Physiology and Anatomy – Lecture |1

I. TYPES OF MUSCULAR TISSUE A. Skeletal Muscle Tissue  attached to bones; move parts of the skeleton  striated  voluntary  has limited capacity for regeneration  multinucleated, at the periphery B. Cardiac Muscle Tissue  forms the bulk of the heart wall  striated  voluntary  can regenerate under certain conditions  fibers are branched  single, centrally located nucleus C. Smooth Muscle Tissue  located in the walls of hollow internal structures  participates in internal processes  nonstriated  involuntary  oval, centrally located nucleus II. FUNCTIONS OF MUSCULAR TISSUE A. Producing body movements B. Stabilizing body positions C. Storing and moving substances within the body D. Producing heat A. Subcutaneous layer/Hypodermis  composed of areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue  provides pathway for nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels to enter and exit the muscles  adipose tissue serves as an insulator, protects muscle from physical trauma B. Fascia  dense sheet or broad band of dense irregular connective tissue  lines the body wall and limbs  supports and surrounds muscles and other organs of the body  allows free movements  carries nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels  supports and surrounds muscles and other organs of the body  fills empty spaces  three layers: 1. epimysium  wraps the entire muscle 2. perimysium  surrounds bundles of muscle fibers called fascicles 3. endomysium  wraps individual muscle fibers These three extend beyond the muscle as a tendon which is a cord of dense regular connective tissue composed of parallel bundles of collagen and functions as an attachment between muscles and bones II. NERVE AND BLOOD SUPPLY

I. CONNECTIVE TISSUE COMPONENTS Connective tissue surrounds and protects muscle fibers.

Contraction  chief characteristic of muscles  requires ATP  an artery and one or two veins accompany each nerve that penetrates skeletal muscle

By: JMJS th This review outline is based on Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 8 Edition (White Book), Gerard Tortora and Bryan Derrickson

A band  darker area within a sarcomere  extends through the entire length of thick filaments  at both ends. Z discs  zigzagging zones of dense protein material which separate sarcomeres from one another 3. sarcoplasm  cytoplasm  contains several mitochondria 4. H zone  center of each A band  contains only thick filaments 5. 8 Edition (White Book). myoglobin  reddish pigment  stores oxygen B. I band  lighter area at either side of A band  contains the rest of thin filaments  extends into two sarcomeres divided by a Z disc C. HISTOLOGY A. sarcoplasmic reticulum  network of fluid filled membraneenclosed tubules which store Ca2+ ions 5. sarcomeres  compartments formed by overlapping of thin and thick filaments  basic functional units of striated muscle fibers 2. troponin  holds tropomyosin in place  lets go of tropomyosin as it changes shape when it binds to calcium ions Actin filaments join together to form actin molecules which contain myosinbinding sites where myosin heads attach CONTRACTION AND RELAXATION OF SKELETAL MUSCLE I. Muscle Fibers  elongated. Motor Neuron  delivers muscle action potential By: JMJS th This review outline is based on Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. both thick and thin filaments overlap 4. cylindrical cells arranged parallel to one another  components 1. transverse tubules  tunnel in from the surface toward the center of each muscle fiber 3.Physiology and Anatomy – Lecture |2 III. Actin (thin filaments)  anchored to Z discs  contain two other proteins: 1. Gerard Tortora and Bryan Derrickson . NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION A. tropomyosin  cover myosin-binding sites on actin 2. Myofibrils  cylindrical structures extending along the entire length of muscle fiber  components: 1. sarcolemma  plasma membrane 2. Myosin (thick filaments)  shaped like two golf clubs twisted together  have tails and heads D. Muscle Action Potential  electrical signal that stimulates skeletal muscle contraction B.

Breakdown of Ach  acetylcholinesterase breaks down neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft II. SLIDING-FILAMENT MECHANISM  occurs when level of calcium ions is high enough and ATP is available myosin heads of the thick filament pull on thin filaments axon terminals whose ends enlarge into swellings called… synaptic end bulbs which contain synaptic vesicles filled with neurotransmitters thin filaments slide toward the center of sarcomere D. Motor End Plate  region of the sarcolemma near the axon terminal E. Synaptic Cleft  space between the axon terminal and sarcolemma F.Physiology and Anatomy – Lecture |3 C. Neuromuscular Junction  synapse formed between the axon terminals of a motor neuron and motor end plate of a muscle fiber In the neuromuscular junction. Activation of ACh receptors . 8 Edition (White Book). Motor Unit  combination of a single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates axon branches into… 3. PHYSIOLOGY OF CONTRACTION   calcium ions and ATP are needed in muscle contraction there is low level of calcium ions in the sarcoplasm when the muscle is relaxed By: JMJS th This review outline is based on Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. Gerard Tortora and Bryan Derrickson . Release of acetylcholine (ACh)  triggered by nerve impulse at synaptic end bulbs  diffuses across synaptic cleft between motor neuron and motor end plate 2. eventually disappear III.opens ion channels I bands and H zones become narrower. Generation of muscle action potential  generated by inflow of sodium ions  travels along sarcolemma and through T tubules 4. motor neuron excites a muscle fiber in the following way… 1.

Ca2+ binds to troponin IV. ENERGY FOR CONTRACTION A. Gerard Tortora and Bryan Derrickson . muscles become flaccid (limpness and loss of tone) *ATP splits. Energized myosin heads attach to myosinbinding sites (once attached. Crossbridges rotate/swivel and releases ADP. Muscle Tone  few motor units are involuntary activated to produce a sustained contraction even when a muscle is not contracting.  when motor neurons are damaged or cut. ACh is rapidly broken down by AChE Generation of muscle action potential stops and calcium ion channels close Troponin changes shape Tropomyosin moves away. myosinbinding site exposed 2. Creatinine Phosphate  made from excess ATP  one P group of ATP is transferred to creatinine  result: ADP and creatinine phosphate  sustains contraction for 15 seconds creatinine  small. METABOLISM OF SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE I. Force created by swiveling/rotating slides the thin filament past thick filament toward the center of the sarcomere *Binding ATP and detaching. amino-acid like molecule synthesized in the liver. then thin filaments slide back to their relaxed position. Calcium ions are rapidly transported from sarcoplasm into the sarcoplasmic reticulum Low level of calcium in the sarcoplasm makes tropomyosin cover the myosinbinding sites on actin.Physiology and Anatomy – Lecture |4 When action potentials travel through sarcolemma. *Crossbridges form. kidneys *Power stroke. Another ATP binds the myosin heads detach from the actin * Part of the contraction cycle By: JMJS th This review outline is based on Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. IV. 8 Edition (White Book). Ca2+ release channels open  during a maximal contraction. Splitting reaction transfers energy to myosin heads while ADP and P (phosphate) remain attached. Myosin head has ATPase which breaks down ATP into ADP and P. myosin heads are called crossbridges) and release P. RELAXATION  two changes/conditions that permit relaxation: 1. the sarcomere can shorten by as much as half its resting length.

lowered release of Ca2+ 2. TWITCH CONTRACTION  brief contraction of all the muscle fibers in a motor unit in response to a single action potential in its motor neuron myogram  recording of a muscle contraction latent period  period between the application of stimulus and start of contraction contraction period  occurrence of repetitive power strokes  generation of force or tension of reaction relaxation period  power stroke ceases because calcium level in the sarcoplasm decreases II. Anaerobic Cellular Respiration  conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid when oxygen level is low  where does pyruvic acid come from?  glycolysis . Gerard Tortora and Bryan Derrickson . By: JMJS th This review outline is based on Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. MUSCLE FATIGUE  inability of a muscle to contract after prolonged activity  possible causes 1. Oxygen Debt  added oxygen. converting lactic acid back to glycogen 2. that is taken into the body after exercise  used to “pay back” or restore metabolic conditions to the resting levels by/through: 1. depletion of glycogen 5. OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AFTER EXERCISE A. buildup of lactic acid and ADP 6. replacing oxygen removed from myoglobin B. 8 Edition (White Book). failure of nerve impulses in motor neurons to release enough Ach III.Physiology and Anatomy – Lecture |5 and pancreas.series of cytosolic reactions that produce 2 ATPs by breaking down a glucose to pyruvic acid  sustains 30-40 seconds of muscle contraction C. over and above oxygen consumed at rest. FREQUENCY OF STIMULATION If a second stimulus arrives before a muscle fiber has completely relaxed. blood 2. depletion in creatinine phosphate 3. derived from certain foods B. insufficient oxygen 4. resynthesizing creatinine phosphate and ATP 3. myoglobin  yields 36 molecules of ATP  sustains 10 minute-activities II. Recovery Oxygen Uptake  better term than oxygen debt for the elevated use of oxygen after exercise CONTROL OF MUSCLE TENSION   single muscle fiber  frequency of stimulation whole muscle  number of muscles contracting in unison I. Aerobic Cellular Respiration  series of oxygen-requiring reactions that produce ATP in the mitochondria  two sources of oxygen: 1. the second contraction will be stronger than the first because the second contraction begins when the fiber is at a higher level of tension.

TYPES OF SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS A.g. 8 Edition (White Book). Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic (FOG) Fibers  intermediate in diameter among the three  also appears dark red because of myoglobin  generate ATP by means of both aerobic cellular respiration and anaerobic glycolysis (because of their high glycogen content) C. perimysium but lacks epimyseum  require constant supply of oxygen and nutrients By: JMJS th This review outline is based on Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. MOTOR UNIT RECRUITMENT  It is the process in which the number of contracting motor units is increased  A factor producing smooth movements rather than a series of jerky movements IV. the skeletal muscle fibers of any given motor unit are all of the same type. long-distance running Endurance type of exercises cause some FG fibers to transform into FOG fibers CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE Cardiac Muscles  interconnected with each other by irregular transverse thickenings of the sarcolemma called intercalated discs  has endomysium.g. Gerard Tortora and Bryan Derrickson . weightlifting and sprinting Those with a lot of SO fibers…  excel in activities that require endurance e. sustained contractions B. EXERCISE AND SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE Those with a lot of FG fibers…  excel in activities that require periods of intense activity e.Physiology and Anatomy – Lecture |6 Wave Summation  a phenomenon wherein stimuli arrive after one another before a muscle fiber could completely relax Unfused Tetanus  stimulation is 20-30 times per second  muscle could only relax a little between stimulation  results in sustained by wavering contraction Fused Tetanus  stimulation is 80-100 times per second  muscle could not relax between stimulation  results in sustained contraction in which individual twitches cannot be detected III. Fast Glycolytic (FG) Fibers  white fibers  largest in diameter  contain the most myofibrils  low myoglobin content and few mitochondria  contain large amounts of glycogen and generate ATP by anaerobic glycolysis  used for intense movements but fatigue quickly Even though most skeletal muscles are a mixture of all three types of skeletal muscle fibers. Slow Oxidative (SO) Fibers  red fibers  small in diameter  appear dark red because of myoglobin  contain many large mitochondria  generate ATP by means of aerobic cellular respiration  resistant to fatigue and are capable of prolonged.

8 Edition (White Book). Prime Mover  muscle that causes a desired action 2. Gerard Tortora and Bryan Derrickson . Insertion  attachment to movable bone GROUP ACTIONS 1.Physiology and Anatomy – Lecture |7   larger and more mitochondria employs aerobic cellular respiration   AGING AND MUSCULAR TISSUE Relative number of SO fibers increase Selective loss of some fibers occur Intercalated Discs  hold fibers together and contain gap junctions which allow action potentials to spread faster Autorhythmicity  built-in/intrinsic rhythm of the heart contractions HOW SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS PRODUCE MOVEMENT Skeletal Muscle  organ composed of several types of tissues ATTACHMENTS 1. each with its own motor nerve endings  found in the walls of large arteries. Multiunit  consists of individual fibers. arrector pili muscles and internal eye muscles Smooth Muscle Tone  created by the prolonged presence of calcium ions in the cytosol By: JMJS th This review outline is based on Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. Visceral  single unit  found in sheets that wrap around to form part of the walls of small arteries. Fixators  stabilizes the origin of the prime mover SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE    contain intermediate filaments aside from thin and thick filaments contraction starts more slowly and lasts longer most contract in response to nerve impulses from autonomic nervous system Dense Bodies  structures to which thin filaments attach Two kinds of Smooth Muscle Tissue 1. Origin  attachment of a muscle to a stationary bone 2. Synergists  help prime mover to function more efficiently by reducing unnecessary movement 4. veins and hollow visceral organs  fibers are tightly bound together in a continuous network 2. large airways. Antagonist  relaxes while prime mover contracts 3.

Physiology and Anatomy – Lecture |8 By: JMJS th This review outline is based on Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. 8 Edition (White Book). Gerard Tortora and Bryan Derrickson .

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