PROJECT REPORT

PROJECT REPORT ON ORISSA TOURISM

CERTIFICATE This is to Certify that this project report entitled Orissa tourism presented i n this dissertation which is submitted by AMAR NATH PATAEL(073254) in partial f ulfillment for the requirement of award of degree in B.S.C from IHM Srinagar(j& k) Final Year Batch 2010-2011 has Completed his project work on Mr. FAHEEM dur ing the year 2010-2011.

GUIDE NOTE I am Pleased to Mention that Student of Hotel Management Cater ing Technology and applied Nutrition, Meerut DAURALA, has successfully Completed his project work on under my supervision dur ing the year 2010-2011.

Prof. SANJAY KASHYAP Project Coordinator

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This Project AMAR NATH PATEL is a successful out come of my hard work with the help and guidance of my respectable Sir. I sincerely acknowledge the contribution of the suggestions given by Mr.FAHEEM w ithout which his project could never became a ratify. Last but not least I ackno wledge all my friends who gave me suggestion and full support by heart.

ORISSA TOURISM There are some places in the world that are special, and Orissa is definitely on e of them. Filled with exquisite temples and extraordinary monuments, home to ma ny thousands of prolific artists and craftsmen; and possessing beaches, wildlife sanctuaries, and natural landscape of often-enchanting beauty, Orissa is a uniq ue and fascinating land that is, nevertheless, still largely undiscovered by tou rists. Orissa is a veritable museum of India's sculptural and artistic heritage and has long been famous to scholars and connoisseurs for the magnificent Sun Temple at Konark (The legendary 'Black Pagoda' of European mariners), for the majestic te mple of Lord Jagannath at Puri (renowned for the spectacular Rath Yatra chariot festival), and for the glorious temples of Bhubaneswar. The small but ever-growi ng number of sophisticated tourists who do manage to find their way to Orissa ar e generally prepared with some knowledge of these temples, of the delicate Oriss an ikat textiles which have been become famous throughout the world, and, perhap s, of the beaches at Puri and Gopalpur on sea. They therefore plan to spend two

or three days in Orissa. Even these knowledgeable visitors, however, are seldom prepared for the amazing variety and richness of the treasures that lie waiting to be discovered. If they were, they would have planned to stay for a week. And that would be just a beginning. Orissa is a place like no other, a glowing green jewel of a state. On the east, 300 miles (482 km) of gentle coastline are open to the Bay of Bengal, while the high hills and mountains of the Eastern Ghats seal the western borders. In betwe en, lie 96,000 square miles (156,000 sq kms) of peaceful, rural beauty. Orissa i s home to three mighty rivers and to the largest fresh/salt water lake in Asia, to dozens of the most sacred places of pilgrimage in India, and to hundreds of t housands of small, traditional villages, in which almost all of her 26 million p eople live. Only four cities have more than one hundred thousand inhabitants, an d Orissa's urban and rural populations alike share a strong sense of the holines s of their beautiful land and of their enduring links with the past. The temples and monuments of Orissa are among the most magnificent gems of relig ious architecture the world has ever produced. Soaring against the dark sky, clu stered by the many hundreds in the ancient holy city of Bhubaneswar, protecting the precincts of small towns and villages, the temples of Orissa are natural mus eums of the sublime and the divine, as well as the visible manifestations of som ething strong and enduring which seems to sanctify the entire state. These place s of beauty and devotion often still serve as centers of intense religious activ ity and fervent festivals, as well as of great artistic creativity. Information on Travel to Orissa Orissa is filled with interesting destinations and just deciding on what to do a nd where to go can often be a daunting task. In order to help you in planning yo ur trip, we have compiled a list of possible destinations with a small list of n earby places which you could visit while there. This collection is by no means e xhaustive, and your tour operator, in India or at your city, can help you in arr anging your trip. BHUBANESWAR - The State Capital, is a perfect blend of the past and present. It is dotted with ancient temples and monuments, while also offering the very best in accommodation and entertainment. It is one of the preferred bases for tourist s wanting a quick glimpse of Orissa. While at Bhubaneswar, you could also visit: Dhauli, Sisupalgarh, Hirapur, Atri, Nandankanan PURI - The Abode of Lord Jagannath, is also famous for its beautiful beach. It a ttracts both pilgrims and pleasure seekers alike, and it is not surprising that some of the now permanent residents of the enchanting town were originally visit ors who decided to stay back! While at Puri, you could also visit: Balighai, Brahmagiri, Satyabadi, Baliharachandi, Raghurajpur, Satapada KONARK - Famous for the Sun Temple, this small hamlet plays host to a huge numbe r of visitors who are spell bound by both the size of the temple as well as the delicacy of the erotic sculpture. The beautiful Chandrabhaga beach is an added b onus to visitors to help them relax after the awe inspiring tour of the temple. While at Konark, you could visit: Kuruma, Chaurasi, Ramachandi, Astranga CHILIKA - Asia's Largest Brackish Water Lake, is famous for the wide variety of birds that come here during winter. It is also home to the Irrawady Dolphins tha t make every trip into the lake memorable. While at Chilika, you could visit: Narayani, Nirmaljhara, Banpur CUTTACK - The Millennium City Ansupa, Bhattarika, Chhatia, Chandikhol, Choudwar, Dhabaleswar, Jajpur, Kendrapa ra, Naraj, Niali-Madhava, Paradeep, Patharajpur, Ratnagiri, Lalitgiri, Udayagiri ROURKELA - The Steel City of Orissa

Vedavyas, Junagarh, Rajgangpur, Pitamahal, Ushakothi, Mandira Dam, Khandadhar, D arjeeng, Ghogar BARIPADA - Home of the famous Chhau Dance Khiching JEYPORE - The base for exploring Tribal Orissa Bagra, Papadahandi, Nandapur, Sunabeda, Duduma, Gupteswar, Hatipathar, Minna Jho la BHAWANIPATNA Karlapat, Junagarh, Phurli Jharan BALASORE Chandipur, Panchalingeswar, Chandaneswar, Balaramagadi, Chandbali, Aradi, Dhamra , Raibania BERHAMPUR Gopalpur, Aryapalli, Taptapani, Mahendragiri, Taratarini BOLANGIR Harishankar, Ranipur-Jharial, Patnagarh, Sonepur PHULBANI Balaskumpa, Padmatala, Puruna Katak, Charisambhu, Chakapad, Putudi, Dalringibadi , Balghar, Boudh DHENKANAL Kapilas, Joranda, Saptasajya, Tikarpada KEONJHAR Sitabinji, Khandadhar, Sanghagara, Badghagera, Gonasika, Murga Mahadeva SAMBALPUR Hirakud Dam, Ushakothi, Chiplima, Nrusinhamnath Crisis Rites: As most of the tribes of Orissa, practise EXPLORE ORISSA In India there is an amalgam of 437 tribes, and in Orissa the number is sixty tw o. According to 1991 Census, in Orissa the total strength of tribal population i s approximately seven million which constitutes 22.21% of the total population o f the State. Linguistically the tribes of India are broadly classified into four categories, namely (1) Indo-Aryan speakers, (2) Dravidian speakers, (3) Tibeto-Burmese speak ers, and (4) Austric speakers. ln Orissa the speakers of the Tibeto-Burmese lang uage family are absent, and therefore Orissan tribes belong to other three langu age families. The Indo-Aryan language family in Orissa includes Dhelki-Oriya, Ma tia, Haleba, Jharia, Saunti, Laria and Oriya (spoken by Bathudi and the accultur ated sections of Bhuyans, Juang, Kondh, Savara, Raj Gond etc.). The Austric lang uage family includes eighteen tribal languages namely, Birija, Parenga, Kisan, B humiji, Koda, Mahili Bhumiji, Mirdha-Kharia, Ollar Gadaba, Juang, Bondo, Didayee , Karmali, Kharia, Munda, Ho, Mundari and Savara. And within the Dravidian langu age family there are nine languages in Orissa, namely, Pengo, Gondi, Kisan, Kond a, Koya. Parji, Kui, Kuvi and Kurukh or Oraon. The tribes of Orissa though belong to three linguistic divisions, yet they have lots of socio-cultural similarities between them. These commonalities signify ho mogeneity of their cultures and together they characterise the notion or concept of tribalism. Tribal societies share certain common characteristics and by thes e they are distinguished from complex or advanced societies. In India tribal soc ieties had apparently been outside the main historical current of the developmen t of Indian civilization for centuries. Hence tribal societies manifest such cul tural features which signify a primitive level in socio-cultural parameter. Habitat: A major portion of the tribal habitat is hilly and forested. Tribal vil lages are generally found in areas away from the alluvial plains close to rivers . Most villages are uniethnic in composition, and smaller in size. Villages are often riot planned at all. agriculture in some form or the other, and as rest others have a vital stake in agriculture, sowing, planting, first-fruit eating and harvest rites are common a mongst them. Their common cyclic rites revolve round the pragmatic problems of e

nsuring a stable economic condition, recuperation of the declining fertility of soil, protection of crops from damage, human and live-stock welfare, safety agai nst predatory animals and venomous reptiles and to insure a good yield of annual and perennial crops. The annual cycle of rituals commence right from the initiation of agricultural o peration, for instance, among the Juang, Bhuyan, Kondh, Saora, Gadaba, Jharia, D idayee, Koya and Bondo, who practise shifting cultivation. The annual cycle begi ns with the first clearing of hill slopes during the Hindu month of Chaitra (Mar ch-April) and among others it starts with the first-fruit eating ceremony of man go in the month of Baisakh (April-May). All the rituals centering agricultural o peration, first-fruit eating, human, live-stock and crop welfare are observed by the members of a village on a common date which is fixed by the village head-ma n in consultation with the village priest. Thus the ideological system of all the tribes surrounds supernaturalism. The pan theon in most cases consists of the Sun God, the Mother Earth and a lower hierar chy of Gods. Besides there are village tutelaries, nature spirits, presiding dei ties and ancestor-spirits, who are also propitiated and offered sacrifices. Gods and spirits are classified into benevolent and malevolent categories. A peculia rity of the tribal mode of worship is the offering of blood of an animal or a bi rd, because such propitiations and observance of rites are explicitly directed t owards happiness and security in this world, abundance of crops, live-stock, pla nts and progenies. Sickness is not natural to a tribal, it is considered as an o ut-come of the machination of some evil spirits or indignation of ancestor spiri ts or gods. Sometimes, sickness is also considered as the consequence of certain lapses on the part of an individual or group. Therefore, riddance must be sough t through propitiation and observance of rituals. Among all the tribes conformity to customs and norms and social integration cont inue to be achieved through their traditional political organizations. The tribu tary institutions of social control, such as family, kinship and public opinion continue to fulfill central social control functions. The relevance of tribal po litical organization in the context of economic development and social change co ntinues to be there undiminished. Modern elites in tribal societies elicit scant respect and have very little followings. And as the traditional leaders continu e to wield influence over their fellow tribesmen, it is worth-while to take them into confidence in the context of economic development and social change. Economy: Tribal economy is characterised as subsistence oriented. The subsistenc e economy is based mainly on collecting, hunting and fishing (e.g., the Birhor, Hill Kharia), or a combination of hunting and collecting with shifting cultivati on (e.g., the Juang,, Hill Bhuyan, Lanjia Saora, Kondh etc.) Even the so-called plough using agricultural tribes do often, wherever scope is available, suppleme nt their economy with hunting and collecting. Subsistence economy is characteris ed by simple technology, simple division of labour, small-scale units of product ion and no investment of capital. The social unit of production, distribution an d consumption is limited to the family and lineage. Subsistence economy is impos ed by circumstances which are beyond the control of human beings, poverty of the physical environment, ignorance of efficient technique of exploiting natural re sources and lack of capital for investment. It also implies existence of barter and lack of trade. Considering the general features of their (i) eco-system, (ii) traditional econo my, (iii) supernatural beliefs and practices, and (iv) recent "impacts of modern ization", the tribes of Orissa can be classified into six types, such as: (1) Hu nting, collecting and gathering type, (2) Cattle-herder type, (3) Simple artisan type, (4) Hill and shifting cultivation type, (5) Settled agriculture type and (6) Industrial urban worker type. Each type has a distinct style of life which could be best understood in the par adigm of nature, man and spirit complex, that is, on the basis of relationship w ith nature, fellow men and the supernatural. (1) Tribes of the first type, namely Kharia, Mankidi, Mankidia and Birhor, live in the forests of Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar and Sundargarh districts, exclusively dep end on forest resources for their livelihood by practising hunting, gathering an

d collecting. They live in tiny temporary huts made out of the materials found i n the forest. Under constraints of their economic pursuit they live in isolated small bands or groups. With their primitive technology, limited skill and unflin ching traditional and ritual practices, their entire style of life revolves roun d forest. Their world view is fully in consonance with the forest eco-system. Th e population of such tribes in Orissa though is small, yet their impact on the e ver-depleting forest resources is very significant. Socio-politically they have remained inarticulate and therefore have remained in a relatively more primitive stage, and neglected too. (2) The Koya which belongs to the Dravidian linguistic group, is the lone pastor al and cattle-breeder tribal community in Orissa. This tribe which inhabits the Malkangiri District has been facing crisis for lack of pasture. (3) In Orissa Mahali and Kol-Lohara practise crafts like basketry and black-smit hy respectively. The Loharas with their traditional skill and primitive tools ma nufacture iron and wooden tools for other neighbouring tribes and thereby eke ou t their existence. Similarly the Mahalis earn their living by making baskets for other communities. Both the tribes are now confronted with the problem of scarc ity of raw materials. And further they are not able to compete with others, espe cially in the tribal markets where goods of other communities come for sale, bec ause of their primitive technology. (4) The tribes that practise hill and shifting cultivation are many. In northern Orissa the Juang and Bhuyan, and in southern Orissa the Kondh, Saora, Koya, Par enga, Didayi, Dharua and Bondo practise shifting cultivation. They supplement th eir economy by foodgathering and hunting as production in shifting cultivation i s low. Shifting cultivation is essentially a regulated sequence of procedure des igned to open up and bring under cultivation patches of forest lands, usually on hill slopes. In shifting cultivation the practitioners follow a pattern of cycle of activitie s which are as follows: (i) Selection of a patch of hill slope or forest land an d distribution or allotment of the same to intended practitioners (ii) Worshippi ng of concerned deities and making of sacrifices, (iii) Cutting of trees, bushes , ferns etc., existing on the land before summer months, (iv) Pilling up of logs , bushes and ferns on the land, (v) Burning of the withered logs, ferns and shru bs etc. to ashes on a suitable day, (vi) Cleaning of the patch of land before th e on-set of monsoon and spreading of the ashes evenly on the land after a shower or two, (vii) Hoeing and showing of seeds with regular commencement of monsoon rains, (viii) Crude bunding and weeding activities follow after sprouting of see ds, (ix) Watching and protecting the crops, (x) Harvesting and collecting crops, (xi) Threshing and storing of corns, grains etc., and (xii) Merry-making. In th ese operations all the members of the family are involved in some way or the oth er. Work is distributed among the family members according to the ability of ind ividual members. However, the head of the family assumes all the responsibilitie s in the practice and operation of shifting cultivation. The adult males, betwee n 18 and 60 years of age under-take the strenuous work of cutting tree, ploughin g and hoeing, and watching of the crops at night where as cutting the bushes and shrubs, cleaning of seeds for sowing and weeding are done by women. Shifting cultivation is not only an economic pursuit of some tribal communities, but it accounts for their total way of life. Their social structure, economy, p olitical organization and religion are all accountable to the practice of shifti ng cultivation. In the past, land in the tribal areas had not been surveyed and settled. Therefo re, the tribals freely practised shifting cultivation in their respective habita ts assuming that land, forest, water and other natural resources belonged to the m. The pernicious, yet unavoidable practise of shifting cultivation continues un checked and all attempts made to wean away the tribals from shifting cultivation have so far failed. The colonization scheme of the State Government has failed in spirit. In certain hilly areas terraces are constructed along the slopes. It is believed to be a step towards settled agriculture. Terrace cultivation is practised by t he Saora, Kondh and Gadaba. The terraces are built on the slopes of hill with wa

ter streams. (5) Several large tribes, such as, Santal, Munda, Ho, Bhumij, Oraon, Gond, Mirdh a, Savara etc. are settled agriculturists, though they supplement their economy with hunting, gathering and collecting. Tribal agriculture in Orissa is characte rised by unproductive and uneconomic holdings, land alienation indebtedness, lac k of irrigation facilities in the undulating terrains, lack of easy or soft cred it facilities as well as use of traditional skill and primitive implements. In g eneral, they raise only one crop during the monsoon, and therefore have to suppl ement their economy by other types of subsidiary economic activities. Tribal communities practising settled agriculture also suffer from further probl ems, viz: (i) want of record of right for land under occupation, (ii) land alien ation (iii) problems of indebtedness, (iv) lack of power for irrigation (v) abse nce of adequate roads and transport, (vi) seasonal migration to other places for wage-earning and (vii) lack of education and adequate scope for modernization. (6) Sizable agglomeration of tribal population in Orissa has moved to mining, in dustrial and urban areas for earning a secured living through wage-labour. Durin g the past three decades the process of industrial urbanization in the tribal be lt of Orissa has been accelerated through the operation of mines and establishme nt of industries. Mostly persons from advanced tribal communities, such as Santa l, Munda, Ho, Oraon, Kisan, Gond etc. have taken to this economic pursuit in ord er to relieve pressure from their limited land and other resources. In some instances industrialization and mining operations have led to uprooting of tribal villages, and the displaced became industrial nomads. They lost their traditional occupation, agricultural land, houses and other immovable assets. Th ey became unemployed and faced unfair competition with others in the labour mark et, Their aspiration - gradually escalated, although they invariably failed to a chieve what they aspired for. Thus the net result was frustration. The overall kinship system of the tribes may be label led as tempered classifica tory. In terminology the emphasis lies on the unilinear principle, generation an d age. Descent and inheritance are patrilineal and authority is patripotestal am ong all the tribal communities of Orissa. Among the tribes there is very little specialization of social roles, with the e xception of role differentiation in terms of kinship and sex and some specializa tion in crafts, the only other role specializations are Head-man, Priest, Shaman and the Haruspex. There is very little rigid stratification in society. The tendency towards strat ification is gaining momentum among several settled agricultural tribes under th e impact of modernisation. The tribes of Orissa are at different levels of socio -economic development. The position of priest, village headman and the inter-village head-man are hered itary. The village headman is invariably from original settlers' clan of the vil lage, which is obviously dominant. Punishments or corrective measures are propor tional to the gravity of the breach of set norms or crime, and the punishments r ange from simple oral admonition to other measures, such as corporal punishments , imposition of fines, payment of compensation, observance of prophylactic rites and excommunication from the community. Truth of an incident is determined by o ath, ordeals and occult mechanism. As regards the acquisition of brides for marriage, the most widely prevalent pra ctice among the tribes of Orissa is through "capture", although other practices, such as, elopement, purchase, service and negotiation are also there. With the passage of time negotiated type of marriage, which is considered prestigious, is being preferred more and more. Payment of bride-price is an inseparable part of tribal marriage, but this has changed to the system of dowry among the educated sections. The religion of the Orissan tribes is an admixture of animism, animalism, nature -worship, fetishism, shamanism, anthropomorphism and ancestor worship. Religious beliefs and practices aim at ensuring personal security and happiness as well a s community well-being and group solidarity. Their religious performances includ e life-crisis rites, cyclic community rites, ancestor and totemic rites and obse rvance of taboos. Besides these, the tribals also resort to various types of occ

ult practices. In order to tide over either a personal or a group crisis the tri bals begin with occult practices, and if it does not yield any result the next r ecourse is supplication of the supernatural force. Orissa occupies an unique position in the ethnographic map of India for having t he largest variety of tribal communities.Although they are found in all the dist ricts of the State, yet more than half of their total strength are found in the districts of Koraput, Rayagada, Naurangpur, Malkangiri, Kalahandi, Nauapara, Kan dhamal, Baudh, Keonjhar, Sundargarh and Mayurbhanj The tribes of Orissa are at various stages of socio-economic development. At one extreme are the group which lead a relatively secluded and archaic mode of life keeping their core culture intact, while at the other extreme there are communi ties which are indistinguishable from the general agricultural communities. Any society - tribal or otherwise, comprises of organised groups of people who h ave learnt to live and work together interacting in the pursuit of common goals. Each society has its own rules of business and tricks of trade which helps its people to define their relationship with one another and live and work together. Therefore a society is a going concern and functions and perpetuates itself on the basis of the rules for living together. The tribal people express their cultural identity and distinctiveness in their s ocial organisation, language, rituals and festivals and also in their dress, orn ament, art and craft. They have retained their own way of managing internal affa irs of the village mainly through two institutions namely, the village council a nd the youth dormitory. The dormitory is the core of tribal culture and it reinf orces the age-old traditions. In Orissa this institution occurs among many triba l communities in some form or other. The Juangs call it Majang and Darbar, the K ondhs call it Dindaghar, the Bhuyans call it Dhangarabasa and among the Bondos i t goes by the name Ingersin. Of all the tribes the dormitory system is well orga nized among the Juang. Conspicuous in the village, the Mandaghar is the largest hut. It has wall on three sides and is open in front. The wooden parts and side walls are carried with decorative symbols depicting animals. The boys hang their changu, a flat tambourine like drum which is used at the time of dancing. In fr ont of the Mandaghar is the small open space where dance takes place almost ever y night after the day's work is over. The dormitory is so to say a school of dan cing and expression of the communal art of the people. The elders of the village assemble at the dormitory house every day for every important event in their co rporate life. Here they discuss matters concerning the welfare of the village, s ettle the distribution of swidden and fix date and time for celebration of the v illage festivals, etc. In these respects the dormitory may be considered as the centre of social, economic and religious life of the village. The amazing conglomeration of traditions, beliefs, sorrows and philosophies that together constitute and vitalise the rituals and festivals of the tribes, has d escended from antiquity and has been preserved unimpaired to the present day. Ev ery facet of their life covering round-the-year activities is intimately connect ed with religious beliefs and ritual practices. It is these aspects of their cul ture that give meaning and depth to their lives, and solidarity to their social structure. The tribes believe that their life and work are controlled by supernatural being s whose abode is around them in hills, forests, rivers and houses. It is very di fficult to standardize the Gods and spirits as their composition continually cha nges when old ones are forgotten with the introduction of new ones. Their Gods d iffer from one another in composition, function, character and nature. Some are benevolent; some are neutral and some are malevolent. The malevolent spirits and Gods are cared more than their benevolent counter parts as they can bring miser y. Manipulation of environment being the main concern of the tribals, all the ritua l acts is directed towards stimulating natural processes. Illness or misfortune is attributed to displeasure and malicious act of the Gods or ancestors. The sac rifice of different kinds of livestock accompanied by all the rites and ceremoni als of fetishism is considered appropriate appeasement. Moreover, their extremel

y superstitious nature prohibits the undertaking of any enterprise unless the Go ds are first appeased and the omens, after being carefully considered, are adjud ged to be propitious. Among the tribes there are religious functionaries who cater to their spiritual needs. For example, the hierarchy of priests among the Saoras may be divided int o three categories. The Buyya is a priest who presides at agricultural festivals and offers sacrifices that especially characterize these occasions. The Kudan i s a shaman who combines the functions of priest, prophet and medicine-man. The s acerdotal head among the Juang is called Nagam or Buita, Pujari or Sisa among th e Bondos and Jani among the Kondhs. The post of these officials are mostly ascri bed but not achieved. The ceremonies and festivals of the tribes can be classified into two groups, th at is, those that relate to the individual families and those that relate to the village as a whole. The ceremonies and rites relating to birth of a child, marr iage, and death are observed family-wise whereas those relating to various agric ultural cycle, eating of new fruits, hunting, etc. are observed by the village c ommunity. Some of the important festivals observed by the tribal communities of Orissa inc lude Guar ceremony of the Saora, Gotar of the Gadaba, Push Punei of the Juang, K edu of the Kondh, Karam festival of the Oraon, Chait Parab of the Bondo and Magh a Parab of the Santal. With the advent of time, traces of borrowing from Hindu Pantheon and religious c eremonies are noticed among the tribes of Orissa. They have started worshipping Siva, Parbati and Lord Jagannath. Hindu festivals like Raja, Laxmipuja, Dasahara and Gamha are also becoming popular among them day by day. The tribes of Orissa, despite their poverty and their pre-occupation with the co ntinual battle for survival, have retained the rich and varied heritage of colou rful dance and music forming integral part of their festivals and rituals. Among them, the dance and music is developed and maintained by themselves in a tradit ion without aid and intervention of any professional dancer or teacher. It is ma inly through the songs and dances the tribes seek to satisfy their inner urge fo r revealing their soul. The performance of these only give expression to their i nner feelings, their joys and sorrows, their natural affections and passion and their appreciation of beauty in nature and in man. Although the pattern of dance and music prevalent among them vary from tribe to tribe yet there are certain features common to all. Tribal dances have some acco mpaniments by means of which the rhythm is maintained. This consists of clapping of hands or beating of drums or an orchestra of different instruments. Every da nce is accompanied by a song which is sung by the performers. Both men and women , young and old dance and invariably sing but the accompanying orchestra or musi c is usually provided by the male members. Tribal dance is characterized not onl y by its originality and spontaneity but also for its wide range of movements. M any parts of the body such as head, back, arms, feet. finger, etc. are brought i nto play. Some of the tribal groups put on colourful dancing costume during thei r performance. Like dance, the songs sung by different tribal groups differ from one tribe to t he other. Among the tribes everyone is a musician and poet. When happily inspire d, they can coin a song then and there and sing it. Like any others, when they s ee things of beauty and meet pleasantly, they exhibit this pleasure and happines s by composing songs. One finds in these songs humours, jokes, romance, satires, criticisms, acquisitions and anger. Though there is no modernity and fineness, their ideas being natural, the compositions are good, inspiring and melodious. O n the occasion of performing Pujas and observance of festivals the songs sung ar e different. Such songs are adopted from the past so many years. These songs des cribe the history of gods, the process of creation and some epic stories. The joy of free life finds expression in tribal art and craft. It is through thi s endeavour their cultural self-image and aesthetic sensibility are visualized. The artistic skill of the tribal people is not only manifested in their dance an d music but also in their dress and ornaments, wall-paintings, wood carvings and decorations, etc. The beautiful wall-paintings and floral designs of the Santal

s and the ikons of the Saoras which depict geometric designs and stylistic figur es of plants and animals are the best example of tribal art. The multicoloured d esigns and relief figures of animals and human beings which decorate the walls o f Mandaghar in Juang society are indeed works of very high order. Similar wall-p aintings and decorations as observed among the Mundari group of tribals are also very attractive. Some of the tribal communities like the Bondo and the Gadaba have their own loom s by which they weave clothes for their own use. These hand spun textiles of col oured yarn are examples of best artistic skill of these people. So also among th e Dongaria Kondhs the ladies are very much skilled in making beautiful embroider y work in their scarf. The tribal women in general and the Bondo, the Gadaba and the Dongaria Kondh women in particular are very fond of using ornaments. The Bo ndo women, who are considered most primitive, look majestic when they wear headb ands made of grass, necklaces of coloured beads and girdles made of brass on the ir bodies. All these are expressions of their artistic quality and aesthetic sen se. The tribal people turn out excellent handicrafts for their own use. The wood car ving of the Kondhs, metal works by lost wax process among the Bathudis, cane and bamboo basketry works among the Juangs and Bhuyans, are all symbolic of artisti c creation. Some of the famous tribal dances of Orissa are mentioned in the description that follows: JUANG: The Juang dance which goes by the popular name of "Changu dance" is performed by both men and women. Besides, they perform other types of dances such as deer da nce, elephant dance, bow dance, pigeon dance, bear dance, koel dance and peacock dance. They dance and sing when they are in happy mood. The dance also forms an integral part of their social and ritual festivals. The Juang do not have any s pecial dress for dancing. While dancing the girls stand in a straight line in fr ont of the boys. While the dance goes on, the line becomes semicircular. The gir ls hold each other's wrist or hand-in-hand and move forward and backward in bend ing posture. The boys stand in a straight line which becomes a curve during danc e. The musical instruments which are used during their dance are Badakatha (Drum ), Dhola (Small drum), Madala and Changu (Tambourine). SAORA:The Soars do not dance frequently as the Juangs and the Gadabas do. The Saora da nce is very simple and lack all the artistic exuberances. Generally the Saoras d ance during ceremonies and festivals, marriages, and when some important person visits their village. In their dance, group of men and women jumble up together and while dancing the drummers and the dancers advance towards each other altern atively with the rhythm of the music. Colourful costumes are worn during the dan ce. Other decorations include feathers of white fowl and peacock plumes. Besides , old coloured cloths of cotton and silk are tied as turbans by men and wrapped around their chest by women. While dancing they carry swords, sticks, umbrellas and other implements and blow whistles and make peculiar sounds. The musical ins truments used at the time of dance consist of drums of various sizes, brass cymb als, brass-gongs and hide-gongs. GOND: Among the Gonds of Koraput, dance is performed throughout the year. Besides this , dances are performed on special communal occasions like marriage. The boys dre ss themselves with colourful aprons and turbans during the dance. The turbans ar e adorned with "cowrie" shells and the apron is adorned with small pieces of mir ror. The girls are dressed in hand-woven sarees and silver ornaments. A dancing group is ordinarily formed with 20 to 30 persons of both sexes. Only unmarried b oys and girls participate in the dance. The musical instruments are played by bo ys. Two boys lead the dance with wooden drums. The girls dance in circles with s imple steps of one and two, very often bending their bodies forward. The steps o f the boys are more varied and subtle. KOYA:

Dance among the Koyas is richly varied and sophisticated. The most important occ asion for dancing is the worship of the mother goddess in the month of Chaitra ( April-May). Ordinarily both boys and girls participate in dancing but the girls are more conspicuous. However, in the festival only girls participate. During th e dance, the girls keep rhythm by beating sticks on the ground which are fitted with small bells. Dance groups are formed by about 30 to 40 persons. The most co nspicuous movement about Koya dance is the complicated winding and unwinding of circles formed by girls. GADABA: Gadaba dance is performed by women who wear the famous "Keranga" sarees and have their distinctive hair style. The men play the musical instruments. Chaitra and Pausa are the dancing seasons. The Gadaba women dance in semi-circles with step s of three and four which they gradually change to eight. The body is often bent forward. Very skillful moves are made on the heels. KONDH:Kondh dance is mostly confined to unmarried boys and girls and free mixing of th e sexes is allowed during dancing. The dances are performed especially when the boys or girls of one village visit another village. The dance forms an item in t he daily routine of the Kondh, when the boys and girls in their dormitories meet after the day's toil. No instrument accompanies the dance of the Kondhs of Kora put. The girls dance in lines and the boys dance behind and in front of them. Th e dance of the Phulbani Kondh is more colourful. The girls wear sarees in two pi eces and bangles on their ankles. They dance in rows, facing rows of boys who si ng songs and play on hand drums. Songs play a very important part in the dance. Special dances are performed during buffalo sacrifice, called the Kedu festival. ORAONS:The dance of the Oraons of Sundargarh and Bolangir districts is performed in fro nt of the village dormitories. The boys and girls participate in the dance. The line of dancers go round and round headed by the leading dancers. PARAJA:-The Parajas dance during the Chaitra parba, the dance often lasting from dusk to dawn. The girls wear colourful handwoven sarees; silver and brass jewellery; an d hold a bunch of peacock feathers in their hands. The movements are extremely g raceful and the music is provided by the drum, flute and the "Dudunga" - a count ry-made string instrument. POTTERY: Though there are very few potters among the tribals, the tribal people extend th eir patronage to the other potters. The elemental quality of earth as a substanc e has long been used by them in the execution of both ritual and utilitarian obj ects. A variety of roof tiles, utensils such as pots, bowls, plates and jars, an d cooking stoves meet specific requirements of daily life. Simultaneously the po tter creates votive offerings in strong forms of bulls, elephants and horses as well as terracotta temples and toys. CANE, BAMBOO, REEDS, GRASSES AND WOODS:Bamboo and cane have all the fertile, lively and tactile qualities of nature's r aw materials which craftspersons have successfully harnessed. The structural qua lities of bamboo, its high-tensile strength and pliability have led to its wides pread use for architectural purposes. Besides which, bamboo splits are woven tog ether to make baskets of diverse shapes and sizes depending on the nature of goo ds they are required to carry or store. Similarly the elasticity and sturdiness of cane has been utilized in the manufacture of a variety of domestic goods, whi le countless local fibres and reeds are used by people with household skills to make ropes, strings, brooms and the like. These products are largely geared for local consumption. However, the potential of these materials is so great that ne w applications can be explored for the new customers.

PLASTER AND PAPIER MACHE :Papier Mache: This skill has been creatively practised by craftspersons from all over Orissa. Paper, waste cloth and different kinds of natural fibres are soake d and beaten into a pulp, then mixed with a variety of seeds and gums for streng th and as protection from termites. Special clays and bio-wastes are added for b ody and reinforcement. The entire process results in a malleable that it require s little skill to be moulded into countless forms. However, despite its versatil ity this craft has remained neglected. Plasters: The application of plasters to her dwellings is often the rural woman' s medium of creative expression reflecting both in terms of colours and symbols, the close identification of man with nature. From clay come the colours ochre, geru, charcoal grey and white which are either used naturally or mixed with pigm ents purchased from the markets. The images created by her are timeless yet ephe meral, with the sun and the rain taking their toll. The predominantly geometric forms - a straight line, a square covered in dots, waves, triangles pointing to the sky and downwards - can have the most disparate of meanings but the symbolis m of fertility is implicit in all of them. The tools used for applying the plast ers whethe ds and rags.r on hut walls or floors are basic. They use twigs, finge rs, whole han STONE AND THEATRE CRAFTS :Stone: Artisans practising the craft of stone carving in Orissa have remained la rgely tradition-bound while producing objects of ritualistic, decorative and pra ctical use. Turned utensils for both cooking and serving and artefacts of touris t interest are made in Khiching located on the borders of Mayurbhanj and Keonjha r districts, from a semihard, grey stone which takes on a deep, dark polish, whi le beads and figurines are carved out of soft stones available in many shades of orange in Phulbani district. Theatre crafts: The Desiya Natya of tribal Orissa derives its distinctive style in some part from Prahlada Natakams and Jatras of the Hindus. Its colourful cost umes - embroidered head-dresses and painted masks which adorn the key actors, an d the use of imaginative props are a craft in themselves. Masks carved out of pa pier mache and sholapith, the weightless bark of a water plant, represent variou s gods, goddesses, demons and animals. SEEDS, HERBS AND MEDICAMENTS:In Koraput district alone, at least 200 different varieties of rice are produced or grow wild. Some are for consumption during festivals and marriages, others f or their taste, colour or smell, and yet others are grown for their pesticidal o r soil- fertilization characteristics. The traditional dependence of many indige nous communities on biological resources is also evidenced in the use of several plants which have medicinal values. For instance, the stem of the 'Hadbhanga' p lant is applied to fractured bones for quicker mending and the fruit of the 'Utk apali' is used to cure migraine. However, the rapid destruction of forest cover, pollution of water-bodies along with pesticide poisoning and a host of such des tructive activities have taken their toll. NATURAL DYES: The knowledge and use of vegetable and mineral dyes goes back to pre-historic ti mes in India where, according to data collected so far, there are nearly 300 dye -yielding plants available. However, after chemical colours flooded the markets, only a small number of dyers continued with natural dyes such as indigo. Cotton yarn dyed in madder is still used by the weavers of Kotpad in Koraput district. In an age where the tide is turning against the use of synthetic dyes in the re st of the world, one needs to promote the use of eco- and wearer-friendly natura l dyes in this country. LEAF STRAW AND DRIED FLOWERS: Tribal women have been the traditional gatherers of leaves whose delicate hues a nd unique qualities have been used in a multitude of ways for the manufacture of useful products. Farm labourers and cattle grazers wear hats made of dried leav es which provide protection from the sun and are water-proof. In temples and at

village feasts, food is still served in leaf plates and bowls. Given the rising demand for biodegradable goods in a world which is becoming more ecologically aw are, one has to find if it is possible to evolve a range of highly durable, hygi enic leaf-product tableware which can meet the most stringent international qual ity standards! LACQUER: Lacquer is the refuse of an insect gathered by the tribals in the forests. The H indu women of Baleshwar and Nowrangpur districts mix it with colours and apply i t on small cane boxes made by tribals, and terracotta figures which they make th emselves. After sealing the core with several coats of lacquer, the surface is d ecorated with motifs borrowed from nature, geometric patterns and religious symb ols. Although the visual power of colour and design combine to give ornamental e ffect, the artisans have not explored the area of material, form and technique. METAL: Rich in minerals, tribal Orissa offers many variations in the types of metal use d, the techniques and form of production, combining both the functional and the aesthetic, from the rivetting of the flexible brass fishes, snakes and crocodile s of Phulbani district, to the tiny bronze-cast beads shaped like grains. The ri ce and oil measures of Sambalpur and Bolangir made from bell metal, and Dhokra-w are both richly decorated with tribal motifs, as well as the bronze figures craf ted for the Kondh tribes, are just a few examples. SANTHAL AND SAORA PAINTINGS:Tribal paintings are like prayers that become part of the offerings made to gods , ancestors and spirits. Members of the Saora tribe draw ritualistic pictographs on the inner walls of their mud dwellings called 'Ittlans'. The icons are paint ed to preserve the abundance of the crops, avert disease, honour the dead, promo te fertility, honour the tutelaries and so on. The spirit is then invoked and in vited to occupy the one dimensional painting which actually represents a house m ade for it. Once captured therein, it is propitiated with appropriate chantings. The icons are a curious amalgamation of an early memory and contemporary impres sions. Since they are basically the expressions of an agricultural community the re is an emphasis on nature, the great outdoors and also on the cycle of ploughi ng, sowing and harvesting. But as the outside world increasingly impinges on the ir lives, cars, chairs, tables and planes have begun to appear innocently in the paintings, and are offered as vehicles for their gods in hierarchical order. HANDLOOMS: Orissa is a thickly tribal inhabited state, consisting of sixty two tribes livin g in different parts of the state - in the highlands, forests, valleys and in th e foot hills. They make their own traditional ethnic cottage and live in it. In order to proclaim the self identity intra group wise, socially and culturally di fferent tribes live in different places. Each tribal community has separate mode of living and they differ significantly in their dress, ornaments, skill in bui lding houses, and moreover in their way of life. This difference in their life i s clearly discernible from their material culture, art objects from the painting s and drawings and also from the size and shapes of different objects that they use. To the tribals, dress is a cultural need and it is also a part of their tra dition. Among the tribals the use of dress is very significant and worthwhile. The triba ls do not use dress just merely to hide their nakedness rather it reflects the r acial feeling and their cultural identity. The tribals use separate costumes at the time of festivals and ceremonies. In a specific tribe the dresses from birth to old age has immense variety. The costumes of the male members of the tribe a nd the females are also different. It is a fact that the female community pays m ore attention in covering their body. In some tribal communities the women folk want their male partners to be dressed elegantly and impressively. A tribal woma n also wears a variety of dresses from her birth to death corresponding to diffe rent stages of her life. For instance, a Dhangedi (a maiden) adorns with fine cl othes to attract the attention of others while the Gurumai, the priestess wears formal clothes to worship the goddess for the betterment of her community. Dress also helps them in many adversities and also helps to propitiate gods and godde

sses who safeguard them against the malevolent atrocities of the ghosts, spirits , etc. The tribals also use dress according to the position of individual in the societ y like the clan's head, the priest, and the revenue collector etc. The dress tha t they use at the time of marriage, birth, death, worship etc. are also differen t. They use dresses keeping in view the occasion, age, sex and other factors. Fo r example, the priest does not use the normal dress at the time of worship. And again at the time of dancing they dress in a very attractive manner. And the dan cing costume has also special significance. They also wear dresses in different styles. While dressing they also keep in their mind the surroundings. They also think of their convenience and inconvenience while dressing themselves for an oc casion. Especially they do not like to dress very pompously at the time of any w ork. But when they go for shopping to the near by market place or to visit any f air or festival they dress themselves quite exuberantly and exquisitely. Different tribal communities use different kind of dresses, differing in their c olour and size. Their dresses are designed keeping in view their necessity and t heir surrounding. The socio-cultural and the religious views of the tribals slig htly contribute for the variety in their dresses. There are several tribes like the Bondo and Gadaba who weave their own clothes. While the other tribes purchas e their dress from another community or the neighbouring Damas or Panas. The tri bal dress and ornaments mostly belong to the non-tribal group and there are very few tribal artisans. The non-tribal artisans like the weavers they live adjacen t to the tribal villages. These people manufacture the costumes of a specific tr ibe and sell them in the weekly village market. Sometimes these weavers are bein g paid in cash or in kind in the form of agricultural products. The tribal costu mes are very simple and it provides immense comfort to the wearer. Generally, in the Kandha community the Dongria Kandha, the Kutia Kandha and the Desia Kandha, Lanjia Saora and the Santhals depend on other communities (non-tribal artisans) for their clothes. Lanjia Saora and some other tribal community make threads by themselves and give it to the Damas to weave for them. And again they purchase that cloth from the Damas by cash or kind. While the Bondo and the Didayi, the G adabas weave their own clothes though the Dangrias purchase the cloth from the n eighbouring Damas. They knit fine needle work on it and use it. There is a little similarity among the tribals in their dress those who live in a specific area. The Koyas, the Halabs and the Gandias are inhabitants of the sa me districts. Though it seems that they have some kind of similarity in their co stume but in reality they differ from each other. The Kandhas live in a specific area, like the Kutia Kandha and the Dongria Kandha both the communities live in two different sides of the same hill. But as far as dress is concerned they dif fer significantly. Similarly, the Mundas and the Santhals though they live as ne ighbours they differ in their dress and culture. The Juangs and the Bhuyan high lander live in close proximity but they differ in their dress. The Kisans and th e Gonds though live in the same belt they have also difference in their dress. A t times there are similarity of the dress in colour, design and pattern but they differ in their cultural and social life as well as in their ritual and rites. The artistic nature of the tribals is very innate in their heart and mind. To th em the artistic and aesthetic essence is to make life more enjoyable and to fulf ill the cultural, social and religious needs. Even there are some tribes they en visage a better future with the help of art and craft, for the tribals art objec ts and the skill of the artist is a fit medium to propitiate their deities, gods and goddesses. The tribal art is not the contemporary one. It has the heraldry of a hoary past. It was the art which once widely acclaimed in the midst of the forest, the mountains, and in the springs. Art is the base and basis of the trib al life. It is the economic, social and cultural reflection of the tribal life. Hence art is the yardstick by which they measure their success. The material culture is also part of their artistic life. Even their costume and dress materials have the touch of artistic workmanship. It is also reflection o f the art which had been passed onto them from generation to generation. That ar t has the accumulated knowledge of ages, which has assimilated in their social t radition. It is a medium to express their inner quest. Dress has multifarious si

gnificance in their social life. At the surface level one can observe that they use dress only to avoid the nakedness, or to protect from cold, rain and sunshin e. But in fact, the tribal costume exhibit the uniqueness of the specific commun ity, their self-identity. The possession of the right kind of dress is a matter of pride and a great source of enthusiasm. The "Ringa" of the Bondos and the emb roidered shawl of the Dangarias have a special social and cultural significance. The Dangria shawl has a direct link with the marital relationship and the succe ss of their conjugal life depends upon it. The dance costume of the Lanjia Saora s as well as their general dress is a fine testimony of their rich cultural heri tage. At the time of dancing from the dress of the clan's head "Gamango" they ge t the trace of the regal pride and heroism. The origin, history and development of tribal textile commensurate with the gene ral history of man's progress from primitive barbarism to civilization. The stat e of nakedness was disgusting, to avoid that the tribals used leaves as their dr ess. This was used in a crude form. Then they used bark of the tree as their dre ss. This gave them much discomfort, so they used some son bark to avoid this inc onvenience. It was not also so soothing; hence they started extracting fibres fr om the barks and subsequently converted it into thread. Gradually they came to k now more about fibre thread etc. and then began the weaving of clothes. Later on , they also dyed the fibres to make it beautiful. They also use turmeric to colo ur the threads. These are also several trees in the forest that excrete colour i n their bark and the tribals use the bark of these trees to dye the thread. Firs tly, they boiled the bark and soak fibres in it. By that way they got various co loured threads and wove according to their requirement. Sometimes instead of mak ing the coloured threads themselves, they purchase them from the market and then weave. Some tribes like to wear clothes of a single colour, while some others l ike to use multi-colour clothes and at times they knit fine embroidery work on i t and make it fit for their use. Through the dress they reflected their traditio nal culture, artistic skilfulness and thoughts, for which their cultural life fl ourish on the base of dress. It gave a special lustre to their community life an d differentiated one tribe from the other. To weave clothes they use their own indigenous technology. They use bamboo and o ther trees to get the fibre usually; they install the wooden loom in front of th eir house or in the backyard and some of them also install it in the narrow path of the village. They weave during their leisure time. Both men and women weave. In some communities only women weave. The women weave various clothes for them as well as for the male members of their family. In the olden times the tribals wove their clothes from their loom. But now a day s, after they came in contact with the civilized world, they purchase their clot hes from the market, resulting in the decay of their culture. Now a days they do not have the slightest inclination to wear old fashioned clothes and have even expressed their hesitation to use their traditional cloth. After the advent of t he industrial textile culture, they have already forgotten about their looms. In the changing scenario they no more boast for their tradition and culture. In so me of the tribal communities the dress culture is in a complete state of extinct ion. And in some other communities it is in a dormant state or on the way of dec ay. In the Kutia Kandha tribe it has almost decayed. In the Didayi community to find a cloth woven in their own fashion has become a difficult affair. Among the Bondo community the alien cultural assimilation is so strong that, forgetting t heir own traditional dress they have started wearing the dresses of the non-trib als especially the print sarees manufactured by textile industries. Among the Sa nthals the condition is the same as in the other communities. Though the elderly members of the community wish to preserve their tradition, the younger generati ons abhor the idea. The young ones of the community are not at all worried about the depletion of their culture and the disintegration of their social and commu nity life, to which the elder members express their dissatisfaction. The intrusi on of the alien cultures shuns them. Neither are they capable of restricting it, nor can they fully assimilate it. They are caught in a dilemma which is unprece dented in their racial history. The industry based textiles and the process of d eforestation is also to some extent responsible for the partial annihilation of

their cultural life. It is not a simple matter that ponders only the tribal comm unities rather it is a matter of contemplation and retrospection for the researc hers, philosophers and thinkers those who really value their pristine culture. It is a seed time to preserve and revive their culture which is gradually decayi ng, whole-hearted efforts be made by adopting various measures and techniques to preserve and revive it, or else a great cultural tradition will be buried in th e sandy-shores of time. their own clothes though the Dangrias purchase the cloth from the neighbouring D amas. They knit fine needle work on it and use it. There is a little similarity among the tribals in their dress those who live in a specific area. The Koyas, the Halabs and the Gandias are inhabitants of the sa me districts. Though it seems that they have some kind of similarity in their co stume but in reality they differ from each other. The Kandhas live in a specific area, like the Kutia Kandha and the Dongria Kandha both the communities live in two different sides of the same hill. But as far as dress is concerned they dif fer significantly. Similarly, the Mundas and the Santhals though they live as ne ighbours they differ in their dress and culture. The Juangs and the Bhuyan high lander live in close proximity but they differ in their dress. The Kisans and th e Gonds though live in the same belt they have also difference in their dress. A t times there are similarity of the dress in colour, design and pattern but they differ in their cultural and social life as well as in their ritual and rites. The artistic nature of the tribals is very innate in their heart and mind. To th em the artistic and aesthetic essence is to make life more enjoyable and to fulf ill the cultural, social and religious needs. Even there are some tribes they en visage a better future with the help of art and craft, for the tribals art objec ts and the skill of the artist is a fit medium to propitiate their deities, gods and goddesses. The tribal art is not the contemporary one. It has the heraldry of a hoary past. It was the art which once widely acclaimed in the midst of the forest, the mountains, and in the springs. Art is the base and basis of the trib al life. It is the economic, social and cultural reflection of the tribal life. Hence art is the yardstick by which they measure their success. The material culture is also part of their artistic life. Even their costume and dress materials have the touch of artistic workmanship. It is also reflection o f the art which had been passed onto them from generation to generation. That ar t has the accumulated knowledge of ages, which has assimilated in their social t radition. It is a medium to express their inner quest. Dress has multifarious si gnificance in their social life. At the surface level one can observe that they use dress only to avoid the nakedness, or to protect from cold, rain and sunshin e. But in fact, the tribal costume exhibit the uniqueness of the specific commun ity, their self-identity. The possession of the right kind of dress is a matter of pride and a great source of enthusiasm. The "Ringa" of the Bondos and the emb roidered shawl of the Dangarias have a special social and cultural significance. The Dangria shawl has a direct link with the marital relationship and the succe ss of their conjugal life depend upon it. The dance costume of the Lanjia Saoras as well as their general dress is a fine testimony of their rich cultural herit age. At the time of dancing from the dress of the clan's head "Gamango" they get the trace of the regal pride and heroism. The origin, history and development of tribal textile commensurate with the gene ral history of man's progress from primitive barbarism to civilization. The stat e of nakedness was disgusting, to avoid that the tribals used leaves as their dr ess. This was used in a crude form. Then they used bark of the tree as their dre ss. This gave them much discomfort, so they used some son bark to avoid this inc onvenience. It was not also so soothing, hence they started extracting fibres fr om the barks and subsequently converted it into thread. Gradually they came to k now more about fibre, thread etc. and then began the weaving of clothes. Later o n, they also dyed the fibres to make it beautiful. They also use turmeric to col our the threads. These are also several trees in the forest that excrete colour in their bark and the tribals use the bark of these trees to dye the thread. Fir stly, they boiled the bark and soak fibres in it. By that way they got various c oloured threads and wove according to their requirement. Sometimes instead of ma

king the coloured threads themselves, they purchase them from the market and the n weave. Some tribes like to wear clothes of a single colour, while some others like to use multi-colour clothes and at times they knit fine embroidery work on it and make it fit for their use. Through the dress they reflected their traditi onal culture, artistic skilfulness and thoughts, for which their cultural life f lourish on the base of dress. It gave a special lustre to their community life a nd differentiated one tribe from the other. To weave clothes they use their own indigenous technology. They use bamboo and o ther trees to get the fibre usually, they install the wooden loom in front of th eir house or in the backyard and some of them also install it in the narrow path of the village. They weave during their leisure time. Both men and women weave. In some communities only women weave. The women weave various clothes for them as well as for the male members of their family. In the olden times the tribals wove their clothes from their loom. But now a day s, after they came in contact with the civilized world, they purchase their clot hes from the market, resulting in the decay of their culture. Now a days they do not have the slightest inclination to wear old fashioned clothes and have even expressed their hesitation to use their traditional cloth. After the advent of t he industrial textile culture, they have already forgotten about their looms. In the changing scenario they no more boast for their tradition and culture. In so me of the tribal communities the dress culture is in a complete state of extinct ion. And in some other communities it is in a dormant state or on the way of dec ay. In the Kutia Kandha tribe it has almost decayed. In the Didayi community to find a cloth woven in their own fashion has become a difficult affair. Among the Bondo community the alien cultural assimilation is so strong that, forgetting t heir own traditional dress they have started wearing the dresses of the non-trib als especially the print sarees manufactured by textile industries. Among the Sa nthals the condition is the same as in the other communities. Though the elderly members of the community wish to preserve their tradition, the younger generati on abhor the idea. The young ones of the community are not at all worried about the depletion of their culture and the disintegration of their social and commun ity life, to which the elder members express their dissatisfaction. The intrusio n of the alien cultures shuns them. Neither are they capable of restricting it, nor can they fully assimilate it. They are caught in a dilemma which is unpreced ented in their racial history. The industry based textiles and the process of de forestation is also to some extent responsible for the partial annihilation of t heir cultural life. It is not a simple matter that ponders only the tribal commu nities rather it is a matter of contemplation and retrospection for the research ers, philosophers and thinkers those who really value their pristine culture. It is a seed time to preserve and revive their culture which is gradually decayi ng, whole-hearted efforts be made by adopting various measures and techniques to preserve and revive it, or else a great cultural tradition will be buried in th e sandy-shores of time.

Art & Crafts in Orissa

Art & Crafts in Orissa - Orissa has an art and craft that are the products of a long historical process in which the spiritual, philosophical and the human dime

nsions have merged to yield the finest effects of a cultured and civilized life. This art and craft only have made the state a land of rich and diverse artistic achievements. The cultural heritage of Orissa is reflected in its vibrant art forms. Having di stinct traditions of painting, architecture, sculpture, handicrafts, music and d ance, Orissa boasts of a long and rich cultural heritage. Due to the reigns of many different rulers, the culture, arts and crafts of the state underwent many changes, imitations, assimilations and new creations from t ime to time. Yet, the artistic skill of the Oriya artists is unsurpassable in the world.

Famous for its appliqué items, Pipli- the fare attracts thousands of visitors aroun d the year and offers a gala of alluring handicrafts. Silver filigree has also b een an important export item of Orissa from ancient times and has been a symbol of the summit of excellence reached by Orissan craftsmen. The exquisitely carved stone sculptures, embellished on the walls of the ancient shrines and monuments attest the artistry of those sculptors who perfected the skill through centurie s of disciplined efforts. The progeny of these artisans who built the magnificen t temples of Mukteshwar, Lingaraj, Jagannath and Sun God at Konark, have kept al ive the sculptural heritage of their forefathers and their apt hands still conti nue to chisel and carve exact replicas of the original temple sculptures besides producing a variety of other items.

Climate in Orissa

Standing on the coastal belt, the weather in Orissa is greatly influenced by the sea. The climate of the region is tropical resulting in very high temperature i n the months of April and May. On the contrary, the Eastern Ghats of the state e xperience an extremely cold climate. Climate in Orissa - There are three major seasons - Summer (March-June), Rainy S

eason (July-September) and the Winter (October-February). Orissa lying just Sout h of the Tropic of Cancer, has a tropical climate. It is warm almost throughout the year in the Western districts of Sundergarh, Sambalpur, Baragarh, Bolangir, Kalahandi and Mayurbhanj with maximum temperature hovering between 40-46° C and in winter, it is intolerably cool. In the coastal districts, the climate is equable but highly humid and sticky. The summer maximum temperature ranges between 35-40° C and the low temperatures are usually between 12-14° C. Winter is not very severe except in some areas in Korapu t and Phulbani where minimum temperature may drop to 3-4°C. The average rainfall is 150 cm, experienced as the result of south west monsoon during July-September. The month of July is the wettest and the major rivers may get flooded. The state also experiences small rainfall from the retreating mons oon in the months of October-November. January and February are dry.

Culture of Orissa

Culture of Orissa - The sacred environs of Lord Jagannath temple, the eroticism of Konark's Sun temple, the wondrous caves of Jainism, the mystical monasteries of Buddhism, the paintings of folklore and the weaver's magic; all stand as meek evidences of an eloquent past and continuing golden present of Orissa . Expressions of the soul find way in the form of indigenous theatres namely 'Prah alad-Nataka' or the 'Dhanuyatra' here. Dance and music form an inseparable part of the rich culture of the state. The exotic classical dance of the region evolv ed from the cult of the 'devadasis' or female temple dancers. Folk dances like ' Chhow' and 'Sambalpuri' along with tribal dances like 'Ghumura' & 'Paraja' leave every spirit truly elated. Then there are fairs like 'Bali Jatra' that come as a reminder of an ancient maritime links with Bali. And to crown it all is the un iversally-acclaimed 'Rathyatra' of Lord Jagannath which has become an absolute s ynonym to Orissan culture.

History of Orissa Kalinga of the Mauryan age and Utkala of Mahabharata fame, popularly known as Or issa today, boasts of splendid architecture and magnificent beaches. Spread over a sprawling area of 1.55 lakh sq. kms, it lies in the tropical zones along the eastern seaboard of India. One can find an unmatched blend of rural t ranquility with boisterous modern adroitness here. The scenic beauty of the plac e so much overpowers your spirit that the poet inside you is awakened. Ancient History of Orissa :The mention of Orissa dates back to 260 BC, the reign of Emperor Ashoka. While s preading the boundaries of his kingdom, the emperor reached the gates of the the n Kalinga and invoked its king to fight or flee. In the absence of her father, t he princess of the state took reins and fought bravely with the emperor. The war was a true massacre and the bloodshed that took place moved the emperor so much that his killing instinct was capsized. A warrior was thence transformed into a great apostle of Buddhism. Buddhism followed by Jainism held sway until after t he reassertion of Hinduism in the state in 7th century AD. The Orissan culture and architecture flourished immensely under the rein of Kesh ari and Ganga Kings at Orissa. A number of masterpieces of that golden era still stand today as mute evidences to a glorious past. Map of Orissa

Map of orissa :A physical map with all the geographical boundaries is presented here for refere nce. This might give you a clear idea of distances and destinations in orissa. Orissa Rivers Map:The providence has gifted the state of Orissa with six important rivers namely t he Subarnarekha, the Budhabalanga, the Baitarani, the Brahmani, the Mahanadi and the Rusikulya.

How To Reach Orissa

Reach Orissa by Rail - There is a good train network also that connects Calcutta , Puri, Madras, Delhi, Bombay, Bangalore, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Tirupati and Triv andrum to Bhubaneswar by express and super express trains plying to and fro on a daily basis. Orissa by Road - Orissa is well connected to its neighbouring states through a g ood road network. Reaching Orissa by Airport - Regular flights landing at the only major airport o f the city namely Biju Patnaik Airport connect it to all the major cities of the country such as Calcutta, Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai, Vishakhapatnam, Hyderabad and Raipur. Languages of Orissa A direct descendant of eastern Magadhi, Oriya is the principal and regional lang uage of Orissa. Belonging to the Aryan family of languages, it is closely relate d to Assamese, Bengali and Maithili. Under the influence of neighboring regional languages of the Aryan and Dravidian families, Oriya has developed many linguis tic variations, such as Baleswari (Balasore), Bhatri (Koraput), Laria (Sambalpur ), Sambalpuri (Sambalpur and other western districts), Ganjami (Ganjam and Korap ut), Chhatisgarhi (Chhatisgarh and adjoining areas of Orissa) and Medinipuri (Mi dnapur district of West Bengal). Besides, hilly regions of north and south Orissa have their own local versions o f Oriya with many linguistic peculiarities. The first dated, inscription in Oriy a goes back to 1051 AD discovered at Urajang. But some of the recent discoveries of Sanskrit inscriptions with Oriya words reported from certain areas of the an cient Kalinga Empire push back its lineage to the 6th century AD.

The Oriya script, descending from Brahmi, has been given Dravidian finish, proba bly during the reign of the Ganga kings. And the shape was admirably adapted to writing on processed palm leaves with an iron stylus.

Orissa Cuisine

Orissa Cuisine - With a simple yet delicious cuisine, Orissa follows a food patt ern that is somewhat similar to the neighboring states. Rice, the staple food is paired with vegetables. Due sm. ood ast has to their deeply religious culture, most of But a significant proportion of population delicacies like prawns, crabs and lobsters coastline of the state. Cooked with little a less calorific value. Oriya people practice vegetariani yet relishes fish and other sea f that are found in plenty at the v or absolutely no oil, Oriya food

Along with curd and coconut milk, people are very fond of sweets as well. The cu rd here is rich and creamy and gives the succulent flesh an additional flavor. N ot only the seafood but yams, brinjals and pumpkins are also liberally used in curd with mustard seeds giving the whole pre paration that extra zing. Pithas are also very popular food items here. These ar e small cakes both sweet and savory in taste. Chhenapodapitha, the caramelized c ustard-like dessert is also very popular not only with the locals but with the t ourists also. While at Orissa, one must manage to have a traditional must, the tasting of 'Mah aprasad' or the sacred food offered as 'Bhog' to Lord Jagannath. The temple has the world's largest kitchen with 400 cooks and 200m hearths that feed 10,000 peo ple daily. Orissa Tribes Of all the states of India, Orissa has the largest number of tribes, as many as 62 that constitute an impressive 24 percent of the total population of the state . These tribes mainly inhabit the Eastern Ghats hill range that runs in the nort h-south direction. More than half of their population is concentrated in the thr ee districts of Koraput (undivided), Sundergarh and Mayurbhanj. Subsistence oriented economy of the tribes here is based on food gathering, hunt ing and fishing, thus, revolving around forests. Even the large tribes like Sant al, Munda, Oram and Gond, settled agriculturists, often supplement their economy with hunting and gathering. While farming, they make use of a very simple techn ology and a simple division of labor often limited to the immediate family. But they lose out because their holdings are small and unproductive, lacking irrigat ion facility due to a hilly and undulating terrain. Many tribes like Juanga, Bhuiyan, Saora, Dharua and Bonda practice shifting cult ivation or Podu Chasa, also known as slash and burn. They select a plot of land on a mountain slope, slash down all the trees and bushes and burn them to ashes. Spreading the ashes evenly over the land, they wait for the rains before planti ng their crops. Due to cultivation for two or three seasons on one plot of land the soil gets depleted and the tribes move on. It is a way of life for them. Koya is the tribe of cattle-breeders. There are simple ali and Loharas, who practice crafts of basket weaving le part of the tribal population of Orissa notably the Ho has moved to the mining and industrial belts of the he pressures on small holdings. artisans too like the Moh and tool making. A sizeab Santals, Munda, Oran and state, thus, easing out t

Even if the tribal economy is shaky, tribal culture, in its pristine state, is r ich and distinctive and the Adivasis work hard to preserve it. A tribal village manages its internal affairs very smoothly through two institutions -- the villa ge council of elders and the youth dormitory.

The core of tribal culture, the youth dormitory, is the largest hut in the villa ge. It has only three walls, profusely decorated with symbols representing anima ls. The fourth side is open. By night dormitory is home to the youth of the vill age. But before and after a hard day's work, people gather here to chat and rela x. The council of elders meets here too to discuss matters relating to the welfa re of the village. The open space in font of the dormitory is where youths and maidens dance with a bandon every evening, for tribal culture allows free mixing of the two sexes. De spite their poverty, the tribes of Orissa have retained their rich and colorful heritage of dance and music. Every tribal can sing and dance to the sound of pip e and drum, and give tune to impromptu compositions that come to him/her as natu rally as breathing. The tribal people of Orissa observe a string of festivals. Some are closed affai rs, relating to a birth or death within the family or a daughter attaining puber ty. Others relate to sowing or harvest time and involve the entire community. Mo stly a festival is an occasion for good Mahua liquor; a game roasted on the spri t and a night of song and dance is revelry. But that is not the end, there is an animal sacrifice too, for the deities and s prits must be appeased first, particularly the malevolent ones, so they don't un leash drought or sickness on the land. Tribal people are superstitious. 'Ojha' o ccupies a position of honor since he not only prescribes medicines for the sick but is also believed to exorcise evil sprits.

Pilgrimage in Orissa Pilgrimage in Orissa - Dotted with temples and architectural wonders, the holy l and of Orissa is flocked round the year by the pilgrims. Along with being the wo rld heritage site of the Sun Temple at Konark, Orissa is also referred to as the seat of Lord Jagannath at times. With a glorious history dating back to 2000 BC, the pilgrimage sites at Orissa a ttract the pilgrims from all over the world on the occasion of Rath Yatra of Lor d Jagannath, the presiding deity at Puri. To add another plume to the colorful f eather of pilgrim destinations of Orissa, the magnificent Lingaraj and exquisite ly carved Mukteswar temples also attract hoards of pilgrims. A place sacred to all, the Hindus, Jains and Buddhists, Orissa is a much revered pilgrimage point for devotees. Despite the world famous pilgrim centers, Orissa also has the following Hindu Temples namely Ananta Vasudeva, Baladevajew, Bhara teswar, Bhaskareswar, Bharatimath, Brahma, Brahmeswar, Papanasini, Puri Jagannat h , Rajarani, Rameswar, Satrughaneswar, Subarneswar, Swarnajaleswar, Taleswar, T irtheswar, Uttareswar, Vaital and Vimaleswar / Gaurisankar temple.

Trains in Orissa The capital city of Orissa - Bhubaneshwar and the seat of Lord Jagannath - Puri are well-connected to other cities of India through a good rail network. There are direct trains from some of the major junctions such as Delhi and Kolka ta to Puri via Bhubaneswar. Located at 440 kms from Kolkata in North and 445 kms from Visakhapatnam in South Bhubaneswar is headquarter of South Eastern Railway . Bhubaneswar is a stoppage point for all express and super fast trains that als o come to a halt at Puri. Direct trains are also available from Ahmedabad, Tirup ati and Patna to Bhubaneshwar. To reach Puri from South India, link trains from Khurda Road Junction can be tak en. A number of trains also ply on a daily basis between Bhubaneswar to Mumbai, Hyderabad and Nagpur each. Tribal Culture of Orissa

Orissa Tribal Culture - Despite belonging to different linguistic divisions, the tribes of Orissa have many socio-cultural similarities, and together they chara cterize the notion of tribalism. Tribal societies share certain common character istics and by these they are distinguished from complex or advanced societies. I n India, tribal societies have remained outside the main historical current of t he civilization for centuries. Therefore, they manifest cultural features signif ying a primitive level of socio-cultural existence. Considering the general feat ures of their eco-system, traditional economy, supernatural beliefs and practice s, and recent impacts of modernization, the tribes of Orissa can be

classified into six types: hunting, collecting and gathering type, cattle-herder type, simple artisan type, hill and shifting cultivation type, settled agricult ure type, and industrial urban worker type. Each type has a distinct style of li fe which can be best understood in the paradigm of nature, man and spirit comple x, that is, on the basis of relationship with nature, fellow men and the superna tural. As you journey through plain land or the beautiful mountains and forest ghatroad s you'll come across villages of very ornamental, colourful tribal groups. You c an visit typical Orissan villages as well as semi-Tribal villages through the be autiful countryside forest. At Rayagada you can stay and see the Kutia Kandha tr ibe or go on to Chatikona to witness the interesting and colourful weekly market of the tribes. Then drive to Jaypur and visit some tribal villages en route and then proceed to witness the most primitive 'Bonda' market. Textiles of Orissa Textiles of Orissa - The distinctive hand-woven textiles of Orissa in unusual pa tterns and vibrant colours have supported a thriving cottage industry employing thousands. Orissa is famous for its silk ikat weaves created by an intricate pro cess called the "bandha" in which warp and weft threads are tie-dyed to produce the pattern on the loom while weaving. Typical design motifs include rows of bir ds and animals, fish, seashells, rudraksh beads and temple spires. Sambalpur, Berhampur, Mayurbhanj and Nuapatna produce a striking range in tassar silk with a brilliance, glaze and texture that is unmatched. The rare silk fabr ic produced at Nuapatna in Cuttack district embellished with verses from the Git agovinda is used to dress the idols at the Jagannath Temple. The masters are wel l versed with the centuries old art of silk worm cultivation and create silk tie s, stoles, furnishings and dress materials apart from saris. The Berhampuri Pata are heavy silk sarees with narrow borders, generally woven w ithout any intricate motifs. The Saktapar sari, from the weaving looms of Sambalpur, Bargarh and Sonepur are identifiable by the double ikat checkerboard pattern (passapalli) and brocade bo rder. The weaving arts of Sambalpur-Sonepur and Nuapatna have greatly influenced each other.

The Bomkai cotton saris from Ganjam district, named after a tribal village, have been influenced by tribal art, and are embroidered with temple spire patterns o n the border . The other typical varieties of Orissa saris, in silk and cotton, include the glo ssy Khanduas having elaborate designs, the rich red jotai ikat with rows of styl ized trees and temple spires on the borders, the unbleached cotton kotpad from K oraput offset by a vibrant red dyed border, the Taraballi and the Bichitrapuri. The tribal people of the State also excel in producing textiles of myriad hues u sing vegetable dyes. Most of the handloom textiles of Orissa are woven in bright and strong colors. V egetable dyed textiles have given way to chemical dyes, and the former command a premium wherever available. Orissa's traditional appliqué art is used to make handicrafts and furnishings. Pred ominantly used colours are red, white, black, green and yellow. Pipli, Butapalli , Khallikote, Tushra and Chikiti are centers known for this colourful craft, cre ating umbrellas, canopies, fans and lampshades. Applique art has been inspired b y religion, and continue to offer shade to Lord Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhad ra.

CONCLUSION

Tourism education is gaining popularity in the major parts of India. One of the most tourism courses is Masters in Tourism program. Itâ s a one or two year full-time program and approved by The Ministry of Tourism, Government of India. The requi rement for joining this course is completion of the graduation course with minim um 50% marks. This course requires adequate control over multiple languages. Mor e importantly, good knowledge over any foreign language holds more value. Touris m industry requires candidates with good personality, communication skills, and command over presentation, people handling capabilities, ability to organize thi ngs etc. the course curriculum teaches various aspects of travel to students. Many states in India offer Masters in Tourism program. Once the course is compl eted, students get multiple job opportunities in tourism industry. The jobs coul d be as tour operators, travel and hotels representatives and in various others

government services. Many Institutes in India offer Masters in Tourism program; Ashok Institute of Hospitality & Tourism, National Institute of Tourism & Hospit ality Management in Andhra Pradesh, Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Manag ement, Himachal Pradesh University Institute of Vocational Studies, College of V ocational Studies University of Delhi, Institute of Tourism & Future Management in Chandigarh, Tezpur University in Assam, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Kuruk shetra University in Haryana, Kuoni Academy of Travel, College of Hospitality an d Tourism, Gurgaon, Haryana, Awadesh Pratap Singh University, Rewa, M.P and Heri tage Institute of Hotel and Tourism, Agra.

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