leader. between Strasburg and Winchester on Saturday. indeed. Graham. as he by the President to take up his march. I do not remember having ever seen such rejoicing as was manifested by the people of Winchester as our army yesterday passed through the town in pursuit of the enenw. Last night I called to see Mr. it would be almost impossible to describe blest us with' success at "My precious darling. was startled by the tidings of the Federal rout. and kind.: REJOICINGS IN WINCHESTER. Time forbids a longer esjpositar does not forbid my loving my . All the energy of a great government was now expended in gathering about him a force of between fifty-five and sixty thousand men. . Your friends greatly desired life. an ever -kind their manifestations of rejoicing and gratitude. who were very but it . The people seemed nearly frantic with joy. to you with me. Fremont. and here with a successful engagement on yesterday. who had been quietly resting at Franklin while General Jackson was making forced marches after Banks. Mrs. . On the 26th of May General Jackson wrote thus to his wife from Winchester himself was ordered Providence Front Koyal on Friday. 265 The entire strength of his force was not over fifteen thousand men. Our in entrance into Winchester was one of the most stirring scenes of my loyalty to see The town is much improved our cause. letter.

and of a move upon Washington. The movements of the kirge bodies of troops which . but directed him to carry out his plan to the extent of making a feint of an invasion of Maryland. General Jackson despatched a trusted messenger to Richmond to ask for reinforcements. " Tell them. lie marched to Harper's Ferry. and concluded on the 30th of May that it was time to withdraw his small army if he would pass between the converging armies of Fremont and McDowell. CROSS KEYS AXD PORT REPUBLIC— 1862. If the present opening is improved. but he had now carried out his instructions to the extreme point consistent with safety.CHAPTEE XIY. as it should be. beheving way to break the for- midable lines which the enemy were now drawing round the Confederate capital." But the government decided that it would be unsafe to withdraw any troops from the defence of Eichmond. and to retreat when he became too much endangered by overwhelming numbers. and even that he shoukl he given that this Avoukl be the surest a force sufficient to march on Washington. By his march to Harper's Ferry he had intensified the panic at Washington. closely Avatching the approach of the enemy. Aftek liis victory at Winchester. " that I have but fifteen thousand effective men. I must have forty thousand." he said.

from the dangers that threatened him sending forthe most — w^ard his twenty -three hundred prisoners under a guard then his long trains. Avhich were nearly three times that of the Confederates. In this peril- ous situation. Lincoln to enter Strasburg that after- . orders from Mr. molestation. Of these the had marched twenty-five miles the day before. From the Potomac side the combined forces of Banks and Saxton amounted to fourteen thousand men. larger part on the nio. The combined forces of McDowell and Fremont. many loaded with captured stores. the way would be barred. and to pass swiftly between the two principal armies gathering for his destruction. in a single day. the main body of his troops camping at . Jackson decided to occupy Strasburg in advance. Thus. under General Winder. were hastening from opposite directions to intercept his retreat and . It was a case in which supreme audacity was He lost no time in escaping consummate skill. pass to Front Koyal to cut him off. followed by his whole army of scarcely The march Avas made without fifteen thousand men.ht of the 31st. and took position directly between the armies of Fremont and McDowFremont had ell. which had been sent to crush him. had Strasburo' marched thirty-five miles. now demanded his attenShields was pouring down from the mountaintion. that were ready to close in on his retreat. 267 President Lincoln had been for some days urging with such haste towards his rear. Jackson had put thirty miles between himself and the slow columns of Saxton and Banks.JACKSON PASSES BETWEEN TWO ARMIES. which had kept up a running skirmish with the enemy between Harper's Ferry and AYinchester. and the rear-guard. once at Strasburg.

They en- . tunity to cut otf Jackson's retreat." Jackson despatcbed a detacbment of cavalry to burn tbe tbree bridges over tbe Soutb Fork of tbe Sbenandoab. and blinded and bewildered McDowell b}^ tbe rapidity of bis movements. while be beld Fremont at bay by a sbow of force. On tbis day be wrote lines retreated to Mount Jackfew hurried bis wife these " I am again retiring before tbe enemy.: 268 LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. Between Friday morning (wben Jackson was in front of Harper's Ferry) and Sunday nigbt be bad marcbed a distance of between fifty and sixty miles. but tbe latter bad gained a day's start. tbe result was tbe loss of all oppor. wbicb was effected vritbout opposition. tbat ter. In order to prevent tbe pursuit of Sbields by tbe Luray Valley. Tbe laton coming up. and witb bis entire force continued to retreat towards Harrisonburg. baving passed safely between tbem." Sbields was sent in pursuit in anotber direction to "bead off" Jackson. tbougb encumbered witb prisoners and captured stores. Tbe next morning Fremont made a wbole of Jackson's force on bimself. Having taken tbis measure to free bimself for tbe time from one of bis pursuers. but be stopped several miles sbort of tbe town. said be found it was too late to get abead of Jackson tben. noon. and reacbed Strasburg before eitber of bis adversaries. but evidently besitated to bring down tbe wliile uncertain McDowell was in supporting distance. wbatever tbe cause. '' feeble effort to advance. JACKSOX. bindered probably by a violent rain-storm but. be fell back more leisurely before tbe otber. On Monday (June 2) be son. and bis " beading off.

The by Fremont's advance. By destroying the two purbridges he had placed a barrier between his where their two suers. Shenandoah serve as a barrier to their junction. His first care was Shields. other bridge at Port Ptepubhc. You must not as these. checking them they came too near. General Jackson sent his sick and wounded to an inStaunton. for fordsouth of Port Kepublic its head-waters are easily able. Jackson continued vanc'e was held back for a day. and. but long letters from me in such busy times forgets his ah\^ays believe that your husband never little darhng.MOVES TOWARDS PORT REPUBLIC. and by burning the whenever their adbridge over which the Confederates crossed. for vent a union of the forces of Fremont and which he burned the only bridge over the Shenandoah by which they could cross. but expect and saN^ed me f roni their grasp. having overcome what was thought . moved in the direction of Port Ee- to prepublic and Brown's Gap. 269 flanks deavored to ^et in my rear by moving on both our God has been my guide of my gallant army. and he changed his line of march. leaving the Here valley turnpike. on the 5th reached Harrisonburg. Ashby. and noAV he occupied the point Xo farther to the rear would the routes converged. was command of all the cavalry.'' On the 3d he fell back to Is'ew Market. his retreat. with were closely followed whom Ashby constantly skirmished. while he held the only the readv means of communication between them. and to him was commit- Confederates ted the duty of protecting the rear. who had received his commission as brigadier-general now placed in at Winchester a few days before.

he saw his men Avavering. The regiment took up the command of their dying general and rushed upon the enemy. seemed to the spectators to be instinct with unwonted animation and A fierce combat ensued. As soon as the news of his re23ulse was received at Fremont's headquarters. but out of the fact that it was the occasion of the fall of General Turner Ashby. and pouring volleys into them until they were out of musket range. fell. when a bullet pierced him full in the breast. JACKSOX. and was defeated and taken prisoner with sixty-three of his men. to convey surmountable obstacle in having a ferry constructed them over the swollen river. Ashby. With such qualities were . an English officer who had taken service in the Union army. the more daring an enter])rise the greater was its attraction for him. which was I comparatively unimportant. The interest attaching to this fight between Jackson's rear-guard and Fremont's advance does not grow mainly out of the engagement itself. a strong force was ordered forward to hold the farther end of the town and the approaches on that side. the Gth On without sufficient knowledge of the situation. under command of Colonel Sir Perc}^ ^yndham. Insensible to danger. and springing to his feet. but extricating himself.270 LIFE OF GENERAL TUOMAS J. Ashby was attacked by a body of Fremont's cavalry. " Charge. who was truly the ideal of a soldier in whom the qualities that excite admiration were united to those that win affection and devotion. and now rushed into the fray. men for God's sake charge!" and waved his sword. in disposing his troops to meet this formidable advance. in which his horse genius. and shouted. and he fell dead. pressing them back.

He w^as taken to Charlottesville for temporary interment. a dehcacy of sentiment and feehng hke a woman's ^yithin tlie . Behind arms reversed. came forth with a countenance of unusual solemnity and elevation. her second gallant son who fell in defence of his country. and after remaining for a time in silent communion w4th the dead. General Jackson came to the room and requested to see them. she was denied the comfort of receiving the remains of this. Ashby 's widowed mother lived in Fauquier. united the utmost generosity and unselfishness 271 . An escort of the brave com- rades of Ashby. DEATH OF GEXERAL ASHBY. " hmits of his authority no outrage on Says General Jackson in his report is An oiRcial report not an appropriate place for more than a passing notice of the distinguished dead but the close relation which General Ashby bore to my command for most of the previous twelve months will justify me in saying that. I knew his superior. Slowly and sadly the funeral cortege passed on its way through that exquisitely beautiful valley. as a partisan officer. His daring was proverbial.: . and a respect for the rights of others Avhich permitted friend or foe. with their bowed heads and solemn mien. but her home being now within the Federal lines. powers of endul^ance almost incredible. The storm of battle even seemed to have ceased out of respect for the dead. He was admitted alone. his tone of character heroic. accompanied the hearse. . and his sagacity almost intuitive in divining the purposes and movements of the enemy „" never his After the remains of the young hero had been prepared for burial in Port Eepublic.

He had kept The whiteness of his soul. lingering here. His personal staff next followed. seemed to recall some rite of of a perfect summer . aud tlius men o'er him wept. below Port Re- . who had not o'erstept The charter to chastise which she bestows On such as wield her weapons. these exhausted and march-worn men refreshed themselves. And fitly may the stranger. After the war his remains were removed aud placed beside those of his brother. For he was Freedom's champion one of those." And now Jackson's for two days the 6th and 7th of June^ army enjoyed a sorely needed rest. Captain Eichard Ashby. JACKSOX. and glorious was his His mourners were two hosts. a few miles in front of Port liepublic. along Mill Creek. spirit's Pray for his gallant bright repose. ancient chivalry " Brief. The few in number. led came the chieftain's horse and trappings. 272 it LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J.. liis young career friends and foes. brave. and at the end of two days were as ready as ever for battle. in the " Stonewall Cemetery " at Winchester. it had ma^rched three hundred miles. besides driving Banks over the Potomac. truer knight was ever borne to a glorious tomb. Lying on the north side of the Shenandoah. . of his Meantime Jackson. by his negro servant. and surely no braver. having prevented the junction two opponents by burning the bridges across the South Foi'k of the Shenandoah. whose grief was most demonstrative. In the — twenty -four days that had intervened between the time that he had withdrawn from Fremont's front at Franklin and his arrival at Port Republic. as it wound alono' the country road in the broad sunlio:ht day. The whole.

Together thev largely outnumbered him.BATTLE OF PORT REPUBLIC. public. Shields was inferior. The other Confederate commander therefore took the plan remaining to him. and. and burn the bridge to keep Fremont back. latter The 18 . To retire towards Brown's Gap was to allow his enemies to unite. having sent ers to the railroad at off his prison- Waynesboro' and removed his trains to Port Republic. and his vigorous pursuit of the last few days indicated a prompt attack without waiting for sion at Cross Keys. His effective force at this time could not have exceeded thirteen thousand men. it Avould certainly prevent Jackson from returning in case of success to attack Fremont. Avhich would then crown the heights on the left bank. but to hght them in detail while separated. army in position on the north side of the river General Ewell's divion the road to Harrisonburg. placed his . Here artillery was at hand to command the town and bridge and plain by which Shields must approach. Fremont was well closed up. half-way was not so well up as Fremont. While it might not thus entirely paralyze Fremont in the struggle with Shields. but his advance came within six miles of Port Republic on Saturday evening. 2Y3 of their en- was preparing to take advantage forced separation. He adapted his strategy to the character of the country and the rivers. was to run the risk of having the battle-field in the plain on the eastern side commanded by Fremont's guns. and he determined to retreat no farther. To concentrate on the east side at once against Shields as the weaker. and General Winder's division on the heights above the bridge along the river. Fremont was equal to Jackson in force. June the co-operation of Shields.

Shields. the southwestern outskirts of the village. had emboldened him." have rendered Jackson s condition precarious. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. . June 8th. if the latter attempted to attack The Federal in aid of Fremont. and sent forward his advance brigades to harass Jackson's flank. The mass of Shields's forces were known to be miles away. and Jackson's cavalry scouts were expected to give timely warning of his Jackson had placed his headquarters on api)roach. and break the railroad. Jackson thus took a position where he might receive the attack of Fremont. and had permitted Jackson. by the movements of his adversaries. condemned by the burning bridges to of the make his toilsome Avay along the muddy roads of the Luray A'alley. Fremont had failed to seize when the Confederate line of retreat at Strasburg it was possible. and his strategy approved. General Tyler thought it ''one to defy an army of Defeat by Fremont would fifty thousand men. JACKSOX. was impregnable. Sunday morning. of a small part of his force to hold Shields in His position. had halted at Columbia. he was ready to attack in a chosen position the army Avhich he had hesitated to fight when hampered by its trains and captures. Then McDowell was within reach to aid now an im. having followed them over fifty miles farther. His sagacity was made manifest. but this contingency he did not anticipate. while it was in the power check. passable river prevented all co-operation. on the other hand.274 7th. and now. with orders to go as far as AVaynesboro. to pass encumbered by him unmo- His pursuit of the retreating Confederates lested. Avith prisoners. was bright w^ith all the glory of summer in the Valley of the Shenandoah.

and a charge was poured into the rear column of Federal troopers. Jackson was just mounting his horse to ride to the front." Jackson.BATTLE OF PORT REPUBLIC. but both were soon released. Their unexpected approach threw teamsters and camp-followers into great But soon a gun from a Confederate batconfusion. Meantime Jackson had reached his troops nearest the bridge. so as to command the approaches to it. . bridge. followed by his staff. and their movement was checked. '' I think Jackson is caught this time. 275 men and Quiet reigned tliroughout the Confederate camp. brow of the terrace overlooking the was Taliaferro had tliem the nearest infantry. and ordered three batteries inriver. one by being left in town when the Federals subsequently retreated. rode rapidly through on the town towards the bridge and his troops stationed The enemy boldly crossed the hills around it. and for a few moments threat- mont the ened such disaster that Shields sent a despatch to Fresaying. and with another piece prepared to attack Jackson's train lying just outside of the town. promptly placed one piece of artillery at the bridge. when a bold and unexpected dash by the enemy opened the fight at Port Republic itself. which for a day or two had followed the excessive toils and marches of the campaign. of Winder's division. and make them prisoners. General stantly to the Taliaferro's brigade. and the other by capturing the soldier in whose care he was placed The enemy and bringing him back as a prisoner. tery was brought and placed so as to rake the main street of the village. and animals alike seemed to enjoy the rest. and rode so quickly into the middle of the town as to intercept the two hindmost members of Jackson's staff.

some two and a half miles below.276 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. distance towards the mountain before turning down the river. seeing him- attacked from both ends of the village. and the bridge was again in drawn up Jackson's possession. Ordering tlieni forward. for inspection. He soon met his infantry coming to his support. and placed the Stonew^all river. and an immediate charge with the bayIn a moment the Federal gunners were dow^n. Jackson placed himself at the head of the leading regiment. Jackson now stationed Taliaferro's brigade in the village to hold the fords of South River. to observe the Brigade on the north side of the main enemy and impede by artillery . and the first of Poague's guns that was ready. their gun was captured. Poague fired a charge which disconcerted the enemy. and continued to shell them until they were entirely out of range. the bridge. rode out of it as rapidly as he entered it. and quiet once more succeeded to the noise of battle. and Carroll's whole force was obliged to reTo avoid the galling fire they moved some treat. self The Confederates lost two men wounded. and the Federals their chance of destroying Carroll (the Federal colonel). onet. The affair had only occupied about one hour. and in his flight abandoned another piece of artillery to the Confederates. JACKSOX. but the three Confederate batteries w^ere now in position on the bluff on the north side. and they so rained fire on all the approaches to the town and bridge from the south and east side that any further attempt was futile. To guard against any repetition of this attack. The Confederate batteries followed on the bluff. then followed a volley from the infantry. At the word from Jackson. and rushed at a double-quick towards the bridge.

277 of Winder's any renewed advance. filled. ^vhen the infantry was brought General Trimble's brigade met the first into play. While these arrangements were being made. Fremont had made a reconnoissance. On Saturday evening. gave orders for a general advance the next morning. which it gallantly repulsed. Several other regiments joined him eii Toide^ and after a short and sharp struggle the Federals were forced to yield the artillery limbered up and retired and in a few minutes their Avhole left wing was retreating towards the position which it held before the opening of the battle. . The remainder if need be. his left wing. in spite of the loss of men and horses in serious attempt some of them. and. The Confederate batteries were in good position. and drove down the hill and back into the woods from which they advanced. kept up so spirited a fire that no was made on this part of the line. but the repulse had been too bloody to invite a speedy division. For a time a spirited lire was maintained between the opposing batteries. and having found the Confederates in force near Cross Keys. and. Blenker's was placed opposite Trimble. The . the battle opened along EwelFs front. A . Meantime. The Confederates awaited another attack.BATTLE OF CROSS KEYS. Milroy had advanced against the Confederate centre. renewal. his Fremont disposed forces for attack. determined to move against the enemy. fierce artillery duel was here the principal feature of the contest. Trimble waited a short time. the Federals occupying a lower parallel ridge. assault. General Ewell selected for his position one of the ridges with which the comitry is division Avas held in reserve to assist Ewell. perceiving no indications of a new advance.

JACKSON.27S LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. As the Federal right and centre withdrew. Thus ended the battle of Cross Ke\^s. Kiglit was at hand. M. He arrived on the tield at one left. and General Ewell decided to bivouac in the position he lield rather than risk a night attack on the enemy. the hours 23assed in which the fate of the day was being deSchenck was last to take his cided on Blenker s front. p. and Fremont. to take position to attack the Confederate General Ewell. strengthened and extended his line on the same flank. post in the Federal line.. this Durina* en":a(!:ement the advance force of . too. conscious of his inferiority of force. pushing forward his skirmishers and occupying the ground in front of the field. but there was no real attack. alarmed by the disaster on his left wing. part of the force at command. ordered both centre and right to Avithdraw. and anticipating an attack from Schenck on his left. with but a small victory. EwelFs being but two hundred and eighty-seven. he followed. and before he was ready to attack in earnest the battle had been decided by the defeat of Blenker. This delayed Schenck's aggressive movements. however. The losses were greatly disproportioned. had been content with the advantages already gained until his enemy's purposes were developed. and moved in rear and to the right of Milroy. seeing the movement of troops towards his left. felt Federals drove in the Confederate skirmishers and the lines behind them. while that of Fremont was six hundred and sixty-four. Thus. Ewell. at the centre of the contending armies. Ewell had repulsed Fremont so decisively on one wing as to paralyze his army and to secure all the advantages of This had been done.

upon Tyler. Impatient of delay. without waiting for the remainder of his forces. a good deal of The foot-bridge proving defectime was lost in getting the troops an attack. and to protect Trimble's retreat if iiecessar}^ In case of an easy victory over Shields in the morning. In case. conceived the bold design of attacking. whose . was directed to leave Trimble's brigade Ewell and part of Patton's to hold Fremont in check. and the easy I'epulse of Fremont. and ordered Winder to move liis brigade at dawn across both rivers and against Shields. Jackson. Jackson moved at once against the Federals at Lewiston. leaving orders for the remaining troops to follow as rapidly as possible. Jackson.PREPARING FOR A FRESH ATTACK. ordered soon as Winder had come up. For this purpose he directed that during the night a temporary bridge. emboldened by his slowness to advance. Jackson proposed to return to the Harrisonburg side of the river and attack Fremont in the afternoon. of delay. and a vigorous advance on Fremont's part.his two opponents in succession the next day. should be constructed over the South River at Port Republic. however. Jackson superintended in person the construction of the foot-bridge over South River. and burn it to prevent his antagonist from following. Avith the hope of overwhelming them separately. After two brigades had crossed. and before five o'clock in the morning Winder was already crossing. and to move at an early hour to follow Winder. 279 General Shields continued quiet on the east side of the river. Trimble was to retire by the bridge into Port Republic. Taliaferro's brigade was left in charge of the batteries along the river. tive. composed simph^ of planks laid upon the running-gear of wagons. as over.

and made all direct apposition proach to covered it difficult. ance of the enemy so much more obstinate than he had expected. A dense and almost impenetrable forest protected his flank. In this position General Tyler seems. He was altogether ready to meet the attack. on tlie second terrace from the Shenandoah. and. though on the alert. but he disposed his force. burn join the sible. Here he had six guns planted. JACKSOX. He soon found that the Federal batteries its commanded the road and Jackson then directed him to send a force to his right through the Avoods to turn the Federal left flank. which the latter hurried forward as fast vicinity completely. and commanded all the available approaches from Port Kepublic. The ground held by his left and centre was elevated. was an admirable one. not to have been a^vare of Jackson's rapid approach until the latter was deploying in his front. Winder. move over the bridge. Federals for a time proving the victors but a rein- . advancing on both sides of the road. linding the his first attacks resist- conflict now took place. as possible. found himself unable to cope with the force before him. Winder deployed his skirmishers. the . He there- fore sent orders to Trimble Fremont's front. and Taliaferro to leave it. drove in the outposts. a large part s while the batteries there placed of the front and enfiladed Winder advance.2 so LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. ffive determined to concentrate his whole force and intention of recrossing tlie river. with less than twelve hundred men. and sent to Jackson for reinforcements. A most determined and stubborn Jackson. and that up all had failed. and main body of the army as speedily as posMeanwhile the bloody Avork went on.

for the remainder of Jackson's force was arriving. who covered the Federal rear. 8 9 287 816 Say 916 1775 1173 . a few wagone piece of abandoned artillery. The Federals had made a most attack. 281 forcement to the Confederate batteries in aid of the infantry enabled them to carry their position. causing them to take to the woods and making it. and the cavalry followed three miles more. the enemy turned and opened upon us portions of Clark's and Huntington's batteries that they had taken from us. apparently a rout. gallant tight. for the earlier part Their cavalry charged upon our rear. Colonel Carroll. and capture five of the enemy's guns. both Avith their guns and Avere combined pushed back at every point. On June 6 70 Over 155 704 (including Carroll's). Xot a moment too soon had they yielded the field.: THE LOSSES OX BOTH SIDES. and eight hundred muskets were the trophies of the pursuit." The Confederate infantry pressed the enemy for several miles. 8th. which threw the rear of our column in great disorder. About two hundred others were 9th of June the losses were Confederate. and in a short time they must have been entirely overwhelmed. fifty prisoners. . of the retreat. off. says '• As soon as we com- to save them. Some two hundred and seventy-five of the Federal wounded About four hundred and ons. . and Fkderal. carried In the series of engagements on the Gth. also . but they could not resist the They : menced the retreat. were paroled in the hospitals near the battle-field. and were soon in full retreat. increasing the confusion.

under the blessing of Divine Proviit the poAver of the commanding genvictories of eral to congratulate them upon the June 8th and 9th. and was driving him slowly back. rejoin Jackson at when the Litter was ordered to Lewiston. He. then withdrew as rapidly as bridge without loss. caused him to Avithdraw farther. During the forenoon Fremont had advanced against Trimble on the north side of the river. On the 13tli he issued this order: ''The forti- tude of the troops under fatigue and their dence. Avhile Jackson moved out from his confined biA'ouac.282 LII-^E OF (iEXERAL THOMAS J. Exhausted nature demanded repose. '• Significant demonstrations of the enem}^'' Fremont expressed it. ively crushing Beset on both flanks by two boastful their toils. placed in A^alor in action have again. and Jackson noAv gave it to his tired and battle-Avorn troo])s. ])ossible. Here for five days of that splendid June he rested and refreshed his as army. and Avere prein and succeeded the face of the advancing Federals. The commanding invites you to obser\'e to- . armies. inflicting success- you have escaped blows upon each of your pursuers. Both Shields and Fremont continued to retreat down the A^ented A^alley. and you may dently hope that our beautiful valley will be cleansed major-general from the pollution of the invader's presence. Avith Taliaferro. by the river from giving him any assistance. Let confi- a few more such efforts be made. and he joined Banks and Sigel at Middletown. crossed the burning it in Fremont's army arrived on the heights overlooking Lewiston only in time to Avitness the retreat of Tyler. and camped in the noble park-like forest betAveen Weyer's Cave and Mount Meridian. JACKSOX. Xext day the Confederates rested in camp.

which a kind Providence enabled us to repulse. the Lord's Supper was administered in a woodland grove. and to His name be all the How I do I sent you a telegram yesterday. an attack was made upon us by a part of Shields's A. and by holding divine service in the several regiments/' The next day.. Our God has again thrown his shield over me in the various apparent dangers to which I have been exposed. 283 morrow. completely routed the enemy. and after several hours' fighting he also was repulsed. Yesterday morning I attacked that part of Shields's force which was near Port Kepublic. and received the sacred emgeneral blems from the hands of a regimental chaplain. after a hotly contested field from near six to ten and a half a. During the same morning Fremont attacked us from the opposite side. with whom their took his place. June " On Sunday. but national independence 1" command about seven o'clock "Near Weyer's Cave. June 14th. glory. and. the 8th. who lost eight pieces of artillery during the two days. . m. m. : Port Republic. only upon the condition of our wish for peace. to a large company of Christian soldiers from all the army. as a season of thanksgiving.THE LORD'S SUPPER IN CAMP. was there once. nature's own great temple. . M. being the Sabbath.. from three o'clock p. When 1 ditional interest in look at the locaHty of the cave. I take adit from the fact that my €S2)osita . June '• 14tli.. by a suspension of all military exercises. The following extracts are '•Near from letters to his wife 10th. This evening we have . God has been our shield.

fatigues.' ex! '' cept when ' /te started the nigJd lefore.' could not be found than were these men . numerous combats and skirmishes. but despite all these hardships. and even thirty-five miles a day A Northern writer said that Jackson moved infantry with the celerity of cavalry. it was his Yalley . From soldiers the i^apidity of his forced marches. thirty. AVouldn't you like to get home again ('^ The battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic of 1862. and to offer earnest prayer that He will continue to give us success. Jackson's were sometimes called his ''foot -cavalry. Brilliant as closed the Yalley Campaign were the achievements of General Jackson during the succeeding months of his too brief career. Campaign which lifted him into great fame nor do any of his subsequent achievements show more strikingly the characteristics of his genius. religious services in the army for the purpose of ren- dering thanks to the Most High for the victories with which lie lias crowned our arms. days he had marched four hundred miles fought four Avitli pitched battles. keeping the corps of McDowell inactive at Fredericksbur o-.'' The}^ sometimes marched twenty-five. and dangers. genial. Within forty .' says one of the 'foot-cavalry. His men said he always marched at 'early dawn. besides .' 'a more cheerful. through His divine blessing. JACKSOX. sent to the rear three thousand five hundred prisoners killed and wounded a still larger number of the enemy." 284 LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. and defeated or neutralized forces three times as numerous as liis own upon his proper theatre of war. our independence shall be established. jolly set in gray. until. defeating four separate armies.

who shared the privations of the common of soldier. "STONEWALL JACKSON'S WAY. This confidence is expressed in the rough verses stirring of one of his soldiers." they said.'" son is It was a stirring life the soldiers led in those days of Warm friendships sprang up among comthe war rades who stood in the ranks together and shared the lines. . '' Lee is detailed to call ' I same privations and dangers. their indefatigable leader. We'll make a roaring night. rang out the lines of " " Stonewall Jackson's Way. attachments among officers Besides these personal and soldiers. stack arms. and the dangers for combattle." and whenever the head of their column turned down the valley. . All had such confidence in his genius mand that they felt sure of victory where he led the way. the men round their camp Then. rails . the fatigues of the march. Come. like a bugle. men pile on the Stir up the camp-fires bright No matter if the canteen fails. '' on half rations in three General Banks was dubbed by them " Jackdays. and the Yankees. and Jackon the commissary-general. the jest ran double-quicked through it along the out of rations again. which must have had a effect when read sat or sung after a long day's march." 285 They indulged in jokes ad libitum at the expense of each other. 'old Jack' would have " Moses. that which army together was its devotion to its held the whole commander.. They declared that General Jackson Avas far greater than Moses. with manna to feed them on. as fires. took forty years to lead the Israelites through the wilderness." son's commissary-general.

There Here Slienandoali brawls along. . Lord save his soul I we'll give him — ' well.— : 286 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. pat. Strangle the fool that dares to scoff! ! his way ! Appealing from his native sod III forma paii2)er is to God. Hemmed Pope and in an ugly gorge. — hat. Amen "He's !' That's Stonewall's w:n-. That's Stonewall Jackson's way. The ' Blue-light Elder ' knows them well Says he. Stuart! pay off Ashby's score!' That's Stonewall Jackson's waj-. so true. so blunt. "We the old slouched see him now Cocked o'er his q\q askew The shrewd dry smile. "Silence! ground arms I kneel all! caps off! Old Blue-light's going Attention it's to pray. So calm. by George mists — ! There's Longstreet struggling in the lists. What matter What matter Quick step ! if if our shoes are worn our feet are torn? ? we're with him before morn ! That's Stonewall Jackson's way. 'That's Banks — he's fond of shell. the speech so . To SAvell tlie Brigade's roaring song Of Stonewall Jackson's way. 'Lay bare Thine arm — stretch forth Thy rod. cut off!— we'll win His way out. his columns whipped before 'Bayonets and grape!' hear Stonewall roar. JACKSON. the whole Brigade Hill's at the Ford. lofty Blue liidge echoes strong. 'Charge. in the saddle now! Fall ! in! Steady. "The sun's bright lances rout the Of morning and. ball and blade.

GENERAL EWELL. Jackson had listened very and asked morning to present his own. AVhen asked once what he thouo-ht of : the latter's generalshi}:) in this campaign. Tlie foe had better ne'er been born Thau get in Stonewall's way !" The gallant General Ewell proved a faithful coad- jutor to General Jackson in all their arduous operations too:ether. and heard his ejaculatory prayers for God's guidance in the perplexing movements then before them. . I must have it. I P. suppose Jackson Avants time to pray over Hav- ing occasion to return soon afterwards to get his sword which he had forgotten." . he attributed it to the influence of General Jackson's example.' came away. by which he was so deeply impressed. that he said: 'If that is religion. hope on ! Thy life shall not be all forlorn. "when he commenced it I thought him crazy before he ended it I thought him inspired. in impetuous manner " Well. the following well-authenticated fact will prove attentively to the views of his subordinates. As they it. but the influence of Jackson's example was blest to his conversion. ! 287 wait and watcli and yearn For news of Stonewall's band All widow." Ewell was not a religious man at the beginning of the war. 'Well. That ring upon thy hand. sew on. and by Jackson's general religious character. read with eyes that burn. Hill laughingly said to Ewell. "Ah! maiden. . pray on. sir.' and in making a profession of faith not long after. A. Ah wife. Ewell found Jackson on his knees. as his brusque. until the next : "At a council of war one night. he replied..

who said that he could always tell when there was going to be a battle. then I know there is going to he something to ])oy ." .288 Still LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS is J. to go off and pray. because I know he will call for it in the morning. and I go straight and pack his haversack. But when him get up several times in the night besides. s de- more striking the testimoii}^ to Jackson vout habits by his colored servant Jim. JACKSON. night and morning — a great man for prayI see all times. Said he: '' The general is ing.

THE RICHMOND CAMPAIGN— 1862. To oppose this great movement. had intrenched and fortified himself upon the approaches to the city.CHAPTER XV. not. was marching up from the Peninsula. On the 5th May a battle was fought at WilHamsburg but Johnston continued to retreat until he finally settled down with his array between Richmond and the Chickahominy. a brief glance will be given at the operations of the two contending armies around Eichmond. with his corps. General Johnston had. and. was advancing from Fredericksburg to join him. with a large army splendidly equipped. 19 . early in April. he attacked them. As the Federals began to cross that stream on the 31st of May. but in consequence of greatly inferior numbers was compelled to fall back before the advance of the l^orthern army. lasting from two o'clock until of . aided by a fleet of gun-boats in the James River. without resisting and inflicting heavy losses. and a fierce contest ensued. army of General among the grand old General McClellan. however. For months the o-overnment at Washington had been concentrating its energies upon the capture of the Confederate capital. "While we leave the brave little Jackson luxuriating in a rest woods and green valleys of the Shenandoah. while McDowell. transferred his army from Manassas to the Peninsula.

' more than two miles through their own camps. who thus became the commander-in-chief of all the Southern armies." Thus. in obedience to General Lee's orders. and take the aggressive against McClellan.290 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Stuart. had. it was necessary to mask Jackson's removal from the Valley and a reinforcement of seven thousand men was sent as far as Staunton as a blind. and. both from friends and foes. " drove thera back to the Seven Pines. JACKSOX. And now comes in the part of Jackson. E. he reports. having thus ascertained the position and strength of the enemy. made a raid with his cavalry force of twelve hundred men. President Davis was also upon the ground." to which General Lee's reply was '' But he must help me to drive these people away from Richmond first. and from a series of intrenchments. and some light artillery. and repelled every attempt to recapture them with great In this battle he was wounded so seslaughter/' riously that he was unable to resume command. he had already formed the design to concentrate the army of Jackson with his own. This was one of the most daring and brilliant exploits of the war. Lee. great distinction for Stuart and his gallant troopers. and his place was filled by General Kobert E. and then '' : : . after his victory at Winchester in May. and won. but from which he returned in safety. saying men. The gallant and dashing General J. called from his initials " Jeb " Stuart. as ' cuit of the Federal lines — a perilous undertaking. with his keen military sagacity. giving his counsel and aid. who. and with them I would invade the Xorth . B. . However. had requested to I should have forty thousand be reinforced. in order to deceive the enemy. around the whole cirnightfall.

hovrever. June. without warmly commending the fidelity of the sentinelsoldier for his strict obedience to orders. but the man still protested. powerful reserve intrenched. he placed them in command of General Ewell. on coming forward. but without avail. Jackson the next day returned to his command. and He at once let him pass. to call the captain of the guard. He did not go. and conveyed it safely to Ashland on the evening of June 25th. saying he had special orders from Jackson not to pass either soldiers or citizens. Jackson encountered unexpected difficulties in the way of burned bridges and the handling of a part of his army by inexperienced subordinates. from which he was directed to march and turn the enemy's works at Mechanicsville. ! bearing important intelligence to General Lee. evidence of the The who. and Jackson's sudden march over the mountains was a complete surprise to friends as well as foes— not a man in his own army knowing where it was going as it took up its march from Mount Meridian on the ITth of After accompanying his troops to within fifty miles of Kichmond. and rode express. then that he was an officer camp on this occasion. not knoAving him. refused to let him pass military general pleaded that he w^as an officer on business. to the city to confer with General Lee. On leaving he met with a pleasing his faithfulness of one of his pickets. 291 marched back with Jackson's army. recognized his general. agreed. which caused much delay. Under the stress of his great anxiety and . After a full conference with General Lee. The enemy in the Yalley was deceived with equal adroitness. where he had a On reaching Ashland. however.THE RICHMOND CAMPAIGN. with a single courier. who.

and drove the enemy out of the little village. of Virginia. and in its march met at each crossroad tlie vigilant cavalry of Stuart. i of the seven days' battles around The bear no. heavy of it responsibilities. which told that he was approaching. the Confederates Avould not wait until Jack- advance could turn their flank. and down the Chickahominy into their strong intrenchments on its eastern bank. In their impetuosity to drive them out of this fore the enemy-s position. P. and D. Dr. and was only waiting for Jackson's support to make an attack. Here A. This was the beginning Kichmond. Hill. A furious cannonade opened on both sides. The latter was a brotlier-in-law of Stonewall Jackson. HilFs division. — . and slept that night upon their arms. and after a severe flght the Confederates failed to dislodge the enemy from their son's them that evening on works. P. At the sound of the latter's guns. that gradually covered his left . his army was put in motion. JACKSON. Dabne}^ says : * It is taken for granted that most readers know that there were two generals by the name of Hill in the Confederate army A. rest or sleep during the night. to the most energetic preparations and Soon after sunrise the next morning. of North Carolina. and by the afternoon Jackson was abreast of the enemy's right flank at Mechanicsville.292 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. H. Hill swept forward. Both were Hill.had been in position beworks for some hours. but attacked their left. very distinguished officers. but he gave not one moment to devoted the whole to jyrayer.of the soldiers in this crisis was not more worthy of admiration than the calmness of the people.

and there was danger that he might be too late to fulfil his order. As the calm summer evening descended. burning and . he " No. or else wending their way to the churches. the contest between the Federal artillery and that of A. while the thunder of cannon shook the city. saw the ])eople calmly engaged in their usual avocations. where mothers told their children at their knees how Lee and his heroes were The demeanor their courage. army stores. w^hile the cannonading told that the battle was thickening in front. the enemy retreated down the Chickahominy towards Cold Harbor.THE SEVEX DAYS' BATTLES. thus losing an hour of precious time. The spectator." At dawn on the morning of the 2Tth. H." deserting vast quantities of : . General Lee directed Jackson to proceed to Cold Harbor with D. For many weeks the Christian people had given themselves to prayer and they drew from Heaven a sublime composure. The young people promenaded the heights north of the town. passing through the streets. Hill was resumed but perceiving the divisions of Jackson approaching their rear. Hill. and had to retrace his march. " 293 of the citizens of Richmond showed and tlieir faith in their leaders and tlieir cause. let us trust that the providence of replied God will so overrule it that no mischief shall result. But he maintained his calmness and composure. driving away the invaders. and watched the distant shells bursting against the sky. and strike their line of retreat. the family groups were seen sitting upon their door-steps. JN'ot Ivuowing the country. P. . and when this fear w^as suggested to him. Jackson was misled into taking the wrong road.

Hill was fighting against overwhelming taken. brilliant charges. he came within range of the . he thus describes the part borne by the gallant General Hood and : Texans. JACKSON. with simultaneous successes of the field. while the issue was in was seen to show unwonted excitement. The event proved that his conlidence was not misby this delay D. The faithful Stonewall Brigade. The next morning there was not a terrible During suspense. II. for II. General Winder. with D. Avas forced back swamps this of the Chickahominy. the ringing cheers rising from every side out of the smoking woods relieved his anxiety. but the Confederates. siceep the field with the hayonetr But before his messages were received. making the most stubborn and stoutly under inch of ground they had won. made and. Jackson '' : Federal soldier north of the Chickahominy. the hottest hardly contested one holding ever}'' . throuo^h a number of retreating and disordered regiments.294 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. the its upon other parts into the whole wing of the Federal army. and told him that the day was won. II. P. While A. after resistance. day. Hill was enabled to meet him precisely at the appointed time and place. The battle was a numbers. advanced under and for several hours continued the combat with wavering fortunes. Hill. Hill's command. with D. son's official report of In Jackhis the battle. despatching messengers to each of his division commanders with this sharp command Tell them this affair must hang in suspense no longer. with reinforcements. riding restlessly to and fro. '' who were under his command Advancing. Jackson. at last won the day. fire.

poured a destructive for a quarter of a mile. in which upwards of a thousand fell. routed at every point. were promptly carried from line to line. 295 who. right. he exclaimed ': men are soldiers indeed !" . leaping ditch clambering up a difficult ascent. General Hood and Colonel Laws. the Fourth Texas. had stormed this citadel of their strength. . and nearly a regiment were captured. Moving and stream. under Dashing on with unfaltering step in the face of these murderous discharges of canister and musketry. as General Jackson inspected and saw the deadly disadvantages under These which the Texans had carried it. before the face of the enemy. enemy's fire. The Federals. and the triumphant issue of this assault. . with the well-directed fire of the batteries. was the first to pierce these strongholds and seize the guns.THE SEVEN DAYS' BATTLES. rushed to the charge with a yell." this position The next morning. driving the tion. into bis advancing line. these brave and determined men pressed forward. and successful charges of Hill and Winder upon the enemy's . The shouts of triumph which rose from our brave men as they. unaided by artillery. cessant and deadly fire from the intrenchments. protected by breastworks. under the lead of General Hood. concealed in an open wood and fire. determined the fortunes of the day. and exposed to an in- enemy from his well-selected and fortified posi- men In this charge. and men gades. down a precipitous ravine. killed and wounded. at the heads of their respective briwhich many brave oflScers fell. and aided by the darkness of the night. and in which fourteen pieces of artillery. escaped across the Chickahominy.






The Confederates had indeed gained a great

push their success to the utmost. To this end Ewell and Stuart were sent to cut off the retreat by the York River Eaih^oad, Avhich was effected.

now remained

amount of and burned the residence and farm buildings of General Lee at the White House. The retreat down the Peninsuht being now cut off, it only remained for the Confederate right wing to get between it and the James Eiver to complete the success by the capture of the whole Federal army. But the retreat was aided by the dense forests and impassable swam})s, and as they burned the bridges across the Chickahominy as soon as they had crossed them, they were able to continue their march towards the James. At their intrenchments, and in their track, were found deserted supplies of vast arm 3^ stores, much of which they had attempted to destroy. But, notwithstanding, the spoils proved a rich harvest to the Confederates, Avho gained great stores of fixed ammunition, and, besides, the suffering country people were supplied with muchneeded provisions and necessaries. McClellan's last intrenchments were at Savage Station, where General Magrader made a vigorous attack upon his flank and front, and drove him out of them near sunset of the 29th. The sound of the combat put Jackson on the qui vive, and as he lay down under the open sky for a short rest, he gave orders that everything should be ready to move at early dawn. At midnight he was awakened by a sudden shower, which drenched him so thoroughly that he could sleep no more, and he determined to precede his troops to the position of Magruder, in order to have
Before retiring, the


destro\^ed a vast





This was the same gallant John Bankhead Magruder under whom Jackson won

time for fuller conference.

his first laurels as a soldier in Mexico.

On June

30th General Jackson wrote thus to his
"Near White Oak Swamp Bridge.


ever-kind Providence has greatly blessed our

and given us great reason for thankfidness in having defended Eichmond. To-day the enemy is retreating down the Chickahominy towards the James


prisoners are falling into our hands.

General D. H. Hill and I are together. I had a wet I got up bed last night, as the rain fell in torrents. about midnight, and haven't seen much rest since. I do trust that our God will soon bless us with an honorable peace, and permit us to be togetlier at home again

enjoyment of domestic happiness. You must give fifty dollars for church purposes, and more should you be disposed. Keep an account of the amount, as we must give at least one tenth of our income. I would like very much to see my darling, but hope that God will enable me to remain at the post of duty until, in His own good time. He This going home has blesses us with independence. injured the army immensely."
in the


After the discomforts of the previous night, when his troops came up, he was found drying himself before a camp-tire, but, speedily taking his place at their

head and moving on, captured at Savage Station a field hospital containing twenty-five hundred sick and wounded. Other prisoners fell into his hands at every step, until one thousand were sent to the rear. An






him on the great number of his they surrendered too Avillingly, and that their maintenance would be a heavy expense to the Confederacy but General Jackson answered, with a smile, '' It is cheaper to feed them tlian to light them.-'
oiRcer, congratulating
caj^tives, said

he surprised the enemy by a tliat were in a concealed position, which drove them ra])idly to the rear,
this day, the 3oth,


onslaught from his batteries

leaving several pieces of artillery behind them.



and during the rest of the day an duel was kept up but as each part}^ was inrallied,

visible to the other,


much damage resulted to either

The White Oak Swamp bridge having been demade an attempt to repair it, so as to pursue the enemy but when night came, and he saw that so little had been accomplished, more wearied and depressed than he had ever been seen to be before, as he lay down to sleep, he said " Xow, gentlemen,
stroyed, Jackson


us at once to bed, and rise with the dawn, and see

to-morrow we cannot do something /" During that night the Federal forces skilfully withdrew from his front and moved to Malvern Hill. At an early hour the next morning, July 1st, Jackson put his corps in motion and crossed the White Oak Swamp. His reconnoissance showed him the enemy strongly posted upon an eminence in front of Malvern Hill. In short, the whole army of McClellan, which was still powerful and well disciplined, was now assembled on one field, wliile the whole Confederate army was converging around it, under the immediate ej^e of the general-in-chief and the President. The war of the

was now about to begin. The position of the Federals was selected by McClellan himself with con-



summate skill—the ridge comraanding all the surrounding country, and he was also under the protection of his gun-boats in the

James River.

The Con-

federates labored under the disadvantage of an in-

having also to cross swampy woods which was exposed to the fire of McClellan's artillery, and, as they approached his intrenchments, his deadly musketry was equally appalling. The Confederate leaders were likewise ignorant of the country, which impeded their progress and delayed
ferior position,

and a

the opening of the battle until late in the afternoon.

and raged with the utmost fury an end to the conflict. Jackson's troops fought with their usual bravery, but he conceded the laurels of the day to D. H. Hill, who charged across the open plain in face of a terrific fire of artillery, under which his men fell fast. But he was soon reinforced by Jackson, and enabled to maintain his ground until the veil of darkness interposed and mer-

But on



at last,

until night put

bloody struggle. At ten o'clock the battle died awa}^, when Jackson retired slowly and wearily to the rear to seek some refreshment and rest. His faithful servant, Jim, prepared a pallet for him on the ground, in the midst of a confused multitude of
cifully closed the

wagons and
ened by



after partaking of

food he sank to sleep.
his division

At one

o'clock he

some was awak-

commanders, who wished to reThese officers all agreed in the opinion that McClellan would probabl}^ take the aggressive on the morrow, and were full of
ceive instructions for the morning.

apprehension as to their ability to




son listened indifferently, asking a few brief questions,


said, as if at ease in

the matter, "



I think


will clear out in the morning."






His words were prophetic, for when morning dawned, with a pouring rain, McClellan was indeed gone, leaving behind him the marks of a precipitate The wearied Confederates were permitted retreat. by the commander-in-chief to rest a day and re])lenish the ammunition of their batteries, and liad orders Jackson was most to move the next day in pursuit. impatient to march with the dawn, hurrying off without breakfast but after losing a day, Avhich gave the Federals time to reach the shelter of their gun-boats, the march proved to be a useless one, and the oppor;

tunity of capturing the

enemy was gone. The commander-in-chief was disappointed

to learn,


his arrival in front of the Federals, that


tunity had been found for striking a blow, eitlier on
their retreat or in their present position.

ately rode forward with General Jackson,

He immediand the two,
make a

dismounting, proceeded without attendants to
careful reconnoissance

on foot of the enemy's whole Jackson concurred fully in the reline and position. luctant opinion to which General Lee was brought by that an attack would now be imthis examination proper so that after mature discussion it was determined that the enemy should be left unassailed to the effects of the summer heats and the malaria, which




at hand.''
tlie close

General Lee, in

of his report, says


should have been destroyed.

Under ordinary circumstances the Federal army But regret that more


was not accomjilished gives way

to gratitude to the

Sovereign Iluler of the universe for the results acliieved.


siege of

Richmond was




object of




months a campaign, which had been prosecuted after men and of preparation at an enormous expenditure of
money, completely

More than ten thou-

sand prisoners— including

officers of

rank— fifty-two

pieces of artillery, and upwards of thirty-five thousand stand of small-arms, were captured. The stores and supplies of every description which fell into our hands were great in amount and value but small in comparison with those destroyed by the enemy. His losses in battle exceeded our own, as attested by the thousands of dead and wounded left on every field while his subsequent inaction shows in what condition the survivors reached the protection to which they


After spending a few days in a much-needed rest and in gathering up arms, the Confeder'ate army was marched back, on the 8th of July, to the vicinity of

Richmond. A few extracts from Jackson's

letters at this


will furnish glimpses of his varied experiences during Thus he writes this memorable week.


When my command


we found it opened upon the Federal artillery, and succeeded in securing one of their cannons, four caissons, and one battery wagon, in addition to part of a pontoon-bridge Many prisoners have fallen into train and prisoners. our hands, and they really appear gratified at the idea of being taken. I have never seen prisoners so contented. ... On Tuesday we had another engagement, in which General D. H. Hill, with his division.

White Oak Swamp broken up by the enemy but we
arrived at







accomplished more than any other part of the army. Other troops were sent to support him, but his division

may be said to have borne the brunt of the battle, and he was by far the most distinguished officer engaged My position is now about three miles north tliat day.
of James Eiver, and twenty five miles below llichmond. During the past week I have not been well, have suffered from fever and debility, but through the blessing of an ever-kind Providence I am much

better to-day.

Last week I received a present of a summer hat from a lady in Cumberland.


Our Heavenly Father gives me friends wherever I It would be delightful to see my darling, but


we know



things are ordered for the best."

The corps reached the neighborhood of Richmond on the 10th of July, and it was during its stay of a few days there that General Jackson made his first appearance openly in the cit}^, for the purpose of attending divine worship on the Sabbath. He thus
speaks of

in a letter to his wife



heard Rev. Dr. M. D.
also in the

Hoge preach


his church,



of the Stonewall


It is

a great comfort to have the privilege

of spending a quiet Sabbath within the walls of a house dedicated to the service of God."


slipped into the church unattended

— quietly and

modestly took a seat near the door, and, after the services were over, was gone before the congregation Avas aware of his presence. After calling on a mother who



a son in his command, he returned to his tent.





So great was the modesty of the now famous general
that he found his greatness embarrassing, and he shrank

more from pubKc notice and applause.



caught sight of him, they rent the air with their cheers, which he always acknowledged by lifting his cap, and then putting spurs to his horse and galloping


at the top of his speed.

" Little Sorrel

seemed to know the signal for this stampede, and perhaps it was from these marvellous flights that the >' foot-cavalry " drew some of their inspiration. Whenever the sound of the " rebel yell " was heard in their camp, the soldiers jocularly said, " That's old Jack,'

or a ral)hit

The owner

In the movements of the troops around Richmond, on one occasion, Jackson and his staff Avere compelled
to ride through a field of uncut oats.

rushed out upon them with great indignation, venting his rage specially on the general's devoted head, and



a quiet tone the

name that he might report him." In name was given. What Jackson ?"
^^ '*

was the reply. man, as the truth dawned upon him " what Stonewall Jackson ?" " That is what they call me," was the answer. Taking off his hat with the profoundest respect, and with a voice now all kindness and reverence, the man said " General Jackson, ride over my whole field do whatever vou like with it, sir."
asked the farmer.

" General Jackson,"
! '

''What!" exclaimed the




the 11th of July, he wrote to his wife from

''Again your husband

about leaving his camp.







Please direct your next letter to Gordons^ille, and continue to address me there until you hear otherwise.

Everybody doesn't know the meaning and location


Headquarters^ Valley District /'"




in the valley he

had requested

that his letters should

be directed simply to '' Headhis headquarters during District*quarters, Valley all that time being principally in the saddle but after


he was transferred to Eichmond the inappropriateness of this address amused him, and perhaps caused delay and even loss of his letters. Ubiquitous as he

he could not have any one address lono". About the time of his leavinon Eichmond, his chief of staff, the Eev. Dr. Dabney (who afterwards wrote his biography) was compelled to resign in consequence of ill-health. The general wrote: "It was


dui'ing the war,

with tearful eyes that I consented to our separation." This officer, by his intelhgence and faithfulness, had

been invaluable to him, not only in his Yalley CamIn one paign, but in the battles around Eichmond. instance, at the battle of Chickahominy, a misconception of Jackson's orders on the part of a messenger

might have resulted in a fatal error but for the promi)tness and eflficiency of the chief of staff, avIio, comprehending the general's true intentions, and the urgency of the occasion, went himself in person and brought all into harmonious action, and thus decided the fortunes of the day. In a letter to his wife he says
" If



vouch for Joseph's (her brother) leing


an early
riser (luring the



remainder of the war, I will give him an aide-ship. I do not want to make an appointment on my staff except of such as are early but if ijon will vouch for him to rise regularly risers



I will offer

him the


The youth, Captain

G. Morrison, was courageous
this rigid condition,

enough to accept even on


served the general faithfully until his death, being

himself twice wounded, the last time losing the whole
of one foot, except the heel.

General Jackson was no respecter of persons when duty was concerned. On one occasion, when he had an early march before him, he so lost his patience with the tardiness of his staff ixi rising that he ordered his cook to pack up everything, and to throw away the coffee, which had been captured from the enemy and

was a rare luxury and he finally threatened to arrest the whole staff if they did not get up immediately. This had the effect of awakening them thoroughly, and doubtless of arousing some ire also against the stern and relentless leader, though all who served under him were ready to say, as one did, that his kindness to those who did their duty was like a woman's." The attachment of members of his staff to him was sincere and strong. They knew he was sterner to himself than he was to them, and could never doubt his whole-souled and patriotic devotion I shall never forget the intense feeling with which young " Sandy " Pendleton (as he was called) said to me the day after


General Jackson's death, his face bathed in tears '• God knows I would have died for him P^

officers. This true and gallant officer followed his general tu the grave in less than a year slain in battle in liis youth and promise. . obtaining a furlough. With his ardent.exington. and spent a few blissful weeks with his young bride. near Avhose ter-quarters. Avlien duty called him into the field. Pendleton. his heart was soon captured during the war by a charming young lady. lived. and. home he was stationed for a time in Avinrivals He had some among his brothei*- but was successful in winning the prize. was married. Manv were the similar tragedies which the cruel war brought to the hearts and homes of the devoted Southern Avomen. — General W. of J. and thev never met as^ain. for even the stern duties of the soldier's life did not put a stop to marrying and giving in marriage . and would have followed his father's sacred calling if he had A tender romance hangs around his memory. He was the only son of the Eev.306 L^^'E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. hence it was that there were left so manv broken hearts and blif]:hted lives. chivalrous nature. N. JACKSON.

He began with a boastful announcement of what he was going to do. resentment. in which Jacka suggestion so son speaks of raising the black flag his character that the statement Avould be alien to received with the <?reatest reserve.CHAPTEE XVI. and General John Pope.— A NEW FLAX OF CAMPAIGN. RAISING THE BLACK FLAG." giving the impression that he would in a single campaign. he proudly declared that his headquarters would be in the saddle. who had obtained some reputation at the West. which were said to be in violation of This naturally provoked bitter all the laws of war. and led to threats of retaliation. The failure of McClellan in the Peninsular cam- paign had led to a change of commanders in the JS^orthern army. These boastful proclamations were repeated in Richmond. was brought East and placed at the head of the Army of the Potomac. That alone explains the following interview. Disdaining the slow and cautious policy of his predecessors. sweep the opposing armies from the face of the earth." But Avhat disturbed the Southern people more than his martial ])rowess was the way in which he began his operations. and greeted with a smile by those who remembered that " pride goeth before a '' fall. perhaps in a single battle.— MOVABLE COLUMNS TO INVADE THE NORTH. did it — not come .

S. B. who might be supposed liis to be in his confidence. a young AVest . I Harrison's Landing. Baker. received from Stuart. as Gen.Pointer. which will have its interest for the students of history During the battles around Eichmond in June and was a captain of cavalry in the First North Carolina Eegiment. " ' — In haste. Please forward a report of operations of your cavalry from 20th June to 10th July as soon as possible. 1862. from own brother-in-law. Stuart had charge of all the cavalry in the army. " ' J. Even then it is justified only I>ut as a retaliation for the similar conduct of Pope. General Jackson is anxious to see CapKufus Barringer. July '' ' 6th. " ' Brigadier-General. as furnish- ing a glimpse of the secret counsels of the war. E. Colonel L. With this explanation I give the following letter. may be gone after that. nothing more is ever heard of the retaliation. JACKSON. E. "On the 14th of July I was in picket along the Chickahominy and the James with my squadron. Companies C and F.' . and for some days after the battles General Jackson still held the front. Stuart. J. B. On that day Colonel Baker sent me a note.: : 308 J^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Brigadier -General J. 1862. Captain (afterwards General) Itufus Barringer. as the latter s campaign soon came to an inglorious end. facing McClellan at " July. commanding. Please send him up this afternoon. the Mecklenburg and Cabarras companies. tain Colonel. as follows "'Headquarters Cavalry Brigade.

Once fairly at ease. the talk you and I once had at my table in Lexington in the heated party struggle of 1860. and I in North Carolina. It is proper. were brothers-in-law. not is 309 now before me in Stuart's own Avrit- coming through the ordinary staff channels. "With a soldier's plain supper and lying together on army couches. and our occupations quite differing. though. Captain Barringer. 1 attached no importance at the time to tliese incidental matters. We both thought it would be inter- . and. we had only met a few times. and Major-General John Pope had entered E'orthern Virginia. But he was now. we happened if it to agree as to the character of this war. and. and at once remarked for YOU for a matter entirely between ourselves. however. As General Jackson and I. General Jackson soon began the business in hand. Though differing in politics. He living in Virginia. as he himself : ' boasted.: SUMMONED TO HEADQUARTERS. to add that in point of fact we had seen very little of each other prior to this time. plainly showed it was the result of a personal interview between Stuart and Jackson. he said "'I recall. when I reached his camp. You If Genwill stay with me in my tent here to-night. and with this new movement of the enemy emphasizing his whole tone. and we can have a good talk. to with headquarters in the saddle. eral Pope does not disturb us. I have sent cordial. once began. I am sure McClellan At that time will not. and not at all since the war began. unusually Captain.' threatened overrun the whole country and speedily lay it ' waste. " This note ing.' tlie authorities at Washington had already began to change their war policy.

and the ultimate loss of free responsible government on this continent. and leA'ying contributions upon them. the South would have no alternative l)ut to defend her homes and firesides.. and citizens shot Avithout Avaiting civil . slavery and all. Possibly. but both agreed that 1 myself see in this Avar. I have myself cordially acce])ted the policy of our leaders. if the Xortli triumj)h. It is a disso- lution of the bonds of all society. and it ity and mercy. in certain cases directed that liouses shall be razed to the ground. but it is the prelude to anarchy. process. infidelity. They are great and good men. not alone the destruction of our property (which both the nation and the States are bound to protect). With these convictions. as things then stood. necine in its results. I see now clearly enough the people of the South Avere not prepared for sucli a policy. Avho is not only subsisting his army on the people of Culpepper.' ' . " Xo quarter to the violators of our homes and firesides I" It would in the end have proved true humanThe Bible is full of such Avars. viz. I alwavs thouo-ht ^ye ou^ifht to meet tlie Federal invaders on the outer verge of just right and defence. JACKSOX. policy that would bring the Xorth to its is the only senses. concern for slavery. Xeither of us had any special if the sword was once drawn. he continued. too. and raise at once the black flag. But all this is now suddenly changed by the cruel and utterly barbarous orders of General Pope. but has laid Avhole communities under the pains and penalties of death or banishment and '• ' But. no other ])olicy Avas left open to us than the one pursued by Pi^esident Davis and General Lee.310 Llt^E OF GENERAL THOMAS J.

to his own plans or policy.' "Thus far General Jackson had given me no clue to perplexity how upon us. and has called for a full report. . in whole or in part. Xo plan of campaign has as yet been agreed on.JACKSON'S PLAN OF CAMPAIGN. Kow. nor did I venture to ask his tone. think any mounted troops could be made to stand iirm under such a fire. Captain. But I gave him frankly certain outlines of my own plan of waging the contest. He is delio'hted at the bearino^ of botli vourself and men in that little affair at Willis's Church the other He did not day. and especially yourself and your company. fact. meet it. marked ing But he suddenly changed directness said I must : ' and with you now why I sent for you. I expect to need your services here. and tny to secure his approval. and I shall have to order you up. He says you are one of the few civilian oflBcers thoroughly imbued with the im- and portance of cavalry to know^ drill how all this and discipline. Davis. I have lately had a good deal of talk with General Stuart on the cavalr\^. my plan of operations. I mounted troops would be my main wish to have a full talk with you in regard to that arm of the service. •' ' 311 This new phase of the struggle is full and General Lee is in great I have just had a conference with him on this vital point. and he is high in his praise of your First North Carolina Kegiment. tell them. and which he promised to lay before Mr. which he considered favorably. the cavalry In the event of General Lee adoptI shall have to rely very much upon arm of the service. reliance In . In which event. I wish wonderful efficiency in your regiment has been brouglit about in so short a time.

I wish to know. and the esjrrit de corps of both men and officers. that much of all this is due to Colonels Kansom and Baker. authorities are fully committed to a different policy the present fact. stand. as a Confederate officer. I underI may have use for a good many of them. regular West-Pointers. to a very stilted style of waging war. and the Confederacy fortunate to have such officers to lead them. is In every aspect the situation Clellan is embarrassing. and anYou are fortunate to have such men to swered command. right under the all eye of Mr. something of t\iQ j^f^'f'sonnel of your officers. of course.312 Llf'E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and manifestly expecting .' General Jackson then told me in confidence. too. that he was already under " marching orders to move against Pope in Culpepper. and as the to check Pope's dastardly system of Avaronh^ way Unfortunately. and I seek to learn how the training of regular soldiers can be best imparted to the high-strung Southern citizen V "I then gave him the full details of our organizacamp methods. He beamed with delight. : ' Chicago. But/ he said further. General Lee is now consid' ' ering certain special features of applicable to my war polic}^ as — in emergency. Mcciv- nominally in command. But here Pope. violating ples of the so-called princito modern warfare. JACKSON. AYith such troops 1 would not hesitate to risk a march even to Xew York or to tion. and his mode of in strict warfare ilized is conformity to the usages of is nations. but I have some prejudices against the narrow ideas of the old army officers. the Confederate fare and plunder. Lincoln. and in such an early stage of the war.

The enemy largely exceed us in men and material of war. especially in naval appliances. As 1 always said. and has promised me to if consider their force and application. and Pope on the other. first policy Avould have comers against the safety Next to that. and our limited supply of both troops and munitions of war would ultimatewhich the South should possible even the conflict and defend its people. All I can say is that he has (as I told you) heard certain suggestions of mine. I would give . and I would risk the whole issue on the development of these special to utilize the special points in characteristics.' " circumstances General Jackson next proceeded to give in his full detail ideas of the war (if — the general policy on now) wage and the special plan of campaign he would inaugurate against Pope and the cities of the ]N"orth " As to a general policy. I think it unwise to attempt to defend the whole of our extended lines. and the war policy based thereon. it is impossible to choose your own special plan of campaign or to change your general military methods. To offset their palpable advantage in this respect.SHOULD NOT ATTEMPT TO DEFEND TOO MUCH. : ' ly be exhausted in a prolonged. supersede JMcClellan and desolate the South. gigantic struggle. and with their apparently opposing policies. and I trust implicitly to his great ability and superior wisdom. especially our extended coast and water line. 313 With McClellan on one side of Kichmond. permit. I would seek which the South clearly leads the North. each with a vast army. But General Lee is equal to whatever emergency may arise. my own all been the black flag to of our Southern homes.

and . I would hurl these thunderbolts of war against the rich cities and teeming regions of our Federal friends. sible. so selected and located. All this just as Pope is doing in Xorthern Virginia.314 LIFE OF GEXKKAL THOMAS J. as circumstances might seem to require. as far as poson the ^Northern people. These light movable columns I would hurl against the enemy as they entered our borders but only when sure of victory. I would organize our whole available fighting force. But better. JACKSOX. except noted leaders. and when the loss of an army was impossible. I would seek to avoid all regular thoroughly . defend our people and territory against invasions of the enemy. f reference to the tactics of ''Attack and Eetreat. to protect our communications. I Avould lay heavy contributions in money on their cities. and so located as best. or more light movable columns. All the rani. fortified. I would encumber my marches with no prisoners. specially armed and trained and equipped for sudden moves and for long and rapid marches. held mainly as hostages for ransom or for retaliation. and file I would jy^'^ole^ hut onlij at the risk of life the jyarole was molated. up. I would subsist my troops. many exposed points and all untenable positions. I Avould train and practise the troops with special battles. These counter-invasions would be the main feature of my policy. into two. and gradually concentrate our choicest fighting men and most valualjle material at a few strong interior camps. and also keep up ceaseless aggressions upon them. I Avould see that some other one or more of these '' movable columns '' was on the march. four. at one and the same time." Hut })efore turning my back to the foe or the enemy's country.

and I woukl right now seize the golden moment to show the North what they may expect. money. '* ' . all the way to bleeding Kansas . and possibly break the spirit of our people. and some large cities also. ••'This — would make it hot for our tlielr homes and firesides. this policy might not have been so easily appreciated. More important still. Ben and Pope are fast opening their eyes. involve giving And programme would. striking at 315 some other ' vital point —possibly hundreds of miles away. My whole policy would aim to husband our resources of men. the cavalry and horse artillery would play a most important part. up much of our territory. while the malaria of the oi'dinary camp and the coast Avill soon decimate our ranks. The one vital advantage of the South lies in the horsemanship of the Southern boy. and material. At first. in certain operations I would depend almost entirely on mounted troops. and our troo2)s would at the now rejoice hope of an aggressive movement. they begin to realize the scope and design of the Abolition element. The garrison and fortification policy has lost us whole armies at Donaldson and elsewhere. but now our people begin to learn something of war. We have just gained great victories here at Eichmond.LIGHT MOVABLE COLUMNS. friends at Kansas " and Pennsylvania. But it would save the risk of losing whole armies by capture. disease. That ]node of war best suits the temper of our people and the dash and daring of the Southern soldier. Fremont. In fact." and doubly so for Ohio so I of course. merely taking the chance of crossing tlie ]\Iississippi and other navigable streams. In a war thus waged. Butler. or death in battle.

lie answered. In either event. and was. under a sort of ]iledge to m}^ com])any and their friends not to leave them except by promotion in the line. and no one can But if the two main Federal armies remain stationary. besides. the but more likely to fight Pope. He answered promptly In such a movement I would seek to reorganize my whole staff. and especially your own noble regiment.316 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. in case he should need me.' " I here asked General Jackson. my policy. pointedly: . of course only at such point as may have then seem open. In three hours may be on the march — possibly to flank McClellan. And now is just the time to bring what Stuart has McClellan's army. and have ordered you up here to have a full conference in regard to the cavalry arm of the service. so far as to promise " light me the organization of at least one of these it movable columns. and we can get a few days to turn around in. " ' done in it to bear. " ' And now. and I replied frankly that I was wholly without skill or experience as a staff-officer. whole army tell may be put in motion. and the personal courage of the Southern freeman. JACKSOX." and with I am to make the invasion. and I should : .' want you as quartermaster-general. See sweeping clear around But I well liberty to choose his I know that (Jeneral Lee is not at own policy now.' This toolc me somewhat by surprise. my dear captain and brother. I sent for you to say that in such a contingency I shall need 3'our services in some high position. General Lee has assented to a single phase of \vhere the campaign will end. in what way he thought I could best serve him.

he ' ' such a policy could hardly be ventured upon. IMPORTANCE OF A GOOD QUARTERMASTER. . and as to your know your business repu- and on an expedition of the kind suggested a good quartermaster is of the first importance. too. If Pope invites a battle and we beat him. All this may come to naught. Colonel Harman. I have. and in emergencies would. 'Soldiers can give 3IY want of military training. And General Lee will do just what the situaarm}^ tion requires. So.' "Finally. if General Lee can see his way to adopt my polic}^ so far as to organize a light movable column of forty thousand men. we each concluded it was some other sound. the ivJiole may have to pursue him. is all I could desire except tation. besides.' he continued. My present quartermaster. from was suddenly aroused towards day by Jack- son calling me. I told them. however. I was sure it was only a joke they had on you. I no such pledges. they say you cursed a little when you ordered that retreat at Willis's Church. have to command and handle troops. His responsibilities would be very great he would be often called on to decide nice questions of military and international law. I should regret this but the emergencies of war often leave us no discretion. If McClellan remains in command. After listening a few moments. and I am put in charge to try this special mode of invasion. in these last particulars. But.. and saying he thought he heard cannon. which I we both dropped into a sound sleep. I will order you up for assignment. laughing outright. and again fell asleep. a single personal he will sivear ' objection to the Colonel — sometimes : P added Captain. . General Jackson often repeating.' Thus we talked on to a very late hour.

for a little repose. with a twinkle in his eye. army we had a correspondence in regard to my accepting a position on the 'Military Court. AVhile the Avas at Fredericksburg in the winter of '02-'63. " After this I never met him again.318 '^ LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. I said. If I only his lines. he Avas virtually left no alternative but to make the invasion of Maryland with the army as then organized. Xot another word ever passed between General Jackson and myself on this subject. with the depot and machine' shops. with some concern General. 1862. JACXSOX. when his troops were destroying the track of the Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad. part of September 17th. and as General Lee did not care to assault the heavy lines and fortifications at Centre ville. And with tliis course Jackson seemed fully satisfied.' lie Avas greatly troubled about desertions. 13th of February. " I next met him at the close of the campaign. but oh how I'd like to see the Yankee camp right now And then added. He was withdrawing towards the rear. The assignment was not made but on the . on ' the night of the terrible slaughter at Sharpsburg. and Avas urging me to go on that tribunal. 1S63. I think tion that the Virginia it Avas at his sugges- Company in charge of the large . and the want of discipline among our troops. A few days changed all the conditions on which he had hoped General Lee might be induced to adopt either his general 'war policy' or his special plan of invasion/ '* The battle of Cedar Run forced Pope to retreat. : : * I I' ' had my '• movable column I" "I saw him once more at Martinsburg. isn't our army pretty badly worsted to-night ? He answered Yes.

I think I stated in some instances that he thouoht of me as his quartermaster-general. I was. The telegraph and railroad lines were at this time all cut by the Stoneman Raiders. and I only succeeded in getting the despatch safely through by sending near them. of a facts now add few course. was sent back to '' reliable couriers on fleet horses over different routes. simply stated. and my company ordered to that important army depot.HOW army stores at IT SEEMS NOW. On my return to my command below Eichmond. In all he said to me. 2. But I must add that General Jackson and I agreed fully on the subject of nepotism. Davis or the Confederate war pol- " icy. after the interview with General Jackson. and the bridges its command. 319 Hanover Junction. of victor}^ But in a very few days the shout was hushed and chieftain. But . He did not claim that the 2)olicy was errone- ous. or that his would be more likely to succeed. there was not one word of antagonism to Mr. and it became my duty to receive and forward the despatch from General Lee announcing at the same time the great Confederate victory and the mortal wound of Jackson. that he was my brother-in-law. and that both would have spurned the idea of appointment to place or office merely because of kinship or connection. and that he was sounding me as to a staff position. I was there during the fights at Chancellorsville. interrogated visit to his somewhat 1 as to the object of my headquarters. " I stilled in the universal wail for our fallen and reflections proper to a full understanding of the whole subject: " 1. what was pretty well known.

they both accepted.320 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS . and he trusted with beautiful faith and hope to those in power above him. Possibly neither his war policy nor his plan of invasion could have given us success or independence. nearly three years before the catastro})lie came. this ' ous war ])olicy been actually adopted. movable- column ]X)licy' of tiie departed Jackson. 18^2. it was a momentous question and as the struggle went on. he frankly avowed his purpose . as laid down by him July 14th. and duty to Stonewall Jackson to credit of the strong and clear con- my and which he. practically. But he well knew alike his place and his duty. JACKSOX. " But now. wliich after the lapse of nearly a generation since the conversation occurred. and he seems to have had the courage to express. But it is a high compliment to the modest professor at Lexington to know that. When General Lee gave up Eichinond and Petersburg. whicli his intuitive military mind grasped with all the clearness and force of genius. J. when the supreme moment came for President Davis and General Lee to decide on the last and only chance left for escape and ultimate success. and Pranklin. But we can now realize that either of these measures would have saved us the fearful losses at Sharpsburg. Murfreesboro'. for and since the cause in disaster we fought went down it defeat. new considerations arose. and to the guidance of an overruling Providence to direct all for the best. and the capture of w^hole armies at Yicksburg and Port Hudson.-' "Possibly greater disasters than even these Avould have befallen our unfortunate people had this vigorvictions that he entertained. I think give him the full alone.

321 to retire to the strongholds of our long mountain ranges. at Danville. in his last proclamation. Southern feeling. to strike the enemy in detail. and there maintain the contest . Davis.: WHAT MIGHT HAVE BEEN. uttered these words 'EeUeved from the necessity of guarding particular army will be free to move from point to point. 21 and a policy in accord with and which might have heen victo- .^ it is And well known that the great strategist of the Con- federacy. ''Jackson alone stands forth the one advocate of 'ceaseless invasion' as 'our safest hope' — the first conviction of his mind. while Mr. Johnston.' and 'no longer points. General Joseph E. our forego opportunities for promising enterprises. always opposed the garrison-and-fortification policy as alike exhausting and dangerous.

Ewing. On the 19th of July they reached Gordonsville. Some were just out of the hospital walking on crutches. It Avas sad to should leave thousands of their . My tent opens upon the Blue . or with others had contracted diseases their arms in slings as deadly as wounds. 'No one had undergone more exposure than their commander. Barbour. of our church. iny for the bracing air of their native mountains. Rut they. but who felt new life from the thought of exchanging the swamps of the Chickahomto return to the valley. and luive received much kindness from her and her three daughters. too. and had the coarse fare of the common soldiers. CEDAR RUN AND THE SECOND BATTLE OF MANASSAS. from which Jackson writes to his wife : '* I liave been staying for a few days with Mrs. Mr. mother-in-law of the Rev. so that lie and they were alike in the highest spirits when they set out on their return march.CHAPTER XVII. it was a joyful moment when Jackson and his troops received orders (the campaign being over) think that they comrades behind them to sleep their last sleep near the city which they had given their lives to defend. who had slept on the ground. After the terrible fatigues of the campaign around Richmond. had suffered from hardships and exposure.

in particular. upon his knee he made her until she grew so fond of him that and caressing she asked him one day to give her as a keepsake one of the bright brass buttons from his coat when it was worn out. not pray to men. Months afterwards. One little girl. and amusing himself with the dren of the household. His tones solemn. General Jackson found special pleasure in joining Mr. than any man I ever knew the danger of robbing of the glory due for our success. he did not forget the request. and sent a special pet of. tremulous." After spending a few days at Gordonsville. Ewing thus describes these services : He did was something were deep. 323 is Eidge front. so as to find in that fertile region better pastur- God . enjoying chil- their hospitality. Ewing's household in their family worship. " There Mr. and w^henever requested would conduct prayers himself. and after the duties of the day ^vere over he spent The society his leisure moments in their home circle. which the delighted child preserved as one of her greatest treasures." in the distance. near by.A CHRISTIAN HOUSEHOLD. often taking her the promised button. He seemed to realize that he w^as speaking to Heaven's King. although burdened with the most anxious and weighty cares of an arduous campaign. but to God. very striking in his prayers. I never heard any one pray who seemed to be pervaded more fully by a He seemed to feel more spirit of self-abnegation. The wagon-train moving in and kindness of this Christian family were exceedingly congenial and refreshing to him. he changed his quarters into the county of Louisa.

both men and horses into better condition for Just before this move he wrote from futniv service. Banks. Before taking this step. Hill was immediateh^ sent to him. it was observed that he was much in prayer. and McDowell. Jackson had no intention of remaining idle or of awaiting an attack from so powerful a foe. asre for his liorsos. ' 1 glory in tribulations !' What a bright ex- ample for others After ascertaining that the enemy were in large force under General Pope. The division of A. and hope you will not think — I" said. The apostle Paul Christian darling I Avife. but this was his custom previous to every battle. with this accession to his small giving him the victory. My I am just work. and sometimes it seemed that Avhile his soul was thus lifted up in sup])lication. JACKSON. wished to be more retired and devote his lime to reorganizing his command. Jackson applied to General Lee for reinforcements.32i Llt'E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. combining the united com- mands of Fremont. P. army. making an army of at least fifty thousand men. He also Gordonsville. A number of officers are with me. but people keep comthouofh let me sav no more. but determined to strike a blow himself before the enemy had time to concenlie therefore advanced towtrate all their forces. . the Lord of hosts heard and answered. on the 2Sth of July '' : overburdened Avith hard at receiving only very short letters from your loving husband. A ing: to mv tent should never complain. Shields. ards them on the 7th of August. and. Even upon the field he was often seen to lift his eyes and raise his right arm as if in earnest prayer. and frettiii".

325 Pope's army was gathering in all its strength at Culpepper Court-IIouse. They afterwards made an attempt to retrieve the fortunes of the day. : . lasting two hours. and press forward Jackson will lead you eral will lead you Follow This appeal was not in vain. on little stream called Cedar Eun. and shouted to the broken troops with a voice which pealed higher than the roar of battle Your genKally. and otlier commanders all fought their bravest and best the gallant AVinder receiving a mortal wound and " It was at this fearful still they were pressed back. "that the genius of the storm reared his head. Here began by a furious cannonade on both sides. Early. me startled by this unexpected rally. by an assault from a mao^nificent body of tlie borders of a hostilities — . mid-torrent of the highway. were driven from the field. the infantry of both armies became hotly eno:ao:ed. : ' I ! ! !' . and the Federals. when.— THE BATTLE OF CEDAR RUN. but the overwhelming numbers of the enemy swept down with such impetuosity that the weaker party were forced to yield. P. about five o'clock in the afternoon. The conflict was fierce and stubborn. brave men. and in an Jackson appeared in the instant the tide was turned. and it looked as if it were doomed to destruction. which they had so nearly won. moment. Hill. A. ." says his late chief -of -staff Dr. his face flaming with the inspiration of battle he ordered the batteries which Winder had placed to be instantly withdrawn to preserve them from capture he issued his summons for he drew his own sword (the first time in his reserves the war). Winder. Ewell. Dabne}^. and on the 9th of August Jackson's little army came iu contact with his advance-guard about six miles from the Court-House.

is in Him.: 32G cavalr}'. about six miles from Culpepper can hardly think of the fall of Brigadier-General C. I aid in fighting our battles for us. and so. he found that rest and sleep which his wearied frame so much demanded. that He will continue to do us. courages me. Let us all unite more earnestly in imploring God's Court-House. and that He will nation that people Avliose God is the Lord." from the bondage of ." That night eTackson bivouacked with his troops. I want rest. Finding ev^ery house tilled with the wounded. nothing but rest /" Two '* days after the battle he wrote to his wife : On last Saturday our God again crowned our arms with victory. my H" trust God be for who can be against us ? That He will still be with us and give us victory until our make our attach so poral independence shall be established. underneath the '' canopy of heaven. When offered food his reply was Ko. he declined to enter. The thought that there are so blessing many of God's ])eople praying for His upon the army greatl}^ strengthens and enThe Lord has answered their prayers. but even this was repelled. we must attach far more to being free sin. While we is my earnest and oft -repeated prayer. much imj)ortance to being free from tembondage. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. JACKSON. and the troopers driven in full retreat. Winder without tearful eyes. saying the sufferers needed a place for He was so utterly worn out rest more than he did. S. that he threw himself staff upon a grass-plot — one of his kindly spreading a cloak to add to his comfort star-lit — and here.

no part Urged by the medical director to take movements of the day.30 A. This battle of Cedar 327 Jackson himself pronounced tlie most successful of his exploits. But lie announced it to his commander-in-chief. Brigadier-General Charles Winder was the head of his wounded whilst ably discharging his duty at command. including Brigadier. General Lee.General Price. Whilst our list of killed is less than that of the enemy. we have mortally to mourn the loss of some of our S. according to 9th. fifteen have collected about hundred small-arms and other ordnance stores." official We In his late report. God blessed our statements of prisoners. McDow- and SigeFs commands. he pays this tribute to the commander General Winder " It is difficult of the Stonewall Brfgade. On the evening of the arms with another victory. and which attract the admiration and excite the enthusiasm of troops.: THE DEATH OF GENERAL WINDER. . elFs. about six miles from Culpepper Court -House. The enemy. consisted of Banks'S. his ardent patriotism and military pride could bear no such restraint. We have over four hun- dred prisoners. The battle was near Cedar Run. in these devout and modest terms : Run ^' August 11th. the brave within the proper reserve of an offi- cial report to do justice to the merits of this accomin the plished officer. because of the enfeebled state'of his health. M. Richly endowed with those qualities of mind and person which fit an officer for command. best officers and men. G. which was the advance of the left wing of the army.

" In this battle the Confederates had between eighteen and twenty thousand men engaged. in consequence of the elevation of their position. and enabled which he gained by holding Slaughters — commanded all the him to overlook the whole scene of action as it lay beneath him. Avhile the Federals. and in the to implore His continued favor in the future. and it was believed that JMcClellan's remaining forces would be recalled from James River and sent also to swell the ranks of the grand " Army of Virginia. It was to the advantage of this position as well as the bravery of his troops that he was indebted for his complete success." The report closes as follo^ys : " In order to render thanks to the victory at Almighty God for Cedar Eun. JACKSOX. had thirty- two thousand. and other victories. he was rapidly rising to the front rank of his profesHis loss lias been severely felt. Burnside's corps was withdrawn from North Carolina and sent on to Cul})epper Court-IIouse. and to pour down the volleys of his artillery upon tlie foe. divine service was held army on the 14th of August. By this victory Pope received such a blow that he was deterred from making another advance until he could gather reinforcements. had one incalcu- advantage over the enemy. while his own gunners were secure from a returning fire. his promptitude in seizing and an elevation which Mountain surrounding plains. according to their own returns.328 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. however." as the command of Pope was . lable Jackson. sion.

and that the most effective way to dislodge him from He the Peninsula was to threaten Washington therefore determined to move his army from Richmond to Gordonsville. on the ITth. and marched to the base of Clarke's Mountain. McClellan evacuated the Peninsula and removed his troops to At all that ]McClellan ! the Potomac. After General Lee joined him. General Lee now when General Lee ascended Clarke's . which commanded a vie\v of the enemy's encampment along the Orange Railroad. and silently stole away !" object of Pope was to place the Rappahannock between himself and his pursuers. Jackson left Gordonsville. called. 329 events. deemed it best to restrain Jackson's impetuosity. as soon as the troops from Eichmond began to arrive. and the work went steadily on until the whole of Pope's vast army " folded their The tents like the Arabs. and four days after. to give his troops more . for on the night of the 18th the Federals obtained information from a party of colored deserters from the Confederate camp which so alarmed them that the next day. and cut but General Lee. On the 15th. he saw their tents gradually disappearing. He began his march on the 13th. By this delay the success of Jackson's design was frustrated.OUTLOOK FROM THE TOP OF CLARKE'S MOUNTAIN. Mountain to take a look at their encampment. General Lee was convinced was incapable of further aggression. time for preparation. with their united forces he was most impatient to push on in pursuit of the enemy on the 18th. on a peak of which he had established a signal station. owing to the off his line of retreat dilatoriness of a part of his subordinates. and postponed the advance until the 20th.

and the two hostile armies marched along on either side of the stream. P. JACKSON. he reached AVarrenton Springs. General Lee now ordered Jackson to cross the Eappahannock high up. on the 22d. opening fire upon each other whenever the opportunity Jackson continued his march up stream until offered. hastened to pursue. had recrossed the river without the loss of a man.330 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Jack- . and at an early hour on the morninir of tlie !^(»th the whole Confederate army was put in motion. His situation Avas one of extreme peril. Avitli his command. but he managed to conceal his troops in the woods. Before other troops could be crossed to his impassable. but he passed Early's brigade over on a mill-dam. While a fierce artillery duel was soinff on across the river between A. returned to report Pope's whole army massed upon the northern bank of the Eappahannock. with a powerful artillery preHis pared to dispute the passage of General Lee. and by the dawn of the morning of the 24th the gallant Early. until Jackson liad constructed a temporary bridge. its of cavalry. with General Stuart's splendid division usual daring-. Hill and the enemy. dashed across the Itaii})ahannock. and hold his foes at bay with artillery. and Early was support. and by a forced march go to Manassas and get in Po]ie's rear. and after skinnisliing a few hours and capturing some prisoners. and took possession of the Springs. a sudden and heavy rain -fall swelled the river so as to render it thus cut off from his friends and surrounded by the enemy. Other divisions were sent to Pope's front. where he found the bridge destroyed. position on that side of the river was far more safe and defensible than when Jackson proposed to attack him on the ISth.

" you how much I love my little Although his troops had been constantly marching and fighting for five days. pass around Pope the westward. Towards the close of the day he had gone in advance of the column. supplemented by the green corn of the fields along their route. he started from Jeffersonton early on the morning of the 25th of August.: GETTING BETWEEN TOPE AND WASHINGTON. He was thns lost sight of by the Federals. have only time to pet dove. dismounting. . and subsisting upon insufficient rations. the sunset glow irradiating his noble face and figure. but saying at '• Washington him all his The enemy has taken a tell position. Leaving behind trains. and place his corps between him and Manassas Junction. but he quickly indicated by a gesture that silence must be preserved. Jackson was now to preparing to obey Lee's order to separate himself from the rest of the army. and making a hasty issue of rations. or rather several positions. had stepped upon a large stone by the roadside. except ambulances and carriages for ammunition. I on the Fauquier side of the Rappahannock. son left 33I the river-bank a few miles. As he stood upon this elevation. On that day he wrote a hurried note to his wife. and marched to the village of Jeffersonton. yet they did not lose their enthusiasm and devotion to their indefatigable leader. and to Longstreet was given the task of amusing Pope by the appearance of a crossing at Warren ton Springs. not alluding to his movements. probably to inspect his arm}^ as they passed by. began to cheer. as they caught sight of him. with uplifted cap. and. his men.

Jackson s corps two days. mand was their instantly obeyed . as they were now cut off from General Lee. and reached Bristol Station. the first object of Jackson at was to get possession of the vast stores of the enemy Manassas Junction. and exclaimed quer with such troops as these?" and devoted turned to his staff. four miles farther north." cheering. JACKSOX.— 332 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. with the whole of Pope's army in their front. So much did he realize this necessity that he determined to press on that night. fifty miles in by which they accomplished their object. General Jackson with a face beaming with pleasur" Who could not conable emotion. that of placing themselves between Pope and Washington a perilous j)osition. lips spirit. With such a marched supplies leader to inspire them. with his cavalry. enabling him to carry out his plans of secrecy and rapidity of movement. they waved eyes bespoke the cheer which their loyal been forbidden to utter. and not to wait until morning. feeling to be but an hum])le instrument in the hand to his brave of God. ''No and the comwords. and his promptness and efficiency were invaluable to Jackson. was guarding the right flank. his mod- men. in this and had As the columns marched by their caps in the air. General Stuart. l)oys. ])ut as the soldiers passed their general. whatever esty led liim to ascribe liimself his it army achieved. the general re(]uests enemy. in order not to betray their presence to the Down the cohnnn Avere passed the it. So completely were his brave sokliers in sympathy . and thus give the enemy time to destroy the stores. : Thus always. Upon arriving at Bristol Station. capturing all their from the enemy.

The reply to this was a from their guns. who had been all night under the rest to taking a part of his command. at the risk of his life. with orders to rejoin him. and. complete success. volunteered for this service. and waved a white handkerchief. seeing his offer refused.CAPTURE OF ARMY STORES. 333 with him that General Trimble. with im- To mense commissary and quartermaster's supplies. if necessary. and he dashed forward alone. a Federal detachment began arrival upon an attack. consisting the of every- thing which their army needed. ascribed his defeat in the three this disaster Pope the days' sanguinary struggle which ensued upon had been plains of Manassas. but. the commander fell mortally . and leaving On watch Pope. supported by a de- tachment of Stuart's cavalry. making such havoc in their ranks that Jackson's heart was moved with compassion. The Confederates vast stores. and. the in and resulted all work was undertaken. Almost immediately after Jackson's at Manassas. as a signal of truce to them volley to accept quarter. relief of Trimble. with Stuart himself in command captured of the whole. Their own guns were captured and turned against them. mistaking the strength of the Confederates. two hundred and fifty horses. Jackson went to the arms. took several hundred prisoners. were soon compelled to retire in confusion. the morning of the 2Tth. with his Twenty-first North CaroUna and Twenty-first Georgia regiments. The opposing force Avas quickly overcome. he hastened back to his men and ordered them to proceed with their work. alleging that his army compelled to fight without sufiicient rations and ammunition. the scene.

the right extended towards the road lead- . the two remaining making a divisions. the men Avere allowed to help themselves to all that they conld consume and carry away. and was managed with so much skill that not a single man was captured in the retreat the stream separating Bristol from Manassas was safely crossed. and mitted them to refresh themselves with the rich spoils which they had captured from the enemy. to prevent its falling again into the hands of the enemy. field. JACKSON. As it was impossible for them to remove all these vast stores. after ent directions. 334: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. The next morning. boots. One division was sent that night across the Warrenton and Alexandria Turnpike. Bull Itun. and tempting eatables were a rare treat to the hungry soldiers. Jackson's order. and after a brave resistance had been withdrawn to This was in obedience to join Jackson at Manassas. and halted near the battlefield of the first jManassas. wounded and was left upon the were ])ursued and scattered. while his men per- Jackson now gave his troops a short rest. hats.. and the remainder was destroyed. who had marched twenty -five and thirty miles a day. circuit as far as Fairfax Court-IIouse. and had fed principally on green corn and apples gathered by the way. the 2Sth. they had again to buckle on their armor. Bnt after a few hours of this high carnival. and the railroad bridge was burned. and the whole command was now concentrated north The left w^ing rested on of the Warrenton Turn])ike. first. The new clothing. was also brought up on the fianks of the infantry. The forces which Jackson had left at Bristol Station under Ewell had been attacked. joined the after marching in differand Stuart's cavalry.

when the enemy were discovered to be advanc- ing along the Warrenton turnpike in heavy force. by troops. should fail in coming up to time. .LOXGSTREET COMING TO HIS SUPPORT. but he was subsequently able to resume his command. and he lost no time in striking them on the flank as they passed. but was becoming more and more critical for any reason. Thus far Jackson had been entirely successful in executing the instructions of General Lee in placing his corps between Pope and the Federal capital. through which Longstreet. wdien the enemy and continued until about nine o'clock. opened such a fierce cannonade that the enemy w^ere forced to return it. there was danger of Jackson's small army of only eighteen thousand men being crushed by the sheer w^eight of the greatly superior numbers of the whole Federal army. generals. The Confederate batteries. was expected to come up to the support of Jackson. Longstreet. idea of letting the He had no having an elevated position. leaving the field in the possession of the Confederates. 335 ing from Thorouglifare Gap. Ewell . Scarcely had he completed the disposition of his his position if . and a short time before sunset a furious and bloody battle began. thereby arresting their march and compelling them to come to a stand. even at the risk of his own safety. Suspecting that they might be retreatmg to Alexandria to avoid an engagement. retired under cover of darkness. Jackson determined to attack them. In this engagement two of General Jackson's major- and Taliaferro. which he had drawn upon himself through liis daring and rapid movement. Avith his corps. w^ere wounded the former losing a leg. enemy escape him.

to see Longstreet coming Early in the morning clouds of dust in to their relief. stimulated by the sound were hurrying forward to the comrades. the enemy changed position. Stuart conducted relief of their struggling them in safety to Jackson. Already great clouds of dust were seen arising over Thoroughfare of the cannonading. arrival. their anxious hopes were real- when Stuart's couriers came dashing up and an- nounced the ap})roach of Longstreet. and the battle continued for many hours with stubborn and relentless fui-y on both sides. which was returned Avitli ]iromptness and spirit. JACKSOX. but it proved to be a body of the enemy who had occupied that pass the day before for the purpose of intercepting Longstreet's At ten passage. but were each time repulsed. thouo'h thinned bv battle and almost exhausted bv their extraordinary exertions. To both was that direction raised their hopes. and the expected troops. The Federals displayed great forward in separate valor. and Jackson's lines. if possicrush him l)efore he could receive reinforcements. so officers and men the danger of their situation imminent that all eyes were anxiously turned towards Thoroughfare Gap. six times rushing and deter- mined assaults. and were now retiring to Bristol. ized Soon. however. yet stood heroically at bay. Gap. the morninir of the 29th Jackson discovered that enemy were preparing to give battle. A general and terrible conflict now threatened. About two o'clock thev hurled their masses of infantry with . and infused new life and spirit After Longstreet's into the whole Confederate ranks.336 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Jackson's right flank was attacked by a heavy o'clock cannonade from the enemy's batteries. and. On the ble. and the union of the two corps was effected.

they spoke but little beyond inquiries and remarks concerning the occurrences of this eventThe medical director." After the fatigues and horrors of the day 22 . in possession of the lines which they had so gallantly held. AVhile Jackson's corps was struggling against these furious onslaughts. it was only to driven baclv in dismay and con- fusion. as line after line be mowed down and The conflict advanced to close quarters. Wearied and sad. speaking of the terrible conflict." replied Jackson. lay the wounded and dying. raged until many of the Confedexhausted their cartridges but they erate infantry had declared they would hold their position with the bay. in ful day. and with this new enemy Longstreet Avas engaged until nine o'clock at night. wdiile others and fought with them. Darkness then closed this second day of carnage. Longstreet was engaged in equally onet. 337 perfect desperation against Jackson's wing. Doctor McGuire. for their hearts were heavy with sorrow at the fall of many of the best and bravest of their army. driving back his assailants and capturing a number of prisoners and trophies. seized the stones of tlie field severe and bloody work in resisting the forces that were brought against him. in the darkness. and some of them did thus hold it. but. when Jackson and his staff came too-ether for a few hours' sleep under the open sky.SECOND DAY OF THE BATTLE. "it has been won by ing. said '• General. their pale reinforced faces did not indicate the success of the day." : nothing but the blessing and protection of Providence. this day has been w^on by nothing but stark and stern fight"IS^o. and around them. and the weary Confederates slept upon their arms. The army of Pope was by a corps of McClellan from the Peninsula. That nio-ht.

who had occupied themselves wounded. and finding them wavering . ly awaiting the attack. JACKSOX. and the great attack was not made until four o'clock. General Lee. tlie eliaplains. borne by Jackson's For about half an hour the brunt of the battle was lines. and the artillery occupied an elewere over. having ari*ived with Longstreet upon the scene of action. until the Confederates exhausted their ammunition. Before another sun had set. and dashing like great billows against — — their opponents. and calmJackson held the left wing. upon the ground which his subordinates had so stoutly held against all the assaults of the previous day. and the struira'le with furious desperation. collected in groups all the men that could be found off duty. with slight skirmishes. and possessed such advantages in position that it might be said the battle was won before it was fought. Then the struggle began in earnest the Federals making a most gallant charge three lines advancing in dense masses. the morning of the 30tli found the commander-in-chief at the head of his army. in carinj^ tor the vated ridge in the centre. The Federals showed their wisdom in delaying hostilities until late in the afternoon. another folmore determination. commanding the fronts of both wings. and led them in prayer and praise to the Captain of their salvation. The morning was marked by only an occasional cannonade upon different portions of the Confederate lines.338 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. The Confederates stood solely upon the defensive. Longstreet the right. As each line recoiled before it the murderous lowed with I'aged fire still with which was met. many of these worshippers were among the throng around the great white throne.

but found only a watery bivouac under the beating of a continuous rain. battles the total Confederate loss five The estimate was that in this series of was about seventy- hundred men. ministered to the wounded. At ten o'clock the third day of this great battle came to an end. causing them to break just as darkness. Longstreet 339 ance. . and they dashed forward with renewed enthuagainst them. intensified by the smoke of battle and an impending storm. Both of their wings were ordered upon the foe. Jackson's proportion of the loss in officers and men greatly exceeded that of the rest of the army. in consequence of his fighting the first day without the support of reinforcements.THIRD DAY OF THE BATTLE. siasm and vigor. Longstreet. many days being consumed in the work. turned the tide his artillery into the This gave the Confederates time to rally. and the wearied Confederates lay down to seek rest upon a victorious field. at several points. while all night long was heard the tramp of the enemy retreating to the heights of Cento close in tre vi lie. eleven hundred of whom were slain upon the field. In this three days' battle the Confederate loss was very heavy. gathered over the terrible scene. and subsequently the enemy seemed to select his lines chiefly In all the as the points of the most furious attacks. was ordered to his assistBut before the order was received. under a flag of truce. and numbers of lives were sacrificed by delay in receiving attention. while the artillery dealt a deadly and terrific fire into his lines. perceiving and embracing an opportunity of pouring advancing ranks. but the battle-field revealed the fact that that of the Federals was far greater. Their surgeons.

Ave can l)ut express the grateful conviction that God was with us. Dabney says : " Few words are needed to point out the share which Jackson and his corps merited in the glory of the second victory of Manassas. and a large amount of army stores fell into the hands of the Confederates. long struggle only thirty-five men by ca])ture. In view of the arduous labors and great privations the troops were called to endure. and the heroic tenacity with which he held th(? against feai'ful odds until the arrival of General Lee.: . numerous colors. the promptitude and of his action in seizing and destroying the Juncit tion. JackAvhile the prisoners son thus closes his report '' For these great and signal victories our sincere and humble thanks are due unto Almighty God. was splendid result chiefly due. and gave us the victory and unto His holy name be all the praise. lsr)l. that the positions of the combatants in July. To skill the rapidity of his march. were almost precisely . Dr. the wisdom which guided his selection of a posi- tion. JACKSON'." . thirty pieces of artillery. and the isolated and perilous position which the command occupied while engaged with greatly superior numbers of the enemy. on the other side were estimated at seven thousand. in addition to two thousand left wounded upon the battle-field. Twenty thousand small-arms.340 LIFE OF (JEXERAL lie lost THOMAS J. if It was so or- dered as to illustrate the superior prowess of the in this battle Confederate soldiery. In reviewing the whole. We should in all things acknowledge the hand of Him who reigns in heaven and rules among the armies of men.

is my earnest prayer. God has blessed and preserved me through His great mercy. the Federal side/' On the 1st of September General Jackson wrote to his wife We were engaged with the enemy at and near Manassas Junction Tuesday and Wednesday. It greatly encourages me to feel that so many of God's people are praying for that part of our force under my command. and none of it to man. and I pray that He will make our arms entirel}^ successful. the son of his pastor. who combined great beauty of youthful manhood with fervent piety and the brightest promise.: . Preston was mortally wounded. Colonel Baylor and Hugh White were both killed. . was that from which McDowell could not drive them on the 21st of July while the preponderance of numbers was still upon . battle 341 The ground held by Jackson in the second was that held by McDowell in the first and tlie ground from which the Confederates drove Pope at nightfall. as was also young Preston. and Saturday in all of which God gave us the victory. and Willie " . a candidate and was one of the purest and noblest of characters. and we ever be His devoted people." Hugh White was for the ministry. "GOD GAVE US THE VICTORY!" reversed. They were . and again near the battle-field of Manassas on Thursday. On Saturday. the 30th of August. Friday. May He ever be with us. The Lord has answered their prayers He has again placed us across Bull Run. and that all the glory will be given to His holy name.

Stuart repoi'ted the enemy as having raUied upon tlie heights of Centre ville. once more presented a front. he marched through circuitous country roads. they resumed their retreat.342 botli I'lI-'E <^>l'' GENERAL THOMAS Ijovs. ment. the enemy resistance that . and General Jackson was directed to turn their position. As soon as the enemy perceived this unexpected mov^e]nent. were ordered to march. with large reinforcements from McClellan. General Jackson's soldiers arose from the wet ground. if possible. capable of defence either in front or rear. Here Pope's shattered army had taken refuge. but upon approachspirited engage- ing Fairfax Court -House they found Jackson pre- pared to attack them. and they once more took up their line of retreat. and. On the morning of the 1st of September. J. making such a brave and desperate at last victory seemed almost within their grasp but after a short and bloody struggle the tide again turned. after refreshing themselves with food and warmth from camp-fires. Lexington from General Jackson's own church. . which General Joseph E. A sudden and Ox Hill. which brought him up far in the rear of Centreville. cold and comfortless. Longstreet was to remain to bury the dead and gather up the spoils. and disappeared in the darkness. and. and. and sons of his dearest friends. To accomplish this. compel them to retreat without a battle. known as that of took place. and occu])ying a ])owerful hne of works. JACKSON. Johnston had constructed the first winter of the war.

tlie Fortunate was reign. and to destroy what they could not use. authorizing them to appropriate from the inhabitants all the horses and provisions which they could make use of. Avhile the shattered armies of both Pope and McClellan sought fortifications of AYashington. now retreated in full force from I^orthern Virginia. MARYLAND CAMPAIGN AND SHARPSBURG— 1862.CHAPTER The invaders had XYIII. and that he would subsist his troops on the invaded country. with an inferior force against greatly superior numbers. and pursuing his advantage bv an invasion of Marvland. or be ban- ished South. It was desirable that . in the confident expectation of Pope's boast had campaign his headquarters should be in the saddle. now emboldened General Lee to conceive the plan of taking the aggressive. threatening that they should be executed as spies in case of their return. shelter in the strong- recently marched in from which they had so immense numbers and with splendid equipment. He also demanded that all citizens within his lines should take an oath annihilating the Confederate army. it for Virginians that this cruel and boastful command- er had so short and inglorious a The success of the Confederates thus far. leaving only a few fortified posts along the frontier. been that during his of allegiance to the Federal government.

army would stimulate her people to aid in achiev- ing independence. In had no braver men or better soldiers. ran out into the middle of the street. — reached Leesburg. gave confidence to their commander. not comprehend that this was meant to do him honor. on havino^ her hero pointed out to her.344 Virginia LIFK OF slioulcl GENERAL THOMAS J. it was poorly equipped for an invasion but the great success hitherto. and on the second consequence of . Crowds pressed upon him. while to really embarrass him. its forced marches and many hardfought battles. and was full of Southern sympathy. and the army was pat in motion for the Potomac Jackson's corps having rested only one day after the battle of Ox Hill. divesting herself of a scarf. the people were eager to catch a glimpse of him whenever his march led him near their homes. he Avas passing through Leesburg a lady was seen standino. Avhich closed with the night of September The first 1st. day tliey marched to Dranesville. many and it [Marvlanders had been in the Southern army. . From the beginning of the Avar. . and the high spirit of his men. and were often of so enthusiastic a nature as As an instance of this. JACKSON. The fame of Stonewall Jackson having spread far and wide. he did liis horse. in her doorwav. who. and. and ardent admirers would sometimes throw their arms round the neck of his horse. in a thunder-storm and deluge of rain. Attentions were showered upon him by the old and young. threw it before AVith his characteristic modesty. it was hoped that the appearance of Lee's the two irreat contendinfi: armies. have a respite from the ravages of which had so lontr made it their field of battle and as ^Maryland had been a Southern State.

" tribute which she intended. the first work to be done was to destroy the locks of the canal. from two to three feet deep. reining up. As the troops came in sight of the river. and having a pebbly bottom. One of his young staff officers. gallantly rode over the scarf. and his well-disciplined soldiers proved their obedience by a respect for private rights and a magnanimous forbearance that were in striking issued the contrast with the conduct of the Federal army while . he looked witli puzzled inquiry first at the lady. The is only about half a mile wide. and a few hundred young men joined the ranks of the Southern army. and every species of rapine or trespass. On the 6th the army occupied the Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad and entered Frederick City. they quickened their steps. upon they rent the air with enthusiastic As soon as they had crossed. 345 and. On mand the 5th of September General Jackson's comcrossed the Potomac at AYhite's Ford. and Maryland cheers. thus draining off its waters and preventing its navigation. level and river here the infantry were able to ford the stream. : explained to She means you to ride over As soon as he understood the delicate it. as line after line planted their feet soil. he turned to her with a iiim in a stage whisper '^ beaming smile. Here a Maryland gentleman welcomed General Jackson by presenting him with a superb horse. and. seeing his perplexity. depredation upon property. he most stringent orders against straggling. taking off his cap. and then at the scarf in front of his horse's feet.CROSSING THE POTOMAC. Just as soon as his troops became the invaders. general. who had retired to the sidewalk.

The minister The pews is a gifted one. place. that my heart was in sympathy Avith the surroundings. so that every person beautiful. the part relating to General Jackson and his troops only being quoted : .. to war poem. JACKSOX.31G LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Frederick City. but had I been near enough to hear." claims to was supposed of City. under a smiling Providence. would probably not liave been so unfortunate. If such scenes could only surround me in Lexington. Whittier's celebrated chie.. ideas. It was a in Yiro-inia. and I regret to say fell asleep. faces the pulpit. and the day after his arrival being the Sabbath. neat and The town appears to be a charming The ladies and gentlemen and all looked so and I may say elegant. according to my comfortable. Jackson rested with his troops four days. and their enjoyment looked so genuine. At Frederick. how my rejoice I" heart would. and the building beautiful." Last churcli in evening I attended a I German llcf ( )rmed was not quite near enough to hear all the sermon [his modesty had led him to take a back seat]. Of the service he wrote to his wife the next day. noteworthy fact tliat the people of the place attended their various churches with as much freedom and security as if they were not within tiie lines of an invading army. " Barbara Frietbe founded upon an incident Avhicli have taken place upon the entrance tix)()ps General Jackson with his into Frederick The story is l)est told in the ])oet's own melo- dious language. are arranged m a circular form. were sitting in front of the doors. lie attended divine Avorship. September 8th : .

Stonewall Jackson riding ahead. and right fast. tlie rifle it fell shivered the window. Shoot. "BARBARA " FRIETCHIE. The nobler nature within him stirred To life at that woman's deed and word ' : Who * touches a hair of yon gray head I Dies like a dog :i< Marcli on * >. He ' glanced I' the old flag met his sight.— . flag. Of noon looked down. Dame Barbara snatched the silken scarf. this old gray head. lier Bowed with Bravest of fourscore years and ten . She leaned far out on tlie window-sill." early fall 34. flag the She took up the In her attic men hauled down staflf : window heart the she set. into Frederick town Forty flags with their silver stars. as and from the broken gasli. pane and rent the banner with seam sasli Quick. Over the face of the leader came. for her sake.' But spare your country's she said. * He Honor to her 1 and let a tear bier.= I' he said. it And shook ' forth witli a royal will." Fall. A shade of sadness. To show one Up the street was loyal yet. Horse and foot. on Stonewall's Alas for the poet ! that rude hands should have to . staff". Under his slouched hat. Flapped in the morning wind : the sun one.^ On that pleasant morn of the When Lee marclied over the mountain wallOver the mountains winding down. Forty flags with their crimson bars. came the rebel tread. left . all in Frederick town. a blush of shame. and saw not Up rose old Barbara Frietchie then. Halt 'Fire!' It It — the dust-brown ranks stood — out blazed blast. if you must.

348 LIFE OF this GEXERAL THOMAS J. Dame Barbara was the the moment bed-ridden and helpless.. ad- mirers have so long regarded as staff that this drawn from but have been told by members of (General Jackson's pretty story Avas a myth. to the truth requires me to say that Stonewall Jackson. JACKSOX. '* presented — viz. sweep away I graphic picture. A'alerius Ebert. These are the this subject She could at that period hel]:) of her atproving that AVhittier s only move. did not pass . poem upon is pure liction." As of face of the rebels waving of the Federal flag in the by Dame Barbara on the occasion Stonewall Jackson's march through Frederick. : the poem by AVhittier represents our venerable relative (then ninety -six years of age) as nimljly ascending to her attic window and waving at her small Federal flag defiantly in the face of Stonewall Jackson's troops. which his many life . facts. stronger fact w4th regard to this matter may be here his troops.: . and had lost power of locomotion. no immediate ac- The bold . by the tendants. and thus out of the city. who writes to a Xorthern paper . as she Avas moved.. then passed due west towards AntieBut another and still tara." step of General Lee in the invasion Maryland spread consternation at "Washington of and President Lincoln. realizing tlie paramount importance of protecting the capital. Xow. This is confirmed by Dame Barbara's own nephew. of Frederick City. with Barbara Frietchie's residence but passed through what in this city is called at all The Mill Alley/' about three hundred yards from her residence.

and. It had been his design to proceed with his command into Western Maryland. greeted him with a glad Avelcome. and to threaten Pennsylvania. Boonsboro'. The ladies. being once more in his beloved vallev. thus hoping to draw the enemy after him. Upon hearing of Jackson's approach. and this en- dangered the safety of his army. among his own people. tioii 349 was taken arrival to follow the invading army. Harper's Ferry had not yet been evacuated. Although the mass of the Federal troops had retired to Washington. who are always foremost in doing and claiming honors. equally astonished and delighted. it was deemed necessary to capture the place as speedily as possible. and. General Lee held a consnltation with the of the leading generals as to a plan of future operations. keeping up his communications with Eich- mond through the Shenandoah Yalley. as General Lee had hoped. Upon at his whole Confederate army Frederick. But with the Federals holding Harper's Ferry. and besought of him souvenirs some requesting locks of his hair. and General Jackson was ordered to move with his corps to Martinsburg. and was upon his native soil. where the people. the next day he recrossed the Potomac. beset him on all sides.ENTHUSIASTIC DEMONSTRATIONS. and the next morning Jackson's cavalry reached Martinsburg. and after dislodging the enemy there to march down the south side of the Potomac upon Harper's Ferry. making a rapid transit through Middletown. the Federal commander retreated to Harpers Ferry. and aAvay from their base of supplies. on the 11th. and Williamsport. He accordingly left Frederick on the 10th of September. and o-rateful — . his heart responded with emotion to their eaofer demonstrations.

had ordered two other divi- commanded by Generals to approach simultaneously with Jackson's corps. Others buttons from self coat. In the space of three months Jackson had swept down the valley. this is the first time I was ever surrounded by the enemy. Maryland. on the morning of the IStli of September. the capture of the place. ladies." and. General Jackson found the enemy in force. he said *• Keally. to Harpers Ferry. fought and won tlie battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic had marched to Eichmond and borne a conspicuous part m the seven days' battles had then turned north towards AVashington. accompanying the As a penalty of sharing gift with a charming letter. and now. and victory as that '' . and the second great struggle upon the plains of Manassas. Arrived at Harper's Ferry. sions. lie tried to excuse him- one pretty petitioner that sJte had more hair than he had. Atitli the best grace he : could. thus completing a circuit so full of toil. in his plan for ]\rcLaws and AYalker. a considerate young lady sent him a present of several cards of military buttons to replace those had been cut from his coat. he retreated from the clamorous circle.. 350 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS liis J. and won the battle of Cedar Run. General Lee. Init finally their importunity so by telling embarrassed him that. and drawn up in battle array upon Bolivar Heights. heroism. and . to appear almost incredible. after a march to Frederick. poor " Little Sorrel locks from his mane and tail. After- wards. with a blushing face. and he permitted them to strip his coat of Inittons. returned to Harpers Ferry. A rapid march from Martinsburg brought General Jackson and his corps. lost many his master's fame. JACKSOX.

and lost no time in signalling their posts. producing great dismay and the wildest confusion. in frustrating this forlorn hope. Jackson established communication with McLaws and Walker. he planted eleven pieces of artillery across the Shenandoah to intercept egress or ingress. with great labor. whether they had arrived at their respecto ascertain tive destinations. However. as the ranking officer. and getting iu the enemy's rear. directed the plan of operations for the capture of Harper's Ferry. found that he was in advance of them. the Con- federates poured shot and shell upon the enemy. for the Confederate artillery could not dislodge the troops that occupied the main line upon Bolivar Heights.CAPTUKE OF HARPER'S FERRY. screened . by which artiller\^ could be taken up to the heights. the finishing stroke. seize 351 the Maryland Heights and Loudoun Heights. but. To make assurance doubly sure. receiving no reply. After cutting roads. and were in possession of the two heights. who returned during tlie night with the intelligence that both generals had executed their movements. The of night. thus destroying every chance of escape or relief. and here there was a chance of McClellan's coming So it fell to Jackson's corps to deal to their relief. which Avould surround tlie garrison beyond escape. while Jackson's route around by Martinsburg was a circuit He was therefore naturally anxious of sixty miles. they still had one loop-hole of escape. and. He then sent couriers to the heights. It was but one day's march for these divisions. which was accomplished by moving in the darkness by the ravines along the river. The Federals were now encompassed on every side. On the morning of the l-tth.

The action in commenced the this morning capitulation.'' AVhen General Lee sent the forces under Jackson fi'om Frederick to reduce IIar])cr's Ferry. to open at once. Our Heavenly Father blesses us exceedingly. thirteen thousand stand of small-arms. through God's blessing. to-day. and the tempest of battle at once ceased. when after al)out an hour's resistance on the part of the garrison. The enemy iiad surrendered— with a garrison of eleven thousand men.: 352 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS tlie J. in our possession. he started . I am thankful to say that our loss was small. parole. Writing to " It is his wife. General Jackson says my grateful privilege to Avrite that our God has given us a brilliant victory at Harpers Ferry Probably nearly eleven thousand prisoners. and over sixty pieces yesterday. great numbers of horses and wagons. JACKSOX. The privates also. a great number of small . a white flag was seen to be lifted aloft. The officers were permitted to retain their side-arms and all their personal effects. and ended of artillery are. after being disarmed. and Jackson ordered all the batteries A furious cannonade thus began.arms. were released on . morninir of the 15th found assailants eaoer to re- ne^v the attack. and Joseph and myself were mercifully protected from harm. upon their parole and wagons and horses Avere also loaned them to remove their baggage into the Federal lines. over sixty pieces of artillery. and vast quantities of stores of every description. The garrison w^as treated on the most liberal terms.

McClellan's grand army entered Frederick the day after General Lee evacuated it. H. with a full knowledge of the situation and of the movements of the Confederates. Prompt to obey the order. left that duty mand he took up his town. forced back slowly. but to General A. before Lee and in the could concentrate his scattered troops for battle. and unfortunately a copy of his order directing the movements of his whole army had been dropped on leaving the town. enabled them to maintain their ground until nightfall. P. Avhich pass in had been sent to guard the mounfront of Boonsboro'. To oppose the advance of the enemy more effectually. and the On the 13th the Confederate cavalry near Boonsboro' was command of General D. Generals Walker and 23 With the rest of his commarch by way of Shepherds- McLaws having orders . as McClellan. tain Hill. he did not wait to receive the surrender of the Federal troops at Harper's Ferry. and was picked up by the Federals. General Lee determined to concentrate his forces at Sharpsburg. w^as attacked by overwhelming numbers. repelling repeated assaults until Longstreet. coming to their support in the afternoon. and pressed forward in pursuit. The Confederate army was now in great peril. the remaining part of his tions. 353 command in other direc- meantime the situation of the Confederates in Maryland assumed a grave aspect. was gathering his forces for a decisive conflict. With less than five thousand men. he held the pass for five hours. and Jackson was summoned to join him as speedily as possible. Hill.McCLELLAN'S ARMY APPROACHING. who at once embraced his opportunity. revealing Lee's plan to McClellan.

However. It was about noon when Jackson arrived on the iield. . which is always spoken of as the Battle of Antietam.354 LIFE OF (JENFRAL THOMAS J. which afforded facilities for the concentration of Lee's divided army. 11. except JMcLaws's. their batteries opened fire. which were harassed and delayed by the Longsti*eet and I). This assault continued late into the night. good defensive his dispositions to disturbed by a continual dropping fire. AVith the approach of evening. A splendid autumn morning had scarcely dawned. was safely effected. situated two and a half miles from the Potomac and one mile from Antietam Creek. the IGth. and here General Lee made meet the advance of the enemv on the 15th of September. and presented a position. In the Federal accounts this creek gave name to the battle. The country is elevated and undulating. and their swaying multitudes indicated that a great battle had begun. The movement of all the troops. and their troops Avere greatly inspirited by the news is of the capture of Harper's Ferr}^ Sharpsburg a little hamlet. to follow. on the next morning. but the latter made onh^ reconnoissances on that dav. Sharpsburg itself is remarkable only for its intersection of six roads. after a brief rest for his wearied troops. and. but was gallantly repelled. whose left Jackson was ordered to support. took his position. arrived at Sharpsburg on the morning of the Hill loth. JACKSOX. which was one of great exposure and danger. both the Federal artillery and infantry fiercely assailed the Confederates under the command of General Hood. enemy. and the two hostile armies slept upon their arms to be ready to renew the bloody conEven their hours of repose were flict in the morning.

though withdrawstill ing their infantry. General Jackson was now enabled to re-establish the whole of his line . rushing forward against the surging masses of the enemy. General field. but the Federals. arrived upon the and with . Most opportunely. 355 beams were obscured from the whole Federal line of artillery the heaviest fire falling upon the Confederate left held by Jackson an attack which was soon supported by infantry advancing in great force. and for several hours the unequal combat raged with unceasing violence and varying fortune. ordered Early vantage. Avhen b}^ briUiant the smoke of terrific volleys — — . and. with his division. Avhen Jackson.THE BATTLE OF SHARPSBURG. For hours they resisted far greater numbers. they turned at every favorable position to make a stand. McLaws. and finally drove them back. Many of the Confederate field officers were killed and wounded. and. waver. rained down a furious artillery . The overwhelming numbers were met with unflinching bravery and resolution. and Hood to gather up the fragments of the shattered troops and return to the front to relieve those who were there so sorely pressed. and their whole line rapidly thinned under the murderous fire of the tremendous odds against them still they fought with its on the 17th. succeeded in arresting the tide of battle. his prompt co-operation and the strenuous efforts of other commanders the victorious enemy were checked their lines began to at this juncture. and they retreated half a mile with great loss. although forced back by sheer weight of numbers. and retired to the best adundaunted. still . unconquerable tenacity. and reestablished the Confederate lines. repeatedly breaking the ranks of the enemy. Xobly did they execute their commission.

and immediately pressed forward through the breach thus made. from Harpers Ferry. however. Hill and other officers rallied the remnants of several scattered brigades. II. captured a battery. General D. Hill and his division. which were saved only by the timely arrival. who crossed over in immense numbers and attacked Longstreet's right. . Notwithstanding the most stubborn and determined defence of the bridge over the Antietam. and pierced the Confederate lines.356 fire LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS : J. they discovered that one of the brigades opposed to them had been withdrawn from its position. supported by only a few hundred bayonets. suffered little loss. flushed with expectant victory. of A. the remainder of the day in but Jackson's troops. now a more sheltered position. This small force (some of whom had fired ever}^ cartridge. and attacked the Federals who. which came at once to the support of Longstreet. and could trust only to the bayonet) presented a bold front. Unfortunately. it was at last gained by the Federals. arrested the vast masses of the enemy. but were again repulsed. A few hundred yards advance would have given them possession of the roads leading from Sharpsburg to the Potomac. which commanded the approaches. when they were checked in different by Hill's batteries and others positions. a triple line of the enemy dashed forward. and with four pieces of artillery. After crossing the bridge. and almost gained the crest of the Avave of success. had become disordered by a too rapid and eager advance. JACKSOX. the Federals retired. until their relief. federate right The Federal troops returned again to attack the Conand centre. P. two other batteries came to and after a desperate and determined resistance of an hour or so.

This great battle was fought by less than forty thousand men on our side." The 18th was devoted by both armies to burying On that their dead and removing their wounded. the effect of 357 whose concentrated fire was to drive the across the creek. : their great privations of rest and food. his former chief-of-staff." so writes Dr. and communicating his own indomitable spirit to his men. " exposed enemy back his life with his accustomed imperturbable bravery.GENERAL LEE RETREATS ACROSS THE POTOMAC. over mountain roads. McClellan was exdav General Lee discovered that on the . and the long marches. equipped. General Lee gives the following picture of his army " The arduous service in which our troops had been engaged. Dabney. all of whom had undergone the greatest labors and hardNothing could ships in the field and on the march. These causes had compelled thousands of brave men and many more had done so from unworthy motives. " During this terrible conflict. and the result reflects the highest credit officers and men engaged. closing one of the most desperate and hard-fought battles of the war. The shadows of night now gathered over the scene. General Jackson. fully supphed and to absent themselves. his batteries and directing their fire. determined valor with which they met surpass the the large army of the enemy. and the Confederates recaptured the lost battery. Yet he said to a Christian comrade that on no day of battle had he ever felt so calm an assurance that he should be preserved from all personal harm through the protection of his Heavenly Father. without shoes." riding among In his report of this battle of Sharpsburg. had greatly reduced our ranks before the action began.

completely surprising ates. and started alone towards Boteler's Ford. reported It is said General PenGeneral Jackson lost dis- (what he then believed to be true) that they had every gun I the news of this appalling aster caused Jackson more anxiety than he had ever shown before during the war. captured nearly of their guns. P. sitting on middle of the Potomac. Xot until he had seen the last man and the last gun safely upon the Virginia side did he cross over himHe then marched his command four miles. The gallant A. alertness of the Meanwhile the enemy resulted in an advance in con- siderable force. encamped near Martinsburg. and. not leaving be- hind an efficient his horse in the man or a single gun. far in which was a by Pendleton. General Pendleton. He immediately gave orders to effect the recovery of the captured guns. which planted their guns on the oppoDuring the night a detachment crossed the Confederall the river. General Jack- son was intrusted with the rear-guard.358 LIFE OK GENERAL THOMAS J. with thirty pieces of artillery. at midnight. without advance of his troops. and. and. and self. examining the position of the enemy. and therefore withdrew them to Virginia. Hill ar- . to dleton. was posted upon an elevation overlooking the river. in pecting a large reinforcement of fresh troops. having follow him without delay. JACKSOX. view of the exhausted condition of his own forces. He lost was soon found by General Lee's couriers. little below the position ordered his troops to escort. site shore. for hours he watched the passage of the troops across the stream. in order to prevent the Federals from crossing in pursuit. determined not to risk another battle. He took with him all his wounded who could bear removal.

and resting his outstretched arms u])on it. spreading out his two lines. and. rallying his he made a second charge. charged witli great spirit. and. '' With the blessing of Providence. rived first 359 upon the ground. and. having asked his staff to awaken him lie if he slept longer. upon them. forced the enemy into the river. so profound as to render An incident which occurred about the close of this illustrates his campaign kindness of heart. and. Several times he dismounted. was known In his rapid marches he sometimes was so overpowered by sleep that he could not resist it even when riding. but few reached the this nio^ht eno^asfe- as he continued to fire northern shore.FATIGUE OF HIS RAPID MARCHES. down the down against Hill's left. they will soon be driven back." In this contest the Confederates fought entirely without artillery. AVhile Jackson was watchins: messenger from General Lee apl^roached him for information. a second as that of Boteler's Ford. sweeping hill. and. would sleep for only five or ten minutes. to the no . lest his it difficult trust himself to down. and the only remark he made was. An old woman called at his headquarters. The enemy resisted by beardivision into ing heavily whole force. He Avould not slumber might prove to arouse him. In this arduous campaign not one of Jackson's soldiers in the ranks endured more fatigue than he. employing only the musket and bayonet. regardless of the storm of shot and shell from the guns across the river. This brilliant affair ment. but. and members of his staff found it necessary to support him in the saddle for fear of his falling. leaning his head on a fence. and the mental strain was even more wearing upon him.

I donor notified me. . however. somewhat annoyed the young men but when Jackson came in and heard her simple story. glad that you were privileged to keep Thanksdid not enjoy that blessing. . he liswith " Jackson's Company '' sistency . . '^ I am We may flow from it through our ever-kind Heavenly Father. BuNKETi Hill. Osbourn. said she had come to see her son John. to the inexpressible delight of his loving old mother. The next morning. and that to say. I also hope that on that day large You contril)utions were made to our Bible Society. he reared insr 1 attempted again up and Miss fell back with me. and of this the Xotwithstanding the notice. of Jefferson. small ainusement of the young staff-officers. much politeness as if she were a grand and after gently reproving the young men for laughing at her. rode him that evening. JACKSOX. . mounted and rich blessings . I regret giving Day. who was Company. he ordered that every compan}^ in his corps should be searched for '' John. possessed of great muscle and fine powers of endurance but he was not gentle. and he did well. for he had been with " Jackson's Her perin all the battles. wlien to ride him. I trust it w^as generally observed. though a iMary lander gave me a fine-looking animal. horse. hurt- nie considerablv. as was zens of Frederick did not present me the published. tened with as lady. Oct. The general's next letter to his wife " is dated Gtli. as you say." She was much surprised that they could not tell her where John was. special reason for gratitude to The citiGod for His goodness and mercy to us. and I have.360 I^IFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J." who was at last found.

A FEW WEEKS OF sent REST. With all his efforts. in the beauties and delights of an unsurpassed autumn. . and a Mr. " There comes old Jack !" This season of repose was not spent by their leader in inacHe devoted himself to reorganizing tion or idleness. 36X excellent socks. and a beautiful scarf. and encouraging them in every way that he could minister to body and soul. I wish I could keep it until the close of the war. and at his appearance they never failed to yell forth cheers. which were echoed and reechoed by the more distant camps. as they sprang to their feet. You are earnestly remembered in me some my prayers. few weeks now gave army of Northern Virginia a needed rest. sent me an excellent arm-chair for camp use. Encamped on the banks of the . and. which was afforded by the productive farms of the valley. they literally revelled in their repose. Xever were the sweets of rest and plenty more enjoyed by man and beast. of the same place. Graham. Our friend. his shattered troops— supplying them with shoes and clothing. sent me two nice sponge-cakes last week." A cessation of hostilities for a the march-worn and grateful Opeqaon. In the rich meadows and pastures their horses also luxuriated and recruited strength. in the opportunity of refreshing the inner man. of Winchester. many of his men were left without shoes but such was the magic of his name that his forces increased rapidly in numbers and efficiency. which I wish my darling had. The admiration and devotion of General Jackson's men had greatly intensified during this arduous campaign. as I think my esposa would enjoy it. exclaiming. Vilwig. Mrs. above all.

. D. and he invited me to I was prevented from enjoying that privHowever. It is a glorious thing to be a minister of the Gospel of the Prince of Peace. but ilege. under Gospel privi- be present. God. Yesterday was communion at Mr. chap. and I realized that. Stiles. Graham's church. It was a po\verful exposition of 5th and 6th vei'ses. leges.. and laboring in a work of grace General EwelFs division.' where you and I spent such a happy winter. from wliicli he own people. about twelve miles from war-home. Stiles. the sinner who does not.' What more could — ' God do than in to give himself a is ransom ? Dr. and cast in his lot with his moncl. The weather is damp. which was that of lieutenant-generaL October 13th he wi'ote to his wife again from Bunker Hill. and for the past two davs has been rainy and chilly. in the vicinity of AVinchester "I our • am sitting in my tent. Stiles is a great revivalist. Dr. who liad been a pastor in Ricli- was called to New York to the iMercer Street Church. trulv. and when he came to the word the Word of 'himself^ he placed an emphasis upon it. AVho gave himself a ransom repeated the 6th verse for all. in appealing to the sinner. JACKSOX. The doctor several times.: 362 I^II""^ <^*^^ GKNERAL THOMAS J. On the 11th of October General Jackson received from the Confederate government his last promotion. At the breakinf'-out of the war he went South. .D.* His text was 1st Timothy. to be testified in due time. ii. of which he was the pastor for some years. Joseph C. * Rev. There is no equal position in tliis world. and gave it a force wliich I had never felt before. I heard an excellent sermon from the Eev. turn to God deserves the agonies of perdition.

Hunter McGuire secured a camp-stove for me. has prewith two fine field or marine glasses. gratifying to be beloved and to have our conduct approved by our fellow-men. is showout in two years. order was fulfilled. My prayer is that such ma}^ ever be the feeling of . to-day. '' I trust.' I would not relinquish the all nution of that glory for this world can give. These things are earthly and transitory. I am comparatively quite comDon't send me any more socks. Although T greatly desire to see it our much-prized Winchester friends. and in consequence. good friend Dr. through kind friends. [This all his carpets were sent to the army as covering for Last night was very cold. Let the soldiers have all ering blessings upon me. " Colonel 3^3 Blanton Duncan. . has not been my privilege to visit the town since last May. He has apparently taken a special interest in me. my the suffering soldiers. Let us endeavor to adorn the doctrine of all Christ our Saviour in things.NOT ANXIOUS ABOUT HIS EEPUTATIOX. . There are real and glorious blessings. . but . and finally your blankets. ladies have given me more than I could probably wear God. . It is best for us to keep our eyes fixed upon the throne of God realities of and the a more glorious existence beyond It is the verge of time." sented me " October 20th. in reserve for us beyond this life.] are Don't trouble yourself about representations that made of your husband. . but this is not Avorthy to be compared with the glory that is in reservation for us in the presence of our glorified Kedeemer. of Kentucky. as the kind fortable. knowing that there slightest dimi- awaits us 'a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory.

and not thine own mouth a and not thine own lips. . Should I be prevented from going to see my precious little wife. socks. for It appears to me that it wonkl be better you not to have anything written about me. of about eighty years. If I only had you with me in mv cloth for a suit of clothes. Mr. as I trust I have enough You think you can remember the to last until peace. . Do not send me any more handkerchiefs. all this is in able to leave his command. sent socks. according to the tions. of Jefferson. Let us follow the teaching of inspiration other — 'Let an: man praise thee. Porter. and my prayer is that He will direct all for His own glory. and mother should grow worse. me a pair of A few days since a friend in Winchester presented me with a beautiful bridle and martingale for a general officer. An old lady in stranger. Tennessee. I wish a^ou to remain with her. . m}^ heart. and to give you renew^ed cause for gratitude. names of all the ladies who make presents to me.' I appreciate the lovipg interest that prompted such a desire in my precious darling. In addition to the comfort it would give her. She has my prayers that it may please our Heavenly Father to restore her again to perfect health.36:1: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. sent Army Regulame a roll of gray and friends are continually sending things to contribute to my comfort. . but I am afraid now that your esposo will not be However. I mention all this merely to show you how mucli kindness has been sho\vn me. JACKSOX. the hands of the Most High. You have not forgotten my little intimation that we might meet before the end of the year. or gloves. but you haven't heard near all of them. it would also gratify me to know that she was comforted by your being with her.

especially Winchester. . Tell Colonel E that I am glad to see he has so pleasant a post as Charlotte. it 305 I would be such a comfort ! hope it may The be my privilege to be in Winchester this winter. Colonel Boteler deserves the lasting gratitude of the country for having done so much towards clothing " November ITtb . the latter.." " JSTovember 10th. Our gracious Heavenly dis- Father strikingly manifests his kindness to me by posing people to bestow presents upon me. . evenings. than I expected to be. people are so kind. . especially shoes to the comfort of our men. and take a great interest in esposita. Boteler telegraphs that arrangements are me from Richmond supplying in made for my command with blankets. I am in a Sibley tent. Colonel A. and has been the means of OTeatlv contributinoclothing. .. and I am sure you would enjoy being in it for a while. Colonel Boteler is doinomuch. my and that gratifies me. R. fifty Yesterday were distributed There has been much suffering in my command for want of blankets and shoes. .: FRAGMENTS OF LETTERS. from what I heard. and that / would rather be stationed there [where his wife then was] than anywhere else in the Confederacy." " about seventeen hundred and November 11th. . . and closes by saying He who had thus ." then gives the names of a number honored him. I am more concerned again about and blankets. which is of a beautiful conical shape.

If we are but His. you would not be there now.: 366 " LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. in a large white house back of his. where my Wouldn't esposa used to come up and talk with me. Graham's. and in full view of our last winter's quarters. hope to be there by Thursday. is continuHis blessings upon me." God's forgiveness of our Monday. my exceeding great joy. and no good thing will lie withhold from it.. If you had been in Winchester when I commenced this letter. ." is . all things shall work together for the good of our country. it be nice for you to be here again ? but I don't know you but how long you could remain. but his heart is Write to me at Gordonsville. I hope to have the all privilege of joining in prayer for peace at the time name. creature. JACKSON." November 20th he wrote '• as follows Don't you wish you were here in Winchester Our headquarters are about one hundred yards from i Mr. for " your husband w^ith his little darling. and make our people a holy people.. as I no longer there. and trust that countr3\ It should our Christian people will . an unworthy ally showering And so God. peace should not be the chief object of prayer in our aim more especially to implore sins.

1862. of AYinch ester. !' . . DAUGHTER— 1862. The correspondence began soon after the first evacuation of Winchester by the Confederates. weeks have been so strange. GLIMPSES OF HOME JOYS. .— BIRTH OF A now be a relief to turn aside for a season from the horrible pictures of war Avhich have been so long before us to some more restful and attractive In pages in the history of General Jackson's hfe.CHAPTER It will XIX. in whose hosspent the first winter of the war. and of which he was the chief subject. Graham. with all that delight- ful interchange of Christian and ' social intercourse. we will begin by the spring of 1862. could those days but I feel as though that would be almost come again too much happiness. — . and so dreadful. letters written to me from time to time. dating from the 3d of April. The occupation of our town by like a bright dream. which will show how warm a friendship grew out of this association. it seems Oh. going back as far as order to do this. eraFs brief but happy visits to us. The events of the past few ''My dear FmEND. and glean some extracts from the letters of pitable home we Mrs. so new. and the dear gen. that I almost feel as if I had entered upon a new existence and when I sit and recall the pleasant hours that we passed together last winter.

tion that reinforcements were for. have been protected. know he felt deeply and could scarcely trust myself to speak. JACKSOX. may nev- by me again. It is really wonderful how we . brave and splendid as he is. which is very delightful. I felt stunned. and i)ersons who had . The agony it is of the next twenty -four hours. I firmly believe that God will deliver us and drive out our enemies.! 368 I^It^E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. . a bit- ter thing to feel that our own army was gone. . and then to see the Yankees in such numbers. indeed.by. and serves to strengthen our faith and help us to bear our trials. Avliile others have suffered so Our ladies have a daily from their depredations. but some tearing across the fields. somewhere within reach. His angel has cer- encamped around our dwelling. if God's will. God has ordered and permitted it. But I remembered that God reigns. could not withstand an overwhelming force with his little band. looking so sad (and I grieved). I had never permitted myself to believe for an instant I had a firm convicthat they would ever get here. of course. It was. and I gave way completely. Ave knew that our general. prayer-meeting. and no harm has happened to us. er be experienced I trust. and He has been — ' — better to us than tainly all our fears. lest I should say some- thing to add to his troubles. the main body marching to the music of their brass bands. ii}) the alleys. Their sojourn among us has greatly in- creased the secession feeling. came upon me like a dreadful shock. and in monarchs of all thev surveyed' it every direction was too much for me. but still I believed something would turn up to keep them away and when the Federals . and is over all and I know this has not come upon us by accident. he came to tell us good.

and if I can so cheat him as to have a pleasant chat with you. but we are not intimidated. not knowing whither to turn his feet. .stripped of everything. LETTERS FROM MRS. that now.. and we will give him such a welcome as no man ever did receive before. and I left with foar little children with- may depend my 24 . the fences all destroyed. .'' " August 9th. 369 never taken an}^ part before have become violent. and I earnestly hope our general will come back before they have time. my conscience will not be offended. ful master. as long as the Yankees are here. the old town has stood up bravely for the South. While you were here. That threatened oath of allegiance has been so . when anything funny happens (for sometimes we do have occasion to laugh even now). Their officers threaten to arrest every secessionist. I feel an intense desire to tell you about it. and the farmers not pkinting any crops. but have to content myself with imagining how we would laugh if we only had a chance. 1862. . long delayed that but you agreeable that we hope it may not be carried out the thought was by no means dear husband would be picked up and put through the lines. for they take possession of every- thing they want. I expect to have an opportunity of sending a letter through the lines but as he is certainly not our right. This country is becoming completely desolated— the farms being. . Indeed. Although our master Pope ^ does not allow us to write to our reler friends. GRAHAM. it became so natural for me to go into your room to communicate to you everything that was interesting or amusing. AYe do long and watch for the day when he will return at the head of his army. There is no encouragement for them to do so. .

and he was as l)right and happy as possible. but the so. . and continue to make him the instrument of our deliverance. I had the cahn and dehiihtful assurance that our Father would not forsake us. remember I told you that I asked my Heavenly if it was right for us to take boarders. However. and He certainly me those more than answered my prayers. Oh that Father.— OF GENERAL THOMAS 370 I^IJ'E J.' is His own promise. the evening he arrived liere . spare him God. . greatest of men I often fail in their efl'orts. my dear friend. I out protection or support. noble husband to do great things for his country. far above everything else do I prize his noble. He spent two evenings with us. I and in am thankful for the privilege which enjoyed You being thrown so intimately with him. in His from all harm. I thank Him for you both. and He has been faithful to His word. JACK SOX. . think our dear general more entirely forgets self in his desire to glorify God than any one I ever knew his humble. to send congenial. Christian character. ''How wonderfully God has protected your dear Oh how I do rejoice with you that 'his husband IMay head has been covered in the day of battle infinite and tender mercy. 'Them that honor me. His qualities as a splendid general all admit. confiding trust in the Almighty gives me more comfort and more confidence than anything else. if it is His will. I never saw him look so fat and hearty. but would make all things work together God has certainly made use of your for our good. who would be I I !' He may " give us such victories as ! may compel a peace — an honorable peace The general's little visit to us w^as a perfect sun- beam. I will honor.

destroy everything every time they come it is In this last retreat they tried to . and the glass was broken in almost every house in town. . explosion of their magazine was our house heaved. Well. .FROM MRS. don't "I wish the general was near enough for me to minister to his comfort in Mm. The children were very . so it is 'every heart knoweth its own bitterBut I assure you. but I have no doubt you would be even willing to exchange with me if you could have your husband with you. this thing of being on the ness. is indeed dreadful worse than before. I could have screamed with delight! at seeing him. GRAHAM. The terrific. far removed from the sight of w^ar. but I think our troops captured a great deal. — burned the depot and warehouses. many ways. 371 (which was Sunday) he came around. and said he did not think it was wrong to come lunne on Sunday. When town the Federal army retreated.' l)order. and place at us. I don't remember in his old ever experiencing more intense happiness than during when I saw our dear general happy last tlie table. and subject at any time to be taken captives October 13th. Mother was seen to kill two!'' watch with jealous and anxwhich looks like a retrograde tendency. I . some of the frightened fugitives reported that the ladies of our actually fired on them. This was very gratifying to that visit. ious eyes everything " We — again. I cannot help envying you your quiet home. for we do lorn hope yet that we may see him. I was quite amused with Jim. who came to see me the other day. We we poor Winchester people have ? a hard time.

and around the table Ave did Avish for you in your seat between Indeed.. It did seem so much those good old times of last Avinter like old times Ave Avere all so cosy in our dining-room.. — evening. it —I fccl as if I cauuot sleep to- night (although a Ave is our bedtime) without writing few lines just to tell you of a most delightful visit had from you-r dear husband. Jim. He took his head(juarters in town day before yesterday. Graham called upon too busy to come to see us. I never saw such admiration as is felt for him by every one. all that was Avanting to complete the pleasure of the . He is I looking in such perfect health ever saw — far handsomer than him." '•November '' 21. It would have done vour heart good to hear the prayers that were offered for hhn on the day of Thanksgiving. ' Oh I yes. to spend but this morning we Avitnessed tliis evening with us the melancholy spectacle of our army moving off acrain. if he could. and I tell you Ave had a pleasant time. and his Christian character elicits the greatest reverence and affection. I fare and so do the madam. him yesterday.and is in sucli fine . I staff wish you could know how your husband is regarded here. lie wants to eat C very well. the presence of your dear little self Avas us. but he was Mr. Mv DEAR pRiEND. 1862. / !' . and we feared he Avould have to hurrv off. But he did not go. JACKSOX. 372 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J.. does the General get ' anything cook. and he did come here to tea.st. without giving us the pleasure of seeing him. and I said in rather a commiserating tone. and he promised. lou know you didn't give me a very exalted idea of Jim's talent in the culinary art.

in that old room. for to-morrow. I have no doubt it was a great recreation to him. and they were equally pleased. He expects to leave tomorrow. He is the same humble. and looking Him alone for a blessing. was not this a charming evening. spirits. that intercourse full. GRAHAM. trusting. and devoted follower self. This would He certainly has had adulation be too delightful. desiring to give God the glory.FROM MRS. I think. is a wonderful and beautiful trait. and imploring our Father's blessing upon you and all of us. dependent Christian. which I told him I was keeping for you and him. everytliing " I fixed Father. of Christ is a source of the greatest consolation to I always feel assured that he does under the guidance of our Heavenly is me at all times. and this the secret of his Avonderful success. and we sat and talked so cosily. He seemed to be living over last winter again. played with and fondled them. but it seems not to affect or harm him to at all. Now. 373 in his seemed so unreserved and unrestrained with us. and one upon which I delight to dwell in my meditations upon him. we did enjoy him to the sit The children begged ' to be permitted to up General Jackson. and the evening was concluded by bowing before the family altar again. bat says he may come back yet. and talked a great deal to see about the hope of getting back to spend this winter with us. and not thinking of him- This. whatever may betide. enough to spoil him. The acquaintance that I have with him as an humble.' and he really seemed overjoyed to see them. and don't you wish you had been here?'' A¥e him a lunch now approach an event in the life of General .

I weigh only eight and a half I pounds. 1802. and when it came the glad tidings all to him ])y letter he kept himself— leaving his staff and to '' him in camp to hear of it through others. dark and long. North Carolina. at whose house she was born. but a beautiful hair My . I think it but justice that I should continue it. my nose straight just like papa's. he requested his that lie should not receive the announcement by tele- gra[)h. with his great modesty and shrinking from publicity. The first intimation of his new happiness was a letter from his little daughter herself The amanuensis was her aunt. Jackson which oladdeiiecl his lieart more than all victories. and Aunt Harriet says and am the express image of mother. JACKSON. and my complexion not all red like most young ladies of my age. and yet. On the 23d of November. Mrs. my eyes are blue. and lilled it with devout gratitude to the Giver of all good. Osborne. I know that you are rejoiced to hear of my coming. and this was those around ! the letter My own dear Father. and I hope that God has sent me to radiate your pathway through life. and so does our kind this greatly delights friend. Irwin.: 374 I^IFK OF GENERAL THOMAS J." and from Avhich his own hand could not lift the veil of sanctity. As mv mother's letter has been cut short by my arrival. This was to him a joy Avith which a stranger could not intermeddle. in Charlotte. my My is aunts both say that I am a little beauty. God blest him with a daughter. To a man of his extreme domesticity and love for children this was a crowning happiness. I am a very " tin}^ little — thing. my darling papa. Mrs.

and hopes you will write and give me a name. In the meantime. with your blessing. . 3Y5 Kow. about the first just after the morning w^rote you services at church. sound very vain if I were older. but only this one was ever recovered. I was born on Sunday. who is my support.: THE BIRTH OF A DAUGHTER. my Imly desire in being to nestle in close to my mamma. but I assure would you I have not a particle of feminine vanity. I am thankful I accorded to you to have a great deal of com- the little pet. and hope may be . all this blending of the lily and the rose. and being only the second. and to drink in the pearly stream provided by a kind Providence life for My mother is very comfortable this She is anxious to have my name decided morning. nor how much I w^ish I could be with you and see my two darlings. w^ho are about me guardian angels. '• Your dear little w-ee Daughter. to feel her soft caressing touch. hope for me a long life of haplike piness and holiness and a futurity of endless bliss. and expect before long a visit from my one month little cousin. but I believe all my aunt this day of my life. he writes on the '^ . upon. But while it is it this pleasure is de- nied me.'' These lovely little missives continued to reach the father until the mother w^as able once more to resume her pen. 4:th of December Heavenly Oh how ! thankful I am to our kind Father for having spared my precious wnfe and given us a little daughter! I cannot tell you how gratified I am. . my history may be comprised But my friends. in a little space. my senior. AVe look for my grandmother to-morrow. Mary Graham Avery.

Don't permit it to have a bad temper. loaf-sugar. and don't let anybody tease it. He continuallv showers blessinffs upon me and that you should have been spared. as you can come on the railWherever I go. pany and comfort to mother. is to live entirely unre- servedly to God's Pray. " At present I am about fifty miles from Eichmond. road.. . How I would love to see the darling little thing! Give her many self to write to me.. that may . JACKSOX. my desire (jlerry. and our darling little daughter given us. but Don't you regard let you have the sole ownership^ most precious little creature in the world it as the Do not spoil it. But you must love your e^x>so in the meantime. including nice cakes. nio:ht.! 376 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS its J. Should I remain here. on the railroad from Eichmond to Fredericksburg. fills my heart with overflowing gratitude. and spend the night. for to (• know kisses for her father. and a great many provisions are sent me. etc. and the socks and gloves and handkerchiefs still come " I am so thankful to our ever-kind Heavenly Father for having so improved my eyes as to enable me to write at . If I know my and I un- worthy so live. so you mud not do it. I do hope you and baby can come to see me before spring. I receive invitation after invitation to dine out." self. I expect you are just made up now with that Ijabv. JJon't you wish your husband wouldn't claim any ])art of it. my darling. tea. Xow don't exert yourthat 3^011 were taxing yourself to write would give me more pain than the letter Avould pleasure. The people here show me great kindness. and one mile from Guiney's Station.. God gives me kind friends.

. and give the baby-daughter a shower of kisses from her fatlier. God may re- move her from us." .. He desired a men had a larger sphere of usefulbut his own will was so entirely in subjection to that of his Heavenly Father that he said he preferred having a daughter.*' This was to reassure his wife. since God had it. If she absorbs too much of our hearts. he adds " Do not set your affections upon her. thanking " I fear I am not her for her kindness. except as a gift from God." my He had his given her the name of his mother. so ordained December 3d he wrote to his sister-in-law. Julia. and more than all the other babies in the world.LOVING THOUGHTS OF HIS CHILD. believing that who feared he would be disappointed at not having a boy. ness than women . In response to bis baby -daughter's closes first letter. But immediatel}^.. I : trust on last until will answer the prayers offered for peace Monday. and tell her that he loves her better than all the baby -boys in the world. and. he writes to his wife '* : This morndarling lit- ing I received a charming letter from daughter. as heart trembled at the very : thought of so much happiness. son. whose memory was if so dear to him." interest I look to JS'orth December tle 10th. you can imagine with what Carolina. 377 he by saying : '' Thank sister H very kindly. I haven't seen my God wife since last March. and saying grateful enough for unnumbered blessings. never having seen my child. Kot much comfort is to be expected this cruel war terminates.

till at last. with all his elTorts to provide for their necessities. had been in preparation for a renewal of the great struggle. to Avhom it was so march that numbers fell out of the ranks and had to be left behind.CHAPTER XX. THE BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG. on the Rappahannock. was a loud demand that McClellan. it is an abrupt change But the two armies. should Day after day push his advantage to the utmost. followed as it was by the withdrawal of Lee across the Potomac into Virginia. impatient of delay. behind wliich Lee. many painful to remained barefooted. proceeded at once to concentrate his whole force. and Burnside placed in his stead. was regarded in Wasliington as a great victory. The battle of Sharpsburg (or Antietam). flushed with sucand strengthened b\^ large reinforcements. lie was relieved from command. following the movement. while enjoying a few weeks of rest. and there From these thoughts of home. To support him Jackson was ordered from AVinchester. cess for. But by the greatest exertions his command was brou^iht to the scene of acstill . having given them a rest of two days to relieve those who were without shoes. to the field of war. came the order from the AVar Department for an immediate attack. who promptly advanced to Fredericksburg. and he conveyed liis troops to Fredericksburg within eight days.

The next morning (the memorable 13th). He had just received a present from General Jeb Stuart of an elegant new uniform. nor given any time to replace it during his arduous Yalley Campaign) tliat his soldiers scarcely recognized him. where General Lee was watching the progress of affairs. but he safely reached the summit of a hill. rode up through our guns. Gal- he soon attracted the attention of the Federal sharp-shooters. gives the following graphic picture of Jackson as he came on the field loping down the lines with his A general officer." By the 12th of December the Federals crossed the Rappahannock. But there was something about " the man that did not look so new. and seemed gazing intently on the enemy's line of battle on the old telegraph road. Looking neither to the right nor the left. He ap- peared to be an old-time friend of all this turmoil around him. halted. A Confederate artilleryman.: JACKSON AS HE COMES ON THE FIELD. coat. from top to toe. AYm. 379 and his last message to me before the battle was. As he had done us the honor to make . pants. and prepared to sweep everything before them. which was in such striking contrast with his old suit (of which he had taken no thought. after all. tion. cap. Page Carter. as General Jackson rode forth to battle his appearance attracted unusual attention. were all of the new order of things. mounted upon a superb bay horse and followed by a single courier. " The outfit before me. he rode straight to the front. and the cannonading near there has been very heavy this morning. ''My headquarters are several miles from Fredericksburg. horse and furniture. top-boots. staff. took possession of Fredericksburg.

Xo one did. The ." Dr. siderably during the day. an afternoon call on the artillery. and I knew in an instant He quickly turned his head. mount- ing up the eastern sky with almost a summer power. the calm. although a somewhat bashful and weak-kneed youngster. this was my first sight of Stonewall Jackson. in the countenance to command retime of war. for the first time. whose battle fnnit I fidence he so all there. were And there Avas one I had heard so much of and had longed so much to see. but not. and the sun. was rapidly exhaling the mist. and looking me all over in about two seconds. steadfast eye. compressed. to give the soldier that con. his little courier hard upon his heels and . chiselled features the thin. the last. that could fathom the tide of moment spect. he turned his howhead quickly. much craves from a superior officer. Marshalled upon the vast arena between them stood the hundred . however so. Dabney describes the array of armies on the battle : morning of the '' It was now past nine o'clock. I thought it becominiT in some one to sav somethino^ on the occasion. the neatly trimmed chestnut beard. JACKSOX. clear-cut. such a spectacle as the met the eyes of the generals pomps of earth can seldom rival.380 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. who it was before me. disclosing the whole plain to view. As the white folds dissolved and rolled away. I plucked up courage enough to venture the remark that those big guns over the river had been knocking us about pretty con. he rode up the line and away quietly and as silently as he came. and. and determined battle in a lips. As I said before. was then to look upon ever.

while down the valleys.: THE BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG. of the Kappahannock below Fredericksburg spread into a plain of some miles in width. with his two great lieutenants beside him. war unmasked its terrible proportions to the view with a distinctness hitherto . For once. Long triple lines of infantry crossed the field from right to left. unknown in the forest-clad land- scapes of America and the plain of Fredericksburg presented a panorama that was dreadful in its granLee stood upon his chosen hill of observadeur. 381 and twenty-five thousand foes. . . were pouring in vast avalanches of men. inspiring every spectator by his calm heroism. . itself is furnished by a young Confederate officer " The whole battle-field imposing tableau I ever witnessed.' generals soon sought their respective positions. bounded by a . was the most dramatic and The low grounds . said to Jackson en you r : ' General do not replied : all these multitudes fright- He ' We shall see very soon whether " I shall not frighten them. viewed every quarter of the field with his glass. with countless batteries of field-guns blackening the ground. descending from the Stafford Heights to the bridges. tion. the huge reserves. and hid their western extreme in the streets of the little city. and re. . to whose sturdy breast the approach of battle seemed to bring gayety. two and the battle opened with a furious cannonade hundred guns thundering from the heights occupied The — by the enemy— and the opposite hills returning the fire with all the skill and power of which an inferior A vivid description of the conflict force was capable. It was then that Longstreet.

which can hurl their missiles to the very foot of the hills upon which we stand. and almost as far as the eye can reach to the right and left. and see what we saw. from just where Ave are standing. stand with me upon one of the same little promontories and look out upon their lines. is How gallant!}^ fall they come on The word is given to Xot a sound I heard from our side except the sharp crack of our skirmishers as they back slowly before the overair seems alive with the whistling of shot and shell which the enemy send as precursors to their infantry charge. Far upon the left the smoke from the smouldering ruins of the town. low wooded wliicli terminate on the lower side in the Massaponax low grounds. impression of the Yankees of our position. opens upon the column of attack. J. The tery of thirty guns. and seemingly assured of sucBehind them the hills seem crowded with artilcess. and break. . lery. well-equipped. this At one point in this a wooded marsh projects far into the plain.382 rancre of I^II'K OF GENERAL THOMAS liills. ly again but in vain: flesh and blood cannot stand thev retire routed and confused. the Avhole line of railway at the foot of the and every hedge-row and ditch gleaming with what must have been the Again. and stagger they rally. At that moment . They falter. long line of wooded hills peo{)led little " Imagine now with hills men — every promontory bristling with ar- tillery. reel. bayonets. Suddenly a bat- whelming advance. and Longstreet's campiires seem to blend together. and ral. Avhile in front. and 3^ou have you see the blue-coated Federal lines extended. well- armed. and on the upper in a series of rather high and abrupt blulTs next to the river line of hills and above the town. and it . advance. JACKSON.

rode to his extreme right. while there was a lull in the General Jackson. in almost breathless haste ' General. this the fight. During the battle. but he sat up himself some time longer. and ordered up Early's division to sup- Yet every one said afterwards that was the turning-point of the day. and there found Colonel Boteler. desiring to inspect the positions of the enemy. 353 an officer gallops wildl}^ up to General Jackson. his right-hand man in carrying despatches the government. They were soon fiercest hostilities. and in co-operating with him in to every way. and Avlien the day closed the victory was complete. the en- emy have broken throiigli Archer's left. General Jackson went to his tent. Mr. walked far out into the plain. This was all I saw of port the centre. and they were pursued far into the plain." Longstreet's troops were equallj^ successful in repell- ing their opponents.TURNING-POINT OF THE DAY. Smith. The general turned to his companion " Mr. dismounted. accompanied only by his aide. w^iich were not more than two paces apart. The colonel w^as invited to share his pallet who was with him. and said you not better go to the rear ? They may shoot you !" : At the close of this memorable day. or he and General and General Archer will both lose their position/ The general turned round as quietly as if nothing extraordinary had happened. had with a humorous smile. writ- . In about an hour the footing which the enemy had gained in the Avood was recovered by Trimble and Thomas. Gregg says he must have help. who sent a bullet whizzing between their heads. and : exclaims. and. Smith. singled out by a sharp-shooter.

and continued his writing. whom he supposed to be still sleeping. he rose. About four o'clock on morning he sent for Dr. AVeariness at last comthrow himself down without undressing. attended by a single . . which he had ridden during the whole of the battle of the previous da}^. and an amusing war of w^ords ]:>assed between them but Jim had it in his power to gain the victory. but by the time he reached his bedside footsteps were heard behind him.3S4 LIFE OF GEXEILVL THOMAS J. of South Car- on the previous day. this When " Little Sorrel " for he ordered his servant. Jim. aide. McGuire to learn his condition. and with the (juick thoughtfulness of a woman he placed a book upon pelled ing and sending despatches. The brief interview was tender and touching. General Jackson Avas much concerned at hearing of the mortal wounding of General Gregg. having been impelled by his feelings to follow himself. and brought out another horse. which the general mounted. and take a farewell of his brave and heroic subordinate. he noticed that the light of his candle shone full in the face of his friend. so as to shield his face from the light and not interrupt his slumber. Jim protested against his using this horse. and Jackson appeared in the doorway. and. and rode off. to bring his him to ride on this occasion. McGuire to his tent. In glancing around. The surgeon was requested to go again and see that the dying man had everything he could desire. and sad and silent the commander rode back with Dr. which he was told was beyond hope. olina. him to his table in front of the candle. after sleeping profoundly for two or three hours. lighted his candle. JACKSOX.

a Hag of truce Avas sent by the enemy. conducting their retreat so silently that concealed from the Confederates. On Monday. bleAV out their lights. Avho had been left upon the frozen ground ever since the day of battle. 385 hostilities tlie The Confederate generals expected a renewal of next day. requesting permission to care for their Avounded. When a few. and about a thousand prisoners. Then under the cover of night. nine thousand small-arms. Of these twenty -nine hun25 . looked out Avitli candles in hand.BURNSIDE RETREATS ACROSS THE RIVER. In repelling the attacks of their vast army. that it Avas Avholly in They marched such silence throus^h the streets of Fredericksburo: people generally (who had been shut up in homes) did not know that the vast hordes Avere pouring out of their toAvn. the Contlie their : ! — mighty host which had confronted them for three days had disappeared from before Fredericksburg. they crossed their Avhole force over the river. and had lost but four thousand tAvo hundred. and while a storm of wind and rain Avas raging. When the dreary morning daAvned. and AA^ere once more in their camp on the other side of the river. the 15th. federates Avere surprised to find that the They admitted a loss of twelve tliousand men killed and Avounded. and their army was eager for another attack. but the Federals failed to advance. hearing the continuous tramp of men and horses. they Avere startled at finding the streets packed with multitudes Avith faces turned northward. and thrust them back into the houses. and they Avere commanded in peremptor}^ " Put out that light Avhispers put out that light !" AA^hile some of the oiRcers even rushed up to them. General Lee had less than tAventy-fiA^e thousand men actually engaged.

through God's blessing. darling for her father and give sister II . The enemy has recrossed to the north side of the Eappahannock. successful of the war. was repulsed at all points on Saturday.. dred ^ve^e killed and wounded in the corps of Jack- and there were.. five hundred and twenty -six otficers and men captured. and I trust that our Heavenly Father will continue to bless us. Eichard Corbin. in addition. Our headquarters are now about below Fredericksburg. near the liouse of twelve miles Mr.' 1 was much gratified to learn that she was beginning to I tell you. I would notice and smile when caressed. JACKSOX. I did not send you a I letter. We have renewed reason for gratitude to Ilim for my preservation during the last engagement. Cobb. Nio-ht before last ful buildings I . I regret to say. December 16th General Jackson wrote '' to his wife Yesterday. This great battle of Fredericksburg ended the campaign of 1862. and that she no longer saw the doctors gray vrhiskers.: 386 I^IFE '^F GEXERAL TUOMAS J. . ' love to caress her and see her smile. I was made very happy at hearing through my baby daughter's last letter that she had entirely recovered. which to the Confederates was the most brilliant and son . after sunset. which is one of the most beauti'' December have seen in this country. was on the front from Ijefore dawn until The enemy. E. It is said to have cost sixtv thousand dollars." Kiss the little my grateful love to 18th. AVe have to mourn the deaths of Generals ]\raxey Gregg and Thomas II.

AVinchester. Mr. Dabney. The reports of the battles of McDowell. Port Eepublic. does her father's heart great good to read them. Last evening : One of the higha letter from Dr. 1SG2. . serving as a private in the Virginia cavalr}^. Manassas. Corbin bountifully supplied us. and spent most of the time he was in winter-quarters there. and . peace. Dabney and I could enjoy would 1)e another visit from Mrs. but sent to ask Ave could procure our supper at the house. and to-day I expect to commence in earnest. it . Corbin was absent.CHANGE OF HEADQUARTERS. [He afterwards moved into the office in the yard. ! God-fearing people as it should be ! Then might we I received ' very speedily look for peace. she could let me have it. Christmas. The next morning she urged me five to remain. but I declined. and offered me yard for my office. Jackson when her ." Yesterday I received the baby's How I do want to see that precious baby and I do earnestly pray for Oh that our country was such a Christian. encamped in the woods. saying est gratifications both Mrs. and requested me to spend the night at her house. Harper's Ferry. and a neat building in the am now about hundred yards from the house. but Mrs. I have much work before me. She told me that if at any time I needed house room. Richmond. I 387 was about to spend the night if in the woods. and I had a dehghtful night's rest. and Fredericksburg have all yet to be written. the Maryland campaign. But something has been done towards several of them by my •' staff. which invitation was thankfully accepted. letter with its beautiful lock of hair.] " Baby's letters are read with great interest.

How it does cheer my heart to hear of God's people praying for our cause and for me! I This prayer-meeting greatly prize tlie prayers of the pious. we might. Tlie our gracious Heavenly Father permits. He also How we would friend. ' am gratified to hear rejoice to see it. and whilst it Avould be a great comfort to see you and our darling httle daughter. again in you and our dear that pew. but it apit is me that my command so pears to better f(Sr me to remain witli if long as the war continues. Dabney writes still meeting daily to pray for our army and leaders. through God's blessing. expect a more speedy termination of the war. yet duty appears to require me to remain with m}^ command.' : ' may be the means of accomplisharmy. '' Our little prayer-meeting is Dr. is LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and others in whom I take special interest. re-estabhshed.' lie and he invites me to meet you and Mrs. adds. The temporal affairs of some are so deranged as to make short time a strong plea for their returning home for a but our God has greatly blessed me and . Dabney are very kind. I Avish that such existed ing more than an everywhere. officers immensely by absentees. Mrs. JACKSON. and in the . were at their posts. Iliirs Yesterday I had the privilege of attending divine service in a church near General headquarters. pew at home has been I Dr. mine during my absence .3S8 health there.'' ^•December 29th. army suffers If all our troops. and men. and enjoyed the services very much. White says in a recent letter that our constantly occupied by AVheel- ing refugees. It is important that those at headquarters set an example by remaining at the post of duty. Jackson.

who applied to him for a position in the army tive." In a second letter of April 2d. and if we are faithful in doing our duty in one position. I hope the Northwest will soon be reclaimed. and especially for our general."' the earnest The next two letters were written to a young relaa nephew of Ids mother from West Virginia. to which climate you are accustomed." In replv to your intention of iroino" into seram gratified at your determination.' May every needful is bless- ing rest upon you and our darling child prayer of your devoted husband.. lecture -room at prayer -meetings er}^ ! 3S9 We still meet ev- Wednesday afternoon to pray for our army. render valuable service to our precious cause. I would like to have you with me if I had a place to which I could properly assign you. . as to enter the army under General John operating in the western part of the State. through the blessing of God. but you had better join General Echols at once. and by your attention to duty I hope you will. In regard to your question whether our section of the State will get relief this summer. and trust you My command is not a separate one. suggestion. and my corps forms a part of his army. I am under General Lee. We should always be usefully employed. he says "I : am much gratified to hear that will you followed my have no reason to regret it. it frequently follows that we are advanced to a higher one. 1863. and would it is recommend you Echols. I .. : vice.ADVICE TO A YOUXG RELATIV^E. I am unable to say.

and have I don't named her Julia my mother. Smitli. and felt somewhat hurt at what seemed to me to be a harsh and arbitrary decision but Mrs. of his Avife. a meml)er of the I went to headquarters with a written application for leave of absence for one night to visit a sick relative in a distant camp. little the government designs it this I have a after daughter. kindly recognized me. as she has been dead nearly thirty years. was a private soldier. James P. re- but 1 do not specting "' know what summer. and I can't The general when I preit.] [^Fr. I approve your leave of absence. suppose you have I visited anv recollection of mother. in the encamped at Eude's Hill. Jackson afterwards told me that he wrote to her that he regretted that the regulation would not per- mit him to grant the leave. Smith. In the summer of 1855 her grave in Fayette County. have an interest in mv prayers. 390 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J." with lier " I The following incidents are from the pen of the Eev. Mr. There is no happiYou ness like that experienced by a child of God. JACKSOX. was a member of General Jackson's staff '• who When I Eockbridge Artillery. of Fredericksburg.: . hope you are a Christian. and created a great stir by asking for Coi'])oral Smitli. Smith was a friend was still in the artillery. and .D. D. the general came to our camp one day in my absence. sented the application he read and returned ' saying. Great expectations were aroused that Corporal Smith was to While I early spring of 18f)2. My wife and child are father in North Carolina..' was greatly disappointed. shook hands.

' Are you going over the mountains to-morrow? Then. I went to Winchester early in the morning. Smith V And I found that. but donH tell any one that we are going over the mountains. SMITH. Yirginia. DR. ' General. as we in are troino- across the mountains to-morrow. P. Maryland. Mr. Are you Mr. saying. going over the mountains. " At Frederick City. 391 be appointed to some office or special duty. and. was returning on the Milnwood road. when. rode up. I need saying. certainly. " One evening.. etc. saying. and went to his tent. J. ' I have hut one suit myself^ sir^ He ' 3^our services as soon as possible. instead of going over ' . I wish to go to Winchester early in the morning. Clarke County. have me with him.' He was exceeding- ly gracious and pleasant in manner and word to me. when he to call at General asked me to accept the position of aide-de-camp on It was a great surprise to me. and of the time it would take me to prepare for his service [in getting a uniform]. when our headquarters were at Mi In- wood. I suddenHe laughed as I ly met General Jackson and staff. saying. Smith you can go to Winchester. I was exceedingly anxious to visit Winchester before we went east. I received a lie spoke kindly of liis desire to embarrassed me. but on my return it was found he had called to leave me a packoxje of religious tracts for distrihution in the camp ! message Jackson's headquarters. the young men became convinced that the general and his army would pass over the mountain gap near by to Eastern Virginia. and at first his staff. after an hour or so.' He smiled a peculiar way and said. gave me leave of absence from the army for six days to go back to Yirginia to secure clothing.' and he laughed at my expense.IXCIDENTS TOLD BY REV. at a turn of the road.

and Avcnt throuii:h the snow to our cheerless tents. and told me to ride to a house near by woods. dining at the Rev. and ask for lodging during the night. he took the family Bible and conducted family worship. between i\lrs. after a long cami)aign and hard marching. It was a charming and memorable Sunday evening. French. on the main road. but when I succeeded in making him understand that General Jackson wanted entertainment. French's request. and found General Lee's headquarters after dark. I remember the froneral as seated on a sofa. near Fredericks- the AVilderness church. he Avas greatlv aroused. and the society most agreeable. The general and myself rode ^vith orderlies from Orange Court-House down the ])lank-road in Decem'' ber. 1862. by whose invitation the general and two or three of our young men took tea with her. after Avhich Ave took lea\^e. threw open his door. French's place. the tent pitched in the pine General Lee's reception Avas exceedingly kind and hospitable. turning to the right at Salem church. Melzi Chancellor's. French and old Miss Hetty Lily. The tea-table Avas more than attractiA'e. he was moving his headquarters Winchester. to the mountains. at Mrs. We passed Mrs. The house was Avarm and bright. who at first refused sharply to hear me. JACKSOX. — . and that.392 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. apparently for the winter. where we saw many refugees from burg in the falling snow. After a little while General Jackson took me out. and told me to tell General Jackson to come at once He that all he had was the general's. The host was a vehement old gentleman. to his house entertained us with great hospitality and quite comfortably. The next night our tents were near the residence of Mrs.

self very merry at finding Jackson in the office of old Mr. Stuart pretended to regard these as General and as indications of his p/^ia great decline in his moral character. General Jackson had received among his presents a cake of butter. as though it were a coat-of- . To add to the merriment. Stuart. and others were guests. Corbin. and no one thought of being so familiar with our general as Stuart.A CHRISTMAS DINNER. . " 393 The general suggested to me to prepare for a dinner on Christmas Day. Eendleton. containing a variety of good things and our dinner was quite well set forth. and called the company Jackson's vate tastes own — indicating selectio/is.' and said we lived too well. which would be a grief and disappointment to the pious old ladies of the South. " General Jackson always enjoyed the visits of General Stuart. General Lee rallied us very mucli on our af. Lie often laughed at us for playing soldiers. fine stock. On this occasion he made him. a box was received by the general from some Staunton ladies. Generals Lee. and a famous ratterrier/ To the great amusement of Jackson and his fectation ' — guests. a dining-room servant with a white apron on specially amused him. game-cocks. He wished to invite General Lee and others to dine with him. I had the crood fortune to secure a fine turkey a bucket of oysters came from down the river. with a gallant chanticleer stamped upon it. whose gayety and humor charmed him. and this adorned the table. whose walls were decorated with pictures of race-horses. General Stuart held it up in his hands. to witness that their host actually carried his sport- ing tastes so far that he had his favorite game-cock stamped on arms ! his butter.

' She demurred. JACKSOX. and destaff-officers. Mrs. During the winter spent at Moss Keck. and Jackson were present.'' said." 394 '* LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. smiling pleasantly. Avho He told her that ' General Jack- was smiling so pleasantly near her. with bayonets on their guns. was the most cruel and inhuman man she had ever seen. Taylor with much good humor. General Lee said he reo:retted that General Jackson should come out such a day. the residence of Mr. Avith Pelham and other General Lee was very facetious. and driving the enemy into the river r Mrs. said sir. at our place. Taylor began to see his humor. and Well. the resi' : '' dence of a Mr.nucli as Ave could do to preA^ent him from taking his men. do you know. Generals Lee. . saying you wished to see me. Taylor.' I remember a pleasant visit to Ilayfield. Pendleton. if the Yankees ever cross said here.' ' : ' In these pleasant Avinter-qufirters at Moss Neck. saying she had always heard that General General Lee Jackson was 'a goocl^ Christian 711 an. Why. General Jackson took me with him to General Lee's lieadquarters on one occasion when a deep snow was fallino". when Ave had the battle up at Fredericksburg. General Jackson remained until spring. Corbin. Stuart. General Lee. son. it Avas as i. I hope you Avoii't prevent liim from driving them into the river. scribed these general officers to old JMrs. whereupon the I received your note. latter. Taylor.

WINTER-QUARTERS. know of a man was that he was a true Christian and an earnest worker in the cause of' his Master.CHAPTER 1863. Particularly did he bend his energies towards disci- After the . but very industrious. he devoted himself to writing his reports. The almost superhuman exertions marching and fighting had many soldiers to absent themselves from the caused army without leave. and in trying to infuse more zeal into those who were already in this service. Roman Catholics were granted the same facilities as Protestants for holding their services. both temporal and spiritual. AND CORRESPONDENCE— battle of Fredericksburg there was no advance of the enemy during the winter and other General Jackson spent a peacef id. CHAPLAINS. The winter-quarters of his winter at Moss ^eck. He encouraged all denominain tions to labor in his in every command. and to the general welfare of his troops. XXI. and which he made the most strenuous efforts to correct. co-operating with each All he wished to way in his power. and this was an evil for which he had no toleration. On one occasion a priest ap- . He was also greatly interested this winter in providing his army with chaplains. plining and strengthening his command. troops extended from near Guiney's Station towards Port Royal. which consisted of huts built by themselves. and after providing them with shelter.

that they were the veterans of many a bloody field. granted his request. introduced by Baptist services. and he and General Paxton modestly retired. The voices which now poured the men were . The eyes which looked into mine. I am sure it makes him glad and preacher said his sense of the necessity . in describing a service held in the general's camp. strong to know how many of the best people in the world pray for him "without ceasing." lie pictures the general's " firm gence of his daily diers. JACKSOX. One could not sit in that pul})it and meet the concentrated gaze I remembered of those men without deep emotion. lest they should displace some already within. waiting for the gospel of peace.396 plied to LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. had looked as steadfastly upon Avhatever is terrible in war. under the direction of a Methodist AVas not that a chaplain. and. and Jackson. said '' So we had a Presbyterian sermon. character. after satisfying himself inquiry that he was a man of exemplary it." and his attendance on the service in the little log church built by his own sol- which was already so full upon his arrival that said to be packed like herrings in a barrel." A Presbyterian minister. — ." " the placid dilitoils. him b}^ for a tent in whicli to conduct worsliip with soldiers of his own faith. " and hopeful face. I care not what may said on the subject. in an Episcopal church beautiful solution of the vexed ])roblem of Christian " : I he be union r religious character of General Jackson this '' : Of the The sentiment whicli fills his soul is and power of prayer prayer in the army prayer for the army prayer by the whole country. with a decision that restrained : all adverse expressions against added He shall have it.

the enemy adrancing. had business of moment there I" relates that A chaplain on the eve of the battle of officer. ^' Open on them." but paused only long enough to give the laconic order. widely known and loved in Virginia.CONCERN' FOR IIIS SOLDIERS' RELIGIOUS WELFARE. During one of in position to his battles. which he contin- . quietly reading his Bible. and who had been killed at Fort Donelson. too. and very important business. earnestness of aspect constantly impressed me. ." a young Presbyterian minister. " Of what regiment are you chaplain?" AVhat was his astonishment to find that the quiet Bible-reader and fluent talker upon religious subjects was none other than the famous Stonewall Jackson. . Fredericksburg he saw an Avrapped in his over- coat so that his marks of rank could not be seen. they had come on business. . . and the preacher could scarcely as if They looked do otherwise than feel that he. entered into an earnest conversation on the power of Christian example. Their . a young officer on his staff gave him a copy of the sketch of " Captain Dabney Carr Harrison. lying just in the rear of a battery. and the chaplain was led to ask. 397 forth their strength in singing the songs of Zion had shouted in the charge and the victory. He was interrupted by an officer. while he was waiting in the rear of a part of his engage the command which he had put attention of the enemy while another division had been sent to flank them. He expressed himself as highly gratified at getting the sketch. but the officer soon changed the conversation to religious topics." '' who reported and then resumed the conversation. He approached and entered into conversation on the prospects of the impending battle. .

are of opinion that my name. to keep quiet beyond the expression of my views to friends. . I desire myself and all that I have to be dedicated to the service of God. ued for some time. and views are "My . should you . in conmeans I nection with to be a my wishes. and after prayerful consultation between yourself and Colonel Preston. drawback in the way. you can with pro})riety publish. and the one which is congenial to my feelings. which so absorbed his heart and labors the last winter of his life. anything that such vxts I may have said. who are distinguished for their piety. After maturely considering what I write. Whilst I feel that this is the proper course for me to pursue. I do not desire any sensibdity that may have . will be the of doing- good. summed up in these few words: Each Christian branch of the Church should send into the army some of its most prominent ministers. JACKSOX. who have both had large experience in the church. in which he says : ''You suggest that I give my views and wishes in such form and extent as I am willino: sliould be made public. after prayer- ful consideration. General Jackson's views on the work of the spiritual improvement of his army. only pausing now and then to reand give necessary orders. because it looks like presumption in me to come before the public and even intimate what course I think should be pursued by the people of God. think best. yet if you and Colonel Preston. it seems to me. I have had so little experience in church matters as to make it proper. are exceive despatclies pressed in a letter to his pastor. talents.398 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. This I shrink from doing. icithout saying my view.

. camp. attractive and interesting and the constant atconstructed in an open . If a few prominent ministers thus connected with which they desire chaplains selected A each army would cordially co-operate. Dr. and it proved very successful. His congregation is his regiment. CHAPLAIXS IX THE ARMY. and not touched upon. B. Lacy was an able speaker. and it is composed of persons of various denominations. and. I believe that would be the result. zeal . T. which are without chapand induce them to take steps to get chaplains to let the regiments name the denomination from . His mission was to preach at headquarters in every Sabbath while the troops were temporary pulpit and rough seats were field. Denominational distinctions should be kept out of view. Does he i^reach the Gospel V The neglect of spiritual interests in the . and here all were invited to come and worship. ' army may be of my partially seen in the fact that not half regiments have chaplains. A . I do not think glorious fruits • that a chaplain who would preach denominational sermons should be in the army. bad selection of a chaplain may prove a curse instead of a blessing. Dr. Lacy (who was commissioned by the government as a general chaplain) to begin this plan of labor." General Jackson selected the Eev. 399 and such ministers should labor to produce conamong chaplains and Christians in the army. and then to see that suitable chaplains are secured. These ministers should give special attention cert of action to preaching to regiments lains. I would like to see no questions asked in the army as to what denomination a chaplain belongs but let the question be. as a general rule.

Lacy upon his return from the meetings in his accustomed military style. though so modestly exerted. his devout his per- attention and delight by sonal interest. saying to him " The stated meetings of " Xow come and report. so that this service was now thoroughly renoThus the energy of General Jackson's will. vated. and. as well as of adding system and concert to their labors. in communicating efficiency and vigor to all their performance of duty. setting hum- them an example by in the services. the soldiers frequently met during the Aveek for ]>rayer." the chaplains. llis sense of delicacy for- bade his own attendance on these meetings. just as among his staflP and field officers. " were the means of — awakening them to a greatly increased zeal and fidelity. tendance of General Jackson and frequent appearance of General Lee and other distinguished officers soon drew vast crowds of soldiers to the scene. but he always manifested the liveliest interest in them greeting Dr. of first to build a log which Avas formally dedicated to the service God. made itself felt among his chaplains. in the midst of his blest soldiers. and. praise. Others soon followed the exam])le. leading tain of their salvation.: 400 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and to report the and evangelists in his corps to progress of their labors." The Stonewall Brigade was the chapel. thus protected against the rigors of Avinter." says Dr. them to follow the great Capall He requested the chaplains meet together Aveekly for conference over their duties. and Bible instruction the sacred pages being illuminated by pine torches from the forest. General Jackson often seated himself in the ranks. Dal)ney. and many l)ecame changed men. JACKSOX. General Jack- — .

" H. 401 son often attended these meetings. the late Governor of Georgia. I write to say that on yesterday the proclamation of our President for a 26 . and now for the second time representing his State in the United States Senate. E. and here in the and fields are beino^ converted to God voungmen.. " Eev. General J. as I must say they have been by Christians at home. he says: Daily in the great temple of nature. B. under the preaching of a few faithful ministers. to give parents and friends forests . over whose departure from the ^Daternal roof and from pious influences have been shed so many bitter tears. Morrison Dear Sir. earnest prayer. —Knowing that you take a deep interest in the progress of the church. March : 28tb." General Jackson had one other project for the spiritual welfare of his country. views on this subject will be seen in the following letter to his father-in-law " Near Fredericksbueg. at home such assurances as to change those hitter tears into tears of rejoicing. are made to tremble under a sense of guilt. and at night by heaven's chandeliers. 1863. testifies to the good wrought by these services in the army. Many of them. Dr. and led in iiumble. are audiences of from one to two thousand men anxious to hear the way of life. have been enabled. which was the Ilis estab- lishment of a Christian daily newspaper. are daily professing religion men grown old in sin. neglected. Gordon. and who ^' — never blanched in the presence of the foe. In a letter appealing for chaplains to be sent by the churches.: WORSHIP IX THE OPEX AIR.

so marked by His interposing hand that all shall recognize and acknowledge it as His gift. and is me that now is a good time to start is such a paper whilst our country looking to ently ask in trouble. a disregard for His holy is Such a paper as it appears to me news as is at the printing-office on Sunday.402 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. in the (lav of humiliation and prayer received army . as present received at the paper. for the gratification of curiosity. AYhat do you think of such an undertaking ? a paper could be established. and once to other troops. Jackson. a It more general response than I have seen on any similar occasion since the beginning of the war. How can we consistGod to bless us Avlien we continue to enlaw ? courage. I trust that yesterday deep interest in seeing a Christian daily paper established. . thus giving an opportunity of having the Gospel preached as exten- — was a solemn day throughout the Confederacy. H such might be the means of influencing the future course of our country. I believe there is not a single daily paper in the countr}^ but which violates the Sabbath by printing on that holy day for its Monday's issue. J. which would be mailed on Monday. and God for assistance. ^vould demanded would give us as early be printed on Saturday instead of Sunday. was arranged among the chaplains that each one of them should preach twice yesterday once to their own troops. and that God in His mercy will give us a speedy peace. . '• I feel a I it have thought upon appears to this subject for several years. " T. sively as practicable." . and hope its good fruits will be abundant. it " Very truly yours. JACKSOX.

by such a law. 403 His increasing solicitude for the country is spiritual good of his shown in the following letter to Colonel These views have before been given but as this letter was perhaps his last appeal on the subject. Kow is desirable an object. it its accomplish- ment. as there are no nationalities beyond the grave. except since I came into the field and. regret my I course. God enjoins. or some spe- do not recollect a single instance of any special despatch having reached me. against God's holy day The punishment of must be confined to this world. loss in observino- My rule is. '• I have read the Congressional report of the com- mittee recommending the repeal of the law requiring the mails to be carried on the Sabbath that you will feel it urge its repeal.: LETTER OX SUNDAY MAILS. since the cial messenger. "If you desire the repeal of the law. it has been a source of true enjoy- ment. arra. to let the Sabbath mails remain unopened. to effect so I understand that not onlv our . For fifteen years I have refused to mail letters on Sunday. have never sustained and I am well should be repealed at what satisfied that the law the earliest practicable moment. this fact may add more weight to them . appears to me. will bring all I trust you your influence to bear in the time. Boteler on the subject of Sabbath mails.ys itself. or to take them out of the office on that day. but despatches are generally sent by couriers or telegraph. by the mails. unless they contain a despatch. so far from having. I and I hope a duty as well as a pleasure to do not see how a nation that thus .to can expect to escape His wrath. I commencement of the war. national sins .

" T. we may expect it. will God to lias greatly blessed us. he Avrote with the same zeal. . and we may expect soon to be happy and independent people. and I trust He make us that. Let our government acknowledge the God of its God. It appears to me that extremes are to be avoided and it also appears to me that the old United States occupied an extreme position in the means it took to prevent the union of Church and State. saying " I greatly desire to see iieRce—hlesserl jieace. JACKSON. It does appear to me that as our President. and He and prayed to Him for additional has answered such prayers and gives us a government. people whose God is the Lord. in my opinion. of Lexington." . our Congress. Jacksox. but also most of his Cabinet and a majority of our Congressmen are professing Christians. and our people have thanked God ones. our government may be of ple the same character. AYe call ourselves a Christian peoand. for victories.: 404 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. without connecting itself with an the Bible as a ." To his friend Colonel Preston. Let us look God for an illustration in our history that 'rightis eousness exalteth a nation. And I am persuaded that if God's people throughout the Confederacy will earnestly and perse veringly unite in imploring His interposition for peace. established Church. it is gross ingratitude not to acknowledge Him in this gift. Let the framework of our government show that Ave are not uno^rateful to Him.' '' Yery truly your friend. J. President. but sin a reproach to any people.

I left the city one morning about seven o'clock. and whose self-sacrificing patriotism has been so long tested. Colonel Boteler. and braved the dangers of battle and disease. may have been relieved from command never again be assigned to that im- portant trust. from which the following is a brief extract '' 1 brought from I^assau a box of goods for General Stonewall Jackson. 405 In the beginning of the new year. and there are those who have so devotedly labored for the relief of our suffering sick and wounded. he says '" It is but natural that I should feel a deep and abiding interest in the people of the valley. hands of the enemy. and about . will a letter to his helpful show General Jackson's great concern and for his valley friends '' affection Though and I there. who wrote an account of it for an Enghsh paper or magazine. where are the : homes of so many of my brave soldiers who have been with me so long. AYinchester was An extract from again occupied by the Federals." left their families and homes in the In another letter to the same friend. yet I feel deeply otic people of that region when I see the patri- again under the heel of a hateful military despotism.: : VISIT OF AX ENGLISH OFFICER. and he asked me when I Avas at Richmond to come to his camp and see him." During this winter General Jackson received a visit from a captain in the English army. friend. of those There are all the homes who have been with me from the commencement of the war in Virginia who have repeatedly .

but thin. (or. untidy man. who is indescribably simple and unafI '• fected in his all his ways. ' A is quite as villainous as that of Balaklava. and was most agreeably surprised and pleased with his appearance. At meal the general said grace in a fervent. I was told that his age Avas thirty-eight. and made tlie white mantle of snow. which miles from Jackson's Jack's') camp. passed through pine woods. handsome. skin. has brown hair and a brown beard. I stumbled through mud. I then made my wa^^ to a small house occupied by the general as his headquarters. I expected to see an old. ten landed at a station. me to put my feet Avent out this and joined the members of his staff. took off m}^ Avet overcoat Avith In'ought own hands. and formed a crust over the Virginia mud. made up the fire. my journe}^ was which soon cleared awav You cannot imagine the AVet to the slough of despond I had to pass tlirough. with keen and searching expression. in a drenching shower. The da}^ before had been mild and wet. and at last got into camj) I about two o'clock.406 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. The general rose and greeted me warmly. wood for on to keep them Avarm Avhile my boots Avere drying. I waded through creeks. and was immediately told to walk in. He lie is tall. I wrote down my name and gave it to the orderly. compressed firmly together. and he looks forty. and powerfully built. JACKSOX. his eyes are blue and dark. and then began to ask me quesAt the dinner-hour we tions on A^arious subjects. quiet . His mouth exThe lips are thin and presses great determination. as his men call him. The general. distant some eight or nine Old hea\y fall of snow had covered the country for some time before to the depth of a foot.

He said Captain.' That little act illustrates With the care and responsithe man's character. but I am afraid I have not succeeded very well. I then noticed my great-coat stretched Shortly afterwards the general before it on a chair. bilities of a vast army on his shoulders. the general said : ' Captain. 407 manner. is " General Jackson a man of great endurance .THE OFFICER'S IMPRESSIOXS. and if there is any labor it. xViter dinner I returned to his room. The servant came in and took his mattress out of a cupboard and laid it on the floor. and he again talked for a long time. at breakfast-time. Good-night. who never seem to with me. and I returned up to the general's headquarters to bid him adieu." to be undergone he never fails to take his share of During this winter. He has been known to ride for three days and nights at a time. 3^ou will there share plenty of room on my bed . which struck me very much. he finds time to do little acts of kindness and thoughtfulness.' and slept in a tent. " As is it I rose to retire. entered the room. I hope thanked him very much for his courtesy. which make him the darling of his men. he drinks nothing stronger than water. I had a horse. however. I noticed that the general said grace before the meal with the same fervor I had remarked before.' I ' . His little room was vacant. An hour or two afterwards it was time for me to return to the station on this occasion. I have been trying to dry your great-coat. and never uses tobacco or any stimulant. : ^ tire talking of him. sharing the blankets of one of his aides-de-camp. at Moss Xeck. so I stepped in and stood before the fire. General Jack- . In the morning. but said.

he was forever reconciled by the righteousness of Christ. in substance. not for chair. he he should ever fall Christ vras tence. : . ." now the practical spring of all his peni- and with an impressive union of humility and solemn elevation " Nothing earthly can continued. : . impressed as he had never been before by the exalted faith and perfect assurance that God had vouchsafed his to this Christian soldier. I know that heaven is in store for me and I should rejoice in the prospect of going Understand me I am not sick. To a friend he expressed his perfect assurance of faith. thus mar my happiness. and life is very bright But still I am ready to leave it any day. am not sad God has greatly blessed me I have as much to love here as any man. his con- . son's Christian activity marked than ever before. and said he had been for a long time a stranger to fear. although a great sinner. to me. Father. JACKSOX. I there to-morrow. And I would not agree to the slightest diminu- [here he paused. through the mercy of my Heavenly lie then arose from his seat. and that love for God and Christ to his soul . " because he hnew and vms as-mred of the love of felt not the faintest dread that under the wrath of God. All his Christian friends observed this winter how much mind dwelt upon spiritual matters." these words he sank into his and his friend retired. and spirituality became more showing a rich ripening for the rewards and glories of the heavenly inheritance. though to consider what terrestrial measure he might as tion of one shade of glor}^ there my — best select to express the largeness of his joys] — no. all the fame I have acquired or shall ever win '^Yitll in this world. \vithout trepidation or regret.-tOS LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. for that heaven which I know awaits me.

He desire was to command frequently said that his a " converted army. Corbin. named Jane. his hearty laughter mingling merrily with that of the child. Her pretty face and winsome ways were so charming to him that he requested her mother as a favor that he might have a visit from her every afternoon when his day's labors were over. He always had some came each day little treat in store for her as she apj)le. after invoking God's blessing and committing our cause to Him. his diligence was also unremitting in training and strengthening his corps for active service in the coming campaign. In the family of Mr. Avas a lovely little girl. He loved to hold her upon his knee. and often quoted the maxim. '' Duty is ours consequences are God's. of Moss Xeck. but the supply of such things becoming exhaust- — an orange. and yield- ing a perfect obedience to His will. cand}^ or cake. dihgent performance of duty. who became a special pet with General Jackson. who drew their inspiration from his own spirit of confidence and determination. and sometimes he played and romped with her." first But Avhile thus desiring and striving for the spiritual good of his men. about six years of age." It was a continued dehght to him to dwell upon the blessedness of perfect acquiescence . sider the He loved to con- modes by which God reveals His will to man. 409 versation almost invariably drifting into that channel. and his favorite subjects were steadfastness of faith. and her innocent companionship and sweet prattle were a great pleasure and recreation to him. in the Divine will. an . and it increased in efficiency and numbers more than at any former period. It was brought up to number over thirt}^ thousand active soldiers.HIS FONDNESS FOR A CHILD.

one afternoon lie found he had notliing tempting to offer lier. and Avhen I went in to tell the general. if not the most so. and which Avas ornamented with a simple band of gilt braid — the most modest mark of his rank could Avear. Afterwards he requested me to ride back to Moss Xeck that night to express his sympathy. and to remain to be of any service that I A^ery : could to the family. age.: 4:10 LHE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. sick Avith scarlet fever. Corbin the little CA^enino^ before leaving. near Yerby's. Mr. probably al)Out five or six years old. the little girl was taken doinfi: Avell. daugh- supposed to be out of danger." The This little one of tender years day of his removal from Moss xS^eck she died. and Avept freely. Avith his knife off the band. that a field Taking up this cap. he stood off admiringly. said " AVe learned of Janie's death after Ave reached our new camp. A short time before I left there. and she too appeared to think so but the next morning she Avas Avhom I . Corbin. but appeared to be I called to see JMrs. Smith. he Avas much moved. and in a few hours died of malignant . that I ever saAv at that Mrs. and talked to her of her ter. JACKSOX. taken very ill. ed in his scanty quarters. and in glancing around the room his eye fell u})on a new gray cap which he had just received from his Avife. His aide." General Jackson himself thus alludes to the death of his little favorite in one of his letters Avrote : " I never you about the bereavement of my kind friend She had an only daughter. and said This shall be your coronet officer '' I'' AA^as destined to precede her friend to the " land of pure delight. and encircling it around little he ripped Janie's fair head. and one of the most attractive.

General Kodes have all been to . most precious.DEATH OF HIS LITTLE FAVORITE. 1863. Mrs. to be spared to us. His tender devotion to' the little daughter whom he had never seen was surprising to the young doctor. How much ! darhng baby about the But I do want to see you and our don't know when I shall have I this happiness. Avery's firstborn. In his desire to render all the aid he could. Give my tenderest love and sjniipathy to her. that he might write his wife the advice prescribed. " I do wish that dear child. that dent to bring tent myself. so would be impruI must just con- Mrs. and Mrs. General Longstreet. . he consulted his medical director. McGuire. scarlet fever. General A. of which he says We can sympathize with her. if it is God's will. and both of them died of the same disease in a few days. in this her sad hour of trial." He was led to speak of these deaths by hearing of the loss of my sister Mrs. who were staying at the same house. : " JaniiaiT '' . and his voice quivered with agitation as he said on leaving him. since hearing so it much one's health. and his parental anxieties were greatly awakened. it upon a journey. . and I wish I could comfort her. Dr. but no human comfort can fully meet her case only the Eedeemer can. as I little am afraid. cousins of little Janie." About this time his own little daughter had a severe case of chicken-pox. and also reveal his ever-increasing spiritual joy and gratitude '' : . Hill. and I trust that she finds Jesus precious. ^H There were two other little children. 5tli. even at so great a distance. P." The following extracts from his letters testify to this same paternal interest and affection.

Heavenly Father I am very thankful to our kind — ears are still troubling me. Friend. . Jackson here too l)ut whilst I cannot see my wife and baby. as I fear it would be too much of a risk for you and baby to travel up here.. Rodes at church." good tidings from you and baby specially that she is restored again to health. "The other day I received from the citizens of Augusta County a magnificent horse.. . . and I trust that we all three may so live as most to glorify His holy name. Yesterday 1 saw ^Irs. at Guiney's. and I expect him mon at to take the position of my senior adjutant-general. My for "January Cth. with an excellent saddle and bridle.412 see LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. Grace Church (where General Hill has his headquarters) by an Episcopal minister. I have a visor. JACKSOX. but I do not think I shall be able in future to stand what I have as usual. I am sorry to hear that dear mother's health . Mr. does not improve. Indeed. pox We have several cases of smalland I expect you will have to give up all idea of coming to see me until spring. . Colonel Faulkner is with us again. my health has improved.. but I hope I shall not have to sleep in a tent any more this winter. but I as good am very thankful and from my apthat my hearing is pearance one would suppose that I was perfectly well. already stood. it is a great comfort to know that you have a darling little pet to keep you company in my absence. and she looked so happy tliat it made me wish I had Mrs.. . . my health is essentially good. It is the most complete riding . although. I heard a good sertheir liiisbaiuls. ^vith the exception of the increased sensitiveness of my ears.

I tell see my wife would hurry down to Xorth Carolina to and baby. Since he is my senior adjutant-genmajority. reare better than United States mails ? Don't you for letters to come from member how long it took Doesn't look as Confederate mails Charlotte to Lexington under the old regime? I defrom the rive an additional pleasure in reading a letter that it has not travelled on the Sabbath. of which you speak. be careful. LieutenantColonel Faulkner is of great service to me in making out my reports. and is the eral. is his successor. of Winchester. my chief of ordjunior adjutant-general. 413 friends equipment that I have seen. I seen her and if the war were only over. far as to get patent stirrups.LETTER TO HIS WIFE. She must not be permitted to have that will of her own. so to you must not comyou about my staff. Yesterday I had the pleasure of it if receiving a letter from my it esposita four days after was written. Major Captain nance. Colonel Smeade plain of is my my not writing inspector-general. where everything is sanctified . I re- . I am gratified at hear! ing that you have commenced disciplining the baby. How I would love to see the little Xow darling. have much work to do. went so constructed so as to open My kind and throw the foot from the stirrup in the event of stirthe rider being thrown and the foot hung in the Oh that I were more God to us rups. How kind is ! grateful " I" January ITth. Pendleton is promoted to a Bier. whom . I love so tenderly... conviction How delightful will be our heavenly home. has been ordered to Charleston. though I have never you. and I William Allan. and don't let her conquer you.

with increased confidence. . Eemember me to her. I am glad to hear that and doesn't disturb her mother. But it would be better not to call her a cheruJj .. I see her funny little Avays. JACKSOX. . and hear her ful she is so bright and I am thankdo aa^sIi I could ' squeal out I Avith delight' at seeing the little chickens. before strangers take her. look for a speedy termination of hostilities. no I am also gratified that Hetty earthly being is such. Preston Trotter. Ai^e yoic not Kiss her for her father. you Avould give them something to please her. ]\Ir. as I didn't give her a present last Christmas. and seeing them giving her two next. and another beautiful pair from Mrs. I intend Don't you accuse my baby of do hope she will get over her fear of strangers. in answer to prayer. she sleeps Avell at night. incr . and knowing. am some- times afraid that you Avill make such an idol of that baby that God afraid of it ? Avill take her from us. Stephens. I trust she Avould lose her timidity. not being hrave. and thus make her have pleasant associations Avith them. gret to see our Winchester friends again in the hands I trust that. of Browns- "I haA^e — burg.. .a 411 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Let us pray more and live more to the sflorv of God. If. this morning received two presents pair of gauntlets from near the Potomac. is doing well. of Kelson County. I frequently. It is gratifying tliat she is groAving so Avell. If we were only that obedient people that Ave should be.'' . and do Avant to see her. and tell her that. I would. I am still thinkino^ and thinkCan't about tliat babv. our of the enemy. sent me a barrel of select pippins. A kind gentleman. country will soon be blessed with peace. you send her to me by express ? There is an express line all the Avav to Guiney's.

' a delightful book. I haven't people." ing it to say that Tth. and I feel more improved in read- than by an ordinary sermon. Army. he had better years.THE STONEWALL BRIGADE BUILDS A LOG CHURCH. yet I have not been in ' it. of Staunton. February In answer to the prayers of God's will soon give us peace. G.. Yesterday Colonel M. Harman and Mr. This has been a beautiful spring have been thinking lately about gardening. should set an example of remaining at the post of duty. 415 " January called 31st. jun. Bell. I am thankful my Sabbaths are passed more in meditation than formerly. keep dry. and get a good night's sleep. My As old Stonewall Brigade has built a log church. . it would be time for me to bemn to prepare the hot-bed. I expect we would find many changes. . but unless mother gets worse. Don't you remember what interest we used to take in our hot-bed ? If we should be privileged to return to our old home. William J. Joseph would like very much to go home. two daughter. ." 3d. can encase myself in " it. Time thus spent is genuine enjoyment. I trust He seen my vv^ife for nearly a year — my home in nearly and have never seen our darling little it is important that I. I am much It is interested in reading Hunter's Life of Moses. of the British me to-day. to see Captain Bushby. . and presented me with a water-proof a wet night in oil-cloth case in which I to sleep on summer campaigning. and those at headquarters. "February I day. If I were at home. but not. presented me with an excellent horse. An ever-kind Providence is showering blessings down upon me.

feel- I think that if. have never told nie you. object. and brought a letter from 'Cy' [a negro servant]. and thought that Josepli had better make a I have made the restoration of mothers visit home. .. to which I intend to give my consent. If you could Does she notice and laugh much ? hear me talking to my esjposa in the mornings and evenings. it would make you laugh. provided you or his mother do not. miles away. . It is funny the way I talk to her when she is hundreds of Jim has returned from Lexington. and also send the baby a silk handkerI have thought that as it is brightly colored. . months I tell old. want to know how she looks. and that God does not " . JACKSON. Your delightful letter of six pages I am received a welcome reception this evening. I am so much con- cerned about mother's health as to induce me to recommend a leave of absence for Joseph." me know she notices [This handkerchief has ever since been sacredly preserved as a precious relic] February 14th. I'm sure.416 LIl^E OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. always answer prayer according to our erring incrs. but I saw another person ride him. thankful to see that our kind Heavenly Father is again restoring mother to health.. it mioiit attract her attention. I felt uneasy about her. health a subject of prayer but then Ave know that our dear ones are mortal. . and I hope soon to have that pleasure Just to think our baby is nearly three myself. . Remember. when we see ourselves in a . it is her if first present from her father. and let it. . chief. I You how much she looks like her mother. . I send thi^ note by him. As yet I liave not mounted him. asking permission to take unto himself a wife.

saddle-cover.. we would learn more justly to appreciate the relative importance of the body that perishes and the soul that is immortal. blankets. glass. intensify my desire to see her. To-morrow is the Sabbath. . a pair of boots. Your accounts of baby are very gratifying. I think that the army would be much more efficient if all belonging to it were present. whip.LETTER TO HIS WIFE. About a week since. My Sabbaths are looked forward to with pleasure. John Johnson. You say you don't see any use of my not taking a furlough. markable. bridle. holsters. of London. and fasting. ])resent. will enable us to little be together I am glad Juha was pleased with her . \v^ould be all very delightful. I do hope you can bring her and spend the winter with me. . . as our President has designated in his proclamation. I don't think I have written you about recent presents. W. saddle. I received from Mr.. . and . 417 is we should consider that all of us that visible must turn to corruption and dust. two pairs of excellent 27 . De la Rue. completeness is re- This evening I received from Mr. I don't know that I ever enjoyed Sabbaths as I do this winter. prayer. and wish I could have seen her laugh. If peace This is not con- cluded before next winter. F. a superb English . a box containing two flannel shirts. a fitting leather pair of leather leggings extending about eight inches above the knees. I trust an ever- kind Providence winter. . spurs. I do trust and pray that our people will religiously observe the 2Tth of next month as a day of humiliation. two pairs of long woollen stockings extending above the knees. If we are spared.. etc.. of London. a buckskin shirt. —the most complete riding equipage that I Its have seen for many a day.

. Hoge here. LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J.418 gloves. . and is has preached severaL sermons. JACKSOX. Do you remember when my ([uarters I wife used to come up to my headWinchester and talk with her esposof would love to see her sunny face peering into my little in room On next Monday there is to be a again. I have McDowell. of . Our ever-kind Heavenly Father gives me friends strangers. and I pray that good may result. Mr. Hopkins find a chaplain of the Second Regiment of Virginia A^olunteers. I desire to be more grateful to Ilim. Rev. paigning. meeting of the chaplains of my corps. If you were here you would number of friends. . Lacy is with the with the army is me no\v. and a very superior variegated colored blanket. March battle 7th.'' just . and am very desirous to get through with them before another campaign commences. and.. I am greatly behind in my reports. as I hope thereby persons will be prevented from encroaching so much upon my time. Unished my report of the ligious interest in There is a good deal of rearmy. and go into a tent near Hamilton's Crossing. I \\w\ now in cam]\ but I do not know of any house near l)y where you could .. Mr. Eev. moreover. . and I expect will continue during the war. Eev. I . amonf and " He is the source of every blessing. William J. which is on the railroad. and I hope early next The time has about come for camweek to leave my room. should you come . will be less It is rather a relief to get where there comfort than in a room. be accommodated. about five miles from Fredericksburg." '* March 14th.

There appears to be an increased religious will lead our Our chaplains have weekly meetings on Tuesdays. morning prayer liberal He Avas too and unobtrusive in his own religion to exact compulsory attendance on the part of his staff but their regard for him prompted them to gratify his wishes. and on Sunday afternoons he loved to engage the musical members of his staff in singing sacred songs. and. Before this time campaign liad begun. chaplain to officiate at these services . so far as we can see. I trust that God . The moveand we can't ments of the enemy must influence say where we shall be a week hence. to which he listened with genu- . he was and with the greatest fervor and humility offered up his tribute of praise and supplication. After removing his headquarters to Hamilton CrossGeneral Jackson established an altar of dail}' in his military family. as the might not be here when last year.HIS FAVORITE HYMNS. and he always greeted their presence Avith a face of beaming commendation. and to live in accordance with His will as revealed in the Bible. but if absent. the j^ou would season for campaigning has come. country to acknowledge Him. and in such a manner as to show that it is all His gift and I trust and pray that it " April 10th." interest among our troops here. He appointed his . on Sunday and Wednesday evenings. 419 arrive. ing. it ma\^ begin again at any time. ours. the general took his place himself. Meetings for praA^er were held at his quarters twice a week. and the one of this week was more charming than the preceding one.'^ is going to bless us with great success.

JACKSOX. humble sinner. Not to live without the cross. He them stop without are they !'' for the liymn beginning " How happy Who the Saviour obey Other favorite hymns with him were " Come." And.] . in whose breast A thousand thoughts revolve.: 420 LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS rarely let J. city of our God." I "When And gathering clouds around view. calling ine delight." [Sung to the tune of Harwell." "'Tis my happiness below. days are dark and friends are few. "Glorious things of thee are spoken. Zion.

I am glad to hear that she enjoys out-doors. and coos. the spring advanced. THE LAST HAPPY DAYS. And what do you think she did when she arrived at her destinaShe just climbed up on her father and kissed tion? him And don't you think he was a happy man ? But when he awoke he found it all a delusion. . Last night I dreamed that my I shouldn't be surprised to hear at any little wife and I were on opposite sides of a room. and the baby started from her mother. and finally reached her father. How I would love to see her sweet ways That her little chubby hands have lost their resemShould I blance to mine is not regretted by me..— CHANCELLORSYILLE— 1863. and I tell a^ou there would be one dehghted man. little ! . . "I am beginning to look for my darling and my bab}^ time that they were coming. and the season for cam- paigning dre^Y nearer. General Jackson grew more and more anxious to have a visit from his wife and His solicitous consideration for the health and safety of the little one had led him to advise their not and now he travelling until the winter was over showed great eagerness to have a visit before the campaign should open. in the centre of which was a table.: ! CHAPTER As XXII.. On the 18th of April he wrote child. and grows. making her way along under the table. . . and laughs. .

We made the journey to spend Sunday. as I hope some kind neighbor would try to make us comI fortable for the short time that you may remain. his . " Saturday. unless you get a But good escort. stopping in and arrived at" Guiney's Monday. I am not accommodations for you but I don't think there will be any difficulty about it." me to take it off. Hett}^ and I were all anxiety to have our baby present her best ajipearance for her father's first sight of her. and that vou at once got an There is no time for hesitation if escort and started. Hetty. but you did not say a word about coming to see your esI do hope that ere this you liave received mine.4r'2'2 I^IFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. When he entered the coach to receive us. rosy. long. you have not that I started. which is think that we less than a mile from my headquarters. so full of interest and antici- pated joys. and good. refreshing sleep just before the awoke from a train stopped. I Yesterday I received youi* letter. and never looked more bright and charm- Richmond Station at noon on inir. and was plump. saying you could come. Yerby's. There is increasing probability may come be elsewhere as the season advances. for write to you to liave any more pantaloons made me. and She she could not have better realized our wishes. please do not have mucli gold braid al)out them." don't certain that I can get : Little Julia wa's nearly five months old now. the 20th of April. we set out upon this visit. safely. I became so ashamed of the broad gilt band tliat was on the cap you sent as to induce like simplicity. might get in at Mr. and with her nurse. JACKSON. jwso.

THE FIRST SIGHT OF HIS CHILD. He was afraid to take her in but as we drove in his arms. Miss Jackson. so it seemed to be a mutual fascination. but liis face was all sunshine and gladness . Yerbv's. and he expressed and beauty. lovingly. in her innocence and purity. smiling was a picture. she beamed her brightest and sweetest smiles upon him in return. a carriage to Mr. after greeting his wife. with his wet overcoat lovely. " JS'ow. he caressed her with the tenderest affection. and. " Isn't she a little gem T^ He was frequently : told that she resembled him. but he is would say " too pretty to look like me. And yet with all . it indeed. and admiraShe Avas at the age . baby in his arms. father kneeling over the cradle of that lovely infant could have been put upon canvas. During us. the whole of this short rarely ing" when he was with had her out of his arms. and little face with the most rapt admiraand he said he felt almost as if she were an angel. and held her long and visit." When she slept in the day. to see his look of perfect delight tion as his eyes fell ! upon that bal\y and catching his eager look of supreme interest in her. much surprise and gratification at her size Upon our arrival at the house he speedtaking his ily divested himself of his overcoat. . look at yourself Then he would turn say she : to an old lady of the family and ISTo. his face reflected all the happiness and delight that were in his heart. walking her. admiringly. and. I have often wished that the picture which was presented to me of that gaze upon her tion. he and amus- her in every way that he could think of — some!" times holding her up before a mirror and saying. he would often kneel over her cradle. 423 rubber overcoat was dripping from the rain ^vhicll was falling.

Mr. Lacy. you can go eral. and as soon as lie laid her wish was gratified. and if she began to cry again he would lay her down again. by's to see the baptism of little ' . JACKSON. to Mr. Mr. Smith. who said. For some Lacy did not wish me to go. his fondness and devotion to the httle lady. she ceased to cry. reason. The be present. and the cr3'ing was renewed with increased violence. Certainly. tells how he came to soldiers. but he exThis will never do !" and commanded " all claimed '' : hands off" until that little will of her own should be conquered. . and said I Provoked at tliis. kicking and screaming. He brought his chaplain. in whose parlor the sacred rite was performed.424 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. even in disciWhen she stopped crying he would plining a baby take her up. I went to the genshouldn't go. So there she lay. Yerby's. and a number of the staff-officers. and was object of great interest to her father's friends and the His aide. child behaved beautifully. the Eev. Of course. he had no five idea of spoiling her. while he stood over her with as much coolness and determination as if he were directing a battle. Mr. and became perfectly ! quiet in his hands. Yer- Julia. in tlie presence of the family. as will be seen by his undertaking to teach her a lesson in self-control before she I was One day she began to cry to be taken months old from the bed on which she was lying. and he was true to the name of Stonewall. Mr. He says : " I recall the visit to Mr. the mother-heart wished to stop this by taking her up again. and this he kept up until finall}^ she was completely conquered. On the 23d of April (the day she was five months old) General Jackson had little Julia baptized. her back upon tlie bed. Smith.

THE LAST SOLEMN SERVICE. we found Mr. comfortable room at Mr. the singing one grand volume of song. We had .a large. He seemed to be giving utterance to those religious meditations in which he so much delighted. remember the general's impatience at some and the decided way with which he went out and brought in the child in his arms. My husband took me in an ambulance to his headquarters. Yerby's. and how handsome he looked. Yerby's. Arrived there. were spread out in dense masses the soldiers. sitting upon benches or The preaching was earnest and edifying. and I never saw . and the attention and good behavior of the assembly remarkable. some walking. in which we were seated. 425 ask the others to go with you." The next Sabbath was a most memorable one to me. I remember how reverent and impressive was General Lee's bearing. and on the way were seen streams of officers and soldiers.' and I turned out the whole party. which was hospitably furnished health than at this time. all wending their way to the place of worship. Lacy in a tent. being the last upon which I was privileged to attend divine service with my husband on earth. together with General Lee and other distinguished officers. under the canopy of heaven. and to of soldiers as worship I in camp with such a company had never seen together in a religious congregation. In front of the tent. standing. where the services were held. little I delay. That Sabbath afternoon my husband spent entirely with me. and his conversation was more spiritual than I had ever observed before. some riding. He never appeared to be in better him look so handsome and noble. with his splendid figure and faultless military attire. making quite a cavalcade to ride to Mr.

staff" reassured and put at ease. A young staffconsisted of only gentlemen.426 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS It J. tvnce He heard one young lady '• : call out to another from her carriage General Lee kissed me r : The exultant " reply came back from another General Lee kissed me four times /" General Jackson did not permit the presence of his familv to interfere in any way with his military ducarriage ties. Jackson. courteous call was greatly enjoyed. that I was at once therly/. He claimed the privilege of kissing all the pretty young girls. The formidable . but returned as early as he could get from and devoted all of his leisure time to his visitors — little Julia sharinir his chief attention and . trepidation and descended to the parlor with considerable but I was met by a face so kind and faand a greeting so cordial." I was somewhat awe-struck at tlie idea time I of meeting the commander-in-chief. met him. which was regarded by them as a special honor. JACKSOX. General Lee was always charming in the society of ladies. for when he called on me he facetiously alluded to our capacious accommodations. and when the announcement was made that " General Lee and his staff had called to see Mrs. The greater part his labors. with a retinue of officers. ^' two or three nice-looking. seems that General Lee had been an occupant of this i-ooni before us. and said he had written to his wife and daughters that if they would come to see him. and the officer relates that on the occasion of a general review^ many ladies turned out in carriages to witness the im- posing spectacle. and often indulged in a playful way of teasing them that was quite amusing. of each day he spent at his off headquarters. he could This was the first entertain them all in this room ! with three beds.

care. 497 His devotion to his ciiild was remarked upon by all Avbo beheld the happy pair together. who found great difficulty in keeping even in sight of him. he sat in . him. at Wining . he remounted . I persuaded him to sit for his picture. which he at first declined but as he never presented a finer appearance in health and dress (wearing the handsome suit given him by Genof his home-looh. It was during these last happ}^ days that he sat for the last picture that was taken of him the three-quarthe favorite picture ters view of his face and head with his old soldiers. not so pleasing as the full-face view which was taken in the spring of 1862. and galloped away at such a John Gilpin speed ." wishing to show his fine present me steps of the house and after bringing him up to the and showing him off. eral Stuart). for she soon learned to delight in his caresses as loved to play with her. . but. which was unusually long for him. As far as he could be seen." his One morning he rode over from headquarters upon handsome bay horse. Yerby's and asked permission to photograph him. as it is the most soldierly-look- — — — mind. and which has more of the beaming sunlight The last picture was taken by an artist who came to Mr. to my chester. he was flying like the wind the impersonation of fearlessness and manly vigor. that his cap was soon borne off by the velocity but he did not stop to pick it up.THE PORTRAIT THAT THE SOLDIERS LOVE. " Superior. An officer's wife much as he who saw time in him often during this time wrote to a friend in Eichall his leisure mond that " tlie general spent playing with the baby. leaving this to his orderly behind him. and curled in large ringlets. After arranging his hair myself.

and ready to add to that series a triumph more remarkable and illustrious than any of its predecesGeneral Jackson's corps grew in three months sors. saying he had there something to show us. which was founded by him and bears his honored name. Corcoran. the hall of the house.— 428 LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. General Lee found himself at the head of an army unsurpassed in discipline and all the hardy virtues of the soldier. Corcoran. was given by Mr. This portrait. but it enabled it to bear. without in. reinvigorated by the compactness and order which had been given to its organization. . The splendid morale of this army did not need improvement. strengthened by the additions of the winter. . visit of W. Without another word. a few years since. and as the child stood ray dauo^hter and myself to transfixed before the splendid representation of the whose memory she so revered. The very best is Elder's grand portrait painted for the late Mr. incrton. face. W. Corcoran to the Art Gallery in Washington. from twenty -five to thirty -three thousand muskets. . the dear old man stepped forward. . of Wash- Durino: a Mr. he led us up in front of this portrait. he asked us to walk with him into his salon. face. and. . tenderly kissed her. where a strong wind blew in his causing hira to frown. JACKSON. When the spring opened. Our military leaders had diligently employed the winter months in preparing their troops for the greatest efficiency in the approaching campaign. original. Avith an enthusiasm acquired by a long series of victories. and giving a sternness to his this. lifting up the pathetic young father. . countenance that was not natural but in spite of some tine copies have been produced from the . together with a companion picture of General Lee.

" As he cross- he said. paign can only be made successful by taking the ag- emphasis he said : " We . when early on the morning of the 29th of April we were aroused by a messenger arose. and that he must to the scene of action. jur}^. 429 In- the privations and hardships of the winter. me that his surmise was correct — Hooker was gQ immediately cir- crossing the river." But as the campaign drew on apace. but this last visit exceeded that in happiness. My visit had lasted only nine days. at our door saying. clothing and scanty rations it. " General Early's adjutant wishes to see General Jackson. and. " That looks as if Hooker were ing." sufficient produced no effect upon Their leader manifested less reserve than formerly side in in expressing his opinion of the general principles which should govern the Confederate continuance of the war. and this greatly intensified his delight and enjoyment. the AYith great decision and must make this campaign an exceedingly active one. but struck him the first blow." told He hurried down-stairs. N^apoleon never waitgressive at the proper time. ed for his adversary to become fully prepared. and under the . for had the additional charm and the attraction of the lovely child that God had given us.HOOKER'S ARilY CROSSING THE RIVER. Only thus can a weaker it must make up in country cope Avith a stronger A defensive camactivity what it lacks in strength. From the indications he thought a battle was imminent. my delightful was destined to come to an end. My husband had loved to dwell with devout thankfulness upon the happy winter we had spent together in Winchesvisit ter it . soon returning.

My need of his services. Scarcely had he gone. Lacy. explaining why he could not leave his post. Yerby's. seeing General Jackson's tion of the baby. and if not. had requested that Mr. cumstances he was unwilling for us to remain in so He therefore exposed a situation as Mr. throwin^: all the family into great panic. directed me to prepare to start for Richmond at a promising to return himself to see us off if possible. He brought a cheerful note from my husband. and before we Mr. and especially was he tender and loving in his menbrother Joseph. when the roar of cannons began following in quick succession — volley after volley— the house shaking and My windows rattlino^ from the reverberations.430 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and causing the wildest excitement among the occupants of the place. hasty preparations for leaving were hardly completed when Mr. and the reader can imagine how sad and harrowing \vas my chive to the station . in order to catch the morning train to Richmond. JACKSON. he er Joseph. and invoking God's care and blessing upon us in our sudden departure. A left ra])id and continuous rattle of musketry showed that the battle was diers brought in now under way. Lacy should be sent in his stead as my escort. hurried off without breakfast. which were arranging as temporary hospitals. came with an ambuhad been sent by General Jackson to convey his family to the railroad station as speedily as possible. saying he the chaplain. he would send my brothAfter a tender and hasty good-by. Yerby's yard we saw several wounded sol- and placed in the out-houses. moment's notice. the surgeons This was my nearest and only glimpse of the actual horrors of the battle-field. lance.

The commander-in-chief was found sitting in his tent. had been paying a visit to a soldier husband and father. but soon ascertained from the cavalry pickets of General Stuart that the crossing of the enemy below Fredericksburg. and my heart was heavy Avith foreboding and dread. like myself. feint to cover the . and but few passengers were aboard only two that made any impression upon me. and were now fleeing for safety. I heard firing. and these were a pretty. Jackson had under arms as speedily as possible. and as we journeyed along over a newly cut road. saying " Well. which was now engaging his attention. for all Southern hearts w^ere bound by a strong tie in the common cause for which so many brave hearts were battling." left to his own responsibility. we could hear the sounds of battle. among kind friends. Say to General Jackson that he knows just as well what to do with the — : enemy Thus as I do.1 HIS WIFE RETURNS TO RICHMOND. and replied with his accustomed pleasantry to the message. and I was beginning to think it was time some of you lazy young fellows w^ere coming to tell me what it was all about. But we must now return to General Jackson. who. was only a his corps movements of still larger forces. which were effecting passages higher up the Rappahannock. young Creole mother and a little boy from Kew Orleans. We were in good time for the train. his first order was to despatch one of his aides to inform General Lee of the movements of the enemy. ! 43 on that terrible morning The distance was several miles. filled with stumps and roots. and some miles west of Fredericksburg. In a few hours we Avere in Eichmond. Hastening to his command.

and was massing his vast army. his step a quicker firmness. : Before orderii>g his tents to be struck. as a warning gesture. . energy. These forces marched down towards Chancellorsville. in obedience to General Lee's order to go to the support of two divisions which had . and put his column in motion at three o'clock on the morning of the 30th. On the opening of this campaign. I'' immediately fell of His might. and indomitable will did he appear that even his figure assumed more erectness. His mind was clear and his action prompt nothing did he overlook or neglect which could add to the efficiency of his corps. where he had drunk of the inspiration that comes only from above. where General Hooker was himself in command. JACKSOX. to escape the notice of the enemy. thrown the said : reins. with his usual skill. patient. but arduous laborer over his daily tasks. and in the power " Hush ! . which makes a man " strong in the Lord. raised his hand to the bustling crowd around. his last act was to dismount from his horse and seek the ])rivacy His servant Jim. General Jackson managed. and his whole bearing realized the ideal of a soldier. when General Jackson broke up his quarters. fifteen miles west of Fredericksburg. and in a loud whisper The general is praying Silence upon the camp. to whom he had of his own tent." Proceeding to the field. From the quiet. as one inspired by the consciousness of power. it was observed that a wondrous change came over him.432 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and was maintained until the curtain was withdrawn and the Christian warrior came forth from his closet. he seemed transformed into a thunder-bolt of war. . So instinct with animation.

with his whole force massed 28 The Federal had also broken through the and was making a raid southward. they " had assumed a position of great natural strength. and the Confederates attempted nothing that day beyond some skirmishing along the lines. thus diminished. filled with a tangled undergrowth. sixty thousand. That night. and the adjacent woods. POSITION OF THE FEDERAL ARMY. against Hooker with cavalry. in the midst of which breastworks of logs had been constructed. according to the report of General Lee. while Hooker's situation was seemingly impregnable. was absent Early had been left at Fredericksburg to conceal Jackson's departure. and to dispute the heights of that place with Sedgwick and Lee's army. General Stuart now joined them. where. with the object of cutting off General Lee's communications with Eichmond. the 1st of May... with a part of his corps. in large force. which he accomphshed by threatening their flank. upon back to Chancellorsville. surrounded on which they fell all sides by a dense forest. was left with only forty-three thousand men to battle waste of . and long and earnest were their consultations. and reported that. Longstreet." commanded To attack this stronghold would cost a fruitless life. 433 already been sent to arrest the advance of the enemy. Their artillery swept the few narrow roads by which the position could be approached from the front. the fallen leaves aifording them the only means of repose but little did they think of sleep. so as to form an almost impenetrable abatis. for the situation of affairs was of the gravest and most serious aspect. with trees felled in front. Confederate lines. Generals Lee and Jackson bivouacked upon a knoll covered with pine-trees. .

Lacy to mark down all the roads for him. and they both agreed that Hooker must be attacked at once. pine leaves to take a few hours of mjach-needed repose. and shivering over a little fire. Jackson rose more than himself. endure the cold himself to depriving a friend of his The next morning he awoke with a cold. and declined. 434 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. vet his encampments were open upon the west and nortliwest. or all would Finally they laid themselves down upon the be lost. and requested his chaplain — Mr. to inspect the country. He invited ]\Ir. Jackson's mind seemed to have been upon everything had neglected to provide a covering or wrap of any kind. Ilotchkiss. Lacy to take a seat by him. and the greater part of his cavalry were absent on the southern raid.. but was unwilling to deprive him of it. now of Staunton. and asked him to give him all the information he could about the by-roads of that region the minister being acquainted with the country. around Chancellors ville. as he once had a charge in that vicinity. The thoughtful young man then detached the large cape of the garment and spread it over his general but as soon as Pendleton fell asleep. JACKSON. . He also sent his topographical engineer. and he and carefully placed the cape over him. preferring to comfort. Long and anxiously did the two Confederate leaders consult on that memorable night. Virginia. In the gray light of dawn found him sitting on a cracker-box. and procured the services of a guide from the neighborhood to find out some avenue by which he might pass s^viftly and unobserved around the flank of Hooker's army. ^lajor Jed. but he did not speak of it. lie was urged by young Pendleton of his staff to accept his overcoat. He took a pencil and an outline map out of his pocket.

" With my whole corps present. and so making the attack on his rear. loss. comprehending intuitively that their leader was engaged in one of his masterly flank movements. This move- ment was not altogether un perceived by the Federals. him. By three o'clock in the afternoon .THE FLANK MOVEMENT. To divide his army into two parts and place the whole Federal force between flected them was extremely hazardous." Lee then asked what would be left to him with which to resist an advance of the enemy The divisions of Anderson towards Fredericksburg? and McLaws. For a moment Lee re'' on the audacity of this plan in the face of Hooker's superior numbers. Jackson suggested making a long circuit. Lee inquired with what force he would do this ? Jackson replied. 435 The needed information was soon obtained." said Jackson. over the narrow country roads. and catching their inspiration from his own eagerness and enthusiasm. sweeping clear round Hooker's right. if But it was imposmovement. sible to attack their position in front without terrible The very boldness of the proposed executed with secrecy and despatch. Seated upon two cracker-boxes. was an earnest of success. and Hooker seemed to be awaiting further developments. who. plan. pressed rapidly for- ward. but did not last long. the Confederate With a map before leaders held their consultation. Jackson was directed to carry out the Soon after the dawn of day he began the march with his corps. but they interpreted so early a march southward as a retreat towards Richmond. Some slight skirmish- ing of artillery and riflemen was attempted. the debris of an issue of Federal rations the day before.

It was here that he addressed his last official note to his commander. and the next T. E. so soon as practicable." to it is appropriately called " The AVildei'- in the open fields near the old Wilder- ness Tavern. to attack.. Lieutenant-Genei'al. which. The country around Chancellorsville is densely wooded with scrub oak and pine. Stuart was covering this flank vigilant movement with outposts his cavalry." appear to be well closed. and was six miles west of Cliancellorsville. and from his Jackson was able which to gain a glimpse of the enemy's position. at Chan- cellor ville. J. J.436 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. which was as follows: '' Near 3 p. satisfied him that he had obtained the desired vantage-ground from which to attack. Lee. — The enemy has made a stand s. '* which is about two miles from Chancellors- I hope. General Jackson found space in which allel lines. '' T. with tano-led undergrowth. 1803. and selected two picked batteries to move down the turnpike. May 2d. Jackson. which marked the centre of his the thick forests into which he was about to lilies draw up — . JACKSOX. is " General Robekt up two g^ — Tiie leading division up. form almost impenetrable depths from which But ness. '' Eespect fully. Jackson bad marched fifteen miles. occupying precisely the opposite side of the enemy to that held by General Lee. He formed them in three parhis troops. J. that an ever-kind Providence will bless us I trust with success. ^' General.m.

which. Presently the bugles were heard through which full of The forest was their hiding-places orders were passed along the Confederate lines. But so little was it suspected or beheved that the suggestion was treated as a jest. which almost tore the clothing of the soldiers from their bodies. The Federal troops had in most eases their arms stacked. excited still This more remark. as best they could. and in a moment more Jackson was upon them. Those in line returned a scattered fire. Ere it had been long discussed. rushing with all the speed it was possible to make through the forests and dense brushwood. there came the sound of a few straggling shots from the skirmishers. but still they pressed description of on. All danger was thought to be over for the night. A terrible volley from his line of battle poured among the Union troops ere they could recover from their surprise. others seized Officers tried arms and attempted to form.CHARGING THROUGH THE FOREST. to steady their men and lead them to their . and were eating supper. ran in numbers to and over the Federal lines. then a mighty cheer. 437 plunge affording no possible position for the rest of his artillerj^ By six o'clock all was in readiness for the advance. and at the ^yord of lines command the three charged forward. The startled game gave the first intimation of Jackson's approach. however. and compelled them to creep through many is places. The following what followed Virginia " :" taken from -'The Battle-Fields of game. and dashed into the wood behind. Deer leaped over the works at Talley's. startled from by the unusual presence of man.

But Jackson cannot long be held back. . or hopelessly jammed in the impeneThe wounded and dying. . All was in vain. . low ditch. of Onward sweep fill the Confederates in hot pursuit. Coland is already Together they charge commingled with Kodes's. . last now rush the Eleventh Corps. the semblance of organization gone. Some of Schurz's men rally on Buschbeck. the woods. and accoutrements the fugitives Artillerv carriagfes are to be seen overturned in the narrow roads. with a yell and in a few moments the works are rested. Artillery. and for a short time the Confederate advance is ar. with their trable jungle. . wagons. fill the forest on every side. under favorable circumstances. taken. to prevent a commingling of regiments and brigades along the Confederate lines. Like a tormeet the attack. wood so dense that it is impossible. nado the Confederate lines pass over the ground. ambulances. It had been impossible in the broad daylight. crumbling Howard's corps. JACKSOX. breaking. and double the confusion. towards Chancellorsville. knapsacks. owing to the intricacy of the forest. are driven in frantic panic to the rear. which. crushing. roll sued is on until the position of Melzi Chancellor's Here a strong line of works had been constructed across the road. . ston's division has eagerly pressed on.438 I^IfE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. having a shalreached. The confusion thus produced In a brushis greatly increased by the darkness. night comes to add confuidly drawing to a close sion to the scene. . The rout is The mass of pursuers and purutter and hopeless. The day is rai> groans. The arms. could be made to face in either direction. to see thirtv yards in anv direction. through the Pell-mell forest. .

" Forward !" " Press on !" continually ringing from his He leaned forward upon his horse. dashing on at the head of his men. and waved lips. Behind this abatis some troops and artillery have been gathered to make a stand. forming the second line. has already become merged Avith Kodes's. While this was being done. The troops. his hand." During this splendid charge Jackson was the im- personation of military enthusiasm. Both The in one confused mass. reform his flying legions. brigades. Colston's division. Confederate line soon reaches an abatis which has been felled to protect the approach to some woods move on right of the on the opposite heights. Hill's divi- sion) be sent forward to take the advance until the first and second can be reformed. as though by its single strength he were trying to impel his men onward. already disordered. and he was observed frequently to look upwards and lift his right hand to heaven in prayer and thanksgiving.THE TROOPS BECOME CONFUSED. 439 companies. become inextricably intermixed. Rodes sends word at once to Jackson. Rodes finds it impossible to push farther until the lines can be reformed. and then the whole Confederate fine. regiments. . become still more so among the felled timber. P. there was a lull in the storm of battle. announcing new successes. The right is first halted. As cheer after cheer rose from the Confederate line. requesting that the third line (A. his flashing eyes and glowing cheeks showed how deeply he w^as moved. Jackson had paused for a time in Hooker was attempting to stop and his pursuit " . with the words of command.

almost unattended. to get into line. feeling assured of victory. much had complete. tell the troops. the Federal comlines. After this strenuous effort to restore order to his he rode forward to make a reconnoissance himand found that Hooker was indeed advancing a powerful body of fresh troops in his direction. into into ranks and press Dashing along the lines himself. far liis most sanguine hopes had been surprised. he kept saying: " Men. as though the day's work were done. and preserve their order. halted from weariness and broke ranks. JACKSON." : ." Turning to an officer who came up to report. and fighting over three miles of difficult ground.— 440 I-IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and their right flank But he knew that others. own He despatched his staff in every direction to order the officers to get the forward. get into line get I men back line! Whose regiment is this? Colonel. His flank movement Avas a brilliant success the enemy had been 3^et . Being pressed in front by General Lee. been driven back in confusion. to be done before the victory could be first The blow must be followed by He his therefore deeply regretted the disorder in Avhich After marching twenty lines had fallen. miles. go along the right. . and tell him to occupy that barricade at once with his troops." He then added: " I need your help As you for a time this disorder must be corrected. he said " Find General Eodes. it was no wonder that the men. which might be reoccupied at any moment if the Confederates failed to seize it. Jackson saw that everything depended on immediately reforming his lines. get your men instantly into line. But though the enemy had been driven from an important defence. self. from me. real- Thus ized.

" he replied. " the enemy is routed. he rode from the road himself from to the left and rear. when he was fired upon by a volley of musketry from his eral couriers. through which he Avas borne. his left arm was shattered by two balls. one above and one below the elbow. Go back and tell But in order to screen General Hill to press on. dashed off in the direction of the enemy. and. it was difficult to effect a passage on horseback. accompanied by a part of his staff and sev- advanced on the turnpike in the direction of the enemy about a hundred yards. was in their front. While riding as rapidly as possible to the rear. and the tangled brush- — wood. or any one but the enemy. having no idea that he." terrified by the nearness and suddenness of the fire. breaking the bones and sever- His horse. he came in front of his own line of battle. ." the flying bullets. The small trees and brushwood being very dense. bridle with great difficulty that he could control him his hand being helpless. The bullets whistled among the party.WOUNDED BY mander turned upon the HIS OWX MEX. But he seized the reins with his right hand. right front. and mistaking the party for a body of Federal cavalry. almost dragging him from his seat. Ul and endeav- foe in the rear. and struck several horses. '' : This fire was evidently from the enemy. who. arresting the flight of his horse." " There is no danger. and one of his men caught his bridleGeneral Jackson. " Little Sorrel. His right hand was pierced by a bullet. From this volley General Jackson received his mortal wounds. you should rein and said to him not expose yourself so much. opened a sharp fire upon them. General Jackson. and it was ing the main artery. ored to recapture the all-important barricade.






brought him back into his own lines, where, ahnost fainting, he was assisted to the ground by Captain
AVilbourne, his signal officer.
his escort


this lire several of

and wounded, among the former was the gallant Captain Boswell, and every horse which was not shot down wheeled back in terror, bearing his rider towards the advancing enemy. The firing was arrested by Lieutenant Morrison, who, after his horse was killed under him, ran to the front of the firing line, and with much difficulty in making himself heard, told them they were firing into their own men. As soon as this was effected, he returned to find his general lying prostrate upon the ground, with Captain "Wilbourne and Mr. Winn by his side. He was wearing at the time an india-rubber overcoat over his uniform, as a protection from the dampness of the night. This Wilbourne was ripping up with a penknife to get at the wounded arm and General A. P. Hill, who was stanch its bleeding. near by, was speedily informed of the disaster and came at once. Dismounting from his horse, he bent down and asked, " General', are you much hurt V He and all my replied, " Yes, general, I think I am wounds were from my own men. I believe my arm " Are you hurt it gives me severe pain." is broken " Yes, in my right elsewhere, general ?" he was asked. hand." But when asked afterwards if it should be bound up, he said " No, never mind it is a trifle."' And yet two of the bones were broken, and the palm Amidst all his sufferwas almost pierced through ings he uttered no complaint, and answered all quesHe tions in a perfectly calm and self-possessed tone. asked for Dr. McGuire, but when told that he was
; ;
: ;




in his duties far in the rear,

he said to Cap-

tain AVilbourne
ful surgeon."




wish you to get




General Hill stated that a Dr. Barr

was near

at hand,


his arrival,

and he was immediately summoned. General Jafckson whispered to Gen-

Is he a skilful surgeon ?" The answer was that he stood high in his brigade, and all that would be required of him would be to take precautionary measures until Dr. McGuire could arrive. To

eral Hill



General Jackson answered, ''Yery good." His and haversack were removed from his perlatter


and the

was found


contam only a few
"While the


papers and two rehgious tracts.




lying prostrate, with a circle of

around him, two Federal with muskets cocked, walked out from the brushwood, and approached within a few feet of the group. General Hill, in a perfectly quiet tone and manner, turned and said '' Take charge of those men."
his ministering attendants

In an instant
their guns,

two orderlies sprang forward and seized which the astonished soldiers yielded withLieutenant
Morrison, hearing

out any


voices in the direction of the enemy, stepped to the

edge of the wood to reconnoitre, and in the moonsaw a section of artillery being unlimbered not over a hundred yards distant. Eeturning with all haste, he reported the fact, when General Hill gave orders that General Jackson should immediately be carried to the rear, and that no one should tell the troops that he was wounded. Eemounting his horse, he returned to his own command, and was soon afterwards himself disabled by a wound. Lieutenants Smith and Morrison, Captain Leigh, of Genlight






Hill's staff, with a courier, now took General Jackson up in their arms, but after bearing him a short distance, he told them that he suffered so much pain from being carried that he would try to walk, and after they assisted him to his feet, he did walk

as far as the turnpike.

Just as the}' reached the road, the battery which had been seen to unlimber swept over them a volley of canister-shot the balls hissing through the air, and crashing through the trees, but fortunately passing over their heads. The whole party then lay down on the side of the road, shielding the general, as far as possible, by placing him on the lowest ground. While lying here, the earth around them was torn up by shot, covering them with dust, and a hurricane of lead and canister dashed ao^ainst the flintv o^ravel and stones of the road, making it literally glow with So furious and deadly flashes and streaks of fire. was the tempest, that the escape of any of the party seemed miraculous. Once General Jackson attempted to rise, but was restrained by his attendants, who

Lieusought to protect him with their own bodies. tenant Smith threw his arm over him, holding him

down and saying

you must be still; it will you your life if you rise." With such fidelity did these young soldiers stand over the prostrate form of their beloved chief, trying to save his life, though it should be by the sacrifice of their own. The enemy soon changed from canister to shell and elevated their range, when the young men renewed

" General,

their efforts to get General

Jackson to the

rear, sup-

porting him with their strong arms, as he slowly and
painfully dragged himself along.

As the Confederate





troops were hurrying to the front, they

met the The

and the question came
passer-b}^ "

from the lips of ahnost every


have you there


not wishing his troops to recognize him, gave orders He to leave the road and diverge into the woods.
said to his attendants

" Don't tell

them who



but simply say



a Confederate


these precautions, he did not escape recognition





of his men, who exclaimed with grief and dis" Great God it is General Jackson !" General

Pender, of North Carolina, was one of those who recognized him, and after approaching and expressing

wounding, said to him " The troops have suffered severely from the enemy's artilhis deep regret at his

and are somewhat disorganized I fear we canFaint and exhausted as he was, a gleam of the old battle-fire flashed from his " You must hold your eyes, and instantlv he replied Pender you must hold your ground, ground. General This was the last order given by the hero of so sir."

not maintain our position."





Growing more
mitted to

faint after this,

he asked to be per-

down and

but the dangers from the

enemy's fire and from capture Avere too imminent, and a litter having now been procured from an ambulance corps, he was placed upon it, and the bearers hurried forward, still keeping out of the road to avoid the fire of the enemy. As they struggled through the dense thickets, his face was scratched and his clothing torn but this was nothing in comparison with the agony caused by a fall from the litter. One of the bearers was shot in the arm,

and, letting go his hold, the general








to the ground,

pain that

a groan.

wounded side, causing such for the first time he was heard to utter His attendants quickly raised him up,

and, finding the blood again flowing, and a look of

deathly pallor upon his face, feared he might be expirLieutenant Smith cried out, " Oh, general, are ing.
^"' '* No, Mr. Smith, don't trouble me," he replied, and presently added yourself about something about winning the battle first, and attend-


seriously hurt

wounded afterwards. He was again placed litter, and carried a few hundred yards, under a continuous fire, when the party was met by Dr. McGuire with an ambulance. We will let him
ing to the

upon the


the rest of the harrowing story, until



at his bedside.







meeting the wounded general, sajs Dr. McGaire " I knelt down by him and said, I hope you are not badly hurt, general V He replied very calmly,




but feebly, I am badly injured, doctor I fear I am After a pause he continued, I am glad you have come. I think the wound in my shoulder is still bleeding.' His clothe^ were saturated with blood, and
' ;



going on from the wound. Compression of the artery with the finger arrested it, until, lio-hts being procured from the ambulance, the hand-

hemorrhage was


which had slipped a httle, was readjusted. His calmness amid the dangers that surrounded him, and at the supposed presence of death, and his uniform politeness did not forsake him even under these most trying circumstances. His complete control, too,

over his mind, enfeebled as it was by loss of blood and pain, was wonderful. His suffering at this time

was intense



his face pale,

hands were cold, his skin clammy, and his hps compressed and bloodless

not a sign of suffering, not a groan escaped him except the slight corrugation of his brow, the fixed,
rigid face,

and the thin


so tightly compressed





through them.


could be seen he controlled by his

iron will all evidences of emotion, and,








than this even, he controlled that disposition to restlessness, which many of us have observed upon the Some field of battle, attending great loss of blood. whiskey and morphia were administered to him, and,


in the ambulance,



started for the


Infirmary, at the Wilderness Tavern.

Colonel Crutchfield, his chief of artillery, was also in
the ambulance.
in the leg,

He had been Avounded very seriously and was suffering intensely. The general

expressed very feelingly his sympathy for Crutchfield, and once, when the latter groaned aloud, he directed the ambulance to stop, and requested me to see if somethinof could not be done for his relief. Torches had been provided, and every means taken to carry them to the hospital as safely and easily as possible.
I sat in the front part of the ambulance, with



ger resting upon the artery above the wound to arrest bleeding if it should occur. When I was recognized

by acquaintances and asked who was wounded, the general would tell me to say, A Confederate officer.' At one time he put his hand upon my head, and, pulling me down to him, asked if Crutchfield was seriously wounded. When answered, Xo, onh^ painfully hurt J he I'eplied, I am glad it is no worse.' In a few ininutes afterwards Crutchfield did the same thing, and when told that the general w^as very seriously woundIt was for this ed, he groaned out, Oh, my God that the general directed the ambulance to be halted, and requested that something should be done for




Crutchfield's relief.

After reaching the hospital he Avas placed in ))e(l, covered with blankets, and another drink of whiskey


and water given him.


hours and a half elapsed



before sufficient reaction took place to warrant an


Sunday morning, Surgeons Black, him that chloroform would be given him, and his wounds examined. I told him that amputation would probably be required, and asked, if it was found necessary, whether it should be done at once. He replied prompto'clock

"At two

Walls, and Coleman being present, I informed


Yes, certainly, Dr. McGuire, do for me whatever you think best.' Chloroform was then administered, and as he began to feel its effects and its relief to the pain he was suffering, he exclaimed, 'What an infinite blessing!' and continued to repeat the word blessing until he became insensible. The round ball
' '

(such as


used in a smooth-bore Springfield musket),

which had lodged under the skin, upon the back of the right hand, was first extracted. It had entered the palm about the middle of the hand, and fractured two bones. The left arm was then amputated about two inches below the shoulder, very rapidly, and with
slight loss of blood, the ordinary circular operation

having been made. There were two wounds in this arm, the first and most serious was about three inches below the shoulder-joint, the ball dividing the mam artery, and fracturing the bone. The second was several inches in length a ball having entered the outside of the forearm, an inch below the elbow, came out upon the opposite side, just above the wrist. Throughout the whole of the operation, and until all the dressings were appUed, he continued insensible.


or three slight


of the skin of his face,

received from the branches of trees,


his horse

dashed through the woods, were dressed simply with







isinglass plaster.


half-past three o'clock Colo-

nel (then Major) Pendleton, the assistant adjutant-general,

arrived at the hospital

and asked

to see General


He stated that General Hill had been woundin great disorder.

and that the troops were


eral Stuart Avas in

command, and had
first I


him to

the general.


declined to permit the inter-

view, but the colonel urged that the safety of the


and the success of the cause depended upon his seeing him. When he entered the tent the general said Well, major, I am glad to see you. I thought you were killed.' Pendleton briefly explained the condition of affairs, gave Stuart's message, and asked what should be done ? General Jackson was at once interested, and asked, in his quick, rapid way, several questions. When they were answered, he remained silent for a moment, evidently trying to think he contracted his brow, set his mouth, and for some moments was evidently trying to concentrate his thoughts. For a moment it was believed he had succeeded, for his nostrils dilated, and his eye flashed its old fire, but it was only for a moment his face relaxed again, and presently he answered, very feebly and sadly, I don't know, I can't tell say to General Stuart he must do what he thinks best.' Soon after this he slept for several hours and seemed to be doing well. The next morning he was free from pain, and expressed himself sanguine of recovery. He sent his aide-de-camp, Morrison, to inform his Avife of his injuries, and to bring her at once to him. The following note from General Lee was read to him that morning by Lieutenant Smith I have just received your note, informing me I cannot express my regret that you were wounded.







at the occurrence.


Could I have directed events, I should have chosen, for the good of the country, to have been disabled in your stead. I congratulate you upon the victory which is due to your skill and enerGeneral Lee should give the praise gy.' He replied, God.' About ten o'clock his right side began to to pain him so much that he asked me to examine it. He said he had injured it in falling from the litter the night before, and believed he had struck it against a

stump or a stone or a sapling. Xo evidence of injury could be discovered by examination the skin was not broken or bruised, and the lung performed, so far as I


tell, its

proper function.


simple appli-

was recommended

in the belief that the


would soon disappear.


time the battle was raging fearfully, and

the sound of the cannon and musketry could be
tinctly heard at the hospital.

The general's attention was attracted to it from the first, and when the noise was at its height, and indicated how fiercely the conflict was being carried on, he directed all of his attendants, except Lieutenant Smith to return to the battlefield, and attend to their different duties. By eight o'clock, Sunday night, the pain in his side had disappeared, and in all respects he seemed to be doing well. He inquired minutely about the battle and the different troops engaged, and his face would light up with enthusiasm and interest when told how this brigade
acted, or that officer displayed conspicuous courage,

and his head gave the peculiar shake from side to side, and he uttered his usual Good, good with unwonted


energy when the gallant behavior of the Stonewall Brigade was alluded to. He said The men of the

late if possible. They are a noble body of men. I am not afraid of them I have always been kind to their wounded. *' I Avas one of the Stonewall Brigade. preparations I was directed to accompany and remain with him.452 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. in my He said he had opinion. it would do him any injury. and would prefer it. who were threatening to cross Ely's Ford.' This night he slept well. that evening.' he added. The general objected to being moved. for it was their steadfast heroism which earned it at First Manassas.' Very early . AVhen informed of this order of the com- manding general. chil- brigade will be. when wounded. proud to say to their dren. and not to me." ' He disclaimed any right of his wall. he said. some day. and was free from pain.' General Lee sent word again. General Jackson had previously declined to permit me to go with him to Guiney's. when she came. be kind to me. carrying off with them the surgeons belonging to their commands. and my duties with the corps. if his wife. Station as soon as his condition should justify there as was danger of capture by the Federals. were turned over to the surgeon next in rank. and were made to leave the next morning. In the meantime. as medical director. if. and ' General Lee has always I tliank him. and I am sure they will ' . because complaints had been so frequently made of general officers. that he must be moved. could find lodging in a neighboring house. A message was received from General Lee the next morn- ino\ directini^: me to remove the s^eneral to Guinev's it. protect the hospital. no objection to staying in the tent. to some troops were sent to this point. JACKSOX. ' own to the name Stone- It belongs to the brigade. 'And if the enemy does come. been verv kind to me.

and and about eight o'clock that evening we arrived at the Chandler House. to attack him fail men sometimes of Eodes. ' My posi- but they always fail to drive us away. upon the field. and weeping. men and of the wagons out way for women rushed to the ambulance. with a smile. He hoped he would be promoted. and. who commanded the skirmish- and referred to and praised him very highly. the deaths of Paxton and Bos well alluded to very feelingly. He spoke of Colonel Willis. ers of Rodes's Division. He them as officers of great . to drive the enemy from their . was sent in front to clear the road of weed and stone. and along the whole route. as he went by. with all possible speed. He bore the jour- ney well. they gave the way. and then. oblige them tion..' He spoke and alluded in high terms to his magnificent behavior on the field Saturday evening. until told that it contained Jackson. and prayed for his recovery. Captain Hotchkiss. and stood with their hats oif. of the track to let the and to order the wagons out ambulance pass. where we remained till he died. bringing all the poor delicacies they had. and things said that he among had intenfled to endeavor to cut the Federals off from the United States Ford. and was cheerful throughout the day. At Spottsylvania Court -House. taking a position between them and the river. He other talked freely about the late battle.CONVEYED TO GUIXEY'S STATION. party of engineers. and with tearful eyes they blessed him. with a started for Guiney's Station. 453 Tuesday morning he was placed in the ambulance. and he added. etc. He thought promotions for gallantry should be made at once. The rough teamsters sometimes refused to move their loaded an ambulance. and they would be great incentives to gallantry in others.

He expressed great satis- when told that his Avounds Avere healing. as one of the blessings of my life. ConversLieutenant Smith a few moments afterwards. and demanded the toAvel. and slept well throughout the entire "Wednesday he was thought to be doing remarkably well. He ate heartily for one in his condition. Union by the first intention had taken place. and the rest of the surface of the wound was covered with healthy granulations.' love God. and said. The day was quite warm. At his suggestion I placed over his stomach a wet towel.AA^ith he Avould probably be kept from the field.454: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. but I regard thein Smith replied. upon a lounge in his sult me. to some extent in the stump. Many Avould regard them as a great misfortune. Avhile I Avas asleep room. and he expressed great relief from it. that's it. refused to allow me to be disturbed. Avith Avhich he Avas again The servant asked permission to first controubled. and at one time he suffered with slight nausea. he alluded to his injuries. . and the disnight. to relieve an attack of nausea. that's it.' he answered. he directed his servant. After he arrived at the Chandler House. charge was healthy. he ate some bread and tea with evident relish. Jim. but the general. faction .' ' ' All things Avork together for the good of ' ' them that Yes. . and found him suffering great . and asked if I could tell from their appearance hoAv long ino. knowing that I had slept none for nearly three nights. and was uniformly cheerful. JACKSON. '' I found his Avounds to be doing very Avell to-day. to apply a Avet toAvel to his stomach. About daylight I Avas aroused.' " About one o'clock Thursday morning. merit and promise. The wound in his hand gave him little pain.

unusually demonstrative. and shock and loss of blood prevented any ill effects until reaction had been well established. I believe it was the sawing of the bone. that from the litter and the consulting physiit was attributable the night he was wounded. once believed. 455 An examination disclosed plenro-pneumonia of I believed. and then inflammation ensued. pain. But I should dislike. " Mrs. to enter eternity in such a con- . of his and nursed him faithThe general's joy at the presence wife and child was very great. what was doing had enough consciousness to know and at one time thought I heard the most delightful music that ever greeted my ears." After recovering from the effects of chloroform. chest tusion of the lung with extravasation of blood in his was probably produced by the fall referred to. and he continued " I have always thought it wrong to administer chloroform : where there it is a probability of immediate death. above all things. I . for may have Con- been the result of inflammation already begun. But was. which the cloths were applied that The nausea. that it was induced by them. and for him . The general himself referred to this accident. the right side. Towards the evening he became better. . and hopes were again entertained of . night. . fully to the end. Jackson arrived to-day. . to the fall cians concurred in the opinion.EXAMIXATIOX OF THE WOUND. his recovery. I think. I think the disease came on too soon after the application of the wet cloths to admit of the supposition. General Jackson asked Lieutenant Smith whether he said anything when under its power. the most delightful physical sensation I ever enjoyed. .

with general. and then said wounded. shall I my to arm. that I was brought face to face with death. perfectly contented than for I satisfied that. '' dition. " It has been." He afterwards said to other friends. in His make known me. I at all ? would not dare to do it. I then learned an important lesson. that one who has been the subject of convert- . J.. he exclaimed with deep feeling. Lacy was admitted to the tent. designs this me more am sure that my Heavenly Father I am perfectly affliction for my good. without a fear. "Oh." he said. I believe it has been done according to God's holy will. but not dej)ressed not unhappy. unless I could know it was the will of my Heavenly Father. and gave himself up into the hands of God." In the course of this conversation he stated that.56 LIfE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and in the possession of perfect peace. General Jackson. or in that which is to come. what a calamity I'' his accustomed politeness. And it if it regarded appears a great now calamity. " a precious experience to me. as it surely will be a great inconvenience. me the object He has in thus But why should I not rather rejoice in it as a blessing. when he fell from the litter. and found all was w^ell. to be deprived of blessing. I shall discover that as a calamity is what is a blessing. You may think it strange but you never saw I am to-day . will result in a great can wait until God. first thanked him for his " You see me severely sympathy. and I : . JACKSON. acquiesce entirely in it. What an inestimable blessing is chloroform to the sufferer!" After the operation. either in this life. afflicting own time. and not look on it as a calamity If it were in my power to replace my arm. he thought he should die upon the field. when Mr.

Charge and remember Jackson !" an appeal which was answered by their courage on the second day of the battle of Chancellorsville. way and repent and believe on Christ. But he should not have sent away his cavalry that was his great blunder." When General Lee was first informed of the victory gained by General Jackson's flank movement." Those people shall be immediately pressed. " The enemy should be pressed '' in the morning.'' In speak! : . I felt that if I had neglected the salvation of my soul before. in the midst upon God and heavenly things. and is the child of God." He was then told that Jackson had said. any victory is dearly bought wliich deprives us of the services of Jackson. in the main. 45Y ing grace. . General Stuart was placed in son's corps. under of the severest sufferings. so as to understand properly the of salvation. such sufferings. It was that which enabled me to turn him without his being aware of it. and forthwith addressed himself to the work. and derive great comfort and peace but that one who had never made his peace with God would be unable to control his mind. fix the thoughts ." he replied. it would have been too late then. he exclaimed with deep emotion. an excellent plan. can.OPIXIOX OF HOOKER'S PLAX OF CAMPAIGX. sir. and his reply was " It was. a good conception. and almost in the same breath the great catastrophe of the fall of his lieutenant was announced to him. and to take him by his rear. •' command of Jack- and as he led them to battle he gave the order. "Ah. even for a short time. Had he kept his cavalry with him. his plan would have been a very good one. Jackson was asked what he thought of Hooker's plan of campaign.

" On Tuesday he was . That is bad very bad. " Our movement But I expect I think the most suclife. I simply took advantage of circumstances as they were presented to me in the providence of God. and that God still had a Avork for him to do in defence of his country. bracing mountain air would soon heal his wounds and renew his strength and health. enjoyed religious conversation. upon awakening from a disturbed sleep from the influence of opiates. I feel that His hand led me let us to receive far credit for more — give Him all the glory. mihtary movement of my it than I deserve." Afterwards. to his beloved home at Lexington. " He delighted to enlarge on his favorite topics of . as soon as he was able.458 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. he believed that his time was not yet come. and expressed a desire to be taken. Most men "will think that I had planned it all from the first." During the fe\v days succeeding his fall. He requested Mr. '' when he said. and expressed his unvarying and steadfast love and hope in his Eedeemer. he conversed freely and cheerfully. send in and see if there is higher ground back of Chancellorsville. Lacy to come every morning at ten o'clock and read the Bible. told that Hooker was in- trenched north of Chancellorsville. JACKSOX. the pure. : ing of this flank movement. he exclaimed. when he and his friends were buoyed up by the hope of his recovery. he said yesterday was a great success cessful . he said. and have prayers at During these morning hours he greatly his bedside. Although he had avowed his perfect willingness to die whenever God called him. where. "Major Pendleton. but it was not so.

Avhich is its object. and the shoemaker a better workman. while eating. himself. applicable to every possible of duty. or the tailor. emergency There the military exigency. of the cleans- ing blood of Calvary as praying. So. in any lawful business. that he might be clothed with the robe of Christ's righteousness . pleasure the ideas of Doddridge. they would find a precept. motives by bringing down the and primary own mind and heart. religion will pro- duce more care in promising Avork. In the case of a Christianity it ing. practical religion. he said. man might find guidance for every Then. turning to Lieutenant Smith. for instance. makes a man better in any lawful callmakes the general a better commander. or a general principle. to feed upon tli^ Bread of Heaven. he was So Jack- son was wont to say that the Bible furnished men with rules for everything. while he put on his garments. If they would search.RELIGION TO BE CARRIED INTO EVERYTHING. steadies the of judgment. prayer aids any man. as endeavoring. not only fidelit}^ and more . 459 : which were such as these The Christian should carry his religion into everything. he . and thus preserves him from exaggerated and rash conclusions. divine blessing. from conscientious and these homely examples were fair illustrations of its value in more exalted functions. no matter what was a man's calling. moderscales it ates his anxieties. but bv harmonizing his In the commander of an army calms his perplexities. an example. when he washed . more punctuality. Again he urged that every act of man's life should be a religious act. direct at the critical hour. cobbler. where he pictured liimself as spiritualizing every act of his daily as thinking. He recited with much life. in executing it.

smiling: 'Can you tell me where the Bible gives generals a model for their official reports The lieutenant answered. rupted him: "Why do you say 'centres of influence After some furis not headquarters a better term ?" explanations by Mr. at the narrative of Joshua's battle It with the Amalekites. 460 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Smith. asked him. McGuire whether he sup- posed the diseased persons healed by the miraculous touch of the Saviour ever suffered again from the same malady. — One day he asked Dr. there was none for a time. Eome. Look. brevity. laughing. Smith (who Avas a theother loo-ical student). modesty and it traces the victory to its right source the blessing of God. he said get the map. as though invoking the same aid. he exclaimed After quietly reflecting '^Oh for infinite power!" '' What were the awhile. and show me precisely Avhere Iconium . he inquired of Mr. and that the poor paralytic to whom He had once said.' •' : ." . 'Nevertheless. has clearness. 'there are such. '^ I will be thou healed. there you have one. in which General Jackson was much Mr. that of battles f it never entered his mind to think of looking for such a thing in the Scriptures. And then. that the healing virtue of Christ was too potent. were finally estabThe general interlished as centres of influence. for instance. and Alexandria.' said the general. He did not believe they did .: : . Iconium." never shook again with palsy. too. and excellent models. fairness. until Antioch. I wish you would interested. Smith : headquarters of Christianity after the crucifixion?" He rephed that Jerusalem was at first the chief seat but after the dispersion of the disciples thence by persecution. JACKSON.

I was invited by Mrs. on which he had so often and so faithfully urged : my '^ — this injunction. Letcher in the governor's mansion. Moses D. to procure Bibles for the solThese two ladies were lovely and pleasant in diers. In resuming I after my sad story it will be explained why days was not able to reach my husband for five he was wounded. Smith suggested that He said. Hoge." a map. '' in his portable desk. desk " (naming the shelf). but no tongue or pen can express the torturing suspense and distress of mind which I endured during this period of enforced absence from him. 4^1 was. and report to meP After the bright promise of his recovery began to diminish. sir . I wish you sidering a Avould examine into that matter. and resolutely said. I Then after conmoment. he added " Mr. Mr. kind friends took me to their hospitable homes in Eichmond. After spending a few days with Mrs. He reface. when the general atlas in you will an my old trunk. saying. one of them aroused him from a troubled Will you sleep to administer some draught. find He replied that he did not think he coiikl find said. evidently wandering back to the camps and battlefields. their lives.HIS WIFE UXABLE TO REACH HIM. who was at that time in Europe. and his physicians were trying every known remedy. He looked up steadily into his general ?" take this. As I have before stated. left it in was probably left Yes." it After a fruitless search. which ^vere redolent with Christian graces . "Do your duty. Hoge and Mrs. Smith. " Yes." " Do your duty " his mind peated the command. you are right. on a mission from the Confederate States government. William Brown (who lived together) to the residence of the Kev. Dr.

that I felt that his precious life would still be spared.462 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. the Avay was not open for me to come yet. On Tuesday my brother Joseph arrived. ful shock can be better Although I had never for one moment since the war began lost my solicitude for his safety. representing all as going well. Despatches were sent at once inquiring into his condition. but the railroad authorities were so confident of opening the way from day to day that friends urged — me to wait until this could be done. JACKSOX. and victory was confidently expected. For five days I heard not one word directly from my husband. had brought him through so many dangers. imagined than described. but despatches from the battle-field were constantly received by the government. Hoge's parlor. On Sunday morning. and usefulness.parties of the enemy were operating all — through the intervening country all passenger trains were stopped. So great was my impatience to go that I was willing to risk this danger. as we arose from family worship in Dr. still God had so often covered his head in the day of battle. With all my agonizing distress now. and much of their time was devoted to ministering to the soldiers. if I could go to him. The but raiding . relief. I could not entertain any other thought or belief than this. Brown very sadly and feelingly informed me that the news had come that General Jackson had been wounded seThis painverely. but it was hoped not dangerously. Dr. to my great to take me to my husband. but my disappointhis report that it ment was only increased by had . and asking He was reported as doing well. May 3d. and to go through the country in private conveyance exposed travellers to capture.

my unconscious little nestling was all sweetness and sunshine. in which lay my precious. but he w\as thought to be doing as well as possible under the circumstances. and this confirmed the conviction of friends that I should await the my From Joseph were learned the particulars of the wounds of General Jackson and the amputation of his arm. and receiving the very best of everything she had to give but the house was occupied by sick and wounded soldiers. in answer to my anxious inquiry. . prepared to fight its way through." but from his tone and manner I knew some- . but oh the harrowing agony of that long waiting. The Chandlers were extremely kind— the good hostess expressing great regret that General Jackson was not in her own dwelhng. and we were taken at once to the residence of Mr. During all this long period of anxiety and suspense. suffering husband. few hours of unmolested travel brought us to Guiney-s Station.! AT LAST ABLE TO GET THROUGH. A house. was a small. said the general w^as doing " pretty well . Upon my arrival I was met by a member of his staff. who. w^iich was a large countryvery near it. day after day for it was not until Thursday morning that the blockade was broken. and we went up on an armed train said opening of the railroad. E very thin o. 4^3 taken him nearly three days to ride through the country and elude the raiding enemy.was and done to cheer and encourage me. and some of whom were suffering with erysipelas. humble abode. shedding the only brightness and comfort over my darkened pathway. in the yard. Chandler. and was brave and cheerful in spirit. and it was the surgeons who had selected the out-house for the general's own safety.

so sorely had I already been tried by '' hope deferred that maketh the heart While I was walking off my impatience on sick. but soon I was horrified to see them exhum- and placing it above the ground. whose body was to be taken to his former Jiome for its final interment. but it seemed to me hours. the sight my eyes Avas far more appalling. He then engaged in dressing his and I could not be admitted to his room unwounds. til this was over. of Lexington. when all our hearts Avere well-nigh bursting with foreboding and dread. stricken husband but when I Avas soon afterwards Avhicli there summoned met a to his cliamber. The time could not have been long. Paxton. F. iSiow the cruel war had done its worst for he/\ and she was left widowed. thing was Avrong. My husband's own neighbor and friend ing a coffin. digging a ffrave. and her children fatherless I My own of heart almost stood still under the weight horror and apprehension which then oppressed me. and sent such thrill of agony and heart-sinking through me as I Oh. and said my heart sank hke lead. my attention was attracted by a party of soldiers within a stone's-throw of the house. and remembered how I had seen her weeping bitterly as she watched his departure from her in those first days of the war. Upon proved to be that of General E. preparation for This ghastly spectacle Avas a most unfitting my entrance into the presence of my . it inquirv and I knew the young wife. who had fallen in the late battle." the doctor was the piazza. JACKSOX.! 464 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. the fearful change had never known before It required the strongest I had seen him since last effort of which I Avas capable to maintain my self-con! ! .

so happy. and during that last. he was in the full flush of vigorous manhood. you are very much loved . Thinking it would cheer him more than anything else to see the baby in whom he had so delighted. blessed visit. trol. you must cheer up. and perienced. presence. the scratches his face. his mutilated arm. as he wished to hear every w^ord I said. and he lay most of the time in a but when aroused. above all. Soon after I entered his room he was impressed by the woful anxiety and sadness betrayed in my face." " You are one of the most precious little waives in the world. : 30 . going forth so cheerfully and bravely to the call of duty. upon my him. but he was too much afi^ected by morphia to resist stupor.AT HIS BEDSIDE. and soon seemed to lose the consciousness of nia. but God knew what Avas best for us. I proposed several times notice or talk semi-conscious state ." And he requested me to speak distinctly. and not wear a long face." He told me he knew I would be glad to take his place. and so noble. I never saw him look so handsome. such as. expressed much joy and thankfulness at seeing me. 465 When he left me on the morning of the 29th. " My darling. he recognized those about him and consciousness would return. he always had some endearing words to say to me. JSfow. wrung my soul with such grief and anguish as it had never before exHe had to be aroused to speak to me. Whenever he awakened from his stupor. and benumbing his senses. I love cheerfulness and brightness in a sick-room. the desperate pneumowhich was flushing his cheeks. and. his fearful wounds. and said " My darling. oppressing his breathing. except Avhen I spoke or ministered to From the time I reached him he was too ill to much.

but he always said. Hill to prepare for action . determined to send to Richmond for Mrs.'' " Pass the infantry to the front. and her loving ministrations in this time of sorest trial. never uttering a murmur or complaint. 466 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. : — My brother Joseph assisted in verse me in singing a few hymns. Somemind was then generally upon his military duties caring for his soldiers. — Friday and Saturday passed in much the same way bringing no favorable change to the dear sufferer al- indeed. " Not yet . seeing how critical was his condition." He was and invariably pa- tient.: :. On Saturday evening. liis times." that. P. he talked. though everything was done for his relief and benefit. wait till I feel better. and sympathetic nature.'' '' . his fever and restlessness increased. Our friends us. but " Yes. As night approached. he was growing perceptibly weaker. JACKSON. and at my with the 51st Psalm husband's request we concluded . affectionate. and. who was of a singular!}^ bright. At first he replied that he was suffering too much to listen. in the hope of soothing him. but the presence of Mrs. in slight delirium. he requested me to sing to him asking that the songs should be the most spiritual that could be selected. been faithful to her little charge. and assist in taking care of my baby. and he grew more Avearied." etc. we must never refuse very soon he added Get the Bible and read them. Hoge to come to my re- around Hetty had lief. and giving such directions as these '• — Tell the men Major Hawkes to send forward provisions to Order A. and how my whole time was given up to him. Hoge. were of inestimable value and comfort. I proposed reading some selections from the Psalms. to brinof her to his bedside.

he exclaimed. But he was so persistent that it was deemed best to gratify him. B. and he seemed Dr. being done. had both been called in consultation by Dr. " 4^7 Show pity. The singing had a quieting to rest in perfect peace." As soon as the chaplain appeared at headquarters that ing. Lacy entered he inquired of him if he was trying to further those views of Sabbath observance Upon being assured of which he had spoken to him. " ?" Who told is preaching at headquarters to-day When that Mr. David Tucker. and upon hearing how hopeless was. Lacy for him. " Thank God . and an attempt was made to dissuade him." effect. it was not thought prudent for him to converse. as usual. of Riciimond. and that the whole army was praying he said. Lacy wished to remain with him on Sunday. As Dr. but he insisted that he should go. but his respiration being now very difficult. Apprehending the nearness of his end. he looked up pleasantly at him. with deep feeling : it " Surely General Jackson must recover. Lord ." On Saturday afternoon he asked to see his chaplain. and preach to the soldiers. God will not take him . and Dr. was. Lacy. Mr. and talked for some time upon that subject his last care and effort for the church of Christ being to — secure the sanctification of the Lord's day. When Major Pendleton came to his bedside about noon. forgive. a relative of mine. and said.THE END DRAWING NEAR. Morrison was examining the patient. he inquired of him. O Lord. he expressed much gratificathat this was tion. McGuire. When Mr. S. Morrison. " That's an old familiar face. mornGeneral Lee anxiously inquired after General Jackson's condition. Mr. they are very kind.

Shortly after the general's fall. I believe. and before his situation had grown so critical. AYhen a suitable occasion offers. he was offered some brandy and water." Early on Sunday morning. in : prayer for him for m3'self . saying excitedly. give him my love. GENERAL THOMAS J. who told me that the doctors. but he showed great repugnance to like fire. He has lost his left arm. had lost . Here his voice became choked with emoand he turned away to hide his intense feeling. last night as I never prayed. for w^ithout this condition. he said will find him better. Lacy's " AVhen you return. which the Saviour himself enjoins. bowing down before the throne of grace." tion. useful life. Morrison.4:QS LIFE OF us. if consistent loitli His laill . JACKSON." Mr. Lacy was truly a spiritual comforter and help to me in those dark and agonizing days. the lOtli of iMay. infinitely dearer. before returning we would meet together. In order to stimulate his fast-faihng powers. I was called out of the sick-room by Dr. than my own. it. by a friend. Often when I was called out of the sick-chamber to my little nursling. and tell him that I wrestled in from now that we need him will be spared to us. answer to the many prayers which are offered for him/' And upon Mr. but I have lost my right arm. having done everything tliat human skill all could devise to stav the hand of death. Surely he so much. as it was. General Lee sent him. and tell him to make haste and wt well. and come back to me as soon as he can. we dared not plead for that life. I trust a^ou leaving. pour out : our hearts to God to spare that precious. '' It tastes and cannot do me any good. the following message " Give him my affectionate reo-ards. and.

harder. but he heard my voice and understood me better than others. and showed no surprise or concern. from the time that he first rallied from his wounds. I therefore felt it to be my duty to gratify his desire. I well knew that death to him was but the opening of the gates of pearl into the inneffable glories of heaven but I had lieard him say that. and God o^ave me the streno^th table event. although he was willing and ready to die at any moment that God might call him. I told Dr. He now appeared to be fast sinking into unconsciousness. because he had never. As soon as I could arise from this stunning blow.SINKING INTO UNCONSCIOUSNESS. and that ^69 my precious. he did not seem to comprehend But upon it. and said. brave. "When I told him the doctors thought he would soon be in heaven. he looked at me calmly and intelligentl}^. and would raise him up to do it. noble life husband could not live ! Indeed. " Yes. thought he would die. and learn his dying wishes. I jprefer it^ I jprefer UP I then told him that before that day was over he would be with the blessed Saviour in His glory. hope. was fast ebbing awa}^ and they felt that they must prepare me for the inevi- which was now a question of only a few^ short hours. With perfect distinct- . in which I tried to impress upon him his situaThis was all the tion. Morrison that my husband must be informed of his condition. repeating it. still he would prefer to have a few hours' preparation before entering into the presence of his Maker and Redeemer. and composure to hold a last sacred interview with him. and asking him if he was willing for God to do with him according to His own will. and had expressed the belief that God still had work for him to do. .

as a burial pla(^e for his family. when our first child and at first he replied. as soon as they entered the door he looked up. you have a kind. I asked him the ques- but his mind w^as now o^rowing. then too weak. but he was niv father's '' home .clouded as^ain. from long absence from her mother. and although he had most ceased to notice anything. Preferring to know his own desire as to the place of his burial. He answered. she seemed to forget her discomfort in the joy of seeing that loving face beam on her once more. to in North Carohna. will he an infinite if it gainer to be translated.'' died. JACKSOX. and in my own jplotP had bought this plot himself. as if in prayer. " Yes. ness and intelligence. " Little darling seated on the bed by his side. and he answered at He once. with our infant. Jim. and it was touching to see the genuine grief of his servant. with radiant smiles. and afterwards I then asked him if he did not wish to be buried in Lexington. good father but no one is He so kind and good as your Heavenly Father. fering the pangs of extreme hunger. Lexington. his countenance brightened with delight. for a few moments.470 I^II-'E OF GENERAL THOMAS '-I J. with Hetty following. tion. bearing little Julia in her al- arms. he Though she was sufclosed his eyes." " Charlottesville. Yes. "Charlotte. Tears were shed over that dying bed by strong men who were unused to weep. and she looked at him and smiled as long as he continued to notice her. Mrs. and he never smiled more sweetly as he sweet one !" She was exclaimed. he said." said he had many things to sa}^ to me. Hoge now came in. who nursed him faithfully to the end. ! ." his I then asked him was wish that I should return. and after w-atching her intently.

and across whose floods he had so often won his passage through the toils of battle? Or was he reaching forward across his soul "Was river of his beloved Valley." whose leaves are for the healwas to these that God was bringand unlast battle and victory . Lacy's ministrations of con- solation to my bleeding heart on that holiest of Sab- bath afternoons. that he desire. soon after the noon of as beautiful and perfect a May day as ever shed its splendor upon this world." Never shall I forget Mr. to the golden streets of the Celestial City. and the ? trees It ing of the nations ing him. murmurall at once tiful he spoke out very cheerfully and distinctly the beausentence which has become immortal as his last " Let us cross over the river. whose verdant meads and groves he had redeemed from the invader. der their shade he walks. but sank rapidly into unconsciousness. he talked so Heaven.: "LET US CROSS OVER THE RIVER. of Seated by my bedside." wandering back in dreams to the Shenandoah (the river of sparkling waters '). giving such glowing descriptions of its . and his Heavenly Father translated him from the toils and trials of earth. through his the redeemed." 471 He now ing disconnected words occasionally. with the blessed company of General Jackson had expressed the health. to those realms of everlasting rest and bliss where " Sabbaths have no end. His wish was now gratified. when in might enter into the rest that remains for God's people on the Lord's day. the ' the Eiver of Death. and rest under the shade of the trees. And the noontide of glory eternally reigns.

in a dark-blue military overcoat. tenderest. and dearest of all the relations of earth — the whom I had been so proud. after a few hours' sleep from sheer exhaustion. no honors or distinctions too great I prized and revered his exalted Christian character. glorified spirit. But this frame of mind did not last. when all in my chamber was per! ! ! ! . The remains were carefully prepared by the loving hands of the staff-ofiicers.472 I^'^FE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. on the night of his fall. and I felt that it was selfish to wish to bring back to this sorrowful earth. before he had attained the age ian of his But " alive in C/rrist. I awoke. and he looked far more natural than I had dared to hope. one who had made such a bhssful exchange. and for . for mij happiness.^ for evermore of forty years All traces of suffering had disappeared from the noble face. and. Ilis Confederate uniform had been cut almost to pieces by his attendants. although somewhat emaciated. in their endeavor to reach and bind up his wounds. That night. and many were the subsequent conflicts to attain and keep this spirit." came into my soul. the body being embalmed and clothed in an ordinary dress. and then wrapped blessedness. somed." husband of I thought but above all this whom Yet how unspeakable and incalculable was his loss Dead in the meridto me and that fatherless baby grand life. the " peace of God. JACKSON. Late in the evening I went into Mr. and knew that God had now given him ''a crown of righteousness. and following in imagination the ranthrough the gates into the city. Chandler's parlor to see all tliat Avas left of the one who had been to me the truest. the expression was serene and elevated. that at last peace.

Hoge and Mrs. On Monda}^ morning began the sad journey to Eichmond. Upon reaching the suburbs of the city. Chandler were my attendants. and my kind friend.! THE MOURNFUL RETURN TO RICHMOND. with several carriages. and the full moon poured a flood of light through the windows. His dear face w^as wreathed . and could not have been more gratefully appreciated. and driven through the most retired streets to the governor's mansion. Since then. and were covered with spring flowers. lily of and seemed to its me no flowers could have been so appropriate for him. I never see a recalling the tenderest the valley without and most sacred associations. glorious enough to lift my soul heavenwards but oh the agony and anguish of those silent midnight hours. and took possession of my whole being My unconscious little one lay sweetly sleeping by my but I side. and proved themselves the kindest of friends and comforters. who alone can comfort. Mrs. Governor Letcher and other ladies. These were indeed most thoughtful considerations on their part. The next morning I went once more to see the remains. ! loss and the desolation of widowhood forced itself upon me. the train stopped. Hoge. nntil prayer to Him. again brought peace and quietness to my heart. . A special car had been set apart for us. when the terrible reality of my . and all alone I stemmed the torrent of grief which seemed insupportable. with the lovely mility lily of the valley —his own —the emblem it of hu- predominating grace. 473 feet stillness. Kind friends had also in readiness for me a mourning outfit. which were now in the casket. while Mrs. Lacy and the staff-officers. w^as near strove not to awaken them. in which were Mr. and we were met by Mrs.

Every place of business was closed.. Cabinet. It was here that I looked upon the face of my husband for taken place. its The funeral cortege then proceeded on way into the citv. was followed by his horse. enveloped in the Confederate flag. had been suspended. JACKSON. then a vast array of officials and all the general officers in Richmond after whom came a multitude of dignitaries and citizens and then . and hidden for a time from the eyes of the multitude. the coffin having been sealed. the pall-bearers being six main streets major and brig- adier generals. 474 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. In honor of the dead. "When the hearse . draped mourning. hearse. the beloved face could only be seen through the glass plate. only broken by the boom of the minuteguns and the wails of a military dirge. and the whole city came forth to meet the dead chieftain. but. — the President. and laden with spring flowers. that were wet with tears. was placed in the centre of the reception-room in the Executive Mansion. dressed in full uniform. the coffin was borne into the governor's gates. The . and every avenue thronged with solemn and tearful spectators. Amidst a solemn silence. and was followed for two miles bv thrones of people. the next day a great civic and military procession took place. the last time. and drawn by four white horses. — all '' returned to the Capitol. while a silence more impressive than that of the Sabbath brooded over the whole town. which was disappointing and unsatisfactory." " Business The casket. Xo change had The body was carried through the of the city. led by a groom next by his staff-officers regiments of infantry and artillery in .

bore the corpse into the lower house of the Congress. and red of the Confederate flag. draped with snowy white. exclaimed " By this arm which I lost hall. headed by General Longstreet. as the gift of the countrj^. blue. which was intended to l)e unfurled from the roof of the Capitol. The coffin was still enfolded with the white. sent. where it was placed on a kind of altar. to This flag the President had be the winding- sheet of General Jackson. and was visited by fully twenty thousand persons—the women bringing flowers. He was told that he was too late the casket was then being closed for the last time. and an old wounded was seen pressing forward to take his last look at the face of his loved commander. The old soldier hereupon lifted up the stump of his mutilated arm. I my . still the He of the marshals threatened to arrest : for my demand the privilege of seeing general once more. the great comrade of the departed. " The Congress of the Confederate States had a short time before adopted a design for their flag. and the order had been given to clear multitude was soldier — endeavored to advance. and a large and elegant model had just been completed. afl'ec- At the hour appointed for closing the doors the still streaming in.LAID IN STATE IN THE CAPITOL. before the speaker's chair. 475 reached the steps of the Capitol." The kind heart of Governor country. the pall-bearers. until not only the bier was covered. but the table on which it rested overflowed with piles of these numerous tributes of tion. and with tears streaming from his eyes.'- During the remainder of the day the body lay in state. when one him if he did not obey orders. the first ever made.

whom I had never met before. too. and my eldest brother. but he. finding the child . I joined that " '• never saw him again. Dr. indeed. The tears which were dropped over his bier by strong men and gentle women were the most true and honorable tributes that could be paid him. how different ! chamber. has long since army of the living God. beginning. his Letcher was so touched this a])peal that at intercession the old soldier's petition was granted. among whom was my motherly friend. T. and so numerous were the requests to see her that Hetty. Morrison. believe also in me and his fervent." father's was an object of great interest to her friends and admirers. and even little children were held up by their parents that they might reverently behold his face and stamp his name upon their memories. Page. "W. to my wounded. crushed heart. While all these public demonstrations were taking place in the Capitol. I also received a precious visit from the Kev. Both of these dear my darkened was the scene in few loving friends ones accompanied me on the remainder of the sad pilgrimage to Lexington. your heart be troubled ye believe in God. arrived that day from Korth Carolina. And Little Julia part are crossing now. William X.— 476 LIFE OF GENP:RAL THOMAS b}^ J. Major W.'' Part of -whose host have crossed the flood. Moore. Y. touching prayer could not have been more grateful and soothing proving balm. near by A came to mingle their tears with mine. but his winning gentleness of face. his selections of the most comforting passages of Scripture — such as the l-ith chapter of John. '• " Let not — . Mrs. JACKSON.

in . with our precious burden. was handed in and out of the car windows to be kissed. with her little charge. Here we took the canal-boat which was to convey us to Lexington. underneath my window in the back yard. His child was often called for. and many were the floral offerings handed in for the bier. on several occasions. to the Presbyterian Church. gro\Ying worried at so 477 much notice and handling. and along the route. and carried to the lecture -room where General Jackson. and to present flowers. the body was again escorted by the officers and cadets of the Institute. sought a refuge beyond the reach of the crowd. we reached the little village which had been so dear to him. and. were assembled crowds of people.FUNERAL JOURXEY TO LEXIXGTOX. close to the wall of the house. May 15th. On Friday." On Wednesday morning we protracted funeral journey. while professor. and where his until " the last shall body was now to repose sound " and " this mortal ity. but a vast throng was there to attest their interest and affection. at every station at again set out on our going by the way of all Gordonsville to Lynchburg. Xo stop was made at Lynchburg. The remains were taken in charge by the corps of cadets of the Virginia Military Institute. and there I heard her crooning. She ensconced herself. and were guarded during the night by his former pupils. had taught for ten years. together At Lexington our friends with the citizens. which a stop was made. and our and neighbors met us in tears and sorrow. White. and bewailing that " people would give her baby no rest." trump shall have put on immortal- pastor. and on Thursda}^ evening. Dr.

dies when he the 15th believer. which was and appropriate as it was heartfelt and affect- people. one of his mention these . and. casket. JACKSOX. also sent 1 colleagues upon the same mission. in this hour When the of deepest affliction and bereavement.478 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Dr. wishing to do honor . of L3mchburg. as just ing. and the good people of Lexington to me. White read chapter of Corinthians — that sublime description of the resurrection of Christ and of the and then delivered an address. — My could hearts pastor took me to his the loving-kindness own home. married home. like faithful sentinels. time came for my sad departure from my once happy. rise the everlasting hills. Ramsey. beyond which. with military honors. Conspicuous among these was General Jackson's valued friend. to the name of its late professor. his family. where the services were conducted in the simplest manner by the pastor and other visiting ministers. escorts to convey me to my father's home in North one of General Jackson's staff being deCarolina tailed by the military authorities to attend me. " How blest the righteous after which Dr. and never and sympathy of true be exceeded by that of himself. was borne to the cemetery. the noble people of Virginia extended I was provided with two to me every kindness. was at last committed to The the grave. followed by a long procession of from far and near. The spot where he tion '' rests is " beautiful for situa- the gentle eminence commanding the loveliest views of peaceful. and the Virginia Military Institute. who offered a prayer of wonderful pathos. which he had so loved to worship. !" The hymn was sung. picturesque valleys. I.



WHERE HE SLEEPS AT LAST. """v) /«!('<. . and of the good and noble of lands./ JACKSON S TOMB. and realizing that these and all the tributes paid to my hero-husband are but evidences of the love and veneration in which his his name and memory are enshrined in the hearts of all countrymen. LEXINGTON. VIRGINIA. 479 facts simply in token of gratitude.




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