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Total English Grammar

Basic level Noun phrase: (a/an) adj + noun Appointment: when someone is chosen for a position or job But: implies negative meaning Unfriendly: not kind or friendly Simple past tense: Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past (this morning) Oversleep: to sleep for longer than you intended Noun phrase: (a/an) adj + noun Childless: having no children (childless couple/woman/marriage) Passive voice with simple present: is/am/are + Past participle Noun phrase: (the/a/an) adj + noun + Polluted: dangerously dirty and not suitable for people to use To be suspicious of/about: thinking that someone might be guilty of doing something wrong or dishonest To be jealous of: feeling angry and unhappy because someone has something that you wish you had To be confident of: sure that something will happen in the way that you want or expect

Pre-Intermediate - Passive voice: be + PP - Next to (proposition): very close to someone or something, with nothing in between - Structure: Not only...but also - Parallel structure: structure before and after "and" must be parallel Before "and": a lawyer-> after "and": a/an + career

Richard Nixon had been a lawyer and an officer before he entered politics.

- Narrative sentence: S + V + O

If one of the participants in a conversation wonders what the other person said no real communication has taken place.

- Comparative of adj + Short adj: Adj + er + than + Long adj: More + adj + than - That of=> salary of

The salary of a bus driver is much higher than that of a teacher.

- Expect sbd to do sth

Professional people expect you call them when it is necessary to cancel an appointment.

- What/where/ which... can be use as a relative pronoun. Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses, which are a type of dependent clause - Dependent clause followed by relative pronoun (who/whom/which/where...) is narrative sentence: S +V+O - Look forward to + Verb_ing

Farmers look forward to participating in the country fairs every summer.

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- Structure: To be + adv (ever, never, often, sometimes...)

Clipper ships were the swiftest sailing ships that were ever put to sea and the most beautiful

- Irregular Verb: Put-> Put-> Put - Adj modifies noun and often stands before noun + Gerund: are often used when actions are real, concrete or completed + Infinitive: are often used when actions are unreal, abstract, or future - Most of + Pronoun/ definite noun - Most + Noun

Most shops are closed on Saturday afternoon.

- Much / a little/ A lot of/ a great deal of: uncountable noun - Few/a few/many: countable noun

Too many factors are involved in getting a good job.

+ Gerund: are often used when actions are real, concrete or completed + Infinitive: are often used when actions are unreal, abstract, or future

Understanding electricity depends on knowledge of atoms and the subatomic particles of which they are composed.

- Conditional sentence type 3: If + past perfect, would/could/should + have + PP - Subject (scientists) is plural - Do research in

Scientific fish farming, known as aquaculture, has existed for more than 4000 years, but scientists who do research in this field are only recently providing the kind of information that growers need to increase production.

- short / clear: Is the most suitable in terms of meaning - Simple past tense: Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past (at the age of five)

With his fathers guidance Mozart began playing the clavier at the age of three and composing at the age of five.

- Most of/some of/ none of: + definite noun - Use amount to refer to a quantity. Use number to refer to people or things that can be counted

Since 1969 there have been a number of attempts to find a political solution to that country problem.

- Several + plural and countable noun -Little/much/ a great deal of + uncountable noun - Subject (the noise and smoke of factories) is plural - Make sbd/sth + Noun/adj: to cause something to happen, or cause a particular state or condition -Not only ... (but) also ...: in addition to being or doing something - Present perfect tense: Have/has + PP - Subject (None of us) is plural

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- If you use either-or, neither- nor, not only- but also look at the subject closest to the verb, the subject closest to the verb determines whether the verb is singular or plural -When either and neither are subjects, they always take singular verbs. - Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor require a singular verb - Give up: to stop trying to do something= surrender (to give up something or someone because you are forced to) - Crossed out: to draw a line or lines through something you have written or drawn, usually because it is wrong= Correct - Check out: to leave a hotel after paying the bill - With + noun/noun phrase/Pronoun - Noun phrase= adj + Noun -Sometimes the subject is separated from the verb by words such as along with, as well as, besides, or not. Ignore these expressions when determining whether to use a singular or plural verb. - The pronouns each, everyone, every one, everybody, anyone, anybody, someone, and somebody are singular and require singular verbs. Do not be misled by what follows of - We can't use "to be" in this case - Present perfect tense - Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor require a singular verb - Past perfect tense: expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past (before they became interpreters) -Thing to compare must be equal-> person-person; object-object... - That= the salary Gerund and infinitive Look forward to + V_ing: eager to do something

We really looking forward to having dinner with you tomorrow Its no good hiding Pauls present behind those books. I can steel see it.
Before/After/ when/ while + V_ing It's no good/ use + V_ing Spend/waste + time/money + V_ing Remember+ V_ing: Remember something which have already happened/done Remember+ To Verb: Remember to do something (need to be done) Did you remember to ask Dan to our barbecue on Saturday? Regret + inf: Feel regret for something you are going to do Regret + Ving: Feel regret for something already happened Forgive somebody for doing something Feel like doing something: to want to do something; to be in the mood to do something; to feel well enough to do something. Like + Verb_ing

I feel like doing something exciting!


Dare + To Verb Tend + To Verb

Present simple vs Present continuous - he always says = he says it every time -> present simple

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- to say how often we do things -> present simple (never do) - "like" is usually used in the present simple - Usually -> to say how often we do things -> present simple (drink coffee) - Today -> at or around the time of speaking -> present continuous (drinking tea) - "understand" is normally used in the present simple - "hear" is normally used in the present simple - At or around the time of speaking -> present continuous (blowing) - Now -> at or around the time of speaking -> present continuous - Always buy = buy it every time -> present simple - To say how often we do things (never) -> present simple - know is normally used in the present simple - Talk about things are true in general -> present simple (falls) - To say how often we do things (never) -> present simple - at or around the time of speaking -> present continuous - Come -> coming - talk about changes happening around now -> present continuous (get, change, become, increase, rise, fall, grow, improve, begin, start) - talk about things in general -> present simple (wonder) - With a future meaning (already decided and arranged to do) -> present continuous - do things by saying something -> present simple (promise, suggest, apologise, advise, insist, agree, refuse, recommend) - Talk about things are true in general -> present simple. - At or around the time of speaking -> present continuous (looking) - "see" is normally used in the present simple - "seem" is normally used in the present simple Present Perfect vs Present Perfect Continuous - The completion of action -> present perfect - The continuous course of action -> present perfect continuous - In many cases, both present perfect and present perfect continuous are correct, but there is often a difference in meaning: We use the Present Perfect Simple mainly to express that an action is completed or to emphasise the result. We use the Present Perfect Progressive to emphasise the duration or continuous course of an action - "to be" is a Non-Continuous Verbs. It cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with this verb, you must use Present Perfect. - In many cases, both present perfect and present perfect continuous are correct, but there is often a difference in meaning: We use the Present Perfect Simple mainly to express that an action is completed or to emphasise the result. We use the Present Perfect Progressive to emphasise the duration or continuous course of an action

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- You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. I have been greasing my car. Thats why my hands are so dirty. - This case emphasises the continuous course of action grease"-> dirty hand I have been polishing this table all the morning and she isnt satisfied with it yet. - This case emphasises the continuous course of action: she isn't satisfied-> may keep polishing He has been riding; thats why he is wearing breeches. + This case emphasises the fact "he is wearing breeches", not emphasise action "ride"-> use present perfect I have been pulling up dandelions all day + This case emphasises continuous course of action: he/she may keep pulling He has taught / has been teaching in this school for five years + This case emphasises the completion of action "teach"-> present perfect. If it emphasises the continuous course of action->present perfect continuous I have heard from / have been hearing her regularly. She is a very good correspondent. + This case emphasises the result of action -> present perfect. If it emphasises the continuous course of action (I will continue hearing from her) ->present perfect continuous I have been making sausage rolls for the party all the morning. + This case emphasises the continuous course of action (I may continue making sausage) present perfect continuous I have looked / have been looking for mushrooms but I havent found any. + This case emphasises the result of action (haven't found any) -> present perfect. If it emphasises the continuous course of action (I may keep looking) ->present perfect continuous - "to stop" is a Non-Continuous Verbs. It cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with this verb, you must use Present Perfect. The driver of that car has been sounding his horn for the last ten minutes. + This case emphasises continuous course of action (He is still driving if no one else can drive) ->present perfect continuous. He has slept / has been sleeping since ten oclock. Its time he woke up. + This case emphasises the result of action (woke up) -> present perfect. If it emphasises the continuous course of action (he may continue sleeping) ->present perfect continuous He has been hoping for a rise in salary for six months but he hasnt dared to ask for it yet. + In this case, the first Verb (hope) emphasises the continuous course of action (I will continue hearing from her) ->present perfect continuous, the second verb (not dare) emphasises the completion of action (not yet ask) -> present perfect. + This case emphasises continuous course of action (He is still driving if no one else can drive) ->present perfect continuous You have walked / have been walking too fast. Thats why you are tired. + This case emphasises the result of action (tired) -> present perfect. If it emphasise the continuous course of action (you will continue walking fast) ->present perfect continuous

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I have met some really interesting people since I started the course and we have been studying together this evening. + In this case, the first Verb emphasises the completion of action-> present perfect, the second verb emphasises continuous course of action (keep studying) -> present perfect continuous You are covered in mud! What on earth have you been doing? I have been playing football in the rain. + In this case, both verbs emphasise continuous course of action (keep playing) -> present perfect continuous Present Perfect vs Past Simple - Present Perfect: + Express action happened at an unspecified time before now. This tense emphasises the completion or result + Unspecific expressions: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, just etc. Structure: + Singular: Has+ PP + Plural: Have +PP - Simple Past: +Express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past Ten minute ago: specific time - This should be present perfect continuous. However, "be" is Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect - We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen. - The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past Shakespeare died, so action "write" already complete - The Simple Past is used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year

He lived in London for two years and then went to Edinburgh.

- Express one thing happened after another -> Simple Past

Mr Count worked as a cashier for twenty-five years. Then he retired and went to live in the country.

We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on. - Present Perfect can be used to describe your experience - We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time - The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.

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- We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time. + Present perfect often used with unspecific expressions: since - We use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible -The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true - We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen - Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind. - In many cases, both present perfect and present perfect continuous are correct, but there is often a difference in meaning: We use the Present Perfect Simple mainly to express that an action is completed or to emphasise the result. We use the Present Perfect Progressive to emphasise the duration or continuous course of an action + This case emphasises the smell of coffee, not emphasise action "make"-> use present perfect + Simple past: emphasise what/when happens in the past + Present perfect: emphasise the result or completion before now Past Simple - Past Continuous - Past Perfect -Past Continuous: + Indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past +Structure: When + Simple Past. Past Continuous + Structure: Past Perfect Continuous, when + Simple Past + Indicate that something kept happening continuously and for a long time in the past + Sign word: always, all days... +Expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel + Structure: Past continuous, while/when, past continuous +Structure: When/while + Simple Past. Past Continuous - Past Perfect: +Expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past: + Structure: S+ had + (ever/never...) + PP+ (since/for...) - Structure: After + Past perfect, simple past +Structure: Before simple past, Past perfect +Structure: By the time + simple past, Part Participle +Structure: By the time/ As soon as + simple past, Part Participle - Past Perfect Continuous: +Show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past + Structure: Past Perfect Continuous, when + Simple Past Present Simple - Present Continuous - Present Perfect

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- Present continuous: - Express the idea that something is happening now + Express the idea that something is happening now + Sign word: at the moment / currently - Present Perfect: - We use the Present Perfect to express that an action is completed or to emphasise the result (I get ticket already) - We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time + Express an action happened at an unspecified time before now. + You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience (it's first time) - "Right now" is often used in present continuous (answer "have see"-> incorrect); however, "see" is non-continuous verb which is not used in continuous tense (answer "am seeing"-> incorrect) + Sign word: just / - Simple present: - The Simple Present indicates the speaker to believe that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.+ Express the idea that an action is repeated or usual - The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things + Sign word: usually / always + Use to talk about scheduled events in the near future + Express that the action is general Present Continuous vs Future Simple - After "I hope", we generally use the Present simple or Future simple - Using present continuous to talk about what you have arranged to do - Using Future simple to predict the future happenings - Using Future simple to promise to do something - remember is not normally used in the present continuous - Using Future simple to offer to do something - Using Future simple to offer the future certainly happenings Past Simple vs Past Continuous - one thing happened after another ->past simple - all actions finished in the past -> past simple - remember is not normally used in the continuous - Both the past simple and the past continuous refer to completed actions in the past. - Most of the time when we are talking about such actions, we use the past simple. This is by far the most common way of talking about the past.

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- Only use the past continuous when you want to emphasize the continuity of the action. - When we use these two forms in the same sentence, we use the past continuous to talk about the "background action" and the past simple to talk about the shorter completed action.

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About We can use about to mean concerning I have heard all about it. There is nothing we can do about it. The great thing about her is that she never gives up. We can use about to mean approximately. We can also use around for this but about is less formal. About six hundred people were present. About half the people agreed. Come round at about six. We can use How about and What about to make suggestions. What about asking Tom? How about leaving that for the time being? What about a break? We can also use What about ( but not How about) for more genuine questions. What about the workers? Have you thought about them? What about the dog? What do we do with her? We use about and on to talk about the subject of a discussion. We use on for more formal situations.. They talked about the bad economic situation. He gave a lecture on the economy. About can mean here and there. She is always out and about. He sits about doing nothing. They go about interviewing the public. Just about means almost. I have just about finished. I have had just about enough of him and his patronizing tone. The money we get will just about pay for the new equipment. Be about to means that something is on the point of happening. I am about to change jobs. He is about to give in his resignation. Please listen carefully. i am about to say something important. Here are some useful expressions using about no doubt about There is no doubt about his ability but he doesnt work well with other people. bring about change We need to bring about change quickly or the company will go bankrupt. everybody is talking about it Everybody is talking about the argument they had. be asked about I am often asked about how I became so successful. speak to them about You need to speak to them about this and make sure they never do it again. anything I can do about it? Is there anything I can do about my financial situation? concerned about im concerned about Simon. He is acting very strangely. speculate about We can only speculate about what happened. We will never know for sure.

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about to change I am not happy with what has been happening. I must warn you that things are about to change around here. know a lot about Ask Sally. She knows a lot about that. talking about What are you two whispering about? known about Little is known about what happened. hear about I know you have just been to Hawaii. I want to hear all about it. keep your wits about you Be very careful. There are lots of thieves around. Keep your wits about you. Suppose We often use 'suppose' to mean 'imagine' or 'guess' I suppose you'll be meeting Danielle when you go to Paris? When you weren't there, I supposed you must have been held up. I suppose you two know each other?

Notice that 'suppose' is not normally used in the continuous form. We do not usually say 'I am supposing'. Now I suppose we'll have to do something else. We're waiting for John and I suppose he must be stuck in traffic. At this moment I suppose it doesn't matter.

Notice that for 'imagine not' or 'guess not' that we make 'suppose' negative, not the other verb. I don't suppose you know where Mary is? I don't suppose he'll do anything. I don't suppose you have a Nokia phone charger here?

When responding to an idea with 'suppose', you can use 'so' to avoid repeating the idea that has already been expressed. Suppose 2 'Supposed to be' can be used to mean 'it is said/believed'. The new James Bond movie is supposed to be excellent. He is supposed to have been rude to Mark but I don't believe it. It is supposed to be the best restaurant in town. Is Susan coming to this meeting? ~ I suppose so.

'Supposed to be' can also be used to talk about what is arranged, intended or expected. It is a bit like 'should'. I'm supposed to get to work by 8. John is supposed to turn off all the lights when he leaves. I'm supposed to pay my rent on the first of the month. It's not supposed to be here.

Often there is a suggestion that the action 'supposed to' happen does not actually happen. I'm supposed to be there before 8 but I'm often late. You were supposed to phone me. I'm supposed to be getting on a plane to Tokyo at this very minute. You're not supposed to smoke in here.

'Not supposed to' often suggests that something is not allowed or prohibited.

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I'm not supposed to tell you. We're not supposed to use the Internet for personal reasons at work.

'Suppose' can also be used as a conjunction to mean 'what if'. Notice that the verb which follows it is sometimes, but not always, put 'more in the past'. Wish Let's start off with the easy part. ' I wish to' can mean the same as 'I want to' but it is much, much more formal and much, much less common. I wish to make a complaint. I wish to see the manager. I wish you all the best in your new job. We wish you a merry Christmas. Suppose we take the earlier train to Munich? It would give us more time there. Suppose we took the plane instead? That would give us even more time. There's nobody in reception to let our visitors in. Suppose I sit there until somebody comes? I'm going to ask him for a pay increase. ~ Suppose he said 'no'? What would you do?

You can also use 'wish' with a noun to 'offer good wishes'.

Notice that when you want to offer good wishes using a verb, you must use 'hope ' and not 'wish'. We wish you the best of luck. We hope you have the best of luck. I wish you a safe and pleasant journey. I hope you have a safe and pleasant journey.

However, the main use of 'wish' is to say that we would like things to be different from what they are, that we have regrets about the present situation. I wish I was rich. He wishes he lived in Paris. They wish they'd chosen a different leader.

Notice that the verb tense which follows 'I wish' is 'more in the past' than the tense corresponding to its meaning. I'm too fat. I wish I was thin. I never get invited to parties. I wish I got invited to parties. It's raining. I wish it wasn't raining. I went to see the latest Star Wars film. I wish I hadn't gone. I've eaten too much. I wish I hadn't eaten so much. I'm going to visit her later. I wish I wasn't going to visit her later. He won't help me. I wish he would help me. You're making too much noise. I wish you would be quiet. You keep interrupting me. I wish you wouldn't do that. There's a strike tomorrow. I hope some buses will still be running.

In the case of 'will' , where 'will' means 'show willingness' we use 'would'.

Where 'will' means a future event, we cannot use 'wish' and must use 'hope'.

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Used to do

I hope everything will be fine in your new job. I wish I were taller. I wish it were Saturday today. I wish he were here. Used to

In more formal English, we use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was' after 'wish'.

We use 'used to' for something that happened regularly in the past but no longer happens. I used to smoke a packet a day but I stopped two years ago. Ben used to travel a lot in his job but now, since his promotion, he doesn't. I used to drive to work but now I take the bus. There used to be a cinema in the town but now there isn't. She used to have really long hair but she's had it all cut off. I didn't use to like him but now I do.

We also use it for something that was true but no longer is.

'Used to do' is different from 'to be used to doing' and 'to get used to doing' to be used to doing We use 'to be used to doing' to say that something is normal, not unusual. I'm used to living on my own. I've done it for quite a long time. Hans has lived in England for over a year so he is used to driving on the left now. They've always lived in hot countries so they aren't used to the cold weather here.

to get used to doing We use 'to get used to doing' to talk about the process of something becoming normal for us. I didn't understand the accent when I first moved here but I quickly got used to it. She has started working nights and is still getting used to sleeping during the day. I have always lived in the country but now I'm beginning to get used to living in the city. Had better We use had better plus the infinitive without to to give advice. Although had is the past form of have, we use had better to give advice about the present or future. You'd better tell her everything. I'd better get back to work. We'd better meet early. You'd better not say anything. I'd better not come. We'd better not miss the start of his presentation.

The negative form is had better not.

We use had better to give advice about specific situations, not general ones. If you want to talk about general situations, you must use should. You should brush your teeth before you go to bed. I shouldn't listen to negative people. He should dress more appropriately for the office.

When we give advice about specific situations, it is also possible to use should.

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You shouldn't say anything. I should get back to work. We should meet early.

However, when we use had better there is a suggestion that if the advice is not followed, that something bad will happen. You'd better do what I say or else you will get into trouble. I'd better get back to work or my boss will be angry with me.

We'd better get to the airport by five or else we may miss the flight.

Idiomes
To give someone the cold shoulder ignorer/mpriser quelqu'un To carry a torch for someone avoir un faible pour quelqu'un To be on top of the world tre au mieux de sa forme To drive a coach and horses through something (Inconnu aux E-U) tailler quelque-chose en pices To haul someone over the coals ("Rake someone over the coals" aux E-U) mettre quelqu'un sur les charbons ardents To hit the ceiling pter les plombs To get under the collar se mettre en rogne To be at the end of one's tether ("the end of one's rope" aux E-U) tre bout To get out of the bed on the wrong side se lever du pied gauche To get on like a house on fire s'entendre merveille To be like a bear with a sore head (Inconnu aux E-U) tre d'humeur massacrante To fall head over heels for someone Avoir le coup de foudre pour quelqu'un To make someone's feathers (Inconnu aux E-U) Froisser quelqu'un To hit rock bottom toucher le fond She is the apple of his eye il tient elle comme la prunelle de ses yeux To go off at the deep end piquer une crise To blow one's top sortir de ses gonds To be like a red rag to a bull to someone avoir le don de mettre quelqu'un hors de soi To go ballistic piquer une crise To be out on the tiles (Inconnu aux E-U) sortir faire la bringue To look daggers at someone foudroyer quelqu'un du regard To have a blast s'clater

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Love at first sight un coup de foudre To tell someone a few home truths Dire ses quatre vrits quelqu'un To talk the hind legs off a donkey tre un moulin parole To lead someone up the garden path faire marcher quelqu'un To carry the can porter le chapeau You can whistle for it Tu peux toujours courir ! To sweep someone off their feet faire perdre la tte quelqu'un To be down in the mouth tre dprim To cut someone down to size remettre quelqu'un sa place To pick holes in something relever des erreurs dans quelque-chose To be in the doldrums avoir le moral zro To paint the town red faire la fte The pot calling the kettle black l'hpital qui se moque de la charit To be walking on air tre sur un petit nuage To be on cloud nine tre au septime ciel To be over the moon tre aux anges To come out of the blue sortir de nulle part To find fault with critiquer It's raining cats and dogs Il pleut des cordes / des grenouilles / des hallebardes / des clous / seaux / comme vache qui pisse

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Verbs followed by ing or by to + infinitive 1


When one verb is followed by another, the second verb can either be an infinitive or an ing form. Some verbs can be followed by only an infinitive , others by only an ing form and some by both but with a change in meaning. To know which structure to use, you can consult a good dictionary but here are some common examples. Verb + infinitive I want to speak to the manager. Shes learning to ride a horse. He offered to help us wash up.

Want, learn and offer are followed by to + infinitive Other verbs in this group include: afford, agree, ask, choose, decide, expect, hope, prepare, promise, pretend, refuse, would like. Verb + ing form I enjoy travelling. He admitted stealing the necklace. I dont mind waiting if youre busy.

enjoy admit and mind are followed by the ing form Other verbs in this group include: avoid, consider, dislike, feel like, finish, give up, cant help, practise, suggest. Verb + infinitive or ing form with no change in meaning A few verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or the ing form and the meaning does not change. I started to work here in 1994. I started working here in 1994.

The meaning of these two sentences is the same. There arent many verbs that can take an infinitive or an ing form with no change in meaning. Begin and continue are two more examples. There is also a group of verbs that can be followed by an infinitive or an ing form with a change in meaning. These verbs will be covered in another section.

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Despite ou Although Each Other / One Another Each ou every Early ou Soon Efficient ou Effective Even If ou Even Though Even ou Same Ever et composs EVER vs NEVER Expect ou Wait Expect / Hope / Wait Faons de marcher

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