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A project of Volunteers in Asia
Cookstove Construction by: Roberto Lou Ma
bv the Terra-CRTA Method
Published by: Centro de Experimentation en Technologia Apropiada 15 Avenida 14-61, Zona 10 Guatemala City Guatemala Paper copies are $ 2.00.
Available from: Centro de Experimentation en Technologia Apropiada 15 Avenida 14-61, Zona 10 Guatemala City Guatemala Reproduced by permission of the Centro de Experimentation en Technologia Apropiada. Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document.
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cookstovti THE T’E
15 AVENIDA14-61, ZONA10
CENI-RO EF'ERIMENTACION 7ECNOLOGIA DE EN APROPIADA
To be effective, a fuel conservation program must promote, among other matters, the generalized adoption of improved cookstoves by people for which fuelwood is the main domestic energetic source. One severe limitation of most existing cookstove designs is that they cannot be readily and cheaply ,produced in quantities suitable for ample dissemination. to this problem, a simplified system of stove I tion, using mass produced, low cost prefabricated components, designed assembly by the potential users, 'has been proposed elsewhere (Lou Ma, \ As a result of the continued efforts of the Centro de ExperimentaciGn As a possible solution construcfor self 1982). en Tecno-
1ogiIa Apropiada, CETA: a novel quick and simple procedure for the "in situ" construction of monolithic earthen cookstoves has also been developed, which shall be followingly presented with the name of TEHiYl-CETA an alternative as solution to the referred problem.
urn TERRA-CETA ijfi~R0~
The key element to th' proposed method is the use of a special dismountable f mold, fabricated from/metal or lumber. The mold consists of a rectangular frame, to which a number of cavity forming inserts are fastened, With reference to the enclosed drawings: ' A B C D E Frame Sides Frame Ends Duct Forming Insert Pothole Forming Insert Chimneyhole Forming Insert
Drawing 1 depicts the dismantled wooden mold. The mold is assembled as shown in Drawing 2, by means of bolts with wingnuts (in a simpler version, the frame is held together with four tie rods, instead of the four steel corner brackets shown in the drawings). The stove can be built earth, at floor level, or over an elevated base made of rammed
adobe, masonry or other material.
To form the stove body, the assembled
mold is filled thoroughly
of damp earth
Because the compaction is performed Consequently, at low moisture contents, very high densities can be attained. ,earth materials with high olay content can be used without the danger of cracks appearing on drying, and producing a very strong and durable mass. the cavity forming inserts are extracted. InUpon completion of the filling, sert C is pulled straight out 'as indicated by an arrow in Drawing 3, and inserts D and E are removed by combined rotating and pulling actions. To fa- '. cilitate their removal, the inserts are covered with paper prior to,filling the mold. Lastly, the frame is dismantled. The stove is completed by placing a baffle block (F) beneath the second pothole, 2 or 3 centimeters of the potpiece, or can be molded in place
compacted with a ramming tool,
in a manner to step up the duct floor to within bottom. The baffle block can be a prefabricated
from the same material used for the stove body. In the former case, the position of the baffle may be qdjusted along the duct for best performance. According to the described procedure, a stove can be built in less than one hour, not counting the time needed to prepare the earthea; material.
the TERRA-CETAmethod are: and equipment are involved.
Advantages gained with
- Only cheap and simple materials - Simple labor required. - Short construction - Mass production - Production - Stronger time. is possible.
can be standardized. and more durable high clay content design. well with most rural households. materials can be used.
- Great flexibility - Stoves are visually IV. -
in regard with eppealing,
OTHER CONSTRVCTlON MATEXALS
relating construction materials are soil-cement, concrete,
v. - PROTOTYPES
The first lowing
TERRA-C'ETA stove 'prototypes
characteristics material (dimensions
were-built in centimeters).
Sandy clay 24 H 12 H Two 22 10 D Butterfly 300 L vaive at the chimney base 40 w 16 W 85 L
- Body dimensions - Duct cross section
- Number of potholes - Diameter - Chimney - Damper - Baffle block of potholes
Soil-cement 10 H 18 W
prefab 30 L
- Finish - Remarks
Lime whitewash The pots bottoms Laboratory water boiling sink bearing tests deeply into the stove body, their in
on the side walls and in actual cooking.
of the duct.
have shown good efficiency
specifications the ,framework are only In doing illustrative, application. within efficiency, et al., it so, however, and may be'varied to suit care should be taken in keeping to be essential design, for identified to stove by CETA (Lou Ma, see De
The above given any specific the design high fuel 1982). Lepeleire
las have been experimentally and scientific approach 1981.
For a more rational
In any event, fined motion. laboratory
is recommended that of iperformance
the designs before
are finally intending
verified both any large
and rein the scale pro-
on the basis
as in actual
use in the field,
applied to building for the basic the duct, earth potholes
The TERRA-CETA method has been successfully for the Lorena with design, including efficiency,and and chimney, been as well great economy in time.
Some experimental shielded fires have usefulness studies (See Drawing 6). ' tried by the Proyecto is consultant. de Estufas y Re-
The TERRA-CETA method is being Rurales, curses Representacidn HidrZulicos General de Mbxico,
at the present
en Puebla de la Secretarla,de to which the author
VIII. Further fabrication etc., A latest inserts Drawing
development and use, will is being earth carried on by CETA, and a manual describing seiection, stove construction mold material produced. does without the cross Instead, bolts, time. and removed by pulling (D) and (El. To ease wire beto form a cylindifficulty, also members by which the referred' as indicated filling in procedures,
be eventually version
mold, of the TERRA-CETA inserts design (D) are fastened renders
means the pothole 5. This
to the frame. (C) with working space,
are mounted directly operations,
on the duct insert unobstructed reducing and thus
and compaction On completion them with removal, fore
construction are unbolted
of the stove body, jacking of light
the inserts first
a special a strip
(C), iron with
gauge galvanized insert, lining
der around each pothole construction. leaving removed. tapering In addition sides. the sheet metal
and bound in place the insert the pothole. inside
a loop of light out without
T,hus, when pulled, For the same given
is in turn
(C) may have slightly
to the cylindrical
forming or belled, built.
inserts to suit
of other needs.
shapes can be used, An all
such as tapered,
metal mold has been designed, account
and is now being prepared
A photographic and other
on CETA's work is being by CETA.
as a complement
. Roberto Lou Ma (1982). de Experimentacibn en Tecl. BRIEF NOTES ON THE DESIGN.AND CONSTRUCTION-OFWOODBURNING COOKSTOVES,WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCETO THE CETA SYSTEM. Centro nologia Apropiada (CETA), Guatemala.
G. De Lepeleire, Group, Eindhoven
K. Krishna University
A WOODSTOVE COMPENDIUM, 4.3 ON DESIGNING STOVES. The Woodburning of Technology, The Netherlands.
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