--.

I

m

...ir,,.=

The document_-contains materials consists pectively. Both parts outline the spacecraft and unilateral the purposes of two parts, prepared

on the Soyuz-Apollo

test and

by the USSR and USA sides res-

and program of the mission, on Joint

design, the flight plan and information scientific experiments. and astronauts, The document

Brief biographies mission crew members_

of the cosmonauts

the Joint covers

are also presented. providing

technical

support activities about

mission control and gives American leaders.

information

the ASTP Soviet and

As the USSR and USA parts of the document have been prepared independently, there might be duplication in the sections dealing

with the Joint activities. The document is intended mass information means. for press representatives and various

CONTENTS Page I .0 1.1 1,2 INTRODUCTION Background Apollo-Soyuz ....................................... ......................................... joint test project objectives .......... 10 I0 13

2.0 2.1

COMPATIBILITY Spacecraft solutions

PROBLEMS

................... conditions

......... •

15

compatibility accepted

and principal Test Mission personnel .... ... 15 18 20

for Apollo-Ssyuz flight

2.2 2_3

Compatibility Methodological

of ground

control

compatibility

.......................

3.0 3.1 3.2

SOYUZ

SPACECRAFT Brief

................................... data on Soyuz description description spacecraft flights ....

22 22 25 25 25 25 31 31 34 38 41 41 42 43 45 50 50

PurPose. Soyuz 3.2.1

spacecraft General Main

....................... of the Soyuz spacecraft..

characteristics

......................... diagram .................. modules: .......

General-arrangement Description Descent Orbital

of the spacecraft

Vehicle ........................... Module ........................... Module ............... System (APDS)

Instrument-Assembly 3.5.2 Androgynous Purpose APDS APDS APDS Peripherial

Docking

.................................. .......... ............... _.................. ....

development design

...........

operation

durinsdocking/undocking

The difference docking. _$_ 3.2.3 Attitude

between Soyuz and Apollo ........................... Control System (AMCS) ....

and Motion

-- 2

--

Pane AMCS function and structure. Command sensors 51

¥isien devices, orientation monitors and controllers .. .............................. • ...... Soyuz 0nboard docking targets .......................

52 53 53 53 54

orientation

lights ...................

AMCS Jet thrusters and rendezvous - correcting propulsion system ...................... AMCS modes ...................................

AMCS operation during rendezvous, approach and docking .................................

56

3.2.4

Life

support

system

(LSS) ...................... ..................... system .............. ...............

58 58 59 61 63 66 68 69 69 70 71 71 74 74 74 75 76

Purpose

and composition support

Gas composition Pressure Thermal Food Water Clothes

suits ............... control system

......................

supply supply

system system

.......................... ........................

..... . ..... . ........................ hygiene facilities ...............

Individual Waste 3.2.5

management

system .................... ...... ..............

Radio/Electronic Volume

equipment

communication

system ................

TV-system Cable

................................. system .................

communication radio

Command 0nboard Orbit

system ....................... system. .................. measurement system.. ........

telemetry

parameters

3.3

Basic

data on the Soyuz

spacecraft

launch

vehicle ......

76

-3-

3.4

Biomedical

requirements

...... . ..................... •

..

Page 78

4.0 4.1 4.2

mISSION Nominal

DESCRIPTION mission

........ _ ......................

,...

81 81

model..... ............. ............. .. mission profile. Launch

Explanation windows

of the preferred

............... Spacecraft Launch Launch Assembly Soyuz Soyuz

.. ............................. sequence ................... •.................... , ...........

84 84 86 87 88 89 89 _9 89

launch

windows time

..........

......................

orbit

....... ° ..... . .. ........ . ..... • ................. ... .... ....

maneuvers landing

............................... . ...........................

4.3

Soyuz independent Description Timeline

flight

................................. events .....................

of major docking

4.4

Rendezvous

and

.._ ............................

92 92

Description Timeline 4.5

................................... events

of the major activity

Crew joint

in the orbit ...................... rendezvous ........................ .........................

95 96 97 97 102

Spacecraft Approach Docked

and flight

docking

.. .............................. and final undocking ......

Undocking,

redocking

Joint experiments of the spacecraft Separation 4.6 Soyuz independent of the flight

during the independent flight ........... .... . ............. 104 spacecraft... after ............... separation 104 117 117

the spacecraft

Description ................................. .. Timeline of major events ......................
-- 4 --

4.7 Preparation for descent; Soyuz descent ............ ....

Pa_e 118

Description Timeline 4o8 of major events 119

Crew_ recovery .........................................

5.0 5.1

SCIENTIFIC Unilateral

EXPERIMENTS scientific Astrophysical

............................. experiments experiments

_..

121 121

..................... ................... .

121

Photography of the solar corona and zodiaC_al light against the background of the night sky Investigation of the upper Photography Biological of re_aotion and transparency layers of the atmosphere ........ of daytime experiments and dusk horizon...... ......................

121 122 123 124 124 125 125 _27 127 134 139 143 146

Micro-organism Pish embryonic

growth ....................... development ................... . ...... .

Genetic 5.2 Joint scientific

experiments experiments solar

. ................

..........................

Artificial Ultraviolet Zone-forming Microbial

eclipse ..................... .......................

absorption

fungi ...........................

exchange ........................... furnace ........................

Multipurpose

@ 60

TELEVISION @@o@o@@@Ioo@@ee@@@@@@@@@o@o@e@@e@@@m@o@ PIAN
oleoo@ooooeoeoootoooeeooo*o,ootoe,o 0nboard television

153 153 154

6• I 6.2

Gro_md-based

television

...............................

- 5-

Page 7.0 PLIGHT CONTROL. MAIN SUPPORTS: PURPOSE, FUNCTIONS AND 160

INTERACTION

...........................................

7• 1

OOo_oeo'ooooe._oOIOO,tOOOtBIOOaOOOtOOOQ. _light control

160... 160 160 165 162 of the MCC .. • .... 162 164 165 168 171 17_

-

Control

criteria

......... .. ................ ..............................
.@,o@tQ,oo@.o@ooeot_oaeeo..

Responsibilities Information 7@ 2

exchange

Mission Control Center .oooo,@..@.@,_.,o@@@@eJ@o,o@_,@. Purpose, Main MCR MCR personnel room and facilities

control function support

(MOR) ..................

during

the flight o............ ...

teams ............................. complex .......... ...

MCC Instramentati0n/Computer 7.3 MCC personnel training

....... ......................

8• 0

CREW TRAINING _Qoo41_,,toooo.oooootoog.ooooe_oo,_ooo.o.

175

9.0 9.1

INFORMATION Information Ist crew:

ON THE ASTP CREWS ANN DIRECTORS.

......... •

I78 179 179

on the Soyuz crews ........................ I_onov Kubasov A.A ................................. V.N. A.V ................... N.N, ... .........

2rid c_ew:

Philipchenko 1_/kavishnikov

182

_d crew:

Janibekov Andmeev

V.A. .......................... B.D. Y.V. .......................... A.0. - 6 -

185

_th crew:

Romanenko Ivanohenkov

...

186

Page 9.2 Information ASTP on the USSRmanagement organization for ASTP ......... 188 189

scheme ......................

10.0 10.1

REFERENCE

INFORMATION

.............................

°.

198

The agreement of May 24, 1975 between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on cooperation in the exploration and peaceful uses of space ..........................

199

LIST LIST

OF FIGURES ........................................... OF TABLES ............................................

8 9

-7-

LIST

OF FIGURES Page

I.I

Rendezvous craft

and docking

of the Soyuz and Apollo

space, ..... , 12 27 28 29 32 35 48 49 65 73 77 83

during

test flight ......................

3.1 3.2 3,3 3.4 3.G 3.6 3.7 3,8 3.9 3. I0 4. I 4.2

General

view of the Soyuz spacecraft

(side view) ..... (front view) .... (top view) ......

General view of the Soyuz spacecraft General view of the Soyuz spacecraft The Descent The Orbital Docking Vehicle _odule arrangement arrangement

...................... .......................

System ....................................... spaceeraf_ system docking schematic schematic.. .......... ................. ...

Soyuz/Apollo Thermal

control

Apollo/Soyuz Soymz Mission launch

test mission

communication

lines ........

vehicle ................................. • .... transfer

profile ................................. and cosmonauts vehicle-to-vehicle

Astronauts diagram

............................................... activities plan ................................ attitudes for "Artificial solar

106-112 113-116

4.3 5.1

Joint

Soyuz and Apollo eclipse

experiment"

................................. diagram ................... cartridge ........... .. •

133 136 151 152 161

5,2 5.3 5.4 7.1

UV-absorption Multipurpose Furnace

experiment furnace

experiment

experiment joint

diagram ........................ flight control

Apolle/Scyuz

schematic .........

- 8-

LIST

OF TABLES Page

Table

4.1.

Nominal several

launch dates.

time

and launch

windows

for ....

87

Table

7.1.

The USSR the Soyuz

onboard

television

transmissions Joint

during 155-

and Apollo

spacecraft

flight...

-159

-9-

1_0 I. I

INTRODUCTION Background Test flight

For Release: IMMEDIATE

of the Apollo-Soyuz _th

test project agreement of space docking This material the in for

(ASTP)

is performed

in accordance

the USSR/USA uses and

on cooperation order

in the exploration compatible means

and peaceful of rendezvous

to develop

the Soviet flight basis safety ments

and American

manned

spacecraft

and stations. to create

reflects with

the desire

of both countries the objective

the aim of enhancing space

of furthering scientific

of manned program Since

fli_at and supporting

experi-

in the future. 1970 representatives have been of the USSR Academy technical and docking of Science of the of manned of the 26-27 both direcand

and

the USA NASA

discussing rendezvous During

questions systems

development spacecrafts USSR

of compatible and stations.

the first

Joint meeting

and US specialists

held ih Moscow

in 1970, October on the major

sides exchanged tions docking

their views

and information

to be followed systems.

in assuring

compatibility

of rendezvous

At this meeting approve technical Subsequent discuss technical

working

groups

were

set up to develop of these

and

requirements meetings

for compatibility

systems. 1971 to ba-

were held

in June and November systems,

requirements

for spacecraft

approve

sic technical and discuss

decisions

and guidelines of carrying in order

for providing

compatibility flights means

the possibility spacecrafts end docking

out the manned

using

existing

to test

the compatible

of rendezvous of specialists held in _oscow

in the middle

of the 70's. USSR

The meetings USA were

of the Academy and Houston

of Sciences,

and NASA, headed

alternately 10 -

and were

by the Aca-

D
demician B.Petrov, and Chairman of Intercosmos Manager, signed Council, Manned on April USSR Academy Center. the and to of of Sciences RoGilruth,_ASA Document was Spaceflight The Summary meeting 6, 1972 during of Sciences

of the representatives This meeting was

of the USSR Academy to discuss

USA NASA.

held

questions and

pertaining docking said

the development the USSR/USA

of compatible spacecraft

means and

of rendezvous stations.

manned

The document

that the tsst mission and American the compatible spacecraft means

with the subsequent was considered and

docking

of the Soviet in order to test

desirable docking.

of rendezvous

On _ay Council

24, 1972, in Moscow,

A.N.Kosygin,

Chairman States

of the Presi-

of Ministers signed

of the Soviet Union an agreement between

and United

dent R.Nixon D

the two nations

on coope-

ration in the exploration sides agreed to develop

and peaceful

uses of outer space. Both of rendezvous and docking

compatible

means

and conduct in 1975 the first test mission means by accoplishing docking of the Soviet

in order to test the Soyuz-type spacecraft of cosmonauts of from

and American and astronauts

Apollo-type

spacecraft

and the transfer

(see fig.ljl).K.Bushuyev, of Sciences, and Doctor

a corresponding-member an ASTP Director

the USSR Academy the Soviet side,

v/as appointed - from

G.Lunney

the American and stages for

side.

Determination sion, definition systems

of the main

objectives

of the misand in-

of the basic were

requirements completed half

compatible

teracting

essentially

during

the meetings 1973.

of specialists

held

in the second

of 1972 and in March,

-11-

New compatible docking

I _1 _- SOYUZ

Docking

module

APOLLO

FIGURE 1.1 RENDEZVOUS AND DOCKING OF THE SOUYZ AND APOLLO SPACECRAFT

DURING TEST FLIGHT

In October, Apollo/Soyuz

1972 the timing

for carrying - July

out the joint 15, 1975. development of

test mission

was determined were

As technical the systems facturing

requirements

determined

and technical

documentation

to be used

for the manu-

of compatible

equipment

was initiated° April, 1974 the joint successful reviews of

From October, the compatible ment

1972 Until

equipment

were held

to assure

accomplish-

of the mission. Ground tests of compatible to develop component means started from October, their per-

1973 in order formance.

designs

and checking

The final and Apollo sites.

tests of compatible are conducted

means

installed

on the Soyuz

spacecraft

completion

at _he launch_

1.2

Apollo-So.yuz _oint test pro_ect The primary 0bjective

objectives Joint mission for rendezvous is to and dock-

of Apollo/Soyuz and solutions

check

technical

requirements

ing of future

manned

spacecraft

and stations. includes the following: in orbit;

The performance a) testing b) testing e) verifying astronauts; d) performance in docked

of this mission

of a compatible of androgynous the techniques

rendezvous

system

docking assemblies; of transfer of cosmonauts and

of certain flight;

activities

of US and USSR

crews

-13 -

e) gaining

of experience spacecraft,

in conducting including,

joint

flights

by

US and USSR ty, rendering

in case of necessi-

aid in emergency

situations.

The performance significant search

of Apollo-Soyuz

joint

test mission cooperation purposes.

is a in re-

step in developing

international

and utilization

of space for peaceful

- 74-

2.0

COMPATIBILITY

PROBLEms

2.1

Spacecraft tions,

compatibility

conditions

and principal

solu-

accepted

for Apollo-So_uz spacecraft to meet

Test Mission and stations rendezvous

To accomplish and docking

manned

it is necessary

three basic

requirements:

First

requirement which

- compatibility directly

of docking during

units,

that The

is of all assemblies docking now units

interface

docking.

must be universal , active/passive, because _either spacecraft or rendering androgynous spacecraft. - compatibility

or as they are can be the oz1e a basifor

called,

androgynous,

waiting cally

for assistance

aid. Per this purpose system was

new compatible and Soyuz

docking

developed

the Apollo

Second ing spacecraft

requirement ranging means,

of the means

of providusing

and rendezvous. must find

The active

vehicle

radio

or optical

the passive

one (not excluding the given ac-

the ground facilities curacy using Reaction systems

support) Control

and approach System;

it with

mechanical

contact

of the

two docking

should vehicle

be ensured. usually assists the active spacecraft in

The passive in tracking and

rendezvous,

using its

radiosystem

operating

transpond mode. developing the agreed

That is why similar of both

principles

should be used when They should also have

radlosystems to parameters.

spacecraft.

It is also necessary viding voice communication with

to meet

these

requirements To provide

when protracking

between

the crews.

and rendezvous a necessity

the vehicle, to utilize

not transmitting means

any _diatlon, of tracking and

arises

the optical

- 15-

ranging,

or a radar

operating

on the basis

of reflected of elements

signals. is ne-

In the first cessary,which

case the unification provide optical

of a number

measuring surface

(unification light

of docking and abwith

targets, agreement sorption unified

on vehicles and use

reflection

coefficients) characteristics. For providing

of optical

measuring

devices

spacecraft the onboard be used.

visual

detection flashing

and

defining and

their mutual orientation

position lights

unified

beacons

must

In the

ASTP mission (radial

tracking

and relative

motion

parame-

ters measurements are provided

speed

and distance with

between

spacecraft)

by the Apollo onboard

radiosystem Soyuz. system during

the transpond-

ing part installed Besides the Apollo several crew

that,

an optical Soyuz

is used, rendezvous

by means

of which of

can track

at a distance spacecraft

hundred For

kilometers,

and also

determine

mutual of

attitude. kilometers

tracking

in the darkness with

at a distance flashing the

of dozens

the Soyuz is equipped phase (during

beacons.

At the fiposi-

nal rendezvous

approach) by means lights

spacecraft

mutual

tion is determined the Soyuz onboard

visually orientation

of Apollo and

alignment targets.

sight and

docking

All parameters which provides

measured

are fed into for guidance

the onboard during

computer,

data, necessary

rendezvous.

Third re parameters ponents

requirement

- spacecraft

habitable

modules

atmospheof its comfrom one

compatibility, because

specifically_ compatibility the crew cannot essentially transfer

and pressure, to another,

spacecraft pheres.

if they have

different

atmos-

-16-

The concepts can be different but

of conditioning the environment flights Soyuz

inside

the habitable must

modules

parameters atmosphere

be close. cor-

In the previous responded 20-25%,

practically

to that of the Earth: - 78-73%.

pressure

- 750-860

mm Hg, oxygen of pure

nitrogen

Apollo

atmosphere

consists

oxy-

gen with pressure

of 260 ram Hg. from Soyuz result to Apollo without any special (itch, nitro-

Crew transfer measures taken would pain

in decompression

disturbances

joint and muscle gen excretion blood

etc. ),which

are accounted blood vessels

for by rapid and disturb

(bubbles

can obstruct

circulation To avoid

in different decompression

organs). disturbances it is necessary pressure breathing to

gradually carry

reduce

pressure, preserving desaturation the nitrogen Module

02 partial (pure oxygen

or to for a

out the nitrogen hours to remove

several special

from blood).

_or the ASTP

Docking

(Transfer)

is developed after docking

- a kind of an airit is to be locatinto orbit

lock with changeable ed between together transfer phere

atmosphere; modules.

the habitable

The E_ is inserted

with Apollo.

During

the crew

spacecraft-to-spacecraft corresponds to the atmosvia

the Docking _lodule atmosphere module

of the habitable hatch agreed

with which To exclude

free communication such a process

internal finally

is established. to reduce oxygen

it was

the total pressure content. Usage

in Soyuz maintaining and ex-

the same absolute reduction clude

of Docking Module

of pressure

in Soyu_

(to 490-550

mm Hg) practically safe spacecraft-

desaturation

process

and ensure

fast and

to-spacecraft craft

transfer

without

complete

compatibility

of space-

atmospheres.

- 17-

2.2

Compatibility Joint flight

of ground of Soyuz

flight

control

personnel brought up

and Apollo

spacecraft

a number viet

of new problems

of flight

control

to be solved by So-

and American Spacecraft

specialists. flight of a wide several with control network is a very complex of tracking centers, process which

involves around

the use

stations a great

spread variety

the globe,

computation complex

of support of many

equipment

interaction All

and participation information, up to the commu-

specially

trained

specialists.

required

from the data on the state of health exact iocatiom of spacecraft,

of cremembers

is routed

thru the numerous Center.

nications

channels During

to the Mission flight

Control

the joint

Soyuz

and Apollo Control

will be controlCenters respecti-

led by the Soviet vely°

and American

_ission

Such an approach coordination sonnel cluding of activities

towards

flight

control

requires

a strict perin-

of the USSR and US ground all operations

control

in the course spacecraft

of performing

in mission

docking

and crew joint activity. problems is that each with the prin-

The complexity side worked ciples

of the mentioned

out its Own documentaion and established

in accordance

adopted

in its country. control required the

Organization formulation which

of the joint mission

and adoption

of shared principles for working activities

of flight

control

could become control

the basis personnel

out joint in nominal

documentation and contin-

specifying gency

situations. 18

It was essential ganize an exchange

to overcome

the language

barrier,

or-

of information

and allocate

responsibilities

in nominal

and contingency

situations. have resulted in an agreejoint activi-

Discussions ment ties on interaction. of ground

and joint efforts

Then the documents personnel during

specifying flight were

control

issued.These interaction

documents

included

all basic guidelines activities

for the MCC

and details Control

of specific

of the US and USSR Mission contain standard time schedules formats for

Centers.

Moreoyer,

the documents Centers and

for interaction data exchange.

of the Control

The language terpreters Centers, use

barrier

was decided

to be overcome between

thru

inC_mtzol

an duty in MCC. standard terminology

For communication will be used.

Mission will will

Interpreters reports

the same standard

terms and phrases.

Verbal Both

be

transmitted Soviet

in the receiving will hear

side language. the reports with

American

and

interpreters calls

in English

and Russian. of a perstandard

All verbal called

will

be initiated

the identification of a calling will have

person

followed

by the identification in Control Centers

son. Every working identification.

station

- 19 -

2.3

Methodological It is impossible

compatibilit2 to perform the joint spacecraft missions

by different gical agreed, joint

countries,

withoutsolving are:

the problems

of methodolomarks

compatibility. unification

These

terminology systems

regulations, and initial e;_mple trajectory

of coordinate and

data for - reaching compatibi-

calculations

so on. A demonstrative Apollo-Seyuz mission

agreement lity.

in providing

At the beginning appeared some differences and

of the joint

work on the project

there

in understanding by each

and use of some iniThese differences in space re-

tial meanings were mainly

definitions

country.

explained

by traditions work began Coordinate from

of each country the agreement were

search. data and scribing cepted, was

So the Joint definitions. the numerical

on the initial upon. system For de-

systems

agreed

characteristics calculations

the metrical the upper

was ac-

and for preflight as proposed the USA

Earth gravity

atmosphere model, pro-

taken by

by the USSR

and the Earth called

posed

(further the

they were compatible

"the ASTP models"). of trajectory cal-

This agreement culations standing.

ensured

results

performed

by each country,

and their identical

under-

In some cases they

the traditional effect

concepts

were

retained,

if

did not principally to retain

the work. For

example,

it was counin

decided

the orbital

concept,

traditional orbit were

for each olearly

try, but both the terms

definitions

of the word

glven

of both

the USSR and the USA. resulted in mutual in the common understanding "Trajectory lan-

All this activity guage', which proves useful

of specialists

- 20 -

working

on this and future by compromise

programs. decisions

In some cases

compatibility

was achieved

as was the case with agreeto be

ment on Apollo impossible

and Soyuz launch meet both sides

time. After it was proved countries launch

to equally

time requirements, their time. and protradi-

the American tional

and Soviet

reused

to fully

follow launch

limitations

and agreed

on a compromised with

For familiarization approach, blems that the cooperating both

and understanding in solving

of methods different

sides used exchanged

of ballistics

sides

brief mathematical space

des-

cription motion:

of the methods the US described of the

for defining procedures

and planning of Apollo

objects and the

rendezvous, orbit

procedures

Soyuz forming

the assembling

The trajectory periments on tracking

compatibility the Soviet

was

checked

during

joint

ex-

spacecraft

Soyuz-16

by the USA

and USSR ground

stations.

- 21 -

3°0

THE SOYUZ SPACECRAFT

3.1

The

spacecraft flights

purpese,

brief data

on "Soyuz"

space-

craft

The Soyuz of objectives

spacecraft

is

designed among

for

solving

a variety

in the near

space,

them: guidance, maneuver-

a) to develop

autonomous

navigation,

ing and rendezvous of designing ons; b) to study

procedures

and verify the Earth

the concepts stati-

and maintaining

space

the space flight

conditions

influence

on

h,,mau organism; c) investigate craft USSR possibilities of utilizing manned spaceof the

for the Earth national

research

for the benefit

economy; technical and scientific experiments

d) to conduct in space.

some

During spaceships

the period

from 1967 to 1975 flight programs:

15 manned

Soyuz

accomplished

their

Soyuz-1 Soyuz-3 Soyuz-4 Soyuz-5

23-24 26-30

April Oct.

1967 1967 1969 1969

cosmonaut -"-"cosmonauts

V._. KOMAROV G.T.BEREGOV01 V.A. SHATALOV V.V.VOLYNOV A. 8. YELISEYEV E.V.KHRUNOV G.S.SHONIN V. N. KUBA SOV

14-17 Jan, 15-18 Jan.

Soyuz-6

11-16 0or,

1969

-"-

- 22 -

Soyuz-7 D Soyuz-8

12-17 Oct.

1969

cosmonauts

A.V.FILIPCHENK0 V.N.VOLKOV V. v. GO RBATKO

13-18 Oct.

1969

-"-

v.A. SHATALOV A. S.YELl SEYEV A.G.NIKOLAEV V. I. SEVASTYANOV V.A. SHATALOV A. S.YELISEYEV N. N. RUKAVISHNIKOV G.T.DOBROVOLSKY V. N,VOLKOV V. I. PATSAEV V.G.LAZAREV 0. G._AKAROV P.I. KLI_UK V.V.LEBEDEV P.R. POPOVICH Y. P. ARTUKHIN G.V.SARAFANOV L.S. DE, IN A.V. FILIFCHENK0 N.N. RUKAVISHNIKOV

Soyuz-9

1-19 June

1970

-"-

Soyuz- I0

23-25

April

1971

-"-

Soyuz-11

6-30 June

1971

-"-

Soyuz-12

27-29

Sept.

1973

-"-

Soy_z-13

18-26 Dec.

1973

-"-

Soyuz- 14

3-19 July

1974

-"-

Soyuz-15 Soyuz-16

26-28 August 2-8 Dec.

1974 1974

-"-"-

During solve d:

these flights

the following

objectives

were

a) Soyuz-4 manual approach and

and

Soyuz-5

performed

automatic vehicles,

rendezvous, that aseemblof

docking

of two manned station

ed the first

experimental

space

with a total weight in docked individual

12924 kg on the Earth guration support

orbit.

During

the flight suits with

confillfe

the 2 cosmonauts systems performed

in space

the EVA and accomplished

spacecraft-

to-spacecraft

transfer.

b) During scientific

Soyuz-6,

Soyuz-7

and

Soyuz-8

group

flight includin

rand technical methods

experiments

were

accomplished, various

ing different

of welding - 23 -

tests

using

metals

low vacuum flight,

andweightless

conditions, spacecraft

navigational interaction

tracking

in comof

mutual

maneuvering,

and their areas

munlcation the USSR neous

with ground and with ships

stations, of the

located

in different of Science

USSR Academy flight.

simulta-

control

of 3 spacecraft

c) SO_Z-9 extensive program

performed of biological

a 424 hour

flight

during

which was

an

and scientific

experiments

accomplished.

d) Astrophysical parts of the sky were system. e) Soyaz-1, yuz-14 nized with and Soyuz~15 systems

observations onboard

and speetrography Soyuz-13 using

of some "0rich-2"

conducted

telescope

Soyuz-3, spaceships

Soyuz-10, tested

Soyuz-11, onboard

Soyuz-12,

So-

some

and new moderflights

both in independent stations. Moreover,

flights

and in the joint Soyuz-type

Salut-type

unmanned

spaceand

craft were

launched

to develop

in flight

certain

subsystems

some elements

of spacecraft. to the Soviet preparation Soyuz plan for type the

f) According joint Apollo-Soyuz were

mission

two unmanned accomplished

spacecraft A prll 2, 1974,

flights

successfully AUgUSt

(Cosmos-638 Soyuz-16

and Cosmos-672

12, 1974).The

with Pllipchenko

and Rukavishnikov on board performed 1974. The Soyuz-16 is a prototype Apollo-Soyuz flight in 1975. During

its mission from 2 thru 8Dec., of the spacecraft for the the 6 day flight flight the onboard were

systems modified successfully tics,

according Tested

to the joint were new

requirements

tested.

docking life

unit

and its automasystem.

orientation

and guidance

system,

support

- 24 -

In addition were checked cal to those during

the crew

activities when

and operation the tasks

modes identi-

the flight,

solving in 1975.

for the future

mission

3.2 3.2.1

Soyuz

spacecraft

description of the Soyuz spacecraft

Gener81 Main

description

characteristics: maximum weight ................. 6.8 tons 7.5 m 2.72 m 2.2 m 8.37 m 10 m3

Spacecraft Maximum Maximum Diameter

length. ........................... diameter .......................... of the habitable modules .........

Solar panel Total volume

span. ......................... of the habitable modules.....

Soyuz

constructive

arrangement consists of three main modules:

The Soyuz

spacecraft

- Descent Vehicle - Orbital Module

(DV); (OM); Module (IAM). is shown in Figu-

- Instrument-Assembly General

view of the Soyuz

spacecraft

The left ing system

part of the spacecraft which

consists

of the dock-

and Orbital Module, Vehicle

is joined

to the Descent a front

Vehicle.

The Descent

in turn is joined Module

through with

heat shield installed. performed

to the Instrument-Assembly Mechanical connection

solar panels modules is out-

of the spacecraft Joints. Location

using

the pyrotechnic

of the main

er elements

of the spacecraft

systems

is shown in the Soyuz space-

- 25 -

craft mea_s

general inserted

view

(Figures

I{,3._3._). The elements test project

of compatible are outlined

to support

Apollo/Soyuz

particularly. The Soyuz tems: - attitude - rendezvous motion control system for flight and descent; spacecraft consists of the following main sys-

and correcting

propulsion

system;

- approach-orientation - radio communication power system; system

propulsion systems; system;

system;

- electric - docking - radio vous

supply

guidance

and

system

for providing devices; system;

rendez-

and approach system

using

optical

- parachute - life

and soft landing complex; system.

support

system

- onboard

equipment

control

- 26 -

i

12

23 I

6

8

2

3

13

19

14

15

4

19

I_,nl Ycs, _

'7

__

-

_

/11

Xc5

_

-_

_

_c6

-

_..7

2

24 7,13 m 7,48 m

18

9

FIGURE 3.1 GENERAL VIEW OF THE SOUYZ SPACECRAFT (SIDE VIEW)

YC5

I Y C6

I 8,37 m 7 12 23 6 16 / / 14 24 6 13 11

Zc5 II

Zc6 IV

2,72m

III

FIGURE 3.2 GENERAL VIEW OF THESOUYZSPACECRAFT

(FRONT VIEW)

13

11 \

11

5

13 white

7 12

15 9

8

14 11 7,48 m I ]0

6

5

13

13 red

10

11

FIGURE 3.3 GENERAL

VIEW OF THE SOYUZ SPACECRAFT

(TOP VIEW)

--29--

1 - Androgynous 2 - Orbital 3 - Descent

peripheral

docking

system,

Module, Vehicle, _odule,

4 - Instrument-Assembly 5 - Solar panels, 6 - FKF-_adio 7 - Apollo station

antennas station

on the frequency

of 121,75 Mhz, of

VHF-radio

antennas

on the frequencies

259,7 Mhz

and 296,8 Mhz, of the radio and television of the command radio system, trajectory

8 - the antennas 9 - the antennas measurements, 10 - the antennas 11 - the antenna 12 - docking 13 - onboard 14 - flashing

link and

of the radio used

telemetry

system,

to communicate

with Earth,

target, orientation light lights,

beacons,

15 - sum sensor, 16 - ion orientation 17 - infra sensor, sensor,

red orientation orientator,

18 - optical 19 - approach

and orientation engines,

engines,

20 - orientation

21 - approach-correcting

engine,

22 - the hatch for the crew ingress, 23 - external 24 - windows. TV camera,

To Pig.

3.1, 3.2,

3.3.

- 30 -

DESCRIPTION

0F THE SPACECRAFT

_0DULES

The Descent cation descent during insertion

Vehicle into

(Pigure_._) is intended orbit, orbital flight,

for crew locontrolled The dewith

through

the atmosphere,

parachuting sealed

and landing.

scent vehicle tWO viewing

is a hermetically windows

compartment,

provided

on its sides

and one window is covered

withsighting with heat and

device. shielding decorative control tainers

The shell of the compartment material materials on its outside, on its inside.

and thermal Cosmonauts'

insulation panel

spacecraft systems,con-

handles

equipment

of the main equipment

and supporting to be returned

for the scientific

and emergency

kit for the crew are also located Per the ASTP descent lights vehicle control. there

in the descent

vehicle. panel in

is an additional

control

to provide Special

compatible

radio-stations

and external for TV ca-

lights

and additional colour

brackets

mera mounting

are installed

to provide

TV transmission.

- 31 -

i 18 2 17

10

11

FIGURE

3.4 THE DESCENT

VEHICLE

ARRANGEMENT

--32--

I - Portable

light

with autonomous

power

supply,

2 - Loud speaker, 3 - Working light, control panel,

% - VH_-radio-stations 5 _ Hatch 6 - Hatch, 7 - Special 8wheel, cover, illumination

lamp,

Command-signs1

device,

9 - TV camera, 10 - Instrument 11 - Sighting 12 - Equipment, 13 - Control 14 - Window, 15 - Cosmonaut 16 - Equipment, 17 - Couch leg, 18 - Parachute container. couch, handles, panel, device,

Pig. 3.4
i

- 33 -

The Orbital ing scientific transfers

Module

(Figure_5) for crews

is intended

for conduct-

experiments,

spacecraft-to-spacecraft

and for the rest of the crew. The orbital module consists of two hemispheres con-

nected

by a cylindrical The androgynous

insert. peripheral docking mechanism of with an

internal mounted third

hatch,

having

a cross-sectional module has

diameter

0.8 m is The

On it. The orbital

two viewing

windows.

window

is in the cover of the module and the Descent

of the there

docking

mechanism connecting

hatch. the Or-

At the bottom bital Module

is a hatch as well

Vehicle,

as a side hatch pad. sideboard and is

for the crew to enter The interior and a "Sofa", equipment which

the spacecraft of the module control

on the launch consists panel, of a

contain

instrumentation equipment

of the main

support

systems.

Scientific

also located

in the Orbital

Module. mission the following equip-

To the joint ment is provided

Apollo/Soyuz

in the Orbital

Module: VHF-radio-station _upply for it; or tefrom with an-

- transponder tennas

of the Apollo

and autonomous

power

- junction levision Apollo

box for connecting equipment

the communication by astronauts

transferred

to Soyuz

during

transfers;

- additional - compatible Special

VHP transceiver; system automatics unit. brackets for TV cameras in the module and picture

lights

and additional equipment

and cine and photography to provide shooting. colour

are installed to Earth

TV transmission

and movie

- 34 -

2

I

18

17 19

31

30

3

16 20

28,

4 27

s
c r 13 _6

12 6 22 24

11

7

10

23

FIGURE 3.5 THE ORBITAL

MODULE ARRANGEMENT

i - Hatch

cover, mechanism;

m •

2 - Docking

3 - Hand-rail, 4 - Water 5 - Waste 6 - Access 7 - Waste dispenser, container, hatch, collector, table,

8 - Folding

9 - "Sideboard", 10 - Systems control panel,

11 - TV camera, 12 - Tools, communication cables, equipment,

13 - Container 14 - Food

for scientific

container, kit, headset, 9

15 - Medical

16 - TV camera, 17 - TV light, 18 - Apollo 19 - Working TV-camera lights, for onboard box, documents,

20 - Container 21 - Junction 22,'Sofa",

23 - Cover, 24 - Container equipment, 25 - Fire for stowage pressure of cine and photography sleeping bags,

suits and

extinguishers,

26 - Window, 27 - Container for pressure suits hoses,

II
- 36 -

28-

Decorative

covering,

29 - Container for transferred equipment, 30 - Gas analyzer, 31 - Handle of the valve of the module pressurization system.

Fig.

3.5

- 37 -

Antennas radio and television for approach the module

of compatible system, main

VHF-radio-stations, and additional control mode

antennas

of

docking

targets on

and docking

in a manual

are located TV camera.

exterior

in the vicinity

of the external

The Instrument-Assembly the principle This module assembly apparatus structurally

Module

is intended

for carrying flight. and

and equipment consists

required

for orbital

of intermediate,

instrument

sections. The intermediate section section which joints the descent ve-

hicle

with

the instrument The engines

has a truss of 10 kg

structure. each,propellant and orientation

with a thrust feed system

tanks

and propellant system,

of the approach

engines

are installed

in this section. section exterior there control are: system;

On the intermediate - the small - front radiator

of the thermal

attachment

points

of the solar link.

panels;

- antenna

of the command-radio

The pressure-sealed of a squat motion control vice, system, cylinder with

instrument

section

has

the shape

two ends. system,

The equipment

of the attitude equipment deare sen-

control radio

spacecraft system,

onboard

communication system,

program-timlng supply system

radio telemetry

electric

power

located

in the instrument

section.

The infra-red

orientation section

sor and sun sensor surface.

are mounted

on the instrument

outer

The assembly which is connected

section

is of a cylindrical shell which

shell

design

with a conical

ends with

the base

- 38 -

mounting hicle.

ring for the spacecraft

installation

on the latmch-ve-

On the outside diator engines a thrust panels. of the thermal with a thrust of I kg each,

of the assembly system,

section

there are a raand orientation engines with

control

4 approach 8 orientation points

of 10 kg each,

and rear attachment

of the solar

The rendezvous_correcting in the assembly up engine, dition section.

propulsion

system

is located a back In ad-

It consists

of a main

engine,

propellant

tanks and bipropellant communication and

feed

system.

to that,

the radio

telemetry

antennae,

the ion sensors ries

of the orientation power supply

system system

and some of the batteare installed in the vi-

of the electric

cinity

of the base ring. The instrument-assembly module also contains solar bat-

teries in the form each. range Antennas

of two "wings",

consisting

of three panels in the VH1• lights

for radio communication band and onbmard

and telemetry color

and shsrt-wave

orientation

are located

on the end panels

of the solar batteries. test project system the following elements

For the Apollo/Soyuz of the compatible assembly module: - flashing light rendezvous

are mounted

on the instrument-

beacons; docking target (on the

- an element instrament - onboard

of the additional section) ; orientation

color

lights

(on the ends

of so-

lar panels).

The retroreflectora experiment modules. are mounted

for joint ultraviolet

absorption

in the orbital - 39 -

and instrument-assembly

The Soyuz modules vacuum heat insulation is covered an emergency during

are externally of green color.

protected _oreover, nese system

with

shield

the Soyuz fairing equipthe

spacecraft ped with spacecraft

with a jettisonable recovery propulsion

to protect

the phase

of passing

lower atmosphere

layer.

- 40 -

3.2,2.

Androgynous ,I:_.z'pose,

Peripheral

Docking

System

I_-,gJ6J

The and_rogynous peripheral signed to provide compatible be tested system, spacecraft means during which docking

docking

system

(APDS)

is de-

and undocking

and is one of and docking, is a modideveloped both

the main that will fied

for the spacecraft the ASTP mission. differs

rendezvous The APDS

docking

from previous

versions

according

to the "pin-cone"

schematic,

and used for docking

the USSR and US spacecraft. The Docking - impact - initial System performs the following functions:

energy

absorption; connection; and retraction; connection and docking

mech_nlcal alignment

- spacecraft - spacecraft interface - spacecraft Docking

hard mechanical sealing; undocking

and separation. under the following m/sec; conditions:

cau be performed approach axes

- spacecraft - longitudinal - pitch, - angular

rate

is 0.05-0.3

displacement

up to 0.3m; up to 70; spacecraft up to

yaw and roll misalignment velocities: for an active

l°/sscl
- for a p_ssive - lateral spacecraft velocity provides up to O.l°/seo; up to 1.0 m/sec. an inner t,_nnel for the crews

relative

APDS configuration to transfer

from one spacecraft docking,

to the other. in either active or

Nhen passive primary mode. units

APDS can be configured are provided with

The cosmonauts operation.

information

on APDS

- 41 -

APDS

Development. the first 1970 meeting of the Soviet provided system. system caand American spe-

During clalists

in October

the both sides of docking

data to develop

a principle

structure

scheme

It was necessary pable type). of docking with

to develop

an active_passive of the given

any spacecraft specialists

type(androgynous schematics was de-

The US and USSR system. so called The second

provided

different

of docking fined(the

In addition, principle meeting

an androgynous of reverse

Principle

symmetry), in Houston, USA. draft of"Tech-

was held

in June,1971 a new

_or

this meeting Requirements to determine

the USSR

side had prepared Systems". The

nical basis

for Docking technical

draft was used as a development of the

req__irements for

systems. By the meeting ed their ow_a drafts of the discussion meet in the fall 1971 the both sides structure scheme. had prepar-

for a principle

_s the resmlt was to

the Joint features requirements side would from each

of the scheme, w_re worked out.

which

the compatibility upon that each differ

It was also and these proposals

agreed systems

develop

its own system, of the Soviet

could

other.

Most

on the principle It was tems

scheme decided

had been

adopted. to the USSR principle and US docking structure elements sys-

to provide

compatibility

by using main

a common

scheme when ful-

and standardizing filling Ioad_,

dimenmions requirements

of interacting

the technical temperatures

for the str_oture. s_m_lar paName_s_s

In addition, were regulated. docking separately system and

and some other

In the course of each country Jointly by each

of development worked

and fabrication at and tested

was thoroughly side.

- 42 -

First ly; then their as well

the USSR full-scale

and US DS scale mock-ups mock-ups development

were

tested

joint-

tests were performed identical mate to those check

as testing

of docking the mission.

systems,

practically

to be used during of USSR System space

And at last

the preflight

and US flight was installed

DS was performed. on Soyuz-16

Moreover,

the USSR tested

Docklng: the

and thoroughly ring

during

flight. ring.

In this flight, Main docking

a special

simulated

the Apollo the

docking

and undocking provide

operations, connection

including

functioning have been

of latches checked

which

rigid

of spacecraft

APDS The assemblies :

Design. docking system consists of the following principle

Docking main docking

system

base is the main

structural

member

to which

system

assemblies

are attached. is a structural ring,

On the front the other craft

end of the base there a flange

end of the base has module_

for attachment

to the spaceconstruction with a hatch

orbital

The base is the pressure-tight part, forming a tunnel

and consists which

of a cylindrical from insideo consists

is looked

Guide rin_ three guides system_ located

of a ring,

hollow

in cross-section of the docking rods,

and

45° to the longitudinal is installed rods

axis

The guide

ring

on six supporting

attachconnecdis_

ed in pairs. tions between

Supporting the rods

attachments

are the kinematic

and provide

for the guide

ring lateral

placement

and roll The guide

during ring

attenuation(three three

degrees

of freedom). with undook-

supports

capture

latches

ing drives. Body mounted spacecraft docking_ latches together with capture latches perform

They are installed

on the docking

system base

- 43 -

and are

equipped

with

solenoids the guide system

to perform ring and

unlatching

by a passive the guide

spacecraft. Rods ring drive the

support

connect rods are rotary

it with ball motion

and

docking of

base. rod

The into

screws,that of the nut its length to the transmit are

convert and vice relative base

stroke The

the screw

versa.

rod configuration points.

allows

to change are

to the attac_Lment joints with

The rods

attached which

through

three

degrees

of freedom

the rotary attached joints

motion

of the rods ring

to the base points

assembly. through between

The rods

to the which

guide

at three

rod connecting the crews.

provide

kinematic

connection

Guide forms

ring

drive

together The

with

differential

assembly

perfor du-

two basic

functions. ring

first

function axes

is to provide

rotation ring and

of the guide

about The

lateral second

(pitch and yaw) is to retract

the impact extend

attenuation. ring.

function rotation

the guide

The guide length by

ring

is accomplished The The impact also serve to

through

misalignment

of the

of three

rod pairs.

misalignment energy return

is accomplished by spring ring

two gear

differentials. which The

is absorbed the guide

loaded

mechanisms, position. and

to its initial having

supporting

rods

are moved tial.

by a drive,

two motors

an additional

differen-

S trnctural nection passive and cam of the hooks,

ring

latch They drive

provide consist

bard,

pressure-tight active and

coneight

spacecraft. electrical cables

of eight on one Each its

installed them.

of the latches hook and are has a

closed-loop operated

connecting which

active

mechanism, hooks

performs

opening system

tightening. captured by

Corresponding active springs loading. hooks.

of the passive hook has

docking a stack for

The passive

of preloaded

bellville pre-

providing

a definite

force

the docking

interface

- 44 -

D

Each passive and active hock is equipped with a pyrobolt to provide, if necessary, practically instantaneous undocking.

Guide pin together spacecraft When exact alignment

with

the socket

is designed

for the

during

the final phase

of retraction. to compenring.

the DS is in active

mode

the pin can move distortion mode,

radially

sate for thermal When the docking locked

and structural system

of the structural the guide

is in passive

pin is auto-

matically

in its central ring

position. equipped with docking interface seal com-

The structural seal contact pression. Spri_ vide spacecraft sensors

is also

and sensors

indicating

the interface

thrusters separation

are located when

on the docking

ring and pro-

the latches

are opened.

Dockin_ the docking centric

interface

seal will

provide

pressure

integrity

of

interfaces. rings

Docking

interface system.

seal consists The sealing

of two conis perform-

rubber

seals on sach

ed according

to a "seal-to-seal"

type. of the docking system and is

The manhole used to close

cover is a part tunnel

the transfer

of the spacecraft, is manually performed which with by the

The manhole crew. The manhole

locking/unlocking

is sealed by a sealing mechanism, the latter connection. being connected

has eight

eccentric by means chanism by means

type latches, of closed cable

each other sealir_ me-

In case the cover can be opened assembling.

fails,

several

or even all hooks

or closed The Docking all data

of its disassembling

and subsequent

P

System is equipped with alarm and meter system which about DS operation. APDS operation durin_ dockin_/undockin_ I_ring the mission the Soy-am d_cking - 45 -

provide

system will

first

operate

in a passive docking

mode,

and

during

redocking in Pig._.V

in an active

mode.

spacecraft

schematic

is given

Prior to forward to its most

to decking

the active

DS guide DS guide

ring is extended ring

in-

position, rearward

and the passive position. the spacecraft

is retracted

During each

approach

are oriented

relative

to

other so that

the DS guides

of one spacecraft

be approximate-

ly opposite

the DS hollows spacecraft

of the other. contact (impact) the guides of one DS the spacewith is coupl-

During slide along craft impact

the guides energy;

of the ether

one, thus absorbing DS guide ring

then the active capture

contacts alignment rigid

the passive accomplished.

one, and initial Then

and spacecraft

the spacecraft

retraction

and their

ing is performed.

Attenuation the guide freedom) movement ring's

of spacecraft in any

relative

motion

is realized six degrees

by of

moving

direction units

(on all

and energy

absorbing

(springs

and brakes).

The ring of

in all direction

is provided

by changing

the length

the six rods.

The initial on the guide sive system. ring,

capture which

is performed

by three

capture

latches

capture

body-mounted

latches

of the pas-

The spacecraft located on the guide In ease the actlve (till

alignment

is achieved

by spring mechanisms,

ring and

on the drive. is not adequate for alignment, position are allg_ed

the spring

energy

DS ring is extended

into

its most forward spacecraft

stop) by means

of the drive,

andthe

approximately.

- 46 -

The guide drive after traction ring,

rin_ retraction

is performed During located

by means

of the of re-

the spacecraft

alignment.

the last phase

the guide

pins and sockets, final

on the structural retracting which and exthe

perform

spacecraft ring

alignment.

When

tending guide

the guide

electromagnetic

locks,

prevent

ring misalignment, Spacecraft rigid

can be activated. docking. perform interface After rigid the docking docklngand interface interface tunnel leak

touching sealing,

structure Then

latches

the docking

and spacecraft

tests are performed. Undocking latches release

The docking

process

is completed. spacecrafts latch capture hooks. If by pas-

is performed

by an active

and then by opening can be performed release

the structure by a passive

necessary, body-motmted sive hooks.

undocking latches

spacecraft latch

and opening

the structure

Spacecraft symetrically

separation

is performed

by spring of both

thrusters, systems,af-

located

on the structural

rings

ter the latches

release° operations and undocking including structural latch ope-

All principal ration during docking

are redundant. active

Capture

latch

undocking opening

as well is provided

as structural

latch

and passive

hooks

by pyrotechnic system

devices. all operations during dock-

The docking Ing/undocking ating

can perform

automatically commands The system

or each operation by cosmonauts operation

separately

by initiradio comby

appropriate link.

or via command

munication cosmonauts (telemetry).

monitoring

is performed

control

panel

indication

and by the ground

personnel

- 47 -

DOCKING

SYSTEM

ACTIVE

DOCKING

SYSTEM

PASSIVE

Bodymounted latches Attenuators. Guide "

Thrusters

Docking

seal

latches

co I

_- Docking

seal

g inferface

Supporting

Capture latches Docking system

Guide ring (extended)

Guide ring (retracted} So¢

FIGURE

3.6

DOCKING

SYSTEM

ntact

2. Guidering mate andcapture

3. Mutual alignment and retraction

4. Hard and pressure-tight coupling

5. Cosmonauts'

transfer

FIGURE 3.7 SOYUZ/APOLLO

SPACECRAFT DOCKING SCHEMATIC

--49--

The difference Systems The USSR differences. perience

between

the Soyuz and Apollo

Docking

and US docking

system

designs based

have considerable on previous of different elements. systems inex-

The differences

are primarily

of each side specialists procedures

and utilization structural

structural

in manufacturing

One of the principle volve those in attenuation Unlike the Apollo the Soyuz

differences

of docking ring

system docking

and guide system

systems. system of

electromechanic

is equipped cable

with

autonomous

gyro attenuators

and elec-

tric drive with Another system

connection. difference it that the Soyuz and body-mounted docking la_ches

essential drives

has electric

for capture undocking.

and pyrodevices However, the fulfillment vided

for redundant despite of agreed

the difference upon principles and made

in docking

system

designs, pro-

and requirements docking

their compatibility

Soyuz/Apollo

possible°

3.2.3

Attitude Attitude

and motion and motion

control control

system s_stem function system and structure is to provide

The Soyuz attitude the spacecraft attitude

and motion

control

control. of orientation specific modes; long-term mainte-

This is: build-up nance of the spacecraft attitude

orientation

- attitude

hold; oulse

spacecraft

hold with

the generation propulsion rendezvous.

of a reaction (ACPS);

of the approach control during

- correcting the spacecraft

system

approach

- 50 -

A_CS devices; trollers; sion

includes:

command

sensors; control

converting

and

switching con-

monitoring reaction

and attitude

aids and spacecraft

jet microengines,

approach-correcting

propul-

system. The spacecraft attitude control may be conducted a control both auto-

matically matic matic titude data craft

and manually.

The crew can select by ground

mode. During

Autoautoat-

modes

can be initiated sensing rate.

radiecommands.

orientation

devices

supply

data on the spacecraft device converts

and rotation

The onboard for thrusters

logic

these

into on-off turns.

commands

which

control

the space-

The manual spacecraft mode

control

loop enables

the crew During

to o_ient

the

to the Earth,

Sun or stars.

the orientation using optical orienon-

the crew is sighting or spacecraft accomplished

these reference transducers. of hand

points

devices tation

position by means

The spacecraft which

controllers

provide

off signals

to orientation

engines.

Command Infra-red infra-red wards

sensors horizon sensor senses the Earth and atmosphere to-

radiation

and provides

the spacecraft

orientation

the Earth Ionic

center. respond to t he counter flow of ions which gedemc-

sensors

are

the atmosphere control

"traces" when

at these altitudes. the spacecraft during

These

sensors axis orbital

nerate viates tion°

Signals

longitudinal

from its velocity

vector

the spacecraft

Sun sensor wards

is used

during

the spacecraft search

orientation

to-

the Sun. The sonsor has

two side

zones

and the central

- 51 -

field of view. sensor point. search

The Sun is usually zone,

acquired

at first by one of the to the sensor mid-

and then it is "carried"

Angular-rate to measure verting

pickups

are electronic/gyroscopic velocity.

instruments con-

the spacecraft

rotatio_

The instruments control

units' integrate

velocity

signals rotation there

and issue angles.

signals

proportional

to the spacecraft the spacecraft

Onboard two gyros. and allows

is a gyropackage

comprising

This assembly to perform

maintains

the spacecraft turns.

set orientation

programmed

Vision Vision are located

devices t orientation and orientation

momitors

and controllers and controllers _

monitoring

devices

at the crew

stations

in the descent

vehicle. device designatdu-

Cosmonaut's ed for visual ring

sighting

device

is an optical

observation

of the Earth

or the other

spacecraft field

its approach. The earth

It has a central edge position towards

and peripheral zones

of view. to ori-

in peripheral centre.

allows

ent

the spacecraft Ground

the Earth

speed

in the central

field of the sighting

device

is used when

performing

its yaw orientation. of the DV windows the spacecraft screens. the cosmonaut maneuvers. provides the spaceshade gauges are located. the Sun

On the outside The cosmonaut by the shadow Using craft rotation performs

orientation

towards

on the gauge

the controllers or translational

The cosmonaut's the spacecraft control

panel

include

data 4isplay with

facilities

and

systems°

The panels

two cormmand-sig-

- 52 -

nal

devices

and the DV instrument

board

are used

during

the A_CS

operation.

Sg_uz

docking

targets docking near target is located system. on the

The main outside

orbit-deployed module

of the orbital It comprises

the docking in front

a cross placed There is also

of the screen which available on

is the target the base

base.

a cross pattern

screen. With both crosses aligned the Soyuz X-axis is directed and in-

towards

the observer.

Besides

the main target fixed plates

the orbital with marks

strument-assembly

modules

carry

which

serve as an additional

target.

0nboard Onboard ligths tely

orientation orientation

lights lights - red, green and two white They allow mutual to approxima-

- are mounted

on solar batteries. spacecraft will carry

determine

the approaching spacecraft

position. light beacons.

The Soyuz They are to de_ect dark phase beacons the

two flashing

and identify

the

spacecraft

during the mission The

at the initial stage light will help

of approach to identify

(early approach). the spacecraft

flashing

against

star background.

A_CS system

jet thrusters

and approach-correcting

propulsion

The attitude ers and approach and crientation tation engines

and motion

control

system,control system comprise

jet thrust14 approach

correcting engines (0E),

propulsion

(AOE) each of 10 each.

kg-thrust

and 8 orien-

I kg-thrust

- 53 -

These

thrusters

are fired

in various

combinations

accord-

ing to the spacecraft They either craft turn about

control provide

logics. control moments and make the spacema-

its mass

centre

or they

enable

translational

neuvers. The descent which are fired vehicle also carries descent 6 control phase. system (ACPS), which reac(ACE) of (BCE) thrusters

during

the vehicle

The approach-correcting is designated tion pulse, to generate

propulsion

a correcting

and a rate-damping engine engine

has a one-chamber

approach-correcting backup correcting

417 kg-thrust with steering

and a two-chambers nozzles

of 411 kg-thrust. self-contained bipropellant tanks,a propellant-

The ACPS has feed system for

each engine

and appropriate

automatic

systems.

AMCS

modes flight program hold provides for the spacecraft stage. differ-

The Soyuz ent rity orientation of these

and attitude procedures modes

at each mission by concrete

The prio-

is defined

purposes. - begin with constant

Orientation searching reference

- both automatic The spacecraft point

and manual rotates

points.

with by

speed until

a specific

reference

is acquired the sensor

the sensor axis

or the cosmonaut's is aligned with

sighting

device. point

Then

central

the reference

direction. rigidly on the spaceselected Af-

The orientation craft modules. Their

sensors

are fixed with

alignment

celestial relative

bodies

provides

the spacecraft

orientation attitude

to these bodies.

ter that the spacecraft Automatic

is maintained. is performed using ionic sen-

orbital

orientation -

54 -

sot and infrared When

horizon

sensor. the spacecraft centre. Y-axis (lateral sensor The spaceto any spe-

using

the IR-sensor towards

axis) is directed aligns craft

the Earth with

The ionic plane.

the spacecraft

X-axis

the orbital

can be transferred

from its orbital to celestial

orientation reference

cific position programmed

in reference

points

using

turns, this procedure the gyros are uncaged at the de-

To perform sired moment turns.

and store

the reference

position

for any specific

The Soyuz control turns without rate pickups using gyrOs

system

allows

to perform

programmed

of a gyrc package. devices

In this case angular-

and their

integrating

are used. pickups allow to mainthe spaceof

The gyro

package

and angular-rate To maintain

tain the spacecraft craft needs

attitude.

the orientation

compensation

of disturbing

moments

due to the effect

the atmosphere

and the Earth package

gryvitationalfield. pickups illustrate functype. in-

The gyro tional redundancy

and angular-rate

when performing approaches control

orientation in solving

of one definite similar problems

The different creases ability". The spacecraft provided along the spacecraft

system

reliability

and its "surviv-

one-axis horizon

orientation sensor,

towards

the Earth

is

by the infrared

while

its orientation sensor.

the motion

direction

is performed pulse

by use of ionic by the

On generating assembly tude the spacecraft

a reaction will

approach-correcting its atti-

be stabilized

and maintain

unchanged. The spacecraft attitude of this - 55 stabilization system is provided by the

AMCS.

The special

device

measures

the velocity

increments pulsion

and upon

achieving

a specific

value

shuts

off the pro-

system. During the spacecraft the spacecraft sun-orientation rotation the onboard-automatic solar batteries it can which the

device

provides

and exposes

to the sun radiation. be maintained spacecraft by means

When the proper of two ways,

position

is achieved, during

namely

by twist,

maintains

its attitude

llke a top, and by vibrations

about

the Sun direction° The cosmonaut type both in manual During cosmonaut device usually may perform the spacecraft modes. which are of great using the importance, the orientation of any

and automatic modes,

automatic monitors

the process

display,

sighting

or signalling The right

system

on the cosmonaut's

panel. to ensure setting the the

controller through

is used by the cosmonaut each of the three channels,

spacecraft spacecraft

control

rotational

speed up to 3 degrees mode the controller jet engines and fuel rendezvous, to docking

per second. enables the cosmonaut the space-

In the precision to use some pulses craft minimum AMCS

of control speed during prior

which

provide

rotational operation

consumption. approach the Soyuz and docking crew manually During this

Two revolutions turns the spacecraft the

to perform

its orbital aligns

orientation. its velocity

orientation while

spacecraft

X-axis

with

vector, On acusing de-

one of its Y-axis orbital AMCS.

is directed

towards

the Earth

centre.

complishing

orientation Upon begin

it is maintained "Soyuz" with

automatically "Apollo"

the spacecraft vices

detecting their

optical

the spacecraft

approach.

- 56 -

To facilitate early module approach carries

"Soyuz"

detection dark phase

and identification the Soyuz

during

at the orbital body-mounted

instrument-assembly of the white of

flashing

beacons_he at a

flashes

light allow to detect the spacecraft kilometre s. The onboard teries of need are used coloured

distance lights

of hundreds

orientation

located

on solar batcase

to visually

determine

the spacecraft between should

attitude.In

the crew may

establish

communication lights_

the spacecraft

by switching cation

on and off the onboard the spacecraft spacecraft

the radio communi-

between

be net established docking target

for some reasons. from

The Soviet "Apollo" at With to determine ment using 10 meters. D_ring orientation relative a

can be observed

distance

of 200 meters. of a few dozens attitude at meters, the target allows The precise align-

the distance the spacecraft

and distance. a distance

the target

is performed

of approximately

approach After

and docking

the Soyuz

spacecraft

changes

its

mode.

that it maintains

its constant

orientation

to celestial To observe

bodies. target it is convenient since to automatiof the

the docking

cally maintain target

such inertial

orientation, during

the conditions

illumination

de net change

the spacecraft the Soyuz fit for

approach.

When in the vicinity turns about its X-axis

of "Apollo",

spacecraft docking. this position. and dis-

and sets into position system stores

The orientation

and maintains

The D_ contact sensors respond to the spacecraft contact able the Soyuz attitude and motion control system.

- 57 -

3.2.4

Life

support

systems.

Purpose

and composition

The main

function

of the Soyuz life conditions and joint

support during

systems the flight with the

(LSS) is to provide for Apollo the crew crew.

life supporting transfers

to perform

activities

The LSS provide temperature crew with and sanitary

and maintain conditions.

the required

atmosphere, the

The LSS also provide

food and water.

Punctionally

the systems supply

can be divided system;

as follows:

- gas composition - pressure - thermal

suit set; control system; supply systems; facilities.

- food and water - furnishings

and hygiene

Per system

the Soyuz/Apollo to provide

flight

the gas composition

support an

was modified

a possibility mm Hg.

of establishing

atmosphere

with pressure

of 490-550

The high the necessity to ensure

limit was

taken

close

to maximum

which

excluded was taken than 40%).

of performing (the oxygen

desaturation; volumetric

the low limit contents

safety

not more

- 58 -

The Soyuz atmosphere ing in the Apollo ditional equipment were fire

high

oxygen

percentage made

and cosmonauts' to perform of the

stayad-

oxygen

atmosphere

necessary part

safety

certification

of the most

Soyuz used

and assemblies,

and in some

cases the materials

replaced.

The joint flight should Soyuz during also be developed: structural elements

required

that

the thermal are made engine

control

_stem the

the _rovisions from the Apollo

to protect plume heating of a bracket

the decking,

a heat-exchanger transceiver

in the form installed

was Mo-

developed dule.

for the Apollo

in the Orbital

Gas composition Gas composition the Soyuz spacecraft are open)

support support

system system is designed module when to provide transfer in tuncom-

(and in the docking the required oxygen contents and

nel hatches position

life supporting dioxide

atmosphere

and pressure, impurity

and carbon required.

partial

pressure module

and hazardous pressure

The GCSS provides both during

equalization

depressurization

the space-

- 59 -

craft grity

autonomous

and joint

flights,

monitors

module

pressure

inte_ gas

and atmosphere

contents.

If necessary, the GCSS provides

leakage make-up and maintains the suit pressure required.
In the first exceeds the atmospher_a with orbits the Soyuz spacecraft pressure slightly

pressure

because

of the module site.

additional The addifor the com-

pressurization tional

oxygen

performed

at the launch the normal

pressurization

will provide

oxygen

contents

the subsequent pletion sure

depressurization

to 490-550 with

mm Hg. Following crew

of the joint activities to atmospheric

the Apollo

the Soyuz pres-

is increased

as a result

of the air pressuriza-

tion from a specially-designed

tank. and hazardous as the replenishment of

The removal of carbon dioxide impurities the oxygen excreted consumed by the crewmen during breathing as well

are performed Vehicle

by the regeneraand the Orbital air is supplied containwith oxy-

tion facilities Module.

installed

in the Descent is

The operating

principle

as follow_

to the regenerators ing potassium gen, when increases sorber.

by means

of fans;

in _he regenerators and enriched

superoxide

the air is purified is inoperative

the regenerator

or the CO 2 concentration to the CO 2 ab-

up to the high level,

the air is supplied

The DV regenerator and during the autonomous

is used flight.

only at the phase

of insertion

The DV regenerator DV panel. The 0_ regenerator to commands

is controlled operation

by

the crewmen

from

the

is performed

automatically cont-

in response

of the gas anylyzer.

The regenerator

rol can also be performed The monitoring by the regeneration

from the DV and OM panels. composition by maintained

of the atmosphere is performed

facilities

two gas analyzers

- 60 -

D

installed

in the Descent Vehicle When 02 and CO 2 contents produces warning

and the Orbital Module. exceed allowable values, the DV

gas analyzer

signals. and a pressure is more integrity check are

A pressure-and-vacuumgauge unit, producing signa]s when leakage

than 70-90 mm Hg/hr, module, transfer

installed and

in the OM to verify integrity. leakage occur,

the habitable

tunnel

interface

Should storage

it may

be compensated

from the air of

tank designed

for module

pressurization pressure

during a period suits.

time required

for the crew

to don their

0xJgen-nitrogen pressure required

mixture

(40% oxygen)

can be supplied for a period

to the

suit both manually for the spacecraft A pressare control

and automatically descent unit

of time

and landing. onboard the spacecraft

is available

D

to maintain

the module

pressure

within

the specified

limits.

Pressure

suit set two pressure pressurized suits, four ventilation sysgar-

The set comprises tems, two inflight bags,

collar,

two sets of flight

ment and two headsets. with a built-in opening window. have

The pressure

suit is a so£t pressure is rigidly

shell an gloves.

soft helmet. The pressure

The helmet

fixed with

suit is provided suits with

with removable the Soyuz descent.

The crewmen sertion,

their pressure and undocking

on during and

orbit inDuring the in

docking

ApollO,

other flight phases the Orbital Module.

the pressure

suits are stowed in the bags

During conditions

the suited

operation

the necessary

life

supporting suits with

are established ventilation

by ventilating facilities

the pressure

cabin air using

installed

in the DV. Each

pressure tem.

suit

is ventilated

separately

by its ventilation system fail, another

sys-

Should

one of the DV ventilation system provides suits ventilating

ventilation If necessary, supplied

of both pressure

suits.

pressure

can be ventilated system.

with gas mixture

by the spacecraft The activation

onboard

of the gas mixture

supply

system systems

as are as

well

as deactivation These

of pressure operations

suit ventilation performed

automatic. well.

can be

manually

The pressure in the Orbital _odule;

suit

donning

and doffing

are performed the pressure

during cabin

donning

and doffing

suits are ventilated systems used installed

with

air by means

of the ventilation systems are two

in the OM. drying. suits

These Pressure

ventilation suit drying

for the suits

involves

phases:

two pressure

are being

dried

simultaneously, of gloves device

then each pair of gloves is being is connected which to a ventilation

dried. One pair

system using tools.

a special

is stowed in a kit with

After flight bags. After DV with their

drying the pressure

suits

are stowed

in the in-

the spacecraft pressure

landing

the crewmen

egress

the

suits on. or emergency suit will escape a

In case of the DV splashdown cosmonaut rized without doffing a pressure

don a pressu-

collar

and leave

the DV.

- 62 -

Thermal

Control

System Control System provides the following: of 15the the

The Soyuz - habitable 25Oc, range range

Thermal module

temperature module

within

the range

habitable of 20-70%; of 0-40°C;

relative

humidity

within

instrument

bay temperature

within

- set temperature of the design

of equipment including APDS

and different components

components ra-

and Apollo

dio set installed - module During ments Earth, flight control Docking surface zeroo The Soyuz Thermal the spacecraft face to space unregulated environment, heat from are heated equipment the Soyuz engine atmosphere

in the Soyuz ventilation. flight

spacecraft;

the orbital

the spacecraft heat

structural sources:

ele-

from external and crewmen.

and internal Besides,

the Sun, joint

during

the spacecraft

is additionally heating

affected

by the Apollo transfer

attitudethe

plume

rates

and heat

through

Assembly. is absorbed

The heat generated by space with

by the spacecraft close

external

temperature

to absolute

Control heat

System

is designed through

to minimize surto

transfer

its external

on one hand, the spacecraft

and,

on the other hand, heat sources

take excessive dissipate

internal

and

it in space The Thermal

environment. Control System comprises thermal insulation

and hydraulic

system. thermal insulation is placed on the

The shield-vacuum spacecraft between external surface and

and allows space.

to minimize

heat exchange

the spacecraft

63-

The h_draulic fluid accumulates

system the heat

(Fig. 3.8) from internal

The sources

circulating and dissipates

it in space. The moisture hydraulic collection_ system comprises units for hea_ collection, heat rejection and

hydraulic

system

control,

air ventilation

within

the modules. operates as follows.

The hydraulic

system

The heat ferred within plied

generated

by the equipment within

and crewmen

is trans-

to the air circulating the modules is performed module

the modules.

Air circulation air is supand inby

by fans. The heated heat

to the habitable

exchanger-condensers where

strument

bay gas-to-liquid system

heat exchanger

it is cooled

the hydraulic The rained

liquid. within the hydraulic system is mainto

liquid

temperature changing

by regulator

flow rate

of the liquid

going

the radiator

to be cooled. module air temperature flow rate required is maintaintoheat ex-

The habitable ed automatically changers

by changing When

of air supplied cooled

to be cooled.

the air is being the air water The moisture collector. the cooling through

in the habicondensate is pump-

table module

heat exchangers surfaces.

vapors

on heat exchanging ed out by _ pump In addition the hydraulic structural mounting The habitable

eondensated

into the moisture to air cooling, liquid (for

is performed the ch_nels

by of the

system

passing

elements

example,

cooling

of the Apollo

radioset

bracket). hydraulic module system consists of two hydraulic bay circuit circuits: which is con_

circuit

and instrument

7

I I

L

7

io

....

HEAT ACCUMULATION MOISTURE

ELEMENTS:

2--

Heat exchanger-condenser; 3-Moisture pump; removal 8--

11,14 pump;

-- Neat exhcnager;

5--Transceiver

bracket

ACCUMULATION

ELEMENTS: 7-I3-t-Fan;

6 -- Condensate

collector 4--By-pass valve

HYDRO-SYSTEM HEATDISPOSAL

CONTROLLERS: ELEMENTS:

Hydraulic Radiator. 9--

liquid flow regulator;

lO -- Compensator;

VENTILATION

ELEMENTS:

Heat exchanger

fans;

FIGURE 3.8 THERMAL

CONTROL

SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

nected

to the radiator-emitter. heat exchanger. is transferred with lower

The circuits heat

are connected

by liquidmodule bay

to-liquid circuit circuit ment

The excessive

of the habitable to the instrument heat

in the heat

exchanger

temperature

and the _xcesslve as a result

of the instrusur-

bay circuit

is dissipated

of radiator-emitter liquid

face radiating is performed

to space by pumps.

environment.

The circuit

circulation

Throughout operating a regular

the Soyuz

flight

the Thermal

Control

System

is is

automatically. condensate The docking

The only operation out from thermal

performed

manually exchangers.

pumping system

DV and OM heat is provided

mode

by the shield-

vacuum and the covers lated

fiber with

thermal insulation certain optical

of DS Surface as well as by (placed on uninsu-

characteristics

surfaces).

Pood

Supply

System daily food-ration tubes comprises various natural

A cosmonaut's food products ration also packed

into aluminum a wide variety

and tin cans. packed

The food

involves

of bread cake)

in cellophane can-

(Borodinskiy, died peels,

Rizhskiy, refractory

Stolovy, chocolate,

Honey

and as a desert biscuits, Pood

sweets,

ship's

etc.

All these value vers of daily

products

are very nourishing. is 2700-3000 organism. Cal

nourishment co-

ration

per capita of the

that fully

daily energy During

losses

the flight

the crewmen

take food four

times

every

24 hours. The menu is made up to every crewmen's ent menus, menu each repeated every fourth taste (three differis the

day). The following

of the 3_ day: I. Bx_akfast. coffee wlthmilk. Meaty paste, Borodinskiy bread, sweets Pra-

line,

- 66 -

II. Launch. a honey cake. Ill. Dinner. prunes with nuts.

Cottage

cheese

cream

with black

currant

pur_e,

"Kharcho"

soup, chicken

meat,

Stolovy

bread,

l

IV. Supper. cheese. The overall 2843 Cal with protein bohydrate contents

Meaty

puree,

Stolevy

bread,

Rossiyskiy

nourishment contents

value

of the third

day ration

is

- 126 g, oil contents contents

- 130,5 g,car-

- 271,1

g, water

- 670,5 g.

It should be noted comprises cottage cheese

that the menu of the third day (dinner) black currant pure_e. It is vecheese. It is

cream with

ry tasty food product mild and has a faint value is 413 Cal. Prunes with prunes

made taste

of a high-quality of black currant

cottage jam.

It's nourishment

nuts are also very

tasty.

The combination

of

and nuts is not so dry and more tasty. The first courses, some meat products (bird pur_e, meaty

pur_e), ed up. aboard food

coffee Taking

with milk are less

tasty when

cold than when warmis provided

this fact into consideration The heater allows

a heater

the spacecraft.

to warm up tubes with

stuff. Three sets of dinner are provided The dinner with nuts, food stuff aboard the Soyuz first space-

craft for the US astronauts. canned meat, bread, prunes

comprises

courses,

sweets. is enclosed in individual the date of

The daily ration packages food labelled

in R_ssian

and English

to indicate

taking. Aboard the Soyuz spacecraft there is a fcldi_ using hold-down table on may

which

the cosmonauts

and astronauts

facilities

- 67 -

place

their food

stuff

to have

a meal.

Water

Supply

Syste m of the Water Supply System is to store and

The function supply potable water,,

The portable in the Orbital Nodule.

water

is stored

in a storage storage

tank installed

The ball-shaped

tank has two cavito

ties: one for water, separate the water When aphragm

the other - for air. There is a diaphragm

and air cavities. cavity is being charged with water the diof

the water

is bent thus expelling tank. Water

all the air from the air cavity is performed

the ball-shaped

expelling

by the diaphpressure

ragm at an excessive (compared pump. The accepted is 1,7 1. with

pressure

in air cavity. pressure)

The excessive

the environment

is created

by the hand

daily value

of water

consumption

per capita

The difference potable Water storage storage taste

between

the tank potable contains

water

and ordinary

is that the first

silver ions

pe_mltting the odor,

of water in the tank for a few months; period the tank water transparent. device is designed doesn_ acquire

an throughout an unpleasant

and remains

The receiving the storage vidual

to receive

water

from

tank. It has a valve and a socket to install Individual and visiting of water mouth-pieces astronauts. three are provided

an indiin the O_

mouth-piece.

for the cosmonauts For ease provided bellows: part

consumption

"space glasses"

are

in the Descent

Vehicle.

The body of the glass is like a is being consumed. In the upper to open

it is folding up as water there

of each glass

is a button-type - 68 -

by-pass

valve

the water glass

cavity,

and a receiving

tube to consume with water from

water.

When a

is empty,

it can be refilled

the tank.

Clothes The Soyuz cosmonauts' fabric specially manufactured suits are made for ASTP mission. (a jacket and trousers) ensure convenience will not of thermal resistant

The suit of sports style restrict pockets movements

and will

in work.The things

of the suits are large pencils).

enough

to hold all necessary

(note-books,

If required, under the jacket. The constant is made hygienic ability, of cotton-flax properties: water

the cosmonauts

may put on a wool

cardigan

wear garment knitted

(a part

of the inflight good physiological

clothing) and perme-

linen with

hygrcseopicity,

air permeability,

steam

absorption. light leather boots are protected by co-

The cosmonauts' vers made of linen lela.

The inflight cosmonauts

clothing

as a whole and Apollo

ensures

comfort

for

the

to stay in the Scyuz

spacecraft.

Personal

H_vgiene Facilities hygiene facilities comp_lse damp and dry nap-

The personal kins and towels,

combs,

hmir brushes

and nail-files. of gauze, they are convenient are damp-

Damp and dry napkins for use and have ed with lotion. mouth cavity a pleasant

are made

smell

of jasmine.

Damp napkins

Damp and dry napkins

are used for face, hands and

hygiene. are provided for sponging a body.

Damp and dry napkins

- 69 -

Towels

are made

of linen. day's toilet the cosmonauts collector. toilet set. use an electric ra-

For every zor equipped with

a specific

hair

Each cosmonaut

has an individual

Waste

_anagement

System System is placed in the Orbital liquid wastes Module. (uriinto and

The Waste Management The operating principle

is based

on transferring

ne) by air flow to a collector liquid stored liquid and gaseous phases.

where

the particles (£eces) are

are divided collected solid

Solid wastes

in pressure-tlght waste unpleasant

volumes. odors

The system

prevents

and into the

and impurities

to penetrate

atmosphere

of the spacecraft.

- 70 -

3.2.5

Radio/Electronic The Soyuz

Equipment radio/electronic system, equipment cable includes communicasystem

spacecraft

radio/_elephone tion equipment, and orbit

communication command radio

TV-system, line,

communication system.

telemetry

parameter

measurement

The spacecraft ground voice crew radio equipment communication activities

radio/electronic (the ground

equipment and MCC crews,

together

with

the

station

equipment)

provide of the from the of

wi_h

the Soyuz/Apallo

observation

via TV-communication systems remote

lines, control

TV-transmissions from the ground,

space,

the spacecraft

spacecraft the

system/assembly trajectory.

operation

monitoring

and determination

spacecraft

Radio/telephone system provides

communication HP/VHF

system.

The Soyuz voice with the ground

communication and also with

communication

the Apollo. VH2 range in@eight air/ground tions is used for communication stations. with HF range with the spacecraft provides sta-

of the VH_-ground communication

utilization

the spacecraft

out of the ground

sight. A compatible voice communication frequencies system which operates in

VHF range was

at two American for

and at one Soviet This system provides

frequency, the Soyuz/ and are in

developed

the joint flight. during

Apollo also

communication

rendezvous stations

phase when

and after

docking,

that with

the USA ground AOS

the two spacecraft Similar equipment

in these

stations

(aquisition provides

of signal).

the Apollo

spacecraft

Apollo

communication

with

the Soyuz

crew and the USSR ground craft are in the USSR

stations

(Figure _9) when the two space-

stations

AOS.

- 71 -

Joint problem

examination

of the rendezvous

system

compatibility in a short time relatit was

concluded

that it is impossible radio system which

to develop

an international ive attitude proposed that

provides

the spacecraft Therefore

and motion the voice

parameters

determination.

communication Por

system be used

to measure

range between ped with besides increase nals" craft diated measured voice

the spacecraft.

this purpose to provide

the Soyuz was equipcommunication conversion and (to sig-

the USA VHF serve

transceiver

voice

as a transponder feature)

or provide

reception,

noiseproof

and retransmission VHF system. Range

of "measurement between

radiated

hy the Apollo

the spacesignals" Range is ra-

is measured by Apollo

by comparing and of those without

phases

of "measurement by Soyuz.

retransmitted imte_rupting

automatically

spacecraft-to-spacecraft

communication. The voice communication system includes the following: and

- two transceivers operating

supplied

by the USA and the USSR frequencies

at American

and Soviet

respectiv-

ly to provide - VH_/HP - speaker

spacecraft-to-spacecraft for communication signal

communication; with the ground;

transceivers

box and audio dynamics,

amplifiers;

microphones, antennas. Radio the cosmonaut Volume also built controls

headsets;

communication control panel.

system

control

is accomplished

through

controls

for signals

received

via voice

communication

are

in this control

panel. station

There are

three individual volume

volume of

at each cosmonaut Soyuz/Apollo

to control

of signals lines.

the air/ground,

and internal

communication

- 72 -

//
259,7 MHz 296.8 M Hz _-_E _-'-_

- 121.75 APOLLO _ _ _ MHz _ _L'-'--_'_ 296.8MHz"

_
SOYUZ

USA FREQUENCY--296.8

Mhz

USSR FREQUENCY-

121.75 MHz

Telephone Telegraph

_

-

USA Network

USSR Network

FIGURE

3.9 APOLLO

SOYUZ

TEST MISSION

COMMUNICATIONS

LINES

The selected transmitters (push-to-talk)

are switched on via l>iT seat arms and the control

built in the cosmonaut

panels or mounted on cables attachea to headsets. The Soyuz spacecraft is equipped with two sets of antennas for spacecraft-to-spacecrait communication. The antenraaiation is very

nas are mounted on the orbital module. Omnidirectional paWtern is practically provided by these antennas which

important relative

for the spacecraf_ arbitrarily to each other.

positioned in space

TV-system. spacecraft.

A four camera TV-system is used in the Soyuz cameras are installed inside the spacecraft:

Three

one in the descent vehicle and two in the orbital module. One camera, mounted outside, looks at the docking system. cameras procide color transmission. can de transferred from Soyuz

Two of the internal

After docking a color TV-camera

and connected to the Soyuz cable system in Apollo.

The TV-eameras monauts anaas_ron_m_

are

switched_rom

the Soyuz. Bota cosin the TV-reportlng. transmitted

will be participating

During reporting_pictures to a Soyuz

will be simultaneously and to the ground.

onboard TV-screen

Besides transmission vides monitoring

of TV scenes; the TV equipment

pro-

the Soyuz system parameters. The equipment by commands from the ground or directly

control is accomplished from the spacecraft.

Cable communication

system a_,_--t-g system eleo-

Pollowing the spacecraft decking,the

- 7_ -

trical and

connectors_which

provide

spacecraft-to-spacecraft manually mated. including

voice

TV cable The

communications_are communication and

cable

system

equipment were

J-boxes

to connect for this

headsets test

TV cameras

specially

designed

project. radio from system. the USSR Gommand ground radio control system provides to uplink

Command transmission

stations

the Soyuz

of commands to remotely control the spacecraft systems. After
being received by the Soyuz onboard onboard receiver systems which a command or changes the sys-

switches tems'

on or off

various

mode

o£ operation.

Co_m_nms

have

_v _o into

effect

when the spacecraft is out of the USSR ground control station A@S shall be delivered to a special memory device where they
are stored until the appointed controls. communication line provides downlink time and then delivered to the

spacecraft The

automatic command

radio

transmission of signals which confirm reception and execution of commands transmitted to the spacecraft and also verification
of the board and ground time. s_stem. system Onboard operation telemetry remote system monitoring on

Onboard provides the

telemetry spacecraft

the ground. Onboard system operation parametmrs are automatically
measured, coded and transmitted on the the to the ground flight any in. ground. is automatically managers information and de-

Information coded Can red and

received

processed

so that have are

specialists measu-

at an_ time parameters

on request interested

on the

they

- ?5 -

Real when Soyuz

time

transmission

of telemetry measuring

data station

is accomplished AOS. When the

is within

the USSR

Soyuz is out of the USSR measuring station AOS, telemetry information is stored in special
0rbit radio parameters memories. s_stem. The Soyuz onboa_ facilitipara-

measurement with

system

in conj_ction accurate

the gro_ud of the

meas_ement orbit

es provides met er s.

measurement

spacecraft

3-3

Basic The

data on the So2u z spacecraft spacecraft launch vehicle

launch

vehicle 3.10)

Soyuz

(Figure

has 3 stages. I stage long,about engine of 102 and consists of @ side and units, with each the of which is 19m

3 m in diameter two steering

equipped having

four-chamber vacuum thrust

chambers

a total

tons. If sta_e is a central meters, ,_n_t of about equipped with 28 meters, _he with

maximum

diameter

of 2.95

fou_-cb_mber

engine and four steering chambers having a total vacuum thrust
of 96 toms. IIl diameter steering Launch stage is a ,m4t equipped of 8 meters with in length with engine a (with

of 2.6 meters, nozzles), weight

iour-chamber thrust the

generating launch

a vacuum vehicle

of 30 toms. Soyuz spacecraft)

of the

(with

is _ 300 toms.
At ted launch the The engines operation of the the cut-off of the I and of the @ side of the II stages stage The are igni-

simultaneously. the

second units.

continues stage

following

jettiso_mg following

third

is operative

II-m_l stage

engines.

- 76 -

C: ¸

=
W'

L] • ,ill

"l

"l

-

"J I

_C c
N C Z

,,-) -r < rn
Cb P

I stage ,_ II stage III stage Soyuz spacecraft with the cone installed

m

49,3m

Oxygen-kerosene launch vehicle.

propellant

is used for all stages of the (with the

The full length

of the launch vehicle

Soyuz spacecraft) is_ bilizers).

49 meters. Maximum

diameter is 10.3 m (sta-

3.4

Biomedical

requirements biomedical requirements imply all means and

The spaceflight

and measures used at the various stages of design, preparation flight ances implementation to prevent illness or functional

disturb-

which may hinder realization On designing

of the flight program. for the joint mission

the Soyuz spacecraft biomedical human problem

with Apollo

the first

solved was the choice of disturbance during

ga_6 atmosphere cosmonauts' craft.

to exclude

decompression

transfer from the Soviet spacecraft to the USA space-

Much attention rest period gienics regime to malntain

was paid to the cosmonauts' a high level work capacity. time is allowed rest period.

rational

work/

During the hy-

of crew activities procedures, active

for rest, eat period,

These procedures and to schedule

alternate

with work periods responsible actions

to avoid overstrain for periods

the most

of the maximum

work capacity. provision is made

For the purpose

of di§ease-prevention partial

for Soyuz and Apollo crew members'

isolation

before the

flight. The fact of the matter is that for some preset time period the crewmen of both side s will have primary contacts with a duration

limited number of persons. In view of the flight short the main procedures edunder conditions

and the crews' Joint activity will be performof severe weightlessness - 78 adaptation.

U

As is generally being under weightlessness with abrapt

known, during conditions motion) and

the first some

days

of human feeling may oc-

disagreeable changes

(specifically, cur which That

objective

usually

disappear will and

on the 5th or 7th day of the flight. be under all their regular surveillance should of the be planned

is why the crewmen medical personnel

ground with

activities

regard

to medical

requirements. of medical monitoring with the cre_vmen reof phyand

For ports on their

the purpose state

will be used

along

registration

siological spacecraft

parameters environment Concurrent

(electrocardiogram, inflight medical

respiratory

rate)

characteristics. monitoring dose monitoring effect. radiation lewill

with

be

conducted

to determine safety

the level service

of radiation also

Radiation

will

predict

vel in the spacecraft tory and forcast One more joint space flight solar

inhabited activity

modules

and in the mission

trajec-

(flares). of Soyuz/Apollo and astronauts a great during quantity space experimental will be in of preflight Due to the to reveal using

specific

feature

is that This

five cosmonauts will provide state duration

at a time.

and pos_flight spacecraft

data on human flight

flight.

different

it will

be possible

oharacteristic flight data

features of medical

of organism observation

weightlessness and human

adaptation

postflight

response

assessment. For out tion the both using this purpose it is necessary crew's proand to simultaneously postflight basic carry

spacecraft

examinaand func-

similar

or identical according

methods

of investigation procedures.

tional

test,

conducted

to unified

- 79 -

In so doing crewmen state of health is evaluated and potential latent diseases or functional anomalies are revealed

which require remedial or preventive Preflight preflight examination and postflight allow

interventiono data together human with to

medical

to evaluate

general

response

space factors of terrestrial adaptation

and to study readaptation gravity

behaviour

under conditions

force with the process

of weightlessness

not accomplished. Preflight and postflight examination program for the mediand

both

spacecraft

crews comprises individual

the following

procedures:

cal examination, laboratory cular

drug response

testing,

clinical

investigation,

biochemical

investigation,

cardiovastest,

system observation and immunologic have agreed crewmen

when in rest and during examination. Both

functional

vestibular specialists

Soviet

and American for the

upon procedures primary

and time schedule

Soyuz and Apollo

pre- and postflight

examination. 30,

The crews preflight

examination

is to be conducted

15 and 7-10 days prior to the flight according gram, while just before the flight only partial tion will take place. The crews' postflight mainly on the day the mission examination

to the full promedical e_am_na-

will be carried

out

is accomplished,

then on the Ist be re-

and 3d day after the flight. Should some abnormalities vealed, this examination will be periodically repeated.

- 80 -

4.0

MISSION DESCRIPTION

4.1

Nomina I mission Soyuz

model

CPl_._._) orbit b_ a launch-vehicle (I_,20 G_T) on

is launched complex

to the Earth

from July

Soviet

l_unch

at 15.20 Moscow

Time

15, 1975. The Soyuz is inserted of 51048 ,, with

into a 188 by 228-km period of about

orbit 88.6

at an inclination min. Pollowing

orbiting

the Soyuz insertion orbit.

the Soviet

tracking

stations to cal-

calculate culate mitted

the real insertion

The results

are used

the correcting

impulses

and the required

data is transthe Soyuz assem-

to the spacecraft. a number

During

two days of the flight

performs

of maneuvers

to transfer

to the circular

bly orbit with forming USSR more

an altitude

of 225 kin, that is, the orbit for perIn the 5th orbit when passing are once the

the docking

operations.

station

coverage

zone the Soyuz orbit is taken

parameters

radio measured

and a decision Soyuz launch

to launch Apollo.At be launched insertion a number will from the of _aneube made mu-

7 hr 30 min after tl_e Cape Canaveral Apollo will extract

the Apollo

will

launch

site,USA.After module

the orbit and perform

the docking

vers required

for the spacecraft when

rendezvous.The assume

docking

in the 36 orbit tual location moment starts.

the two spacecraft

the required

(51 hr 55 minSafter two-day flight

the Soyuz lift-off). of the docked

Prom this

on, the joint

spacecraft function normalThe

The crews make transfer

sure that the E_ systems from one spacecraft by American

ly; the crews first transfer

to the other. and

in performed

astronauts

during

the two days American

of the

docked flight

each member spacecraft

of the

Soviet and Ameplan.Ac-

crews

will visit

the other

Soviet and

*) Here and further times are given for the nominal tual flight times can differ from those given. - 81 -

rican

crews

will

conduct from

joint

scientific

experiments

and

radio-

TV transmissions During

the spacecraft. flight thermal the spacecraft mode and are oriented so

the docked Apollo

that the required of Soyuz

the required

position

solar panels At 95 hr

are ensured. Soyuz lift-off the spacecraft un-

42 minafter

dock but

there are still which

some Joint

experiments

to be conducted. of the spacethe undockcon-

The experiments craft, redocking final

need

the orbital

maneuvering

and re-undocking separation

are conducted

after

ing. After

of the two spacecraft

each will

tinue its own activities The Soyuz and the Soyuz the lower After that

independently. is fired after during the 97th orbit The DV enters descent. The landat about

retro-rocket

DV is separated

the braking.

atmosphere

layer and performs develops

the controlled

the parachute

and the Soyuz lands. area of Kazakhstan

ing will

be performed

in the given will

142.5 hr GET.

The Apollo Soyuz

continue

in orbit for approximatethe Soyuz lift-off the Is-

ly 3 days after Apollo lands. will

landing.9

days after

splash

down in the Pacific ASTP program

ocean west

of Hawaiian

Thus the joint

will be accomplished.

Launch

of a second

So,yuz of completing Soyuz the Joint spacecraft cases: of Soyuz

To increase mission the Soviet which

the probability

side will

have a second

available

will be launched causes

in the following a premature with Apollo;

a) a contingency prior b) Apollo

landing

to its docking

is not inserted launch.

into orbit

during

5 days af-

ter Soyuz

- 82 -

Docking

Separation

m aS°eUuYZe_ r s ,_ /

/_

polio approach

Dockedflight _'_I_ (two days)

__ X _ Apollo

so_uz_t
.4._ I in s°;btiton _ AP°elIrli°°rnbit

d_%., _> _
\ i , "_ deorbiting i,_

Soyuz lift-off _ 0
I

Apollo lift-off 1
I

Soyuz landing (USSR) 2
I

_ 6
I

splash-down (Pacific Ocean)

3
I

4
I

--9_
I

Time from Soyuz

lift-off

(days)

FIGURE 4.] FLIGHT TRAJECTORY

Second

Soyuz flight Soyuz.

profile

will be basically will

similar by

to that of the first the circumstances

Differencies Soyuz

be determined

of a second

insertion.

4,2

Explanation windows Every flight

of the preferred

mission

profile.

Launch

is preceeded profile.

by a trajectory A flight

analysis

which

aim is to choose constraints launch

a flight

should meet

different of the

and requirements insertion goals,

determined

by peculiarities

vehicle flight

zone_ requirements spacecraft flight

for the spacecraft and many can be

landing, other chosen

design peculiarities profile and launch

factors. only

A specific

time

after s.

the joint

analysis

of all

the above-mentioned

re quirement

Spacecraft ferent is why are purposes

of two

different

countries

designed

for

dif-

will be participating and requirements mission

in this joint

mission, that

the constraints

for the two spacecraft launch meet windows and

so different. times

The ASTP

profile,

launch of both

are chosen

so as to maximally

the requirements

sides.

The s_acecraft The chosen a possible launch change

launch

sequence launch sequence takes into account

spacecraft

of the launch the effect conditions.

azimuth

of Soyuz and Apollo date shift of the

vehicles

and

of the launch

spacecraft

landing

During Satellite

the spacecraft

insertion

into _rtificial some motion

Earth can

(AES) orbit and maneuvering

parameters

- 84 -

deviate

from

the calculated. of the

That

can be caused launch of the

by random control atmosphere parameter

errors sysand

in ftmctioning tems, other

spacecraft

and

vehicle Earth orbit

inaccurate errors.

current

parameters cause

These

errors

so-called

spread. they

As a rule

such spreads

are not great when

but nevertheless the second spacecraft should launch first

should

be taken since the

into account orbital

launching two

spacecraft coincide. azimuth then

planes

of the by

Orbital of the

planes

can be adjusted

changi_gthe is launched have

second

spacecraft.

If Apollo will Soyuz

the launch

azimuth,

if necessary,

to be changed zone corresthe

by Soyuz pondsto launch

and this

is not a_missible. territory are

insertion Union.

the populated vehicle stages areas azimuth

of the Soviet onto

Since

jettisoned be carefully

the Earth

the

location choosing

of populated the launch

should and

considered

when

insertion

programe profile Soyuz is launched first

According and Apollo tive zone ion will

to the adopted to make

have

the necessary since the

correction has its

of the acinsertion insert-

portion over there

which

is admissible Following a necessity was also

Apollo

_he ocean. can arise - this sequence.

first

spacecraft the

orbit

to postpone considered

second

spacethe space-

craft craft

launch, launch With

when

choosing

the Soyuz

launched

first

the Apollo

launch

delay

would

only better first

the Apollo the Soyuz

spSa sh - down conditions. launch date shift and would

If Apollo its

is launched landing ations craft,

worsen

conditions. determined

The above-mentioned the preferred launch

some

other fom the

considerspace-

sequence

- 85 -

Launch

windows window is a period of time during a launch the

A launch which given ensures

the fulfilment

of the mission

tasks and meets

constraints. The Soyuz launch time is chosen so as to meet the followon the landing engagement day.

ing conditions

during

the first

daily orbit retrorockets

a) Prior should have tem.

to the Soyuz

cosmonauts sys-

a possibility

to manually

operate

the orientation during

To satisfy should

this requirement pass

the spacecraft

the requir-

ed period

over the lighted

side of the Earth.

b) Soyuz DV landing before craft sunset rescue in the landing following

must take place at least one hour area.This is necessary for the space-

its landing. time of day for Apollo consideration involving area for launch is deter-

The desirable mined by the following daylight

the requirement the D¥ rescue. after lift-off or

of having

in the splash-down

The splash-down the splash-down must area. take place To meet

in case of an abort

in the Pacific at least

at the conclusion before sunset

of the mission in the landing launch windows

2-3 hours

these

requirements launch range

the spacecraft date during a compromise would

were determined launch windows spect

for every

1975. If these decision with re-

had a common

to the USA and USSR

constraints range. geographical

be reached

by choos-

ing a launch

time from this different

However launch common ly meet complexes range,

location

of USSR and USA in no such

and different

requirements

resulted

that is why it appeared of both sides.

impossible

to simultaneous-

the constraints

- 86 -

The discussion decision sides: I) Soyuz launch through based

of this problem moderated

resulted

in a compromise of both

on the following

constraints

windows

for the period so as to ensure and reserve

from _aroh, the nominal

I land-

October, I are dete_nined

ing in the 3d orbit of the nominal

landing

days; for

the other periods _ in the 2nd daily orbit. 2) Nominal by 25 minutes for "daylight" time for Apollo rescue is reduced I;

for the period

from March,

I through

October,

the other periods The launch

- by 50-90 minutes. determined on the above-mentioned and the Soviet the nominal sides; launch ba-

windows

sis meet

the constraints windows were

of the American used

these launch time,

to determine

Nominal

launch

time and launch

windows

for several

dates are given below

(_oscow

Time) in Table 4.1.

Launch date

July, I

July, 15

August, August, I 15

Sept., I

Sept., 15

Upper limit of the launch window Nominal launch

15.44

15.30

15.08

14.40

14.09

13.38

time and lower limit of the launch window 15.34 15.20 14.58 14.30 13'59 13.28

S_acecraft

launch

time any time, provided that it is the Soyuz

Soyuz may be launched within a launch window. Per

this particular

mission

- 87 -

launch time was determined

so as to provide

the landing condi-

tions for a second Soyuz, if it has to be used. Apollo launch time is determined since the Apollo must be launched by Soyuz launch time

into the Soyuz orbital plane. occurs at 7.5 hours after

For the first time such an opportunity Soyuz launch

(it is called the first launch opportunity).

The Apollo will be launched at 22 hr 50 min in Moscow Time, 19 hr 50 min in Greenwich Time, 14 hr 50 min in Houston Time. Since the Earth makes one revolution around its axis

per 24 hr and the spacecraft orbital plane in space changes relatively slowly the spacecraf_ trajectory every 24 hours passes

over the same regions of the Earth surface. This provides Apollo with additional launch opportunities. They occur once per 24 hoopportunity starts 25 minutes The Soyuz of

urs during four days and eachlaunch earlier than the possible launch

time on the day before.

flight profile Apollo,

remains the same for all 5 launch

opportunities

except for the docking time and the duration

of the dock-

ed flight. Assembly orbit orbit is an orbit of an Artificial Earth or-

An assembly Satellite

(AES), an orbit of the spacecraft for the Joint mission tasks, spacecraft

docking. Assembly

bit parameters to the mission rities.

were determined

with respect and peculia-

design capabilities

Thus these parameters attitude

were determined

so as to ensure in-

such a mutual sertion which

of the spacecraft for their

at the time of Apollo

is acceptable

rendezvous.

- 88 -

Soyuz During vers. Their

maneuvers the flight the Soyuz will perform up for errors which several maneu-

aim is to make insertion, docking

can occur

during for of

the spacecraft

to form a circular and to ensure of Apollo

assembly

orbit

Soyuz and Apollo the spacecraft

such a mutual which

attitude

at the time

insertion

is necessaby the

ry for rendezvous. crew or by commands Trajectory propulsion system

These maneuvers from Earth. correction operation

are performed

either

data - the time,

the duration orientation of actual

of

and the thrust using

vector

during a maneuver bit measurements

- is determined and is transmitted

the results

or-

to the spacecraft station.

when it is

in the coverage

zone of a Soviet

tracking

SO.ZUZ landing First occur three orbits of every day (first daily orbits) over the same must take

(due to the Earth of the Soviet

rotation) where

approximately the Soyuz orbits

regions place,

Union

landing are used

that is why these particular deorbiting. If necessary

for the may be perday.

spacecraft formed

the Soyuz landing

in the first

daily orbits

of the following

(reserve)

4.3

So_-uz independent Soyuz independent

flight flight begins from Soyuz insertion (accomp-

into AESorbit lishment

and ends with

Soyuz and Apollo

rendezvous

of rendezvous During

maneuvers). the Soyuz insertion into an ellip-

this flight

tical

188 by 228 km orbit with an inclination

of 51.8 ° will be

- 89 -

performed (which orbit

and

during

the first

and

second

days of the flight a circular assembly

correspond with

to 4th and

17th orbit),

an altitude The Soyuz

of 225 km will be established. reduce the pressure in the living and con-

crew will

modules duct

to 520 mm Hg, verify scientific sequence below. GET
, .

radio and experiments. flight

TV communication

the planned The

of main

operations

and crew

acti-

vities

isgiven

Orbit

_ain

events

00:00

1975,

July

15/12:20 from

G_T

(15:20

MT)

-

Soyuz launch at Baikonur

the

launch

complex

Ist

orbit

Orbit launch nels

insertion. vehicle.

Separation Deployment

from

the pa-

of solar

and

antennas.

3d orbit 2 hr 51 min

Verify

voice

communication of the USSR

modes: MCC with Soyuz

communication spacecraft

via USA

communication flight Soyuz.

network;

2 hr

53 min

communication in the USA _CC

of the with

centroller

3d orbit

Dinner

(40 min)

4th

orbit

Perform the first maneuver to form a circular assembly orbit with an altitude of 225 km

- 90 -

_--Bw_mm------m_----_--_--m

.......

-- .....

-- _ -- -- ---- -- ---- ---- -- -- _ _ B -- ......

--....

-- -- ---- _ ---- .

Orbit

GET

_ain events

5th orbit 7 hr

Orient solar panels to the Sun Report from the USSR MCC to the USA _CC on the Soyuz readiness status based on the results of the first maneuver.

5th orbit

Conduct experiments: ,'Zone-formin_ fungi" - (observe tograph the ZFF) ; growth"-

and pho-

,'micro-organism

(observe

the

micro-organism growth) ; "First embryonic development" Biocatdevice, secure

- (unstow

it in 0M).

7th orbit

Supper; prepare for sleep period.

8-9 orbit

8-10 hr

Begin Ist rest period. Sleep period (8 hours).

14 orbit

_orning toilet. Breakfast (30 min). Spacecraft systems check.

15 orbit

Conduct experiments: _icro-organism growth (observe ro-organism growth) ,'ZFF" (observe and photograph

the micthe ZFP)

16 orbit 17 orbit

Lunch (30 min) Perform the second maneuver to establish a circular assembly altitude of 225 km orbit with an

18 orbit

Orient solar panels to the Sun

19 orbit

28 hr 11 min

Verify TV communication Soyuz and the USA MCC

lines between

- 91 -

Orbit
,,

GET

main events
, ,

19 orbit

Dinner(40 min)

22 orbit

Conduct experiments: "ZFF', (observe and photograph the ZFF)

23 orbit

Supper (30 rain).Individual time. Evening toilet.

34 hr 20 min

Begin the second rest period. (8 hours)

Sleep

32 orbit

Conduct experiments: "ZFF" (observe and photograph growth" growth) the ZFF) ; the "Micro-organism micro-organism (observe

33 orbit

Orient to the Earth for "braking". Conduct experiments: and visual observation of "Photography daylight

horizon".

4.4

Spacecraft rendezvous and dockin_ Soyuz/Apollo rendezvous and docking will take place into

during

the 3d day of Soyuz flight orbit with an altitude will

(x_lth the Seyuz

inserted

a circular of 51,8

of 225 km and an inclination conduct a number of maneuvers

degrees);

the Apollo

to approach

th e Soyuz. This maneuvering will result link in the spacecraft deckThe folex-

ing. A presst_-tight lowing ternal compatible orientation

interface

will

the spacecraft. and

means

are used

for rendezvous USA and USSR targets.

decking:

lights,

beacons,

VHF-radiostations,

an optical, sighting

device and

docking

- 92-

The sequence activities Orbit 33 orbit is given GET 48:34

of Soyuz main

flight

operations

and crew

below: Main events Apollo performs a maneuver to ensure the required difference in altitude between navithe spacecraft for Apollo onboard

gational measurements. Distance the spacecraft is approximately

between 480 km

and reduces in the progress of rendezvous. The Soyuz is in the orbital orientation mode

34 orbit

48:43

Distance between the spacecraft is about 441 km. Apollo crew begins visual tracking of Seyuz using a sextant; the crews check the compatible VHP - communication means. Prior to entering the darkness in the 34th orbit on the beacons. the Soyuz crew switches

49:18

Distance between the spacecraft is about 269 kin. Apollo perfo_s a correction maneuver to control the phasing and plane spacecraft differentials in altitude between the

and angle.

49:26

Distance between the spacecraft is about 241 kin. Soyuz transponder and Apollo transceiver are on. Apollo starts track-

ing of the Soyuz using 49:55

VH_-radiomeans.

Distance between the spacecraft is 150 km. Apollo transfers into co-elliptical orbit (the orbit with constant difference in altitudes referenced to the Soyuz orbit); this brings about constant difference in altitude between

- 93 -

Orbit

GET

_ainevents
,p

the spacecraft. paration

The Soyuz crew begin preand transfer at the

for docking

beginning of the 35th orbit: perform necessary manipulations with equipmentand systems, required for the docking and transfer, don pressure suits, inform the MCC and Apollo on rendezvous operations and get _he required information_ 35 orbit 50:54 Distance between the spacecraft is about 39 km. Apollo starts transferring into interception 51:52 trajectory.

Distance between the spacecraft is 2 km. Apollo retards, reduces its relative velocity and flies around the Soyuz for assuming approach. the initial position prior to

51:31

Distance between the spacecraft is 3050 m. Apollo station-keeping relative to Soyuz, the docking each other. systems are facing

36 orbit

51:40

The Soyuz crew is in DV,the hatch between DV and OM is closed. On the Apollo request the Soyuz rolls for ensuring the required orientation of Apolle high - directional antenna to the communication satellite which will transmit to Earth the information on the rendezvous and docking progmess. After the roll the Soyuz maintains the mode of inertial attitude hold.

51:45

- 94 -

Orbit

GET 51:50

Main events After the final check of the spacecraft systems Soyuz and Apollo crews confirm their readiness for docking. Apol-

lo approaches _he Soyuz using the optical sighting device, installed aboard the Apollo and the docking target mounted on the Soyuz. The crew maintain the radio communication exchanging the in-

formation

on the progress

of the main

operation accomplishment. The Soyuz external survey TV camera is activated to control the Apollo motion; Soyuz

crew perform photography aching Apollo. 51:55

of the appro-

The docking systems of the two spacecraft are captured and retracted; Apollo the

interface

is sealed.

maintains

the orientation of the docked spacecraft. The crews report to Earth on the complete transfer other. from docking and prepare for

one spacecraft

to the

4.5

Crews joint activity Soyuz/Apollo crews

in the orbit can be specified as

joint activity

follows: I. Spacecraft 2. Approach 3. Docked rendezvous; and docking; flight; redocking and final undocking; flight of the space-

4. Undscking, 5. Joint craft;

experiments

during

separate

- 95 -

6. Separation Mai_ referenced lift-off. @vents of

of Soyuz and Apollo. cosmonauts elapsed and astronauts joint activity are

to ground

time (GET), i.e. time from the Soyuz

Spacecraft The crew the spacecraft

rendezvous of Soyuz and Apollo performmaneuvers to bring

(they are in differentorbits) spacecraft to spacecraft in it.

as near as 30-50 m, radio communication

they also establish and check all

the systems

involved

Orbit

GET

Main events

33 orbit

Start joint activity in orbit. Preoare the orbital Conduct zon" Establish orientation systems. horis_

"Photography Soyuz

of daylight

experiment. orbital orientation

that solar panels this is necessary Soyuz using 34 orbit 49:05

are properly for tracking sextant.

lightee: of the

the Apollo

Establish radiocommunication with Apollo and verify systems of radiocommunication between the spacecraft.

49:26

Activate VHF ranging

35 orbit

51:00

Prepare Soyuz inertial attitude hold system.

51:18

Prepare docking system for operation.

- 96 -

Approach Apollo entation of two during approach

and docking

phase is in the inertial as rigid ori-

to the Soyuz (Soyuz contact,

mode),

spacecraft

as well

coupling

spacecraft this phase.

and docking

interface

sealing

are performed

Revolution 36 51:45

GET

Main events Establishment of the Soyuz entation prior to docking Dock_ ng Soyuz system monitoring check and rough pressuinertial ori-

51:55 51:59 -52:13 52:13 52:1_-52:40
i

re integ/ity Cosmonauts Exact

of OM and DV from DV to OM. check of Scyuz

transfer

pressure

integrity volume

and interface in

between

spacecraft (fi_._.2) experiments, during

Phase

of the flight

docked joint

configuration scientific

Crew back-to-back TV coverages this phase.

transfers,

and film and picture

Shooting

are performed

Revolution

GET 52:$752:57 T,mnel

Main

events and pressure between the

2 pressurization check (t--_el

integrity

spacecraft). 37 53:0053:I2 Pressure Garment Assembly (PGA) doffing

and PGA connection

to the fan fo_ the

drylng
38 5_:47 Flight engineer rechecks after D_ t,,_nel 2 prespressurization. sure integrit_ Soyuz Commander

stows PGA's.

- 97 -

Revolution
,,,

GET
,,

Main events
,,|w

54:48 54:50-55:03

Hatch 4 opening DN/Scyuz pressure equalization. Preparatien of the astronauts and cosmonauts for TV coverage of the rendezvous in the orbit.

55:01

Hatch 3 opening _n_ astronauts transfer to the Soyt_z. Joint TV coverage of the rendezvous (greetings),

55:38-56:44

Joint activity period of the USSR and USA crews in the Soyuz; cosmonauts and astronauts exchange the flags of their countries, souvenirs and sign a joint document on the first international space docking. They perform film and picture shooting and have joint dinner.

39

56:44-57:10

Transfer of the docking module pilot and Soyuz flight engineer into DM to conduct joint "Multipurpose Furnace" experiment, Flight engineer returns then into OM. Transfer kits for "Microbial Exchange" DM. Exchange of "Rh_hme - I" devices. Apollo commander transfers into DM. to

57:I5

Close hatches 3 and 4. Monitor t,,n_el 2 depressurization.

57:24-57 :3 O

Pressure integrity check of hatches 3 and A. Conduct experiment s: "_Icroorgan_sm growth", "Genetic studies", "ZPF". systems checkout

AO

57: 35
58:II 59:00-66: 30

Presleep

Sleep period

46

66: 30-

Individual time

-67:30

-98-

_evolution

GET

Main

events

67:_0-67:45 67 :@5-68:25 47 68:42

Postsleep

systems

checkout

Breakfast

_ecomd

transfer

initiation. growth" hatch 4 experiment

"Microorganism _8 69:22 69:29 69:3I Cosmonauts Hatch open

3 opening. proceed to DM-Soyuz atmosphere

Astronauts mixing Command equipment

69:36

module

pilot

transfer Soyuz into

and USA

transfer

into

69:48

Soyuz

com_der

transfer and

D_ ' (_hus, stay in the

1"light engineer _oyuz ) 70:03 70:11- 70:17 Close Apollo check and4 Joint neer hatches flight pressure

DM pilot

3 and 4 engineer integrity and commander 3

of hatches

70:17-75:30

activity

period

of the

flight when

engiTV

and CM pilo_

in the So_uz,

coverages, zilms and pictures dinner and Z one-forming fungi experiment 70: 03-70:53 Tr-Dsfer ders Apollo from are performed

shooting, joint

of the So_uz the docking module

and Apollo module into

commanthe

command

- 99 -

Revolution _ET Main events

70:53-

Joint

activity

period

of

the

Apollo

com-

-74:40

madder, Soyuz commander and docking module pilot in Apollo, when TV coverages, films and pictures shooting, dinner and Multipurpose Furnace joint experiment are performed

51

74:40

Initiation of the Soyuz and Apollo commander transfer into _oyuz

52

75:28 75:36

Flight engineer opens hatch @ After D_-Soyuz pressure equalization, Apollo commander opens hatch 3. Initiation of the DM-Soyuz atmosphere mixing

75:47

Soyuz comm_nder transfers into OM Co_m_d module pilot transfers into D_

75:57
75:59 76:02 76:08

Apollo commander transfers into 0n Flight engineer transfers into D_ Closing of hatches 3 and 4 (thus, Apollo and Soyuz comm_nders stay in the Soyuz)

76:15-76: 21 76:22-79:53

Pressure integrity check of hatches 3 and

Joint activity

of the Soyuz A_

Apollo

comm_ders in the Soyuz, when TV coverages, films and pictures shooting MicroorgAnism Growth and Microbial Exchange Joint experiments are performed

76:22-76:55

Flight engineer and command module pilot

- 100 -

Revolution GET transfer films change Main events when TV coverages_ Microbial are Ex-

in the Apollo_

and pictures scientific engineer

shooting, experiment

performed pilot

5@

78:54

Flight transfer

and docking into DM

module

initiation

79:27 79:30

Soyuz Docking

comm_nder module

opens pilot

hatch opens hatch 3. Initiati-

on of the 79:40 Docking Microbial 55 79:55 79:56 80:14 80:2_ 80:28 80:34-80:41 8q :00 56 81:30-82:10 82:10-82:30 82:30-83: IO _ Individual Presleep Docking Flight Parting Apollo Close

DM-Soyuz

atmosphere transfers

mixing. into 0M and

module

pilot

Exchange module

experiment returns into DM

pilot

engineer of the

transfers cosmonauts

into and

Soyuz. astronauts. DM

oomm.'_der transfers hatches 3 and check

into

Pressure

integrity

of hatches

3 and

Zone-forming Supper

Fungi

experiment

systems

checkout

time

- 101 -

Revolution

GET

Main

events

57

83:I0-90:15

Sleep period

62

90:I5-9!:30

Individual

time

91:30-91:45

Postsleep

systems

checkout

63

91:45-92:45 93:00-94:25

Breakfast

"Microorganism "Zone-forming check

Growth" _ungi"

experiment. and system

experiment

Phase

of the undocking, undocking is set into is set into check

redqcking

and final during position, one.

undockin 5 phase. Soyuz

Spacecraft docking docking assembly assembly

is performed the 8ctive the passive

this

and the Apollo

Then crews perform integrity

redocking, check Revolution

systems

after

the docking,

pressure

of the interface GET

volume

and final undocking. Main events

64

94:25-95:00

PGA

donning

and transfer

into

DV

95:42:05

Undocking

-

102 -

Revolution C_.T 95:50 Establishment orien_ationand Main events

of the Soyaz inertial the setting of the

Soyuz docking system into the active position 66 96:11 96:20-96: 25 96:20-96:32 96:45 96:45 96:45-97:I0 97 :25-98:10 6_ 98:35 98:45 98:46 99:06-99:08 Flight engineer transfers into OM Soyuz commander transfers into OM Soyuz and interface volume pressure integrity check Dinner System check Spacecraft recontact Docking completion

Cosmonauts return into DV Hatch 5 closing System preparation for umdocking Fi-a_ undocking

- "105 -

Phase of the joint experiments durln_ the separate flight of the spacecraft During the phase the Apollo spacecraft performs the Soyuz fly-by at different distances and in different planes, keeps the orientation that is necessary for Ultraviolet experiment Absorption

cud performs _he TV coverage and photography.

Revolution 68 99:10 GET Main events Establishment tation. of the orbital orien-

99:10-102:45

Comduct the experiments

"UV-abserption"

and "Study the possibility of observation and identification of stars i_the daylight pa_t of the orbit".

99:20 99:24 99:24

TV coverage Open hatch 5 Cosmomauts tramsfer into OM

99:30 102:05

PGA doffing Fllm the Apollo

Phase of _he spacecraft separation DUring this phase the Apollo performs manoeuvre. After the completio_ proceed to the autonomous orblt-tra_sfer

of this m_noeuvre the crews

phase of _he flight.

- 104 -

Revolution

_T

Main events

70

_o2:45

Preparation

of the

Soyum systems

• for the spacecraft separation. 71 103:41 103 :%0 I0_:03 Apollo orbit-transfer manoeuvre

Perform the sun orientation Conduc_ the sclen_i_ic experiments "Genetic studies", "Mioroorg_ growth" _ "ZFF". Complete "UV-absorption" am

experiment.

Photograph the Apollo spacecraft.

The joint orbital activity of the Soyuz and Apollo crews on this phase of the flight is over.

- I05 -

Designations "APOLLO .... SOYUZ"

Tunnel

1-_

sTunnel

2

Command Module (CM)

Docking Module (DM)

Orbital Module (OM)

Descent Vehicle (DV)

AC -- Apollo DP -- Docking

Commander Module Pilot

SC -- Soyuz Commander FE -- Souyz Flight Engineer

CP -- Command

ModuLe Pilot

FIGURE

4.2 ASTRONAUTS

AND COSMONAUTS VEHICLE-TO-VEHICLE TRANSFER DIAGRAM

--106--

The first transfer

tronauts 1.

location

priortotransfer initiation

• Cosmonautsasand 02 02 02 -}- N2

2.

• AC and DP transfer into DM

280 02 02 + N 2

• Open hatch 2

3.

• 'DM pressurization to 490 mm Hg (astronauts)

52O 02 0 2+N2 02 -t- N2

• Close hatch 2

--107--

pressure 4. zation

ecluali(cosmonauts)

oDM--tunnel2 02 02 3-N 2 02 + N 2 02 3-N 2

(cosmonauts) 5.

• Open hatch 4 02 02 -I- N2 02 -}- N2

sure 6. •

equalization

Open hatch 3 (astronauts)

• AC and DP transfer into Souyz 280 02 520 02 3-N 2

DM-- Souyz pres-

--108--

fer into DM 7.

• AC and DP trans02 02-FN2

(astronauts) 8. • Close hatch 4 (astronauts)

280 02

520 O2+N2

• Close hatch 3

rization 9.

to 260 mm Hg

• DM depressurization to 280 mm Hg and DM oxygen purge (astronauts)

')_'U 02

2_0 02

260 0 2 + N2 0 2 _1N2

• Tunnel 2depressu-

--109--

)

O Open hatch 2 10. O ACand DP transfer into CM

280 02

200 02-}-N 2

520 O2-{-N 2

Second

transfer

_ _

Soyuz • CPtransfer into

11._

._

_

• SCApollotransfer into

12.

tronauts location after the second transfer

• Cosmonautsasand 02 02 -I- N2 02 -_- N2

--110--

The third

transfer • SC and AC transfer

_r 13.

_

',_,,,,_ _ FE

into Souyz •CPand FEtransfer intoApollo

C _ _

14.

ronauts location after the third transfer

• Cosmonauts astand 02 0 2 4- N 2 0 2 4- N2

mill--

_ .4., 0 0

0

"0

m

_-_,_o

_=3

=_ _=_" o.E = _
0 0

o_ _
&o::= _ _ Q.

17.7.75 "Soyuz orbit. Ground elapse, time Soyuz cornmander o Soy_z gineer flight en(SC) 52:00 u_ 53:00 Orbit J 37 54:00 Orbit 38 55:00 )rbit 39 56:00 Joint 37:00 TV cove_ _o _ _ _ (Equip$0 an d merit tran-presleep PE systems sfer for check the joint scientiriment s ) fic expeI Sleep period (8 hours _rbit 40 ] 58:00 Orbit 59 .-00_ 41

SC and FE

". transfer an _ into 0M "_ perform _ pressure integrity _ _o check

rage of the rendezvous, Doff and dry PGA,a Prepare for the astronauts rendezvous Souvenirs chsnge. Joint ex-

lunch.

\/
Television T_ TV TV TV

commanApollo (Ao)der

AC and DP remove and activate

C_I/_ hatch '/_ transI_o _ _ _o

AC and

DP transfer

inperiodSleep 8 hours_

D_ systems;

to CM. Initiate

fur-

DockLng

fer into [M with equipment Prepare for the transfer to the

nace system experiment. Presleep systerns check

_od_le Se_. _ pilot (DP)._
o Command module pilot (CP) . o _ OP performs solar orientation

!_
t_ i E_t period

\

Presleep

systems

check

Ground elapsed time. Apollo

revOlUtiO_
f_

o
52:00

J

53: 'oo_

54:00

'

55:00

'

56:00

'

57:00

'

_8:00

5_o0 i

_v.31 1

IRev._

IRe _._

18.7.75 i_Orbi_" G_T
SO SC o and FE postsleep systems

Orb. 67:00 i

47 68:00 ,i

Orb. 69:00 i

48 70:00 |
o "_ _

Orb.

49 71:00 L

Orb. 72:00 I

50 73:00 t

Orb.

51! 74:00 I

_rb.

52

75:00 I I

PE

and

CP Joint

activity

Lunch

check.Breakfast.

PE

_o

_'1
AC _ o

_ _ _ m ._ • _
e _ _

AO transfer into II_

AC and DP transfer
intoOM

Furnace system experiment completion

o

_ _ _

o _

AC, DPand SCjoint activity

Lunch Zone-forming fungi experiment

DP

._

_

_

o

for into _

into Soyuz

transfer
I 73":oo 7_:oo
ReV. 4_

GET Rev. 4_

67:00

4

_ 68;00 iRev. 3_

69:00 _ev. 4(_

'

70:00 Rev&41

'

71:'00

72:00 _ev.42 I

75:¢0 'l_e',_4_I L

X

18.7.75
Orb. 53 76:00 77:00 Orb. 54 78:00 79:00 ! Orb. 55 81:O0 82:00 Orb. :00 84:00

SC and AC

joint

activity.

I_icrebi-

al exchange experiment

SC, FE, AC and DP joint activity

SC

and PE have

supper Sleep period (8 hours)

and perform presleep systems check

CP and PE Inte _ transfer CP, DP and FE joint activity

DP and _E into IIM transfer AC and DP fer into CM AC, DP and CP have supper and perform presleep systems check o _
0

Microbial exchangexpee riment

79:00

80:00

81:00

82:00

83:00

84:00

MI

19.7.75

FE

.

TV

T_

T_

TV

TV

TV

Sleep period AC, DP and CP (8 hours) performpostsleep systems check and have breakfast

Orientation for undo Lunch. ing. Preparefor undoc] ing. Artificialsolar eclipseexperiment ing 0rientation for undock-

Orientation for film shooting.Perform ultraviolet absorption experiment.Apollo departure 106:41)

Rev, GET

92:00

93:00

94:00

95:00

_6:00

9

4.6

Independent ration

flight of Soyuz after

the spacecraft

sepa-

Soyuz independent the maneuver lide. During experiments, stores this flight to separate

flight

begins

after

the Apollo

performs

the spacecraft

so that

they do not col-

the Soyuz

crew conduct

ASTP

scientific systems, to Earth.

verifies

the functioning which

of the spacecraft is to be returned crew conduct coverage

and packs During

the equipment

this flight

the Scyuz

TV-transmissions

from the spacecraft Following

in the USSR NCC is the sequence

zones. events:

of the main

Orbit

GET

Main events

71 orbit

Supper (30 min) Prepare for sleep period

72 orbit

Sleep period (8 hours)

78 orbit

_iorningtoilet Breakfast (30 min) Spacecraft systems check of the spacecraft the descent sys-

78-80 orbit

Verify the functioning tems operational during

80 orbit 80-82 orbit

Orient solar panels to the Sun Conduct scientific experiments: the ZFF, transand stow

,,ZPF',(observe and photograph fer and stow in DV). Fish embryonic Biokat-3 development

(transfer

device).

-

117 -

Orbit

Get

Main events

83 orbit

Individual

time.

Dinner

(30 rain)

84 orbit

Conduct the experiment: "Photography ef the sunrise".

85-86 orbit

Stow the equipment to be returned to Earth

86 orbit

Individual time. Supper (30 minutes). Prepare for sleep period

87 orbit

Sleep period (8 hours)

4.7

Preparation The Soyuz

for descent; descent begins

Soyuz descent after the crew rest period transfer on to DV by oriaS

the last flight

day. The crew

don pressure

suits,

and close the DV hatch from the DV side; release 150 mm Hg to make ent the spacecraft the given After

OM pressure

sure that the DV hatch is pressure-tight, for "braking". The retro_ocket is activated

time following

the commands

of the onboard

automatics. are se-

the retrorocket

deactivation

the spacecraft descent

modules into

parated landing

and the DV performs area. The sequence

a controlled of major

the given

events

is given

below:

Orbit

GET

Main events

94 orbit

Morning toilet. Breakfast Check (30 min). systems spacecraft

-

118 -

Orbit

GET

Main events

94 orbit

Don pressure suits. Crew transfer to DV. Close hatch DV-0M

95 orbit

150 mm Hg pressure drop in 0Me _ake sure the DV hatch is pressure-tight

95 orbit

Make sure the pressure suits are pressuretight. Prepare for descent

R6 orbit

Orient spacecraft for "Braking". Activate Module retrorscket. separation. deployment.

Parachute

DV soft landing.

4.8

Crew recover_ After completion of the technical the cosmonauts and scientific experito

ments Earth.

program DV will

in AES orbit

will be returned

land in a pretermined for landing

area of the Soviet equipped in case

Union. with speci-

The DV is designed al systems, down. In the landing -trained rescuse

but it is also security

ensuring

the cosmonauts

of a splash-

area the cosmonauts group will

will consist

be met by a speciallyof technical rescue experts, be

team.The

doctors,flight equipped with

record

Certification necessary

Offlcers.The to arrive

team will

everything

in time to the landin_

- 119 -

Site and render

the required will

aid

to the cosmonauts.Planes,helicepter_ for rescue. Technical experts parachuteam will which can

ships and landrovers and doctors

be used

of the rescue

team are usually The doctors medicaments

well-traineG oz the rescue and equipment

tists and underwater be provided be used with

swimmers.

the required under

in the field

any weather

conditions. and

During

the desteam will

cent and after maintain the

the landing

the cosmonauts

the rescue

2-way

radiocommunication. the cosmonauts with will open the hatch and

After covers filming

the DV landing

and prepare for

the containers

scientific

equipment

transportation. they may use clothes, the emergency means, kit which contains means,

If necessary the camp food, outfit, warm

swimming

communication

water

etc. After

the cosmonauts

land and leave

the DV they with of

doff pressure-suits scientific the rescue jected equipment team.

and don their and filming

flight-suits. are handed

Containers

to the specialists

At the landing postfligh%

site the cosmonauts medical will examination.

will be subIn case the

to the first

DV splashes-down, rival of a rescue

the cosmonauts team.

stay in the DF till the arthe cosmonauts means, will doff

In this case

their pressure-suits, with the rescue

prepare and

the swimming

communicate

service

vmit for arrival

of one of its team_:

- 120 -

5.0

Scientific The program

experiments of scientific experiments scheduled for Soyuz

mission

provides

for unilatera&

and joint

experiments.

5.1

Unilateral Unilateral

scientific scientific

experiments experiments involve astrophysical

and

biological

experiments. tests are based on the metrophotsgraphy photometric films which it is

Astrophysical approach, make

that is on the use of calibrated to perform

it possible

light measurements. should

Moreover,

important

that each photo-picture are conducted

be exactly

time-referenc-

ed. These experiments matic camera

with the ase Of the same autoSc-

with a command experiment

unit that is used in the Artificial Given below is a brief

Iar Eclipse

(ASE).

description

of astrophysical

experimentS.

Photography

of the solar

corona sky

and zodiacal

light

against

the background The experiment dusk sky with Earth,

of the night envisages

a number angles

of shots behind

of the night

anG

the Sun at different conditions

the horizon

of the

that is under

of solar eclipse out in addition coronal

by the Earth. to the joint ASE

This experiment, experiment,

carried

will be an attempt fro_ the

to find

rays at large

angu-

lar distances of extensive will

Sun in order Visual

to corroborate

a hypothesis

solar corona_

observation

by the Soyu_ crew

serve the sameaim. Coronal rays will be'identified formations of atmospheric stars. - 121 or slngled origin out among p0s-

sible

structural

by the absence

of their visible

shift again_

l_vestigation !ayers

of refraction

and transparency

of the upper

of the atmosphere is to measure atmosphere refrac-

The aim of the experiment tion and solar in particular, distribution which light will absorption _ssist

by the atmosphere.

The experiment, altitude

to experimentally in the

detez_ine

of air density importance

stratosphere

and troposphere of the problems the experiment of will of equ-

is of great

for the solution optics. initial Moreover,

meteorology make

and atmospheric to obtain

it possible

data for the development and orientation

ipment

for autonomous

astronavigation involves

of spacecraft.

The experiment rises or goes behind

photography of the Earth.

of the Sun when it The referenced distribution picof

the horizon

tures will make atmospheric

it possible

to obtain

the altitude

layers. of the atmosphere Atmospheric is determined from the solar is de-

Refraction disc image termined for

flattening.

absorption

(vs. altitude)

in terms of the film darkening set of solar disc pictures

both for each image and obtained for different will pobe

the whole

sitions carried

of the Sun above out in the narrow the blurring

the Earth's spectrum

horizon.

The shooting

with

the use

of band-pass

filters dis-

to prevent persion

of _he Sun's piatur_sdue

to atmospherio

of the light. Some of the aims of this experiment stars. will be gained addi-

tionally

by photography

of setting

In this case,

"deform-

ation" of the portion of a sky of stars of its going behind and the measurement termine atmospheric the horizon will

("star grid") in the course refraction, stars will de-

give atmospheric of the setting

of the darkening absorption.

- 122 -

photography

of daytime

and dusk horizon into two independent procedures:

This experiment - Photography - Photography The aims of light-scattering (at altitudes

is divided of daytime

horizon, horizon. characteristics stratospheric from

of dusk and night

of the experiment by atmospheric

are to determine air, investigate

from 15 to 25 of aerosol, and

_ml)and mesospheric m_ke an attempt clouds,

(at altitudes

40 to 60) layers tigate altitude factors. noctilucent aerosol Moreover,

to discover

and invesof

nacreous

and analyse

dependence

distribution the

on geographical makes

and meteorological it possible assess km. to use atmosphe-

theory available

photographic

data of dusk horizon the altitudes

to quantitively

ric scattering within Daytime pass filters. The program Soyuz flight

fre_ 30 to 150-200 is shot with

and dusk horizon

the use of band-

of astrophysical

experiments applied

scheduled technical visual

for the expeobser-

in the joint mission In particular, of light

involves the program

riments vation craft,

as well.

envisages

and photography and investigation

effects

in the vicinity

of the spaceand of

of the possibility _he spacecraft

of the observation

identification an orbit.

of stars with

on a daytime portion

In this experiment high lar lights E_lipse

the window

is protected

from

the Earth's So-

by the same sunshade experiment.

that is used

in the Artificial

- 123 -

Bi01o_ical

Experiment s, experiments are conducted and Earth's to study the effect on Pecuin To

The biological of weightlessness, the growth, liar feature thermostats make into

space radiation and heredity

magnetic

field

development about

of different is that mainly

organisms.

these experiments develop

tl_y are conducted during the flight.

and the organisms develop medium,

the organisms the nutrien_ fish

during

the flight are

the cultures

are placed and de-

the seeds

wetted,

the shoots

veloping

are fixed

onboard

the spacecraft. object is provided by

Thermostatic "Biokat" - biological

control

of a biological

thermostatically

controlled

capsule

maintain-

ing the given

temperature

to an accuracy of a casing

of _0.5°C. and a power supply passage unit. by

The device The casing the elements biological contains

consists

the central

cylindrical control;

surrounded

ensuring objects will

thermostatic

and the inserts

with

are placed be three

into the passage. onboard the Soyuz. They are

There intended growth",

thermostats

for conducting "_ish embryonic

the following development",

experiments: and "Genetic

"_ioro-organisms studies".

"_icre-or_anisms

Growth" is to study the effect of spaceof the micro_organism changes in morphology, be

The aim of the experiment flight growth, factors mobility on the rate of bacteria

and character cells.

Possible

genetics, determined. which

survivalahility The experiment

and radio-sensitivity will use the culture in solid

of cells will of protea

vulgaris, nutri-

is characterized

by high mobility

and liquid

ent media. transparent

The insert has the form of a capsul_ material. The

and is made frmm has the Duttan_

butt end of the capsule

-

124 -

of the inoculation organism nected culture

device

under which

an ampule

with

the microin is con-

is located. chambers changes

The cavity with with

the ampule media

to special

filled

nutrient when growth

containing by micro-or-

the indicator ganism wastes

which

its colour the visual

effeeted boundary.

thus forming

"Eish

embr,yonic development

" is to study growth and developThe ex-

The aim of the experiment ment of water will animals reveal under

the weightlessness and genetic apparatus sre plsced

conditions,

periment

embryonic

changes

and peculiarities fish. one of the fish

of formation

of the vestibular

of developing into

Two inserts-_qusriums aquariums will

"Biokat"_

be used for the preservation phase of the flight. material

of the developing the other back

at the completing aquarium The

The fish from

and the preserved will

will be brought aquarium

to Earth. or

experiment

use well-known with

fish - Danyo Rerio

Cardinal. installed

The inserts onboard " Genetic

fertilized _mmediately

roe of thmse prior

fish will be

the Soyuz

to the lift-off.

experiment"

The aim of the experiment effect on the cell division, biological

is to study structures

the weightlessness and radiosensitivity

genetic

of different

objects: zygotes which do not germinate in darkness cell be

-chlamydomonada for a long division studied; -seeds of orepis

time. Peculiarities effected by

of the chlamydomonada factors will

when

space flight

and arabydopsis will

will

be steeped

during

the flight;

the shoots

be fixed.

In the dividing

cells of the shoots

the frequency

of chromosome

- _25 -

restructures

will

be studied.

The effect

of the spaceflight of these mutations species, will

facthe

tors on radiosensitivity frequency of embryonic All also placed these into

of the dry seeds and chlorophyllous

be studied.

objects

in the appropriate Biokatso experiment control

capsulas

will be

one of the

Along in this country

with will

the flight

a number

of laboratories maintaining devices. will con-

also conduct conditions

experiments

the same temperature Pollowing conduct experiments

as in the "Bioka%" from

instructions

the MCC the scientists as the cosmonauts

in the same manner

will

duct theirs

in the orbit.

Note:

Unilateral the specific

experiment

program

may be changed

depending

on

conditions.

- 126-

5.2

Jo_.intscientific .experiments Art_fioial Artificial solar ec_li2se experiment solar eclipse requires experiment _i_ _I/ by the spacefrom "at-

was proposed

USSR craft

side°

This

experiment

the participation The ex_.eriment of the

of both

during the

docking Soyuz

and undocking.

is to obtain corona

onboard mosphere" flight solar first

a series Apollo

of photographs

solar

and This

around the and

while

the Sun is eclipsed for testing around

by Apollo,

gives corona solar

opportunity the

new methods

of studying

the

"atmosphere" scheduled time. . Theinteres_

the spacecraft. occur

It is the 19, 1975

eclipse

by man.

It will

on July

at midday

universal eclipse Solar

Sola_

it presents external,

for

soien#ists. rarefied lay-

corona

is the most Practically, protons

extremely

ers of hydrogen es

solar

atmosphere. i.e.

it consists Its

of fully

ionized reachand

plasma,

and electrOns. stretches

temperature distances

I million

degrees.

Solar external

corona part.

for great

the Earth

is in its

High-energy effect fects the but the earth are formed corona

particles and corona.

and cause

electromagnetic practically all part

radiation

which ef-

atmosphere in solar shows

geophysical of spectrum else Self-

In the visible

solar

itself

as a weak

glow which of coronal

is nothing plasma° part

sun light

scattered

by the electrons takes place

radiation trum_ lion

of solar

corona

in the invisible part. Corona disk day

of specmil-

in the seneral, times as weaker is no% visible seen from

in the shortwave as the brightness

brightness and

of solar of bright

usually be-

corona comes while

on the background the Earth only

sky. Corona solar

in case

of total

eclipse, sky cirat

the solar

disk is fully eclipsed million allowed times. for the

by the _oon

and the this

brightness cumstance the remote

decreases that has past.

It is precisely solar corona

happy

to be detected discovered

However

its'

physical

nature

was

only

during

la_

cecades. solar eclipse may occur at is a very rare phenomenon. point, So, total in average,

Total solar eclipses

the same geographical of the full phase The total

once in 300 years. usually performed

The duration

of the eclipse

does not exceed during

I-2 minutes.

time of observations eclipse observaHowever,

_he whole history instruments discoveries on these

of total

solar

tions using the most

optical

does not exceed in astrophysics observations.

two hours.

important

as well as in geophymay be investispectral range.

sics were made gated

based

Corona

out of the eclipse, for some reasons using

for example,

in short-wave

However, liable

it is impossible only these methods.

to get the total The single in visible way

and reto conof is

information

duct out-of-eclipse spectrum used cial solar

solar corona artificial so called

observations solar eclipse. out-of-eclipse

part

is to create for

This principle coronograph.

as the basis solar eclipse

Artifiof As

is realized

in the

device screen

itself:

the image diameter. the

disk is Shut by non-zransparent of atmosphere background

of larger

the level ground

brightness of solar

is high under corona using

conditions,

the observations in close

these

co-

ronographs (the range At the same radii atmosphere ever,

are possible not more

vicinity

to the edge of solar disk radius of the Sun). of angular out of Howthe coro-

than tenth

parts

of angular

time the observations

of corona In general,

up to dozens

are of great interest. should enable

the observations of observations. aboard for so3ar

to perform

this kind

the installation

of out-of-eclipse

coronographs

spacecraftincrease na to be studied al solar eclipse dy solar the light corona.

insignificantly in comparison_ experiment to

the possibility the ground more

conditions.

Artificito stuby

provides

reliable

conditions

It is reached from

by eliminating effects of

the errors difraction

caused

reflected

the Earth, 128 -

on the

edge of artificial yuz is in shadow), ry out onboard of the method rather simple

"moon"

and effects

of the Soyuz

atmosphere

(So-

i.e. factors

that limit

the possibiliey The other

to carmerit of

investigations

using

coronographs_

to be used in this experimen_ and compact recording equiment.

is the employment

About another nuous craft object

spacecraft

"atmosphere". conditions

Spacecraft of space

atmosphere vacuum,

is

of study. Under (sublimation) place.

contithe space-

evaporation surfaces

of different

materialgfrom

takes

At first absorbed will leave the spacecraft

gases, water surface.

and other volatile

substances

Microformations surface. itself

- "dust particthe fail-

les" - may also leave ure of surface as well _egree. pecially ation layers

the spacecraft

Additionally occurs.

of the structure to _he

All materials,

as metals, Organic

are subjected

destruction kinds

but toadifferent are esradileave

materials

and different

of coatings cosmic

unstable.

Micrometeorite

particles,

and solar

intensify

this process.

All products

of "depreciation"

the locality

of the spacecraft that there

not simultaneously. atmosphere

So, at present around spacecom-

it is considered craft.

is a peculiar

This atmosphere and especially Contamination

is enriched by exhaust around

by the outgassing products

of sealed engine. flight

partment

of reaction orbital

the vehicle

under

conat-

ditions

is effected pressure

by the incident of sun light

flow of the Earth "solar

residual wind".

mosphere, vehicle

and so called

So the

with

the "atmosphere"

around

looks like

comet.

But we must

take into consideration are used medium only as graphic differs

that the terms phrases.

"atmosphere" they

and "comet" describe rare

Actually,

which

from the undleturbed this

epaoe medium.

It is

necessary

to take

into account

difference

as all observations

- 129 -

are conducted re" change quen!ly,

inside

the "comet". characteristics in operation

The components

of this "atmospheand, conseand

physical result

of the environment vehicle into

may

of important errors

systems

instruments. mation. into

They may also introduce around

scientific

inforchanges optical of the induced

"Atmosphere"

the vehicle

causes

appreciable therefore Effect

optical

characteristics are especially around and in

of the environment, subjected may

instruments contamination illumination components struments tical ments hicles change hicle.

to its effec$. result

the vehicle disturbance

in increasing signal

of usefal optical

light

by the cloud of the inop-

as well

as in changing

characteristics effect

as the result

of contamination

on unprotected complicated systems

surfaces. in space without

So it is impossible and to develop taking into

to conduct

experiof vethe

and improve

important effects

account

different

concerning around

of physical

characteristics account

of the environment effects

the ve-

But to take into

all these

it is necessary which couldn't

to study be created provides tions. neral

them in conjunction at the laboratory. reliable

with

all space

factors

Artificial

solar

eclipse

experiment

possibilities gives

to perform

this kind of investigafor registing around the ge-

This experiment pattern of light from

the opportunity ("atmosphere") spacecraft

aureole

the spacecraft conditions,

to be obtained while

the other

under of the

reliable first one.

this spacecraft

is in the shadow

Experiment but the high spacecraft _rtificial Before

description. precise

The experiment piloting

idea is rather

simpl%

techniques,

and cooperation to perform

of all

crew activities solar eclipse

are required will

this experiment. as follows° spacecraft axis to-

experiment

be performed

undocking with

the spacecraft high accuracy

link of Apollo by placing

and Soyuz

is oriented

the longitudinal

- 13o -

wards

the Su_u (Apollo

from the will

side of the Sun) end be performed systems according

stabilized

in

this position.

Separation

to the schewill keep

dule. After undocking the initial

control

of beth

spacecraft

om_ientation mode. I meter

The separation per second

rate of the spacecraft the Sun-Apollo-Sowill go

is to be approximately

along both

yUZ line. When performing away along this line.

orbit translation

spacecraft

During the Sun creating eclipse tive

the separation for Soyuz

the Apollo

spacecraft

will

occult solar

onboard

observer

the artificial until

conditions.

The separation

will continue At this

the reladimen-

distance

of 220 m is reached. "moon" (Apollo

distance

angular

tions of artificial observer will be

spacecraft)for

Soyuz onboard disk. When

twice

as great

as dimensions the direction

of solar

the distance motion into along

of 220 m is reached the Sun-Apollo-Soyuz for redocking.

of translational in order to return

line reverses

position

The experiment of the Eerth orbit induced to crossing

will be performed the terminator

along the

sunrise pert the

in order to eliminate window

illumination spacecraft

of the Soyuz hatch visible

and the part of in

of the Apollo orbit

from the Soyuz. At this pert spacecraft but there is night

the Sun is raised for both of the Earth where installed

that part

spacecraft

flies

at this time. A speadditional Scheme protec-

cial baffle

on the Soyuz will provide hatch window. in figures. eclipse

tion from the dawn light for Soyuz dule for the experiment During solar corona are given

and sche-

the artificial

solar around

the photography will

of

end "atmosphere" docking

the Apollo

be performed will be

through performed control

the Soyuz with unit.

hatch

window.

The photography with

the help of automatic Photometrically

photocamera highly

programmed fi3.m

calibrated

sensitive

- 131

will

be used.

Apollo

crew will perform to receive

film-shooting

of the Soyuz (after the

spacecraft flight) attemp_ when

in order

data required

to analize

conditions to find

for

Soyuz window rays

occultation.

This experiment Of night sky, i.e.

coronal

on the background

the Sun is eclipsed observations between

by the Earth.

Additionally

synchronous to determine and ac-

ground-based

of the Sun will the structure

be performed

the interaction tive features

of the outer

corona

of the solar

disk and limb.

- 132 -

Spacecraft attitude at the moment of crossing terminator (T O + 250 sec) Spacecraft attitudes at the end of experiment /[_ _ _'-r_l_ _ { Spacecraft undocking. The beginning of the experiment (T O -t- 75 sec)

_ --

_

From the Sun

/
FIGURE 5.1 SOYUZ AND APOLLO ATTITUDES FOR "'ARTIFICIAL SOLAR ECLIPSE EXPERIMENT"

Spacecraft attitude atthe moment of sunrise !To}

Ultraviolet Experiment to measure

absorption objective.

experiment The objective

['_'_,,5_,2_ of the experiment and nitrogen is

the concentration

of atomic

oxygen

in space of ato-

at the altitude mic oxygen

of the flight. uncertain,

At present and

time the density of atomic

remains

the density

nitrogen attempts to

has never been measure

significantly

obtained. density

This experiment

the 0 density

and the N

down to 5 x 106 Atoms/cm 3

at 220 kin.

Scientific mass-spectrometers investigation the Earth. cular atomic i.e. All

value

of the experiment.

Different

types

of

will be the main composition

instruments

to be used

during of mole-

of chemical types

of the outer reliably

atmosphere register

of mass-spectrometers

and inert oxygen

gases,

such as 02, N2, Ar, Ne and do not register These components recombine quickly, with-

and nitrogen.

turn into 02 and N2. The method spectrum allow

of resonance

absorption

in ultraviolet and composition

to determine

reliably

the density

of any components

of the outer

atmosphere. oxygen and con-

The determination nitrogen cerning will help

of the density indefinite

of atomic physical

to solve many atmosphere

problems

the outer gives

of the _arth. to compare

Ultraviolet the results

absorption received

experiment in this me thods.

the opportunity with

experiment

the data obtained

using mass-spectrometer

Experiment signal absorption

description. within UV-range

During

the experiment measured.

the degree signals and atosourses

of

will be

These oxygen

correspond

to the resonance

frequencies

of atomic from

mic nit_ogen. at the defined

_or this purpose range will

the signals

resonance

be sent by the mirror

of the spectrometer

- 134 -

installed wards

in the D_ of the Apollo. installed

These

signals

are

directed

toback

the retrorefleotor

on the Soyuz and returned

to the spectrometer To eliminate line-of-sight tor within

of the Apollo. Doppler effect during data taking period the

is to be perpendicular

to the orbital

velocity

vec-

solid angle vector.

of +15 °. The axis of solid

angle

is normal

to the velocity

The measurements cies around

of the concentration are taken arising

of atmospheric the effect

speof

Soyuz spacecraft

to evaluate from

,'atmosphere" around compartments will craft be made

spacecraft

the outgassing burn.

of the

and attitude while

control

thruster

These measurements track. Seyuz space-

Soyuz flies

along

the Apollo

is to be within the orbital

the solid angle velocity vector.

of +8 ° with its axis direct-

ed along

The concentration at some designed distances

of atmospheric between

species

will be measured up

spacecrafts.

The distances

to 500 meters spacecraft; dio system vous before 68-71

will be determined

by accelersmeters greater than

of the Apollo 500 meters during rarendezin

for a separation will be required. spacecraft after

distance This

system will

be used will

docking.

The experiment

be conducted

orbits,

final undocking

of the two spacecraft. in darkness

A caliprior to

bration

of the device must data measurement. within

be msde by Apollo The measurements

the first will

of the concentration at nominal dis-

be made

+20 latitude

of the equator, The duration

tances ment

of 150, 500 and 1000 meters. During will

of each measure-

is up to 8 minutes. plane and Apollo Soyuz.

measurements, with

Soyuz must be in the its longitudinal will be of

orbital axis

be oriented

towards

The optical

axis of the spectrometer on Soyuz,

pointed

at the retroreflector

installed

Measurements

- 135 -

I

SOYUZ ORBIT APOLLO DEVICE CALIBRATIDNI I I

START OF EXPERIMENT • DAYLIGHT
_' ; I I I 1 • I I ; ;

ORIENTATION The first measurement 1 at a distance of 150 meters DAYLIGHT
I ] I I I • I I I I

1 Apollo maneuver to take the second measurement

DARKNESS
I •

I

0h0Omih / I

0h30min SOYUZ

lh00min ORBIT ORIENTATION

lh30min

2hOOmin / I The third _ measurement at the distance of500meters

Thesecond easurement m at the distance of 150 meters

Apollo maneuver to take thesecond measurement DAYLIGHT

o_ I
_' i I I I

DARKNESS
I • I t I I I •

DARKNESS
_ I Y I I I I I •

I

I

I

2 h O0rain / SOYUZ

2h3Omin ORBIT

3h00min ORIENTATION I I

3h3Omin

4hO0min

Apo{Io maneuver to take the fourth measurement • DAYLIGHT 4 h 00rain 4h30min 5h00min

The fourth measurement I at the distance of 1000 meters • ENDOFEXPERIMENT

DARKNESS 5h30min 6h00min

FIGURE 5.2 SCHEME FOR UV ABSORPTION

EXPERIMENT

particles

concentration

8round

Soyuz will be taken at high latitubetween the spacscrafts. The Apollo necessary The dura-

des, at a distance tion of measurements quired both to perform

of 150 meters will

be 5 minutes. to provide

crew will be refor

maneuvers

orientation

spacecraft

during

the experiment.

Equipment installed part ment.

and

its characteristics. longitudinal assembly

Three

retrereflectors axes are the the experi-

on Seyuz along

and tz'ansversal to conduct

of the spectrometer

required

To increase obtain lectors. the highest It makes

the measurement for

accuracy optical

it is necessary

to

reflectivity

surfaces

of the refand performof aluto

some difficulties

for manufacturing

ing preflight special minum

preparation. made exceed

The fact is that

the reflectivity a layer of pure (1200

mirrors

of glass

8_ad coated with

does not

0.8 for wave-lengths

at UV range

1356 _). Taking turned

into account

that the reflected beam

signal is to be reis

in the direction designed.

of the incoming

the retroreflector

specially at exactly

Each retroreflector with respect

cube consists other.

of 3 mirrors design the

90 o angles light

to each

At this

the incoming net

makes

3 reflections

on the mirrors To prevent

and thus

refleotivity oxide

is not more

than 0.512.

the formation mirThis

of aluminum ror surfaces film must cified

that decreases

the reflectance

of aluminum, fluoride.

are coated with

thin film of magnesium

be sufficiently

thin to be properly

transparent

at spe-

wave-lenghts. Any contaminations of optical effects surfaces (moisture, gases drops by

of oil and solvents, thrusters) result Taking

etc.,

of corrosive

produced

in sufficient

decrease

of reflector each of three

sensitivity. retroreflec-

into account

this fact,

- 137 -

tors is furnished opened just before

with

sealed

protective

cover,

which

is to be for duaboard

the experiment is checked

initiation. out under

The reliability ground conditions

the covers

to be opened

ring independent the Soyuz

tests and after

retroreflector

installation

spacecraft. Special measures from must be supported contamination. is installed telescope on Apollo. It consists to provide protection of

optical

surfaces

external assembly

Spectrometer of Ebert-Fastie lector
O

spectrometer, light
O

- the device

for retrorefelecO 1200 A;

tracking,

sources with

- for generation

of resonance

tromagnetic 1304 A and unit. Note:

vibrations

the following

wave-lengths: optics,

1356 A; transmitting

and receiving

electronics

The experiment crew to visually

sequence control

can be changed the Apollo

to enabl e the Soyuz

maneuvering°

- 138 -

ZONE-_0R_ING

_UNGI

EXPERIMENT

The investigation footing part the main biological

of the natural rhythms,

biological

clock,

ef-

constitutes process

on important theory

of the complicated

biophysical Growth

and the general cell

of life system and division, to be the main this problem the solution between odical termine tems. stand wers

regulation. changes

periodicity,

development are considered aspects of

in activity The basis

and propagation, data on different However, we are

rhythms.

have

been determined.

still far from

of the main problem.

This problem

is the correlation and different are required perito de-

the periodicity factors external

of the cell processes to the organism rhythms these which

the main

biological

of the organism questions

and its systo underThe ans-

It is necessary the most to these

to study general

in order

important questions

biological

regularity.

are required

for subsequent

investigations intensification of the optifactor effects

of prophylaxis of general

and the theory

of decynehronousis,

reactiveness

and resistance,

and selection of space part

mum work and rest modes..The on the Earth physics. biosphere, ferent biosphere

investigation

constitutes

an important

of space bioon the

There

is considerable

data on the solar effects of leucocytes

for example, of man,

on a number animals

and rate of difshown fac-

diseases

and plants.

It has been of space

that space

radiation

takes part in formation The high particles biological of high

flight

tor biological tones and heavy shown

effects. nuclear

effectiveness and superhigh capable

of hadenergy

have been

as well. Hadrones

- particles

of strOng

interactions. It is necessary the organism to ensure to study space safety particles during effects on

biological - 139 -

prolonged

space

flights s especiall_r belts. study load, The objective

beyond of the

the limits

of the

earth

radiation is to

zene-folnning factors

fungi

experiment

the effect space

of space

flight

(weightlessness, rhythms. Joint

oveD-

radiation) USSR

on the main

biological this

The to the flight ties (natural This The ence quality between

proposed The

to include Puschino as the

experiment

in-

program. growth) fun_/s

st1_ain of Actinomyoes object using the of study. nutrient observed

levo-

is used

is cultivated object is

hard

medium. differ-

of the correct

chosen

visually

rou/Id zones

of mycelium

growth

(transparent

rlngs)and ee fungi this

spore-formlng rings are are llke

zones(protrudi_ the cut

white

band).Ir_appearanother qualitles of

of a tree,The comparative when

fungus

the following: synchronization periods zone

resistance,

sensitive

to zone-forming on during ing ing

ill_,m_nated, suitable I day_

synchmonizatiof zone-formof growdelay in

prolonged

of time, (ring) Local per

range

periodicity in Petri and

- one

capability cells, the

sealed

dishes.

death

of some by

growth

development particle)

(caused, may

for

example, observed line

_mege the

of hea-

vy nuclear line ing

be visually the break are kept

along

asymmetry

of formation ring. The

or along zones

of the

next

spore-formlonger

fungi

for one month

or even

periodso The program space investigations cultivated of the Joint Apollo-Soyuz using time flight will allow

of biorhythms within different

the identical belts. The

Biological differ-

objects ence

time

between

the USSR

and USA

laboratories culture using

engaged

in the pre9 hours.

flight _his

cultivation

of fungal

is approximately the device

experiment for

is conducted these purposes

"Rhythm-l" specialTwo Petrl dishes

ly designed

by the USSR

side.

- 140-

with fungal cultures of heavy nuclear

and a plastic

detector

to registor

the flow

particles

(hadrones),

coming within fungus growth

zone are installed

in the device body. of fungal culture will be done by the

The cultivating USSR and uSA laboratories Approximately, dium and fungi plated. incubator and cultivated

7 days before launch. 200 Petri dishes will be loaded with me-

Then Petri dishes will be

placed into an zone-forming 0900 to

for 3-4 days. The required

rhythm is provided

by illumination

of 100-200 lux: from

2100 hours, local time (daytime) from 2100 to 0900 hours (darkness). The imposed rhythm is maintained for a long time includprocessing. 24 hours be-

ing the period of flight and postflight

fore launch 16 round colonies with perfect rings (no breaks and asymmetry) are selected from Petri dishes. 8 devices with selectin a sterile box. The is carried out

ed colonies in Petri dishes are assembled installation of the devices aboard

the spacecraft

3-4 hours before launch. Two experimental and two control devices are selected. 4 backup devices will ramain at the laboratory. will be photographed state of fungal before installation The transportwill be

The devices to register

the initial

cultures.

ation of loaded devices at all stages of the experiment performed side. in special thermostatic containers designed

by the USSR

During the flight both crews will regularly (approximately every 12 hours) take pictures to register of "Rhythm-_" devices in order

fungal growth rates. When docked the crews will ex(one of two installed areas onbeard each spacecraft). group specialists

change devices

At the landing will take pictures

the research

of f_al

colonies - 141 -

and provide their quick

delivery At

(not more

than the

2 days)

to the will

USSR

and USA

laboratoriesJ and asThere

the laboratory notes,

specialists and

analyse

cosmonaut

tronaut will

pictures

the type of the returned of wings, the time

fungi.

be also

determined width

the number and

of their Detecin order charge

formation, tors are

zone removed,

localization analized

of deformed using

areas.

processed, tracks. ranges. against

a microscope

to find group rhythm ship cle

particles energy checked

Particles Local

are

identified

by their

and are

anomalies track

of zone-forming co-ordinates. and the values

fungi Relationof partiwill plating ring secbe

particle rhythm

between charge

zone-forming and energy

anomaly

is analyzed. devices from

Similar

investigations Extensive deformed changes

performed will

using

control

(not flown). unchanged

be done taking This is done inherited

samples

and

tions.

to determine by

the possible fungi space

in fungal The results

properties, of the will be cation

subsequent in

generations. laboratory and prepared

investigation discussed as Joint

conducted

and

conditions for publi-

at the special

symposium

works.

-

142-

MICROBIAL At present strate that man's

EXCHANGE

TEST data are available which illuand

sufficient

prolonged flight

presence factors

in sealed en man's

compartments may

the effect

of space

organism

result mi-

in diseasescaused croflora lar

by the representatives The course This with

of the "own" diseases

man's is

(autemicreflora).

of these means that

simi-

to that "have

of "autoinfection". lived peacefully"

microorganisms earl liermay

which

the man

-"host"

cause suppurative

diseases, quinsy and other diseases_

As a result of space flight factors the ability of a
man may ments flight to resist be caused invasion by by microorganisms may decrease. on man's Diseases integu-

the microorganisms

contained

which are unharmful under usual conditions but in space
they acquire are "aggressive" some other (pathogenic) of crew properties. diseases in space by the (staphi-

There flight. people lococci, to these ses.

reasons

The main which are

reason

is the transmission microorganisms etc.).

ef infection carrier

the pathogenic

meningococci, diseases may

pneumecocci, increase when

But

susceptibility decreaof the se

infectionresistance is the basis studied now

The mechnism "cress

of microbe

transmission is being

called and

infection" offices. "the

which

in hospitals

ether

medical

At present the main flight. "Microbial joint Apollo and crews and reason

cross

infection" diseases

is considered during the

to be space

of crew

infection

Exchange space

Test" flight

to be performed attempts exchange

during

the

Seyuz

to evaluate between

the crewmem-

character bets and

conditions of both

of microbial spacecraft - 143 -

in space

flight.

Organism died with during regard may

infection and

resistance postflight decrease during the

will crew

be

thoroughly

stu-

preflight

members

_ examinations infection re-

to the fact cause

that

in organism space

sistance

diseases objective

flight. - to determine - will be

The main the character achieved by

of the experiment of microbial and

and conditions studying

exchange

qualitative

quantitative flora

composition befoof microwill

of the man's re, bial during types

integuments after

and mucosa The

to be performed investigation

and and

flight.

detailed

isolation

of different

microorganism

species

be performed ganism

to determine

the peculiarity

of different

microor-

exchange. It was decided that USSR groups both and USA specialists would stu-

dy different more

microbial But

in order sides will

to conduct study those

investigation microbial

successfully. in which of space

groups stage

they are especially investigation. to cosmonauts' from

interested

at the present

In addition microbial surfaces of inner samples of both surfaces

and

astronauts'

microflora and inner

will be taken spacecraft. in microbial device

all crew members allow under for to assess these

This will transfer was

the role

specific samples and the of

conditions. from from

A specific

designed

taking

the different inner surfaces device

sites

of the crew members' and Soyuz

integuments during delivery

of Apollo is also

spacecraft and

flight.

This

used for where

storage

microflora samples

samples be

to the Earth

the analysis

of these

will The

performed. is a tube made The end of the 144 of fluoroplastics with a

device cap.

screwing

sealed

tube is a capillary

which

is filled with specific maintenance

fluid. A small cotton swab

is placed on the free end of the capillary. During _he storage the swab is continuously tained in the capillary. cloth trays. It was agreed that the USSR side would provide for investigations flight. The investigations and USSR scientists for different have been already performed by USA to be performed before, tubes the moistened with maintenance fluid con-

The tubes are placed into specific

after and during

to determine maintenance

fluid composition fluid compomicro-

types of microorganisms.

Maintenance

sition developed

by the USSR side was chosen to maintain

organisms sampled from crew members' integuments and from inner surfaces of both spacecraft. Maintenance fluid composition de-

veloped by the USA side was chosen to maintain

microorganisms

sampled from oral cavity and threat. All samples will be analysed at the laboratories of Moscow the presence of scientific (USSR) and Houston (USA) in of both sides. All

representatives

samples will be divided and sent to the laboratories of both sides to be studied there. Exchange Test" will be do-

The results of "Microbial cumented as joint scientific works.

-

145 -

PURNACE

SYSTEM

EXPERIMENT the space will be not only the wide for numerous technological

In the near future field of research

but it will be used

processes

of production Even at present

to be conducted. the usa in production vacuum process of such is

natural of great materials dustries.

space factors interest needed

as ultrahigh

and wightlessness and

for manufacturing in some electronic,

of metals electric

semiconducting in-

and instrument

It presents under earth for

great

difficulties

to create

"space"

vacuum

conditions sufficiently

and we are not able long time.

to maintain

weight-

lessness

This is why it is impossible "space r'new materials interest° for maof eletheir produc-

to perform

and investigate of scientific

numerous

tion processes

and practical

_leightlessness nufacturing ments with new metal

seems

to be very much perspective materials weights formed

and semieonducting different state.

substantially from ground

specific

through

eristallization Under difficult "weighty" posit.

liquid

conditions

it is either materials causes

impossible

or very

to create element

such composite which

due to the so-called heavy elements to de-

segregation

It is anticipated facturedunder elements will under with weightless sufficient

that big conditions,

semiconductor including in their

crystals

manuof

that formed

difference

specific

weights,

possess ground

such semiconductor conditions. will

properties

which

are infieasible

Such crystals or devices strument for

enable

us to design space

new

semiconducts_stems, in-

electronics, etc.

computers,

radio

engineering

- 146 -

Weightlessness composite heavier materials

will allow

to manufactu_re

the so-called and

with fusible basis and more refractory

second phase. We may prese_ under ground conditions

the second phase material with components after solid phase

distribution

and this distribution in weightlessness

has to be maintained

the basis melting

conditions.

When on the ground the heavy second phase will deposit after melting. Calculations show that such composite conditions materials unique fabrimecha-

cated under weightlessness nical, electric

will possess

and other characteristics. is a use of ball-formation compounds in weightlessness of different of con-

Of no less importance fused metals di%ions purpose, and semiconducting perfect

to fabricate fabrication

balls for bearings

of semiconductor

spheres and so on. We may powder systems when meltof this under

also expect ball-formation ing undar weightlessness process is significant

of different

conditions.

The investigation production

not only for material

weightlessness procedures

conditions, but also for such space technological treatment of biochemically active raw ma-

as welding,

terials and so on. During ground metallurgical ficant importance metals procedures it is of signias solid systems, melt grow-

to know actual rate such processes dissolving from liquid in various phases, liquid

high-temperature

metal crystallization

new phases

ing. Ground determination

of such processes'

actual rate is in-

feasible because of fluid convection flows due to gravitation. The knowledge of actual rate values will allow to control ground metallurgical reactions - 147 more precisely.

While and above all

placing

strong

emphasis usage

on space utilization in scientific and technoSo-

on weightlessness durir_ the

logical

purpose,

Soyuz and Apollo will perform effect

Joint mission

viet and American ments to reveal

scientists

a number

of experiand The

weightlessness processes

on some metallurgical and semiconductors. and

chem_crystallization experiments titled were

in metals

suggested

by American

scientists

generally of these of

as "Multipurpose was

furnace".

The scientific

program

investigations the USSR Academy

developed

in the Institute

of metallurgy

of Sciences. weightlessness of metals with effect different with on melti_ specific balls of meweights im-

To investigate tal compound and melting pregnated heated consisting points

al_im_nium was taken in a special

tungsten

and

oriented

way.

The compound conditions. will

is to be In this dis-

up to 1100°G under will melt

weightlessness and tungsten

case aluminium solve in it.

balls

partially

This experiment to fabricate substantially processes composite different

will allow with

to learn basic structure

possibility with

materials specific

of elements

weights,

using metallurgical

under

weightlessness will

conditions. also allow to determine actual convec-

The experiment rate of tungsten

dissolving

in aluminium

and to evaluate

tion part

in this process. Semiconductors monocrystalllzation using germanium from liquid containing melt

was suggested at.wt.

to be studied

Si 2%

Due to convection nocrystalls is a problem with silicon of great

melt flows unifor_ly

fabrication

of such Ge-mo-

distributed

all over the bulk

diffi@ulty. - 148 -

Ball-formation tigated

in weightless

conditions will be inves-

through melting aluminium powder. This experiment will

allow to reveal the processes of melting and powder materials cr_stallization in space.

The purpose of these joint experiments is also testing of the future technology of material production space stations. This technology is based on raw production materials which are stored up on the ground and then they are supplied to the orbital plant-stations. Upon completing of technological articles are transferred to the Earth. This technology will be tested when performing Furnace System experiment. Material special cartridges craft to the orbit. After the spacecraft docking the cartridges with samples are transferred into the docking module and placed by astronauts samples prepared on the Earth and placed into processes ready-made onboard long-term

(Fig.5_ are supplied onboard the Soyuz space-

into a special automatic furnace. On completing technological cycle the cartridges are transferred crewmen. The Apollo automatic f_rnace construction allows to simultaneously heat 3 cartridges up to 11000C. Each cartridge contains 3 quartz ampoule with samples. Ampoule I contains al,,minium impregnated by tungsten balls, ampoule 2 - germsnium impregnated by silicon, ampoule 3 - aluminium powder. _mpoules and samples are fabricated by the Soviet side. The furnace maximum temperature range
covers only ampoule I and partially ampoule 2. By

to the Earth by the Seyuz

- 149 -

selecting perature

graphite is slowly

and

copper

inserts

inside

the cartridge end of

tem-

reduced

towards

the cold

the cartridge. with

When the program Ge-Si

reducing

ampoule

I temperature phase be

in accordance interface

preset, alloy

solid-to-liquid encapsulated is used will

in ampoule

2 with

slowly Ge:Si

shifted. under

This method weightlessness Ampoule powder for melting.

to obtain

monccrystals

conditions. 3 temperature Ampoule is 700°C which ensures is being al_m!nium maintained load-

I maximum

temperature

I hour.

The duration to

of the experiment their extraction

from

cartridges

ing into

the furnace

is 10 hours. effect during will "Furnace conduct si-

To investigate System" mulation to the experiment experiments Soyuz/Apollo Identical Institute

weightlessness and USA

the USSR using joint

scientists

the USA flight mission. experiments of

furnace

in MSC prior

simulation

are

performed of

in

the

of Metallurgy The above

of the Academy materials

Sciences

the USSR _. con-

mentioned

fabricated program

in ground

ditions

will

be used

to perform

the entire

of scientific

re searches. The postflight cated under results obtained of metal will and be further utilized during fabri-

analysis

semioonducting

materials

weightlessness successful to found materials

conditions. implementation the basis on space of Furnace System pro-

Thus, gram will allow

of future orbital

production

technolo-

gy to fabricate

plant-stations.

- 15o -

;oule

I

Ampoule

2

T

phite Heater

Thermal

insert

Thermal

insert

Heat

removal

FIGURE

5.3

MULTIPURPOSE

FURNACE

EXPERIMENT

CARTRIDGE

TOc

1000

800

6OO

!
On
Ix)

400 I 200

_.o:. E,

T=46 ° Cartridges transfer to Apollo /.//// //////_ Furnace switch-on Furnace switch-off Cartridges removal Cartridges transfer to Soyuz

O

O

0

_

O

Loading with the furnace cartridges 0
I _4 I

2
I I I

4
I I

6
I I

8
I I

10
I _

Time, hrs

FIGURE

5,4 FURNACE

EXPERIMENT

DIAGRAM

GoO

TELEVISION PLAN Onboard (using the Soyuz TV cameras) and ground based are planned to inform public on the spacecraft joint flight.

television transmissions progress

of the Soyuz and Apollo

6._

Onboard television Onboard television transmission will be carried out in

accordance with the planned sequence of scenes to show activities of the crew: - preparation for and performance yuz and Apollo - intervehicular spacecraft; transfer operations; (experiments, conversations tests; of the Soyuz and Apollo etc.); of docking of the So-

- Joint activities - docking/undocking - preparation spacecraft.

for and undocking

During the Soyuz and Apollo spacecraft joint flight (from 48 hours GET through 108 hours GET) 23 onboard television transmissions are scheduled to be carried out, 4 being transmit-

ted from the Apollo spacecraft. The following TV cameras of the Soyuz spaceeraft are used for onboard television: - portable color TV camera of the Orbital Module

;
- fixed black-and-white hicle (TK-2) ; - portable colour TV camera to be used in the Soyuz and Apollo spacecraft (TK-3); - 153 TV camera of the Descent Ve-

- external

black-and-white

TV camera

(TK-4)°

Control of the TV cameras

(TK-I, TK-3 and TK-4) is pro-

vided via command radio link (GRL) and using the command-warning device (CWD). Control of TE-2 camera is provided List, contents sion transmissions via GIIL only. televi-

and times for the USSR onboard in Table 7. I.

are given

6,_,

Ground

based television

List, contents and time for the USSR ground based television transmissions TBD.

- 154 -

Teb]_ 7_i
THE USSR OEBOARD TELEVISION TP_-_S_ISSIONS SPACECP_FT DUP_ING THE FLIGHT SOYUZ AND APOLLO

JOINT

:Revo-:Ground: : Step : lu- :elapsed:Index: :tion : time : : :hrs:min: : :

Scene _ ....

: :

Place, :TV trans-: : mission : :duration, : :TVcamera• sin : . ._ :

Contents

1 " 2 "

3

:4

:

5

:

6

:

7

:

8

I.

34

48:50 • 6 48.5

TV-5

Soyuz crew scheduled activities,

DV (TK-2)

9 min

_CC comments on crew activity.

J
_
tm

2.

35

50:23 50:29

TV-5.1

Soyuz systems familiarization,

DV (TK-2)

8 min

SC and _E com_ents on Soyuz spacecraft systems.

l 3. 36

51:56

TV-3

General view of Apollo. Soyuz crew comments on docking proC@SS.

OM (TK-4) DV (TK-2)

9 min

_CC comments

on docking.

SC report on Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft docking.

4.

37

53:29

TV-9

Soyuz crew prep_ration for meeting,

OM (TK-I)

5 min

SC and FE co_ments meeting preparation

on

mw_m--iI

_-@_ _ _ _ _ --_

m-- ----_ ._m_

_-- _ ....

_--_----_m

.....

_m--_m_mD_

.....

_ _--m_--_R_m_mm_

_

_ .....

_

I :2 5. 38

:

3

: 4

:

5

:

6

:

7 4 min

:

8
,L , •

55:02

TV-9.1

Hatch 3 opening._,leet0_¢ (TK-3) ing of crews with 01_ of the Soyuz spacecraft,

SC comments on hatch 3 opening and AO and DP transfer to 0_. Greetings.

6.

47

68:12

TV-9.2

Soyuz crew activity afterthe first transfer. od. Eat peri-

O_ (TE-3)

8 rain

Cre_vmen conversation around the table.

!

-_ !

7.

48

69:34

TV-10

Hatch 4 opening to initiate thesecond transfer.

0}_ (TK-3)

3 min

SO comments

on transfer

preparation,

8.

48

69:45

TV-10.1 SC transfers to Apollo.

0_ (TK-I)

5 rain

!_ICC omments on crew acc tfvity and SC transfer to DMo

9.

49

71:05

TV-10o2 Joint activities in Apollo duringthe second transfer.

C_ (TK-3)

5 min

FamiZiarization with the Apollo C_isystems°

I 10.

:

2 49

:

3 71:17

:

4

:

5 in So-

:

6

:

7 5 min

:

8 of DP with

_i7-I0.3

Joint activities

01_ (TK-I)

Familiarization

yuz during the second transfer

the Soyuz systems

11.

50

72:33 72:38

_-I0.4

Joint

activities

in

CM

(TK-1)

4 min 5 min

FE comments observation

on the

Earth

Apollo during the second transfer

12.

51

74:06 74:11

TV-IO°5

Joint activities

in So-

0M

(TK-I)

4 .in 4 .in

"Mixed"

crew comments.

Con-

yuz during the second transfer

versation at table. Report on the spacefood

13. I

52

75:39

TV-11

Cre_nen activity in Soyuz during the third transfer. ing Hatch 4 open-

OM (TK-I)

4 .in

MCC colnments on crewmen activities

14.

52

75:43

TV-11.1

Crew joint activity

in

_II (TK-3)

5 min

_CC oo_nents

on the SC

Apollo during the third trsnsfer

transfer from I_Mto the SoyuzOM

15.

53

77:11

TV-11.2

Joint activities in Apol- CI_i (TK-3) io during the third trans_ fer

5 min

Joint press-conference mixed crew in C_,_

of

16.

54

78:44

TV-11.3

Crewmen transfer

activities

in

O_

(TK-I)

3 min

Exchange

of

souvenir

emb-

Soyuz during the third

lems and tree seeds.

17.

63

91-54

TV-12

Soyus crew activities after the fourth transfer

O?_ (TK-I)

7 rain

_ZCC comments on completion of the crew program. Eat period

I 18. co 64 93:15 93:27 TV-14 Soyuz nominal activities. DV (TK-I) 5 rain 4 min T_CC cow,tents on completion of the crew program

'_oo yu_zsystem <_heck out

19.

65

94:47 94:59

TV-14.1

Soyuz crew preparation for undocking

0i_i (TK-I) DV (TK-2)

4 rain 5 min

_CC

comments

on docking

preparation

_O,

66

96:15 96:21

TV-14o2

Redocking

0_!(TK-4)

9 min

_OC comments on redocking and APDS operation

I :

2

:

3

:

4

:

5

:

6

:

7

:

8

21.

68

99:21 99:26

TV-15.1

Cosmonauts

report

on re- DV

(TK-2)

4 min 4 min

_5C and

F_ comments

on

re-

sults of the second undocking

sults of the second undocking

22.

69

I00:53

_-18

Cosmonauts activities after undosking

DV (TK-2)

5 rain

_C co_nents

on completion

of the program DV (TK-2) 3 rain FE com_nents on ULT:*_VIOI_T ABS0_PTION experiment performedyApollo. b

23.

70

100:26

TV-18

Cosmonauts

activities

after undocking l
kO I

7.0

FLIGHT

CONTROL.

_AIN

SUPPORTS:

PURPOSE,

FUNCTIONS

AND

INTERACTION

7.I

Flight control Control During criteria the joint flight preparation (_CC-M) center number the two sides agreed should (_CC-H) control the So-

that the USSR mission yuz flight

control

center control

and the US mission flight,

should control

the Apollo

and that sufficient between the MCC-H

of communications to coordinate joint

lines be provided activities

and MCC-M

of the centers. Maximum flight safety is the main criterion of the joint as a base

flight

control. flight

Also,

a number

of organization were

criteria

of Joint

control

implementation joint

developed. with mutualcrew joint

Each MCC ly developed activity

controls

flight

in accordance and effective

and agreed

to documentation,

coordination The Flight

is provided. Directors control the joint flight made and coordi-

nate _CC of flight

activities. control Each

Correctness Plight

of decisions Director a team

in the course

is the

responsibility. to work at

country MCC

appoints

of specialists the required

the other

country

and to provide Director.

consultations

for that country

Plight

Responsibility Responsibility tuation was agreed The Soyuz The Apollo flight upon.

Assignment assignment in nominal and contingency si-

flight control

control

is the USSR MCC

responsibility.

is the US MCC

responsibility.

160 -

Voice and ranging channel Voice channel

"_w

m

%

>

_

_
0

_
>

I

US command/measurement

complex

I

USSR command/measurement

complex

I

'

US Director for ASTP Technical

H

US Flight Director

"

Seventeletype voice Two

channels channels

"_:1

USSR Flight Director

H

USSR Technical for ASTP Director

USSR teamof specialists US , Mission control

US personnel center

Two TV-channels

USSRpersonnel

specialists

Two voice channels for air/ground communication translation
|

USRR Mission control

center

|

US launching complex FIGURE

I 7.:!. APOLLO/SOYUZ JOINT FLIGHT CONTROL

USSR SCHEMATIC

launching

complex

I

In accordance case of a contingency

with

the main

flight

control the MCC inform

criterion, which learn_

in

in either should

spacecraft, immediately

of the contingency take actions

first

the other MCC crew finds out is availand come

and

to ensure

the erew safety. line

If either

a contingency able,

and no communications commanders with

to eitherMCC their action program.

the spacecraft

agree

upon

to a decision

to proceed

the mission

Information Information via the following

exchange exchange between the two MCCs voice, is accomplished and

communications

lines:

TV, teletype

facsimile. Command/program, is exchanged schematics, below between facsimile trajectory, during telemetry the flight. and TV information of

the MCCs

Transmission

and other

graphic

data is provided. lines between

A figure_f and

is a schematic

of communications

the MCCs

the two spacecraft. If need be, either MCC craft cation vided flying over the other can communicate station with after its spacethe communi-

si_e ground

is agreed upon with the other either by remote keying from

side. Voice

link can be proa designated

the _CC pemuissien

or through

specialist

in the other MCC the two sides records.

after

is granted. air/ground voice

Also, communication

agreed

to exchange

7.2

Mission control center (MCC) Purpose, Mission personnel control and facilitiest functions _CC to control manned space-

center

- 162 -

craft and automatic Also, the flight

vehicles

of "Moon",

"Venus"

and "Mars"

type.

control

is supported Ussuriysk,

by the USSR ground Ulhan-Ude, ships areas

stations Tbi-

such as Djusali, lisi,

Evpatoria,

Kolpashevo,

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy in the Atlantic Academy

and research Ocean water

of the USSR Acaand computation

demy of Sciences centers

of the USSR The _CC

of Sciences. during analyze the flight are as follows: (telemetry, stations communicaand

responsibilities process and

- collect, trajectory research tion

the informstion from the ground and satellite

and TV) arriving ships through

ground

links; change, this if required, the flight program and im-

- update, plement

program; direct the activities of the ground ships track-

- practically ing my stations

and scientific

research

of the Acade-

of Science; with the computation center to provide the

- communicate measurement - interact les; - interact The mission - managers

data processing the mockup

reliability; setups and conso-

with

and simulator

with the search-and-rescue control center personnel

complex. includes: (whose stations are

and cognizant room);

specialists

in the control - USA consultative - support teams

team (a room near the control stations

room);

(whose

are in the MCC building all the necessary to control the

and who provide information flight).

the control

room with proposals

a_d preliminary

- 163 -

The mission - computer

control complex; that

center

involves:

- TV-equipment TV-information

provides

reception

and indication

of

transmitted

from the USSR and also,

space launch of tele-

area and She spacecraft, metry display - voice data and support facilities; communication with

indication

team

information

on individual

equipment

that provides internal

the MCC

personnel

all the necessary links; for individual

and external

communication - display

facilities

and collective

use

to display the flight. Communication centers are provided.

all the necessary

information

to control

lines

between

the MCC

and the Moscow

TV

Control

room control is accomplished in the control directed room. by the

The flight The personnel Shift _light

activities Director,

in the control

room are

The following room: - S_

people

man their

stations

in the control

Plight Director; specialists responsible for the primary space-

- cognizant craft

systems; specialist normal responsible for ground tracking

- cognizant station

network

functioning; responsible for flight program

- cognizant

specialist

time line working

out; - 164 -

- cognizant of onboard

specialist system

responsible

for complex

analysis

operation; who performs voice communication

- operator-cosmonaut events - Project with

the crew; Director representative;

Technical

- trajectory - cognizant riments; - medical nation; - MCC Shift

specialist; specialist responsible for scientific expe-

officer

responsible

for the crew-medical

exami-

Director

and cognizant systems

specialists

responsible information/ etc.). standard use, commuthe

for the _CC primary computer All panels, complex,

(communications, display systems with

information stations

the specialists' facilities

are equipped

data display

for collective

and individual to directly

and communication nicate contr_ with each room.

facilities other, Shift

for the specialists Director

and support

team outside

The personnel hour overlap for taking

works

in th_12-hour

shifts

with about

an

over-procedure. without

During

the flight

the take

over procedure procedures.

is performed

causing

any delay in flight

Control

room _nctions control

during

the flisht the spacecraft the spacecraft contse-

The mission rol from the launching paration from

center

takes over

complex vehicle

immediately third

after

the launch

stage. monitor onboard

Up to this system operation

time the control

room personnel and observe

via telemetry

channels

the crew acti-

- 165 -

vities rol

by TV-communication voice The exchange. screen

link

and

listen

to the crew/lattuch

cont-

team

central

displays

launch

vehicle

progress

throughout

the period Following the

of orbit

insertion. separation monitor, battery and from via the launch ve-

spacecraft personnel and solar

hicle, the

the control

room

telemetry

channels, com-

spacecraft

antenna

deployment, start

establish

munications operation

lines checkout.

to the spacecraft

the onboard

system

The When sition tral

cycle

of operation

described

below

is

followed. AOS (aqui-

the spacecraft (the

reaches

the ground

station

of signal)

spacecraft

progress

is displayed spacecraft

on the cenis started

screen),

transmission with the

of command program.

to the

in accordance room monitor

the flight

The personnel and reception are

in the control onboard on. the The of

command

transmission enboard and

spacecraft. ground all the

The

appropriate start and

system

switched

stations telemetry from the

reception trajectory The

retransmlssion and and

to the MCC also

information telemetry by the _CC it is being

TV-retransinformadisplayed

mission tion

spacecraft.

trajectory and

is automatically room

processed at the rate system

computers received.

in the control

Cognizant metry information, the the

specialists each onboard

thoroughly system

analyse and

the

tele-

assess

status

operation, res-

and present ponsible lists side for

assessment system

results

to the

cognizant Cognizant whose

specialist system stations

complex the

analysis. support

speciaare outor get

can communicate the control room,

with

team

and consult on the

the lat_er, system

if required,

additional

information In case

onboard from

operation. modes of onboard

of deviations

the normal

- 166 -

system effect

operation,

the complex

analysis

specialist prepares

analyses

the to

of the failure the failures

on each system, and correct

his proposals modes Director

eliminate system

the scheduled Plight

of onboard of these

operation,

and informs

the Shift

proposals. The medical mir_tien thoroughly officer analyses responsible for the crew medical data, evaluates Director exathe of

the biotelemetric

crew physical the results.

condition

and informs

the Shift Flight

As trajectory ters determined tically

information

is processed the trajectory board

and orbit paramedata are automaroom.

by the computers,

displayed

on the alphanumeric specialist support

in the control

The trajectory nicate with

in the control team. performs

room can commu-

the trajectory

In flight with the crew.

the operator-cosmonaut

voice

exchange

The specialist monitors the station from action with

responsible

for the ground the Shift

station Flight

network

operation,

informs program

Director

if deviations appropriate communicate

the scheduled to eliminate

are observed, He can

and takes directly

the deviations. personnel. the MCC

the ground

station

The Shift MCC tivities

Director

monitors

support

teams

ac-

and also informs appropriate Flight

the Shift Flight action Director

Director

of any

devia-

tion, and takes

to eliminate summarizes

the deviations. all the information of the flight. systems ope-

The Shift and comes

to a decision If no deviations

with regard

to the progress and onboard

in the ground

ration nominal

were

observed,

permission

is released

to proceed

with the

program.

- 167 -

L

If program by the specialist Corrective and the subsequent simulator and The ing radio

correction responsible actions events.

is required, for the program

this

is accomplished

time-line. both and for the current the cosmonaut iden-

can be taken The spacecraft

during model

complex

can

be utilized, action decisions

if required, verification. are implemented and radio

failure

tification

corrective out

worked

by _CC message

transmittto the crew. team of contDiand

commands During

to onboard

systems joint

Apollo/Soyuz will support

flight

a consultative

US specialists rol center on

the flight

from

the USSRmissien the USSR US Flight

by providing technical

(I) consultations pertinent crew

for to the

rector

questions with

spacecraft ground

(2) communication AOS, if required.

the Apollo

in the USSR

station

The consultative the control provided craft. The US specialists _CC-H receive at any the time through data room) all equipped

team is stationed with standard

in a special and

room

(near

panels

facilities,and space-

with

the necessary

data pertinent

to the Soyuz

in the _CC-_ voice

can communicate channels

with

the

and teletype

or transmit/

necessary

by facsimile.

The

control the

room

support

teams in the control room there are sup-

Besides port teams

specialists

in the MCC. specialists rooms who support with the control room activities similar to

The work those

in separate in the The

equipped

standard

panels

control support

room. team responsibilities are as follows:

- 168 -

- provide

information

and computation

data

for the per-

sonnel in the control decisions - consult with regard the specialists

room to use it as a base in making to the flight program; room and help

in the control system

them in analyzing - provide Plight - control The support

the onboard

operation;

implementation Director; the MCC teams

of dscisimm

made by the Shift

facilities include: system display about

operation.

The spacecraft - prepare tional

onboard

specialists of all the necessary addi-

and provide information

onboard

systems

for specialists

in the control - consult onboard - provide

room; room specialists analysis; on the spacecraft model, and assist them in

the control system failure

operation

identification

if required; - systematize - change the telemetry data processing computer results; program, if

telemetry

data processing

required;

Specialists - prepare

responsible changes

for flight

progrsm if

planning required, and the based

in the flight operation

program,

on onboard

system

analysis

results

Shift Flight

Director

decisions; plan for onboard systems

- work out commands and radio messages - provide and

transmission for

the crew; information for the

display

the necessary room

specialist in the control program working out; - 169 -

responsible

for the flight

Trajectory, - provide bit

' specialists the necessary trajectory computation data AOS, in or-

determination, coming into

scientific and going and

experiments, out of the data

the spaceand the

craft

shadow

spacecraft Air/ground - provide ground - provide another -provide - provide

maneuvers, communication

these

display;

specialists continuous communications via

the MCC/spacecraft stations; voice as channel

keying

from

one them with

ground station to
over; the crew; line for the US

the spacecraft of voice voice

passes exchange

record

ground/air team, network

communication

consultative G_ound station

if required; operation coordination station specialists operation for com-

- provide the plex

information

on the ground for

specialist

responsible room;

command/measurement

in the control the ground

- coordinate with - insert if

station

operation

in accordance

the program; changes into the ground station operation program,

required; commands to onboard systems through ground stations;

- send

_CC-M/MCOrH - provide

communication all

specialists communication communication list lines lines proper keying

center-to-center and the required

functioning, according channels

to the established fail;

of priority,

if any

- 170 -

Search

and Rescue with

FacilitiesRepresentatives S_Fmanagement; on search status for Flight Direc-

- communicate - provide

information

tor and display The control The total number room

facilities. support teams work people in two 13-hour is 100. shifts.

of the flight

control

_CC

Instrumentation/Computer

Complex complex includes the follow-

The instrumentation/computer ing: Computer accordance with Primary, time. The usual rent mary tory center Complex processes

all numerical

information

in

control

tasks. and special computers function in real for CUl_-

auxiliary, procedure

is to use

two primary

computers

problems,

the other

two standing

by. Each

of the pri-

computers data.

can provide

processing

of all of the TLM and trajec-

Processing and collective

results

are routed

to facilities Only

of individual

use and to those

of control.

one of the Comput-

ers is operative takes over,

at a time; in case it fails

the ether computer

TV-equipment and the country is routed

provides

several centers.

TV-channels In the MCC

between

the MCC

communication

TV-informatien

to the display Recorded

facilities

and video

tape recorders. the display the oontrel through faciand the

TV information

can be fed into are routed from

lities.

Flows

of TLM information equipment output

distribution monitoring

to the computer

complex

and conversion

equipment.

- 171 -

Voice reds of voice control.

oommunication

equipment

provides

the MCC

with hund-

and TLG communication

lines

to support

the flight

Some of voice communication exchange between the MCC and ground backup voice between control

lines provide stations,

numerical pad,

data

launch

simula-

tion facilities, Other communication tions and

centers lines

and other users. provide efficient command sta-

communication

the MCC personnel supporting lines

and the crews, flight control.

ground

other Voice

facilities communication

connect

the _CC-H

and the _CC-_ both voice two and

(eleven facsimile

voice

communication

llnes,two

of these having communication

capabilities;

two teletype

lines and

TV-channels).

The primar[ personnel station Monitors tures (625 lines)

display

facilities

for individual

use are

the

monitors

of 625 and 1125 standard. to display better ordinary TV pic-

of two types are used and documents requiring

image

sharpness

and higher

resolution

(1125 lines). in the control room include: information pro-

Display

facilities

- alphanumeric cessing flight

display most

of trajectory important

results, plan and from

information reference

on the data, indis-

this plan the timing

progress, system;

formation play lity

the alphanumeric complex

is controlled of m_nual

by the computer

with capabi-

data input; to display in large scale screens ground prepainto

- optical maps

projectors

the spacecraft location program

trajectories

and positions, prelaunch the vehicle and tables;

station ration

and AOS, and

the vehicle

that of injecting in form of graphs - 172 -

a satellite

orbit

- large from

scale TV-projectors the launch

to display

live

transmission sta-

site and spacecraft, analysis

the spacecraft most

tus and crew-condltion reference

results,

important

data on the flight

program.

Also, installed - uplink command

in the MCC

are: remote through use system ground with capabilistations; which and the

transmission commands

ty of transmitting - display provide computer facilities efficient complex;

of individual interaction

(displays) specialists

of the

- teletype-writers tions and other

to exchange organizations.

data with

the ground

sta-

7.3

_CC Personnel Training The MCC personnel performs training sequence during the

spacecraft lators, ground

flight

preparation.

In the training

use is made

of simuof the

the spacecraft stations,

physical/mathematical center and

model,

equipment

the USSR computer

scientific

research crews

stations. and

Participating station

in the training personnel. the flight

are the spacecraft

the ground

During real

the training

program

is practised

in

time and also

the MCC interaction

with the ground

stations Potensupport

and the computer tial contingencies facilities ways

centers

of the USSR Academy the spacecraft during

of Science.

onboard

and at the ground

are considered

the training - with

as well as efficient safety-provided. flight it

out of these During

contingencies preparation

the crow

for the joint Apollo/Soyuz

- 173 -

is necessary and simulator additional tional

for the MCC personnel, complex joint and the ground training

the Soyuz support

crews, complex

the mock-up to perform

sequence.

Objectives

of these addi-

trainings

are as follows: of the USSR and US and these _CCs specialists with the

- familiarization USSR and US _CCs

peculiar

features; of the Soyuz during

- examination and Apollo the joint - all

by the USSR and US specialists systems flight; lines functioning exchange procedure and these systems

functioning

the communications information

checkout, checkout;

the

MCC-M/MCO-H - the _CCs - training introduced provided. The training those of real flight.

operation in finding

cyclogram ways

training; contingencies safety

out of potential trainers with

by the flight

the crew

is performed

under

conditions

very

elose

to

174 -

8.0

CREWS TRAINING The Soyuz crewmen training consisted of the crewmen and American

self-dependent crewmen

training

and of the joint

Soviet

training.

5oyuz flight, lator

crewmen

self-dependent

training

included:

theory, simu-

medical

examination and practical

and physical course.

training

and also

training

The purpose

of Soyu_ crewmen

theoretical

training

was

to study:
- Soyuz spacecraft design, power supply system and confi-

guration; - equipment - spacecraft - flight structure and arrangement; and systems; and program; equipment; modes;

instruments

scheme,

ballistics

- scientific - manual - space

and photography

and automatic navigation

systems

theory. training was to dsvelop cosmsnauts

The purpose professional those

of flight

qualities

in conditions

maximally

approximating

of space flight. Flight training included: flights using trainer under aeroshort-

planes termed

and test-bed weightlessness

aircraft

to train activities

conditions.

Crewmen system was

training using motion

of practical . knowledge Soyuz complex

to control

Soyuz

conducted

simulator. visual observation

Spacecraft was provided

simulation and optical

during

by electronic

devices.

- 175 -

The complex and Scyuz orbital During and mastered craft, ment. To purpose monauts' vironment resistance limited

simulator

comprises

Soyuz

descent

vehicle

module. studies stations with crewmen tried on flight suits

practical

their work operated

in mock-ups

and in the spaceequip-

and also

scientific

and photography

of me dlcal to some

trainin_

was to strengthen (g-load,

cos-

space

factors

isolation,en-

area, gas atmosphere centrifugal with pressure

and so on). training, alti-

This included tude chamber and reduced medical training similar

and vestibular

and gas atmosphere as well

increased

to actual

flight modes,

as periodical

examinations. Physical training was aimed readiness at maintaining through cosmonauts, streng-

excellent thening

state

and physical exercises.

generally

and special

Crewmen

_oint

training with

included: Soyuz and Apollo systems ensuring

- familiarization the joint

mission; on crews joint activities;

- study of documents - DM mock-up - crew

contingencies training

training; in Soyuz and Apollo Soyuz mock-ups; and Apollo

interaction of radio

- testing crews; - crews

communication

between

joint

training

in Soyuz

complex USSR); mock-up

simulator

(Gaga-

rin Cosmonauts' - crews joint

Training

Centre,

tranining

in Apollo (USA);

and

simulator

in Johnson

Space Centre

- 176 -

- crews familiarization two Soyuz - cosmonauts' spacecraft;

with Apollo

spacecraft

and with

study of the English

language

and astronaand

uts' study of Russian Soviet Cosmonauts both space

as well as study of American

terminology. joint training was carried out

and astronauts the USA.

in the USSR and

The Apollo

spacecraft in JSC

and its sys(USA) in Ju-

tems were ly 1973.

theoretically

studied

by cosmonauts

The Soyuz nauts in Gagarin Crewmen lator was

spacecraft Cosmonauts'

was theoretically Training Centre

studied

by astro1973. simu-

in November

joint

training

in Soyaz mock-up Cosmonauts'

and complex Centre

carried

out in Gagarin 1975.

Training

(USSR) in July

1974 and May joint

Crewmen was carried

training

in Apollo

mock-up

and simulator 1975.

out in JSC

(USA) in September

1974 and February

In _ebruary spacecraft

1975 the crewmen - with

were f_m_liarized

with Apollo

and in _ay

two Soyuz spacecraft.

- 177 -

._,

INPOI_$_IAglON

ON TH_ AST__ _i_,_,_ AND DI!_CTORS "_m_'_

- _78 -

9oi.

l_formslion

on The _eyuz crews

_!heFix_t, Crez_ Commander Colonel - Leaner Alexey Arkhipovich. Leonov,USSR space-pilot, Hero of Kemerovo

Alexey Arkhipovioh

the Soviet U_nion was born in 1934 in village region. After World War II the Leonovs moved grad. in 1953 a Komsomol from member Leonov A.Ao diploma

of Listvy_gmka,

to the city of Kalininan aviation school.

entered

He graduated military

it with an honours

and became

a professional

pilot. In 1957 he joined the Con_nunist Farty of the Soviet Alexey Union. self-

The Headquarters control, more

kig_dy

appreciate

izckhipovich's skill, parachutist degrees

discipline.

He is a well-trained jumps of varying

- performed

than 100 parachute

of difficulty. cosmonauts he began

In 1960 with the first group training for _ space flighg. On Narch craft(with

of Soviet

18, 1965 he made a space flight ms the commander).0n

in Voskhdd-2

space-

Pavel Belyayev

that flight

Leonov

went outside

the ship. His walk into open space opened of space exploration. years the cosmonaut

a _ew chapter

in the history

All the subsequent end training. flights.

continued

his studies space

He participated

in preparation

for all Soviet

In 1968 he gradumted A.A. leonov

from the Zhykovskiy of the Young

Air Force Academy. League Central He is a of

is a member

Communist

Coumnittee (YCLCC), vice-presidsnt the Constituent citizen Belgorod,

and a deputy to _4oscow Regional Friendship

Soviet°

o_ the USSR-Italy Council

Society,

the Chairman

of the Press

and News Agency.He Vologda,

is an honorary Nalchik, (PRB),

of towns: Kemerovo_ Drogobych, Sochi,

Kaliningrad, Chuguev,

Kremenchug, Sofia

Termez,Kapsukas,

- 179 -

Perm,

Ust-na-Labe A.A.Leonov

(Czechoslovakia), has a passion His paintings Prague, keen

Altenburg for painting. were

(GDR), Houston

(USA). of Orel,

He is a member in _oscow, and

USSR

painter's

union.

exhibited Helsinki hunting,

Simferopol, annual show.

Bratislava, Heis also

Ottawa,

in the Bjenal skiing, track

in filming, sport.

water

and field

athletics, Rewards:

parachute

Hero Hero

of the Soviet of the DRV,

Union,

Hero of the PRB, 18 orders medals and medals, including and: Great Gold _sdal of 8 orders and

of ether

countries _adal,

Tsiolkovskiy FAI, Great

Gold

Ist degree Gold _edal

diploma, of Ch.SSR Academy of Sciences

(For Services Gold damask

to Mankind).

blade.

Lecvov's chers

wife,

Svetlana

Petrovna,

graduated two

from a Tea-

Institute,_she

is an editor.

They have

daughters:

Victoria,

13 and 0ksana,7.

Flight Valeriy Soviet Union was

Engineer

- Kubasov

Valeriy USSR

Nikolaevich. space pilot, Hero of the

Nikolaevich born

Kubasov,

in the town graduated

of Vyazniki, from

Vladlmir

region. with a

In 1952 Valeriy silver After at and a medal and entered

a secondary _oscow Valeriy

school Aviation began

S. Ordzhonikidze the Institute he revealed resemroh.

Institute. working

the graduation

from

design bureau where aptitude for

comprehensive In 1969

knowledge received

scientific

Eubasov

-

180 -

candidate's papers

degree in science. of flight

He is an author of a number vehicle motion.

of

on compu%ation

In 1966 VoKubasov went a comprehensive the CPSU. In January flight

was named

to cosmonaut program.

corps. He underIn 1968 he joined back up

preparation

1969 V.Kubasov flight.

was eosmonaut YeLiseev's

for Soyuz-4

and Soyuz-5

I_ October,1969

he waB flight-engi- Georgiy

neer for the Soyuz-6 mission Shonin). During

(the spacecraft

co_ander

the flight along with a number of other scientific experiment citizen was conducted. Karaganda,

experiments

the first metal-welding is an honorary Vyazniki,

V.Kubasov Kaluga, Vladimir, Rewards:

of towns:

Houston. Union, (USSR Academy of Science), of

Hero of the Soviet Tsiolkovskiy medal V.I.

Gold _edal

"For valiant Lenin

labour

in commemoration

centenary", participation in Komsomol

emblem

"For active

activities", Gold _sdal of Yugoslavian medal number "For development of medals Academy of Science, lands", and a

of virgin

of other

countries.

V.Kubasov skiing, water

has a passion

for filming,

hunting,

fishing,

skiing. wife, Lyu_Lmila Ivanovna, graduated from _oscsw plant.

Kubasov's Aviation Institute;

she is an engineer

at a machine-building

The Kubasovs

h_vs two children:

_atya is 8 and Dima is 3.

- 181 -

The.Second

Crew.

Commander

- Filipchenko

Anatoliy

Vasiljevich.

Colonal

Ana_olly

Vasiljevich

Fillpchenko,

USSR

space

pi-

lot, twice a Hero of the Soviet Union was in the village of Davydovka, Voronezh

born on February

26,1928

region° worked as a turner,

He completed studied Higher diploma. Prior from at Air Force Pilot Training

seven years School. School;

of school,

In I947 he entered he graduated was from

the Chug_evo it with an honours

In I951

A.Filipchenko the cosmonauts up to senior

commissioned

in Air Force. had advanced

to Joining Junior pilot

corps

A.Filipchenko

inspector-pilot

of a air division.

A.Eilipchenko

Joined

the CPSU from

in 1952. Red Banner Academy

In 1961 he graduated (now it is called the Gagarin

the Air Force

Air Force Academy). to cosmonaut corps in 1963. He planes and

A.Filipchanko continued to master

was named

his skill, proficiency. studied

piloted

the supersonic

got the test-pilot flight A.Filipohenko skill

When preparin_

for the space and acquired In January,

thouroughly scientific

the theo_j

practical

for conducting back

experiments. flight

1969 he was Shatalov's 1969 he was

up for Soyuz-4 for Soyuz-7 back

and in October, In June, flight. N. Rukaas part of

the commander

orbital

flight.

1970 A. Filipchenko In December, vishnikov

was Nikolaev's

up for Soyuz-9 with cosmonaut Soyuz-16

1974 A. Eilipchenko flight

perforated the orbital program

onboard

the preparation

for ASTP. is an honorary citizen of towns: Karaganda,

A.Filipchenko Kaluga, Sumy, Chita,

Lipetsk, Ostrogozhsk,

Davydovka,

Arkalyk.

- 182 -

A. Fillpchenko of hunting

is an ardent

sportsman

and a shooter,

he is fond

and auto-tourism.

Rewards:

two orders two medals "Valor Order Order

of Lenin, "Gold Star",

award _, of the Banner "Star with diamo_ds(HPR). 5th degree(RPR), of other

of the Republic,

a number countries, PAI medal

of Soviet medals

and medals

named

after

Gagarin. of Science),

Tsiolkovskiy

Gold _ledal (USSR Academy of the ENEA.

Small Gold_edal

The cosmonaut's wife. They have

wife Yelizaveta Alexander,

Alexandrovna 18, and Igor,

is a houseI4.

two children:

Plight

Engineer

- Rukavishnikov twice

Nickol_y

Nickolaevioh. Union

The USSR Nickolay of Tomsk.

cosmonaut,

the Hero of the Soviet was born in

Nickolaevich After

Rukavishnikov school

1932 in the town the Moscow in in

finishing

in 1951 he entered

Engineer-Physical 1953. Results a scientific

Institute

and graduated diploma

from it successfully papers were published

of Rukavishnikov's magazine. the Institute

After ing plant. spacecraft

Rukavishnikov

works

at a machine-buildof

He works automatic

at the design, and manual

development

and fabrication

control

systems. to cosmonaut as a reseroh V.A, flight corps. engi-

In January In April neer neer

1967 Rukavishnikov his first

was named space flight

1971 he performed Soyuz-10 A.S).

during Yeliseev

mission(commander

Shatelov

engi-

- 183 -

Rukavishnikov In Becember ticipated flight. Rukavishnikov Karaganda, Kaluga,

N.N.

is a _I_SU member

from

1970. partest

1974 Nickolay mission,

Nickolaevich which was

Rukavishnikov

in the Soyuz-16

the ASTP precursor

is an honorary

citizen Suche-Bator.

of towns:

Tomsk,

Arkal_c,Kayhtiy. NoN.

Rukavishnikov driver, Rewards:

is an amateur

radio

operator

and a good

two orders

of Lenin,

two "Gold Star" medals

of

Hero of the Soviet Order

Union,

of Suche-Bator,

Gold Star of Hero of the MPR, Gold Medal of Science), Minor Medal gold medal of ENEA laboar in honour ef Lenin's of Tsiolkovskiy ( from the USSR Academ7

"_or valiant

centmnary. Gold _edal and others. He is also entered in the book of Honotu_ of ZCLCC. of the Ukrania SSR Academy of Science

His wife, plant.

Nina Vasilievna,

works

a_

a machine-building born in 1965.

The Rukavishnikovs

have a son Vladimir,

-

184 -

The Third

Crew.

Commander

- D_hanibeksv

Vladimir

Alexandrovich.

Major monaut,

Dzhanibekov

Vladimir

Alexandrovich,

the USSR

cos-

was born in 1942 in South-Ka_akhstau moved to Tashkent. Having

region. finished

After the war the Suvorov

he and his parents military

school he entered

the highaviation

school in the town of

Eysk in 1961. In 1965 he got the diploma in the school as a pilot -instructor, In 1970 Dzhauibekov to the cosmonaut Vladimir he has a passion Rewards: corps. Alexandrovich for painting. the 20th Victory Patriotic War, of the USSR Armed Porees, service, III grade, has graduated from anniversary in the Great is an amateur radio operator, and A.A. joined the GPSU= and was named of pilot-engineer and stayed

the50 th anniversary for irreproachable Dzhanibekov's the _onservatoire Dzhanibekovs

wife, Lilia Munirovna,

and now she is a music

teacher

at school° The

has two children:Inna,

5 years

of age and Olga, who

was born in 1974.

_light

Engineer

- Andreev

Boris

Dmltrievich.

Cosmonaut After When

Andreev

Boris Dmltrievich

was born in Moscow, 1940. school°

the school in 1968 he entered a student

the Bauman High Technical of the student

he took part in the activity society, took English

scienti-

fic-technical begimting with

courses. After

the High School and

1965 he worked

in a design bureau - _85 -

as an e_neer,

as a chief

of the scientific-technical

information

department. to coshe

In 1969 he joined the CPSU. In 1970 he was named m0naut likes corps.Boris hiking, Dmitrievich is a good skier,

byc_cle-drlver,

He is also a good Tamara

car drivero has graduated from the Bauman

His wife, High Technical

Vasilievna,

School

and as an engineer. have two children: Dima was born in 1969,

The Andreevs Tanyain 1972.

The Fourth

Crew

Commander Major village

- Romanenko Viotorovich

Yuriy

Victorovich. was born in 1944 in the region. Yuriy

Yuriy

Romanenko

of Kaltubanovskay, moved

Buzulukskiy

district After

of 0renburg

Soon his parents worked as a

to Kaliningrad°

finishing

school

fitter

for a year. school diploma

In 1962 he became Yuriy

a student graduated

of the from the

High military school with

aviation an honours

in Chernigov. and stayed

in the school

as a pilot-

-instructOr. InFebruary, 1965 Romanenko joined the CPSU. corps. A.V. In December, during _974

In 1970 he was named he was a backupfor Soyuz-16 cosmonaut

to cosmonaut

for Philipchenko

preparation

mission. has a passion for underwater hunting and

Y.V. Romanenko painting, he is also

a good

car driver.

Rewards:

The Victory tic War.

20th anniversary

in the Great

Patrio-

" The 50 th aD_uiversary of theUSSRAl"med - 186 -

Forces"

"For

irreproachable

service,

IIl degree".

Remanenkots Their son, Roman,

wife,

Alevtina

Ivanovna,

is a music

teacher.

is 6 years of age.

Flight Cosmonaut

Engineer

- Ivanchenkov

Alexander

Sergeevich.

Alexander

Sergeevich region.

Ivanchenkev His father in

was born in 1940 in the volunteered for Rzhev. the His

town of Ivanteevka, front mother father's

Moscow

in the war first died soon after sister. Having

days and perished the war. Alexander

1942 nearby

was brought

up by his

finished aviation

school

with the gold medal When a student in the students' the Institute

in 1958 he skills

entered

the Moscow

school.

he acquired design

in spacecraft

d_sign,

participating from

bureau. worked

After as an engineer craft design In

he graduated

Alexander

in a design bureau.

He works at the choice

of space-

parameters

by computers. to cosmonaut corps. Party of the USSR. for N.N.Ruka-

1970 he was named

In 1972 he joined the Communist In December, vishnikov during

1974 he was a back-up for Soyuz-16 is fond

cosmonaut

preparation Sergeevich

mission. basketball, moun-

Alexander tain skiing. His wife, Moscow Medical

of tourism,

Rimma Alexandrovna, Their

is a doctor Tanya,

in the First old.

Institute.

daughter,

is 6 years

- 187 -

9.2

Information Scheme Joint

about USSR

directors

for ASTP,

0r_anizatien

coordinated required prepare

activity

of the Soviet and American the Soyuz/Apollo spacecraft

specom-

cialists

were

to provide

patibility,to

for and conduct sides

the joint mission. agreed upon the ASTP pro-

To fulfill gram management

the task both

and planned

the joint

activities

for the period

up to 1975.
ASTP ed. The USSR organization and US working meetings scheme, groups presented below, was adoptAt

met in Moscow between

and Houston. the groups was

the times between provided via voice

communication channels,

and teletype of separate

or by mail. groups (plenary

The meetings meetings) were

and all working upon

held regularly

at agreed

time.

- 188 -

ASTP

ORGANIZATION

sCHEME

Academy of Science,USSR Project Technical Director

General

technical

Direction.

NASA, USA Project Teohnical Director

Agreements pliskment, nation.

approval and accomactivities coordi-

Working

groups

Principle Mission plans Mission Mission _ission

functions and opera ion

Working

groups

model

model plan control

Communications between control centers No.2 Guidanceand control Requirements for tracking systems during guidance and rendezvous Support ing Optics Control provisions for docklights No.2

and orientation systems

No.3

Mechanical Docking

structure

of the

No.3

system

NOo4

Communication provisions Air-to-air radio-voice

and tracking

No.4

and air-to-ground communication

Ranging equipment spacecraf_ cable communication NOo5 Life support system and crew transfer - 189 NOo5

ASTP

- 190 -

Boris N.PETROV - Chairman, "Intercosmos" Academy of Sciences

Council USSR

B.N.Petrov was born in 1913. He is a Doctor of technical sciences, fessor, academician division - secretary of the Mechanics Member and control processes of the Presidium

pro-

of the USSR Academy of Sciences_ of Sciences.

of the

USSR Academy

B.N.Petrev is a g_'eat scientist, founder of the automatic I
H

control of

industrial objects and new technical objects. BoN.Petrov was made a valuable contribution international to the organization of space. He is a Member of of the

cooperation in peaceful use and exploration recognition.

Petrov's work received the international the A_ademy of Sciences

in ChSSR, GDR, HNK, and NKB. Chairman of the Technical Federation on automatic

Member of the InterCommittee control. (control in

national of Austronautics, space) of the International

Konst:_ntin

D.BUSHUYEV

- ......... uo_a Technical

Director

for

ASTP

Born graduated

1914,

in Cherten,

_iosalsk district, [!oseow Aviation dynamics he became

Kaluga School. and

region,

in 1941

he

from For

the Ordjonikidze works science, Sciences. has been

practical degree in of

on applied In 1960

strength

]{.Bushuyev member

got of

a doctor's ! H _o _o I the UGS_

a corresponding

Academy

1{.Bushuyev of Socialist Labour,

presented and

numerous Lenin

goverz%ment two

a_vards:

the

Hero and

government

prizes,

Orders space

of Lenin

Order

of October As

i_evolution Technical of AST_

for his

contributions for ASTP he

to the was

exploration. for the

the USSR

Director from the

responsible

technics l zanagemer_t

Soviet

side.

t

Vladimir

A,SHATALOV

- Soviet

Cosmonaut

Training

leader

Shatalov Kazakhstan

was born in 1927 in the town of Petropavlovsk region_ He graduated from the Kachino Air Force Air Force

of the NorthSchool (now the in

1949 and the Order of Red Banner yu.A.Gagarin Academy). flew the Soyuz-4 in 1971_ cosmonaut the title

Academy

in 1956

VoA. Soatalov Soyuz-lO I H _o I also rewarded

and Soyuz-8

spacecraft

in 1969

and

spacecraft

He is the Soviet talov was confered

training of Hero and

leader

since

I972. Union

In 1972 (twice).

V.A.ShaHe is

of the Soviet orders

with many Soviet

foreign

and medals.

Alexey

S. Y_!oz!_V

_- USSi_

_?light

Director

Born Bartman and a i!oscow 8

1954 Higher

in

Zysdra, Tecbnical end in

]<a]uga

region.

In

1975 he

he

graduated in 1972 he

from Soyuz

t_D 5

School..in

1969

participated In

Soyuz

misoions degree his title of in

1971

-

in

Soyuz

10 mission.

earned

doctor's For

science. to the other the space Soviet exploration Union Yeliseyev Order wss of twice and

corltributions of the Hero USSR of and

I awarded <o 4_ l other the orders Under agreed, the [tnd got Lenin

countries. questions was of joint misr_ion control were

his

supez_ision

USSI_ _[CC perso._nel

training

performed.

Vlad_i

r A.TI_CHENKOv

Workin_

Group

I Chaiz_nan

Born 1931 in Porkhov, Ordjonikidze Eoscow Aviation

Pskov

region.

In 1955 he graduated

from

the

School. to the space exploration he was awarded "Badge

_or his contributions of Honour" I H LO I

order in 1961 and Order of Lenin - in 1971.

V.Timchenko is USSR Deputy Director for ASTP and Working group I chairman. In his capacity he was in charge of questions on the mission purpose and task definition, trajectory support the Soyuz spacecraft modification program and

mission

development.

Victor

LEGOSTAEV

- i iO._Q_,iG G._OUP

2 v...,___(]_*_T_,_ _...

Born n!oher

1931 in ?_ioscow.in 1955 he graduated School. In 1959 he defended hie

from the

Bauman

i_ioscow a canof the

Technical

thesis and earned professor

didste's

degree in science. Technical

Since 1965 he is an assistant

i,,_osoowPhysical I
kO

School. to the development of national economy Dr.Lego-

For his contribution

o_ l

staev was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, the Gold _edal of N_AE (National Economy Achievements Exhibition) and the Medal for Valiant ,Labour presented day. to him on the occasion of the IO0 th anniversary of Lenin's birth-

Under conditions craft

his supervision

for ASTI_ there were and compatible Dynamic

developed equipment

procedures for space-

and

for spacecraft

approach,

acquisition, system

gmidance

and approach.

calculations

of the Soyuz for these ope-

control rations

during approach were

were perforated, and conditions

performance

determined.

V ladimi_

S.SYRO_JATNIKOV

-

WORKING

GROUP

3 CHAIP_IAN

Born cow Higher ed a I

1933

in Archangelsk. School. in In

In 1956 he 1968 after

graduated defence

from of his

the Bauman thesis he

_Iosearn-

Technical

candidate's Under his

degree

science. a principally new androgynous Soyuz/Apollo peryhperal docking dock-

supervision was

ing system I V. all

(APDS)

developed

to be used

for

Syromjatnikov beginning

was responsible with DS design

for

fabrication up to its

and

development testings.

of

DS units

phase

flight

Boris V.NIiIITIN - _;gO_(INGGROUP

4 CHAIPJ,iAN

Born 1919 in Novosibirsk° munication Engineers' School.

In 1941 he graduated

from

the _{oscow Com-

For his contributions !
_D

to the space e_oloration

he

was awarded

Badge

of Honour in 1961. Under his supervision for ASTP radio connnunicationnetwork bet_Jeen the spacecraft ing systems and the ground was determined, were radiocormmunieation spacecraft and rangfrequen-

c_ I

compatibility was

testing

performed,

radio

cy compatibility coverage vices

verified, visiting

the possibility the other

of Soyuz/Apollo was provided,

luf and audio pyro de-

when crews' testing

spacecraft

safety

was perfon_ed.

Ilja 3T.LAVROV-

WORKING

GROUP

_ CHAII_AN

Born Higher

1920 in _Oscow. School.

In 1949 he graduated

from

the Bauman

_oscow

Technical

For his contributions Badge

to the space

exploration Medal

he was awarded

Orders

of Lenin,

of Honour,

Space Exploration

of the USSR Academy I ko ko I Under his

of Science. there were developed provisions for Docking

supervision

System and Apollo radio set, installed in Soyaz, thermal mode; provisions and materials environment, re quireme nt s. for equipment and cosmonauts' system suits fire safety in pure 02

and life support

was updated

to meet

compatibility

10. i_SFE_t_NCE HFOr_'_'_ATION I

- 2O0 -

U,S/USSR

.SP.,ACE,
cooperation in space and the Union of Sosigned in Moscow on 1972:

Text of the agreement on between the United States viet Socialist Republics May 24,

AGREEMENT Between Socialist use the United States of America cooperation purposes, and the Union of Soviet Sociaand the Union of Soviet and

Republics space

concerning for peaceful

in the exploration

of outer

The United list Republics, Gcnsidering exploration Striving

States

of America

the role which of outer

the USA and the USSR for peaceful

p_y

in the

and use

space

purposes, between the

for a further

expansion

of cooperation and use of outer

USA and the USSR in the exploration peaceful p_rposes, the positive in this cooperation area,

space for

Nothing ready

which

the parties

have

al-

experienced Desiring

to make

the results and use

of scientific space

research

gained purposes and

from

the exploration

of outer

for peaceful

available

for the benefit

of the peoples

of the

two countries

of all peoples Taking ciples

of the world, consideration the activities including the provisions of slates and of .the treaty on prinand use as of as-

into

governing space,

in the exploration celestial

of outer

the moon

other

bodies,

well as the agreement tronauts, and

on the rescue of objects the agreement

of astronauts, launched between into

the return outer space,

the return with

In accordance

the United

States

of

- 201 -

America and

and the Union

of Soviet

Socialist technical,

_epublios educational,

of exchanges cultural,and further two

cooperation fields,

in scientific, signed April

other

11, 1972, and in order beneficial cooperation

to develop between the

the principles countries: Have Article The parties meteorology: near Earth

of mutually

agreed

as follows: I will develop coopers.tion in the fields of space of and

study space,

of the natural the moon

environment: and

the exploration space biology

and the planets: will cooperate

medicine: measures

and in particular, to encourage of

to take

all appropriate "summary

and achieve on space

the fulfillment cooperation and

of the

of results tional

discussions and

between

the US Naof

Aeronautics

Space

Administration 21, 1971.

the Academy

Scienc_of

the USSR"

of January

Article The parties exchanges ings such may

2 will carry out such cooperation and by means of mutual meetin

of scientific and

information specialists be mutually

delegations,

through

of scientists other ways

of both agreed. and

cou[itries, and also Joint working of

as may for

groLJps a p p r o-

be created

the development

implementation

p r i a t e

programs

of cooperation.

A r tic

1 e

_ have agreed to carry out projects of United for developing and So-

The parties compatible viet manned

rendezvoas spacecraft

and docking and

systems

States

stations,

in order

to enhance

the safety for c o n-

of manned

• • _I fll_nt - in spsce and to provide

the opportunity

d u c t i n g planned that

joint scientific the first duri_

experiments flight the

in the future, these

it is

experimental

to test

systems

be conducted type

1375, envisaging

docking spacecraft

of' a US Apollowith visits of

spocecz'aft

and a _oviet other's

_oyuz-type

astronauts projects

in each will

spacecrafts.

The implementation o_ princisles with the

of these

be carried

out on the

basis

and proce-

dures which sults

will be

_veloped between

in accordance representatives

sun_aary of re-

of the meeting and

of the US National Academy for of _cienrendezvous

Aeronautics ces

Space AO_inistration of developing spacecraft 6, 1972.

and the USSR

on the question

compatible and space

syatem_ stations

and dockiug the USS_,

of manned April

of the USA and

dated

Article The parties problems space order will

4 will ensourage international efforts to resolve of outer the legal law and

of international purposes further

law in the exploration with

and use

for peaceful in space cooperate and

the aim of strengthening international space

developing

in this

field.

Article The parties cooperation purposes°

5 may by mutual exploration agreement and use determine of outer other areas of

in the

space

for peaceful

Article

6 shall enter into force upon signature and shall by

This agreement remain mutual in force agreement

for five years. of the parties°

It may be modified

or extended

- 203 -

Done at _oscow English and Russian

on the 24th of May, languages,

]972, in duplicate in the authentic.

each equally

For the United

States of America

Richard

Nixon

For the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Aleksei N.Kosygin

- 204 -

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