Build A Motorized Mountain

80

SCIENCE and MECHANICS

By V. LEE OERTLE

ERE'S the going-est buggy a fellow could want. It's wilderness transportation to delight the heart of the amateur geologist, weekend prospector or straightout sportsman who's looking for rugged wheels for rugged terrain. It can be built for about $300 more or less—depending on how many used parts can be substituted for new ones—and a few weekends of work. Your First Step will be to draw a fullsize cardboard pattern for the Goat's frame. In doing so certain dimensions, especially regarding clearances, should be borne in mind. These include the size of the tires, wheels and engine; the space the drive chains and sprockets will require to clear the frame; and your own individual requirements for space and comfort. The tires will be your biggest expense, running roughly $120, with wheels, for three complete ready-to-go units. The three tires used on the Goat are Goodyear Terra-Tires with bolt-on flanges (Fig. 1). These are tubeless jobs that operate at air pressures of from 1 to about 15 psi, depending on the terrain. They enable the Goat to claw its way
MARCH, 1963

H

81

FIG. 5: Jack-shaft is section of 1" kart axle keyed to accept sprockets. Note self-aligning bearings on the bearing hangers.

FIG. 7: Split-axle power train permits more ground clearance under frame. Also, the Goat will keep going if one jack-shaft-to-wheel chain breaks.

FIG. 6: Bearing hangers for jackshaft bolt to slotted braces so hangers can be moved up or down by loosening four 1/2" bolts.

over sand, mud, snow, rocks and other obstacles that would stop other vehicles dead. Tire size for the Goat: 16x12—6R. When you have made your engine-compartment measurements on your pattern you can estimate the Goat's overall length by sitting down on the pattern at the point where the seat will FIG. 8: Clamp piece of floor steel to frame to check 45° turning angle. be situated and drawing up your legs to a comfortable position. Then mark the spot behind your local kart shop or through a mail-order house heels and add 2 in. to allow room for the and you'll save money. seat-back cushion. Overall length of the Goat, Frame. The frame is made of 1015-grade including the front wheel, probably will be cold-rolled steel tubing having a wall thick75 to 85 in., which is average. ness of .083 to .120 in. with an outside diamKart parts can be used almost exclusively eter of 1-1/2-in. Instead of being all-welded it to make this type buggy. Standard-size parts is bent to shape following the full-size are quite cheap. Buy your materials from a pattern.
82 SCIENCE and MECHANICS

FIG. 10: Brake and throttle control rods are 1/4" steel. Connector plates permit offsetting these controls.

FIG. 9: Weld 16-gauge-steel floor to frame bottom. Install crosswise so that scrap pieces can be used.

Check out your sketch by sitting down on the pattern and trying to visualize the locations of steering tiller, seat back and wheels (Fig. 2). If the sitting position seems cramped, extend the front radius a little. And make sure two persons can sit within the sides of your pattern. Then take the pattern to a tube bender. The cost for the frame-bending job will range from $15 to $25. The recommended method for bending the frame is to have it bent up in two sections, then joining the sections with a welded joint at the front of the frame and another at the rear (Fig. 3). After bending, check your frame against the original pattern (Fig. 4) for any variations that may have resulted. Don't worry if the dimensions are not precise (you can allow for some error in both length and width). The important thing is to make sure the frame is aligned correctly fore and aft so that the Goat will steer and track properly. Superstructure. Any Goat you build will require a superstructure to support the seats and arm rests. This can be bent from smaller tubing, such as 1-in. cold-rolled steel, then welded in place. Gear Ratios. To calculate your gear ratios divide the number of teeth of the clutch sprocket into the number of teeth on the jack-shaft sprocket; for example: 12 into 36 equals a ratio of 3:1. Do the same with the jack-shaft-to-axle sprockets; for example: 12 into 60 equals a 5:1 ratio. Now multiply the clutch ratio by the axle ratio, as: 3:1x5:1 equals a 15:1 ratio—the same as was installed on my own Goat. However, I recommend a gear reduction of at least 20:1. This would require the following six sprockets: (1) a
MARCH, 1963

CONNECTOR PLATES LEAD CONTROL POD TO BRAKE

12-tooth sprocket on each end of the jackshaft; (2) a 60-tooth sprocket on each rear axle; (3) a 48-tooth sprocket on the jackshaft; and (4) a 12-tooth sprocket on the engine clutch. Drive Chains. The jack-shaft-to-wheel drive chains should be #40s. The engineclutch drive chains can be #35s. Jack-Shaft. The jack-shaft (Fig. 5) is simply a section of old 1-in. kart axle. Such axles are already keyed to accept standard sprockets and brake systems. Use standard selfaligning axle bearings to support the jackshaft, and bolt the flangettes onto standard bearing hangers. The latter can be made adjustable using the simple sliding-bracket arrangement shown in Fig. 6. Split-Axle Power Train. By using a pair of stubby axles instead of one long one the Goat will have greater ground clearance and fewer projections (Fig. 7). The parts needed for one rear-axle assembly include axle, nut, flangettes with self-aligning bearings, locking collar and chain sprocket. The axles are suspended in the self-aligning bearings which (Continued on page 120)
83

Build a Motorized Mountain Goat . . . . (Continued from page 83)
in turn are supported by flangettes, the latter bolted through steel bearing hangers welded to the underside of the frame. Both rear wheels have 1/4" x 1/4" keys cut inside the flanges to permit keying to the axles. The rear-axle sprockets are also keyed to the axles so that when the jack-shaft rotates, a drive chain turns the power sprocket. Both rear axles are "live"; that is, they rotate with the wheels. The front wheel, on the other hand, turns freely in 3/4-in. pressed-in bearings. Steering. To determine your ground-clearance requirements place the frame atop some boxes at the desired height to see where the front wheel will go (Fig. 8). When positioning this wheel, clamp a piece of floor-pan steel temporarily to the underside of the frame to be sure there will be enough clearance to permit the wheel a 45° turning angle in both directions. Make the U-shaped front-wheel yoke from the same l-1/2-in. tube stock used for the frame. Flatten out the end of the yoke's U and drill holes through each to take, say, a 3/4-in. axle. Now chop off a length of kart axle (with keyway) and weld this onto the top of the center block welded to the yoke. This piece of axle stock will ride in the neck of the steering sleeve. The sleeve can be of any heavy metal having a minimum wall thickness of .125 in. with an inside diameter of 1 in. It is welded into position on the forward end, or extension, of the frame. The tiller handle can be bent of 1-in. coldrolled or chromoly tubing, preferably the latter. Weld a 2-in. piece of steering-sleeve tubing to the base of the tiller so that it can be slipped over the yoke shaft. Use set screws to tighten it on. Engine. Four-cycle engines provide the best power in the low-gear ranges. Geared down to 20:1, a 7-hp Briggs & Stratton mill will drive the Goat, with two people aboard, up anything short of a 45° grade. At this ratio you'll get about 10 mph on hard flatlands and roads. Jack-Shaft Bearing Hangers are welded to the 1/8-in. steel plates forward of the engine mounting plate. A slotted brace (Fig. 6) under the hanger allows the jack-shaft to be moved forward or back by loosening four 1/2-in. bolts. This adjustment is necessary for the fitting, adjustment and removal of the drive chains. Floor Pan. Fabricate the floor pan from standard-width 16-gauge steel. Run the strips across the bottom of the frame (Fig. 9), weld the seams and weld the edges to the bottom of the frame's tubing. By running the floor pan across instead of lengthwise you can get away with using narrower scrap pieces and avoid having to buy extra-wide sheet steel. The Connectors to brake and throttle controls can be lengths of 1/4-in. steel rod. Weld 2-in. steel connector plates onto the ends of the rods to allow offset connections to be led to the desired control. Simple gussets welded to the frame serve to anchor the rods. Also be sure the rods turn freely inside predrilled holes. The brake-rod installation shown in Fig. 10 is activated by a foot pedal. Now slap on a coat of primer paint and take your Goat out for a test run through the country. You will find that your Terra-Tires will take you over the sandiest terrain without bogging down. The front-wheel steering should give you excellent control with light arm pressure. And you will discover that your little 7-hp plant has all the spirit you could desire. •
SCIENCE and MECHANICS

V"

MATERIALS L I S T MOTORIZED MOUNTAIN GOAT*
Amount . Size & Description FRAME 30' (approx.) 1015-grade, l ' / 2 " od cold-roll steel tubing 25' (approx.) 1" cold-roll steel tubing (superstructure) hardware, pipe suppliers TIRE-WHEEL UNITS 3 Terra-Tires (with wheels) size 16x12—6R Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, 0. Geneva Wheel Co., Geneva, 0. ($38.69 per unit) GP Enterprises, 152 Huntington Dr., Monrovia Calif. ($19.95) ENGINE 1 Briggs & Stratton, 7-hp, 4-cycle power unit SPROCKETS 2 12-tooth for each end of jack-shaft 2 60-tooth for each rear axle 1 48-tooth for jack-shaft 1 12-tooth for engine clutch kart shops, mail order houses REAR AXLES 2 split-axle power train DRIVE CHAINS 2 #40s for lower-end installation 2 #35s, clutch-to-jack-shaft kart shops, hardware JACK-SHAFT 1 used kart axle with keyway; 1" dia., 3-4' long kart shops STEERING 1 front axle; short section of 3/4" kart axle 1 front-wheel yoke; l-1/2" cold-roll steel tubing 1 tiller; 1" dia. chromoloy tubing (steering handle) kart shops, hardware CONTROLS 1 brake control; 3/8" dia., 16" long steel rod 1 throttle control; 3/8" dia., 16" long steel rod kart shops, hardware MISC. Other parts incl. clutch, steel-disk brake assembly, floor pan (16-ga. sheet steel), self-aligning bearings (8—with hangers), flangettes, gussets. controls and pedals ($10), and frame bending and welding charges. * Design of the Mountain Goat is such that considerable leeway is afforded the builder in making innovations. For that reason this Materials List need not be considered mandatory, since additions, such as transmission, bumpers, etc., may want to be made by individual builders.

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How to build a vehicle that will let you ride in comfort where even walking would be difficult—

The ThreeWheeled Desert Scout
By V. Lee Oertle

T

HE one place it makes no sense to drive this handy little vehicle is on the road. When the load ends, it comes into its own. Unload its 200 pounds from station wagon or trailer, crank up the geared-down, 4-1/2-hp. engine, and it'll carry you just about anywhere you want to go—through country lanes, cow pastures, swamps and bogs, over out-of-the-way beaches, or deep into the desert. New fat tires are the secret of its goanywhereness. They're a full 12" wide across the tread, 16" in diameter. This broad, flat footing gives the buggy a sure grip wherever you go. For sand or soft earth, you carry only two pounds of air in each tire. Where you need greatest traction, fill them with water to add weight. Goodyear dealers can order the TerraTires for you at about $35 each. Price is expected to drop. Wheels are available from Hadco Engineering Co., Los Angeles, Calif., or from Geneva Wheel Co., Geneva, Ohio. Gelling ready to roll. The two rear wheels are keyed to a 1" axle. 60" long, to provide a wide tread for stability on hills. The ends of the axle are shouldered to 3/4", threaded and slotted for the keys that lock the wheels in place. The front wheel is mounted on a yoke —as on a tricycle. The three wheels stay in contact with the most uneven ground, eliminating any tendency for the frame to twist. The single front wheel simplifies construction and handling. Chalk the outline of the frame on a smooth floor, and sit down where you've drawn the seat. If the dimensions given

LOAD THE BUGGY into a station wagon to carry it over the road. A couple of two-by-fours serve as an unloading ramp at road's end. A sprocket-and-chain drive (below) steps up the 4-1/2-hp. engine's torque, enabling it to haul two people with ease.

don't suit your leg length, tailor the buggy to your size by making the side members shorter or longer. Starting the buggy. Cut the frame pieces from rectangular steel tubing. Fit them together on the floor, mark them, and take them to a welder. It cost me only $18 to have the frame expertly heliarced together. The seat back, armrests,

rear-axle bearings, motor-mounting plate, and jackshaft supports were also welded in place at this time. On a second visit, I had the floor pan, steering sleeve, and bushings for the brake and throttle arm welded to the frame. These had been cut and fitted between visits to the shop. I also had the welder bend the front-

MOUNT R A WHEELS on axle and check inside ER clearance before cutting frame parts. Rectangular steel tubing was chosen for maximum rigidity, but round tubing could be used.

SIMPLE TL E steers front wheel. Sleeve is ILR welded in vertical position to front of frame, braced securely with steel gussets. Telescoping steering arm fits over tiller shaft.

wheel yoke from a length of husky 3/8"by-2" hot-rolled .steel. I held the 1" tiller rod in position while he butt-welded it to the center of the yoke. A steering arm of l"-i.d. steel tubing is pinned to the tiller with a bolt and wingnut. Bolt holes spaced at intervals along the tiller permit adjustment of steering-arm length. The 1" tiller rod turns in a sleeve welded through a hole in the front of the

frame. Bearings were setscrewed to the rod at each end of the sleeve. The front wheel rolls on sealed bearings pressed into the hub. It is mounted on a 1" axle bolted across the open end of the yoke. Adding the horses. Any four-cycle engine in the 4- to 7-horsepower class will drive the buggy efficiently. I found a good used 4-1/2-hp. engine for $50.

JACKSHAFT between the engine and rear axle allows fast changing of sprockets to suit a variety of operating conditions. Disk for the caliper brake is also mounted on this shaft.

SPLIT-AXLE

SPROCKETS

speed

CALIPER

BRAKE,

sold

in

kart

drive-ratio change-over. Segments of various diameters bolt on hub keyed to axle. Two sprockets can be mounted on hub for use with double chain.

shops, stops disk on jackshaft, effectively braking both rear wheels. Short linkage actuated by a hand lever at side of buggy operates the calipers.

F E I L C B E connects throttle control to carL XB E A L buretor. Compression spring slipped on cable between housing and linkage returns carburetor to idle when throttle is released.

TO CUSHION ANY JOLTS that aren't absorbed by the pillow-like tires, thick foam rubber pads the seat and back rest. Cover foam with plastic or other durable upholstery material. FOR ROUGH GOING, tires can be filled with water. Use a tractor's valve fitting attached to a garden hose. The extra weight provides greater traction and reduces bounce.

A shoe-type clutch could be used but might overheat when pulling over loose turf and sand. A fluid clutch can be bought from Bowlus Engineering, Pacoima, Calif. You can run drive chains direct from the clutch to the rear axle, but this isn't advisable. The use of a jackshaft provides more flexibility in setting up drive ratios and lets you mount the brake clear of sand and water. Kart shops stock a variety of calipertype brakes. Some work mechanically and some are hydraulically assisted. I chose the mechanical type for simplicity—a narrow disk about 5" in diameter that is mounted on the jackshaft. When the brake is applied, a caliper squeezes against the disk. Riding soft. To absorb the shocks of driving in rough country, double sprockets and a double-row No. 35 chain were used on the jackshaft and axle. These I obtained from Bug Engineering. Irwindale, Calif. Single sprockets and chain were used between the engine and jackshaft, since the fluid clutch smooths out much of the impact. By varying the number of teeth on the axle and jackshaft sprockets, you can get a wide range of drive ratios. For flat terrain or beach sand, a 10:1 ratio will push the buggy along at about 18 m.p.h. For climbing and rough-country use, a 20:1 ratio will provide all the power you need; but top speed will be between 8 and 14 m.p.h. Even though speed is reduced, the extra power allows more fun. It's like driving a bulldozer. You feel that no obstacle can impede your progress. To achieve this ratio, I used this combination of sprockets: 13-tooth on the engine. 36tooth on the jackshaft, 10-tooth on the output end of the jackshaft, and 72-tooth on the axle. Making it go. Controls are simple and can be operated with one hand. Push down on the lever—or pull it up—to apply the brakes. Twist a motorcycle-type throttle on the end of the lever to gun the engine. The fluid clutch automatically engages and disengages the engine from the drive train. A guard mounted over the sprockets and chain is good insurance against accidental injury, especially over rough ground. This could be quickly shaped from thin plywood or hardboard. • •

Midget Sidecar for Junior's Sidewalk Bicycle

TO SEAT BOLT

CONSTRUCTION O F

Here's a simple bicycle sidecar that is bolted to the bicycle at three points and can be attached o r detached in a few moments. Besides carrying a passenger, the sidecar is handy on a newspaper route or for delivery of packages. The simple frame is made of 3/1-in. conduit, bent and welded together, while the body is assembled by screwing a piece of sheet metal onto duplicate wood sides. Two \\rood cleats screwed to the underside of the bottom give rigidity

SHEET

XLE FASTENED

and a t t h e same time provide good solid surfaces for attaching the body to the frame with conduit straps screwed in place.

Jig Aids in Truing Bicycle Wheel When Tools Are Limited
The cyclist or owner of a small shop who wants to true or stripe a bicycle wheel occasionally, b u t does not have the equipment, will find this little jig the solution to his problem. In use, the wheel is clamped in a vise by the spindle, and the jig is attached to the edge of the bench. In it can be held a small block for truing the wheel, or a brush for striping it.

Bicycle Handlebar Has Reflectors
One boy who used his bicycle a t night put red reflectors in rear ends of the handlebar grips in addition to a large one on the 'ear fender. To
install the rcflcc-

tors, rear ends of grips are cut out, leaving enough m b b e r at the outside to serve a s a retaining edge.

, ,

HALF-SIZE

PACKARD

BY GEORGE JONES

Recapture the romance of the horseless carriage era! Be the man who owns one!
has been 63 since the great-granddaddy of ITthis bright-redyearsroadways. Our half-size version 1901 Packard roadster purred its way down America's

should bring a twinge of nostalgia to MI's senior readers—and delight the younger set. Under the tonneau (that's the rear-deck lid, son) there's a modern two-hp gasoline engine with chain drive direct to the axle. Speeds up to 15 mph are possible. Designed to carry two youngsters in comfort, the car also is sturdy enough to haul two adults. Righthand steering (as in the early days), an automatic centrifugal clutch, a foot brake and hand accelerator at your fingertips make operation of the vehicle a breeze. It was on Aug. 13, 1898, that James Ward Packard purchased the 12th car built by Alexander Winton. On his trip home to Warren, Ohio, some 50 miles from the Winton factory in Cleveland, the car broke down. The incensed purchaser returned to the factory to complain about his lemon and Alexander Winton told him, "If you're so smart, Mr. Packard, why don't you build a
Mechanix Illustrated

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HALF-SIZE PACKARD

FRAME is cut from angle iron and welded together upside down. Front and rear axle and spring assemblies are bolted in place.

COMPLETED chassis and running gear with the brake pedal, brake rod, pedal-return spring, engine and drive assembly in place.

RIGHT front wheel detail shows steering assembly—shaft, pitman arm, perch welded to axle, drag link, tie rod and ball joints.
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car yourself?" History has recorded the results. The first Packard was sold in January 1900. Almost immediately the reputation of Packard was secure. "Ask the man who owns one" became a household phrase. We hope the building of this replica 1901 Packard roadster will recapture for you some of the romance and excitement of the horseless-carriage era. The body is made of plywood, the frame of angle iron, with a minimum of welding. You can purchase such hardto-make parts as wheels (aluminum cast—16x1.75 with semi-pneumatic tires) and hub caps, steering wheel, pillow blocks (one-inch Fafnir), ball joints and brake (Mercury strap). The other parts, for the running gear, require but a small amount of machining. Most of the construction can be accomplished in the home workshop. [For a price list of parts and information as to where they are available, send a stamped, self-addressed envelope to George E. Jones, Box 1243, Magnolia Park Station, Burbank, Calif.'] Construction begins with the frame. Have your steel supplier cut the two side rails and three cross members to length from 1/8x1.5x1.5"angle iron.If you have a home welding outfit, you can, of course, do all the welding yourself. Otherwise, have a welding shop do the job for you. Lay the side rails upside down on a flat concrete surface or welding bench and butt the cross members against them. With all corners square, tack-weld the joints and check the lineup, then finish the welding. Make the front axle and appendages next. The yokes for the spindles are made from flat, hot-rolled steel. Cut them to length and bend to shape in a metal vise. Drill the half-inch king-bolt holes in the yoke ends. Weld the yokes to the axle tubing, centering the yokes on the axle ends and parallel to each other. Weld the perch detail 3/16 x 1-1/2 x 2-1/2" h.r.s.) to the axle. In making the spindle assemblies, note that the right-hand spindle arm has two 5/16" holes drilled in it and the left only one. Weld the wheel spindles (5/8x2-1/2 in. cap screws ) to the spindle bodies at
Mechanix Illustrated

October, 1964

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HALF-SIZE PACKARD
right angles to the spindle arms. Cut and thread the drag link, tie rod, brake rod and brake support. Weld the pitman arm to the steering shaft. Insert the studs in each end of the steering shaft and lock them in place with roll pins. Bolt the ball joints to the spindle arms and assemble the spindles to the yokes with 1/2 x 4" hex-head bolts and lock nuts. Bend the parts for the spring assemblies in a metal vise. This work can be facilitated by clamping a steel bar or a 2x4 to the end of each piece for more leverage. Drill the necessary mounting holes in the front spring assembly and bolt the two front spring sections together with 3/8" bolts. The rear springs are made in two pieces and welded together at the ends. Drill mounting holes in the top sections where the springs will mount to the frame. Drill two more holes in the bottom halves of the springs for mounting the pillow blocks later. Drill mounting holes in the frame and attach the front and rear springs. Mount the front axle to the front spring with one-inch U bolts and shackles. These can be purchased at most hardware stores. Make sure the spindle arms are lined up parallel to the frame before you tighten the U bolts. Install the tie rod and one end of the drag link. Cut the rear axle from one-inch steel tubing and pin the 5/8" threaded stub axles in the ends of the tube with 1/4" roll pins. Weld the drive plate to the right-hand end of the axle to drive the right rear wheel. Now would be a good time to paint the running gear—a flat black finish. Paint the wheels at this time, too—either gold or bronze. Assemble the brake adapter and slip it onto the rear axle. Slip a 36-tooth sprocket onto the axle; also the two oneinch Fafnir pillow blocks. Mount the rear springs to the pillow blocks and lock them in place.
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BODY for half-size 1901 Packard is made from half-inch plywood, glued and screwed at all joints and then clamped overnight.

SEATS are plywood upholstered with oneinch foam-rubber covered with black Naugahyde and trimmed with half-inch edging.

1901 PLATE, taillights and headlights are optional with builder. Note steering-shaft support, which is mounted to the dashboard.

STRIPING of the body and fenders can be done neatly by masking off 1/8" stripes with tape and then brushing in white enamel. Mechanix Illustrated

Mount the front wheels, cinching them on the spindles with lock nuts. Back the nuts off one-quarter turn from the snug position so the wheels revolve freely. Adjust the ball joints on the tie rod to give about 1/16" toe-in to the front wheels. The left rear wheel, which is the free wheel, is put on next. The right rear wheel is the drive wheel and will require two 1/4x20 tapped holes in it to correspond to the hole pattern in the drive plate. Bolt the wheel to the drive plate. Snug the wheel with a jam nut as described. Tap on the hub caps. The engine mounting plate is made from 1/8". hot-rolled steel. Make the cutouts and elongated bolt holes and drill the corner hanger holes. The four hangers can be formed in a vise and then bolted to the frame and the plate. The jack shaft is a length of 5/8"diameter cold-rolled steel keyed for a 3/16" square key. Mount the pillow blocks (these can be purchased from Sears, Roebuck) onto the engine mounting plate, then insert the jack shaft through the bores and install the sprocket on the end of the shaft. Mount the clutch on the engine shaft and position the engine (two-hp, four-cycle) on the mounting plate but don't tighten the bolts yet. Fit the drive chains so there is about half an inch of slack, then tighten the engine-mounting bolts and the pillow-block bolts. Mount the brake support on the underside of the right rear spring and secure it through the eye of the brake strap. Next, mount the brake rod itself to the strap of the brake. The other end of the brake rod will be hooked to the brake pedal after the body has been installed. The fenders can be molded from fiberglass or rolled from 22-gauge coldrolled steel. The eight fender brackets are bent in a metal vise. Paint the fenders glossy black. Mask them with tape and stripe them with white enamel paint. Cut all panels for the body from halfinch plywood. All joints are held fast by wood screws and waterproof glue. Cut the foot-pedal slot and drill the steeringshaft clearance hole in the floorboard. Attach the [Continued on page 143]
October, 1964

MI PLANS SERVICE More than 140 tested plans {or boats, furniture, models, photo equipment, telescopes and other projects are offered by the MI Plans Service. For a copy of Plans Catalog No. 15, send a dime to MI Plans Service, Fawcett Bldg., Greenwich, Conn. 06830. The Half-Size 1901 Packard plans are offered by the Plans Service at $3 per set as Plan No. 10-64.
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Half-Size 1901 Packard
[Continued from page 125]

seat top and hinge the tonneau lid to it with brass hinges. Add trunk-type latches to secure the lid when shut. Upholster the seat and backrest with one-inch foam rubber and cover with black Naugahyde. The seat cushion is removable, but the backrest is attached permanently by the two back braces and the arm rests. Paint the back braces and the arm rests with glossy black enamel and set them
[Continued on page 144]

I

Half-Size 1901 Packard
[Continued from page 143]

aside to be attached after the body is painted. Go over the entire body, filling the countersunk screw holes with plastic wood. Sand all surfaces smooth and coat with a filler. Then paint the body with an undercoat and finally with bright red enamel—two coats, sanding and dusting between coats. Attach the body to the frame with quarter-inch carriage bolts. Insert the foot pedal through the slot in the floorboard and mount it to the brake spacer attached to the frame. Attach a return spring to the pedal and the other end of the frame crossmember. Attach the brake clevis to the brake rod and then to the brake pedal, adjusting the tension to get a positive return action. Next, attach the tube-and-wire throttle control (purchased from your engine dealer), attaching the wire to the carburetor, according to the instructions packed with each engine. The other end is attached to the throttle-control handle (similar to lawn-mower control handles) mounted on the seat side near the driver. Secure the conduit to the underside of the body with conduit clips. Bend the steering shaft support to shape and drill the one-inch clearance hole. Paint the piece, let it dry, then mount it to the dashboard panel. The steering shaft, which is painted gold, is slipped from the underside of the floorboard through the clearance hole and secured to the perch with a lock nut, allowing the shaft to turn freely. Attach the free end of the drag link to the pitman arm. Install the steering wheel and secure it with a half-inch acorn nut. Drill through the slot in the cast aluminum steering wheel to allow for insertion of a roll pin to secure it to the steering shaft and prevent it from slipping. Attach the fender brackets and the fenders, allowing about a four-inch clearance above the wheels. Headlamps and other accessories may be attached as you desire.
Now for the official trial run of your

de-clutch when you release the hand throttle. And away you go! You and the kids will have years of enjoyment with your 1901 Packard. Be the man who owns one! •

1901 Packard. Make sure all nuts and bolts are tight. Fill the engine crankcase to the proper oil level, gas up and start the engine. Adjust for idling speed so it will
144 October, 1964

Build it to scale:

T

HE SCIENCE & MECHANICS half-size antique truck with its 2-hp, 4-cycle gasoline engine makes a really sensational toy for a youngster. It will carry Junior around the lot at a brisk 13 mph, yet will come to a safe and sure stop when he pulls back on the old-fashioned hand brake. And there's enough room for Sis to tuck into the seat beside him too. The frame is welded steel-angle stock; the body is plywood, Masonite and white pine. A small amount of machining is required to make some of the chassis parts. To give the truck a more professional appearance, the wheels, hub caps, steering wheel, pillow

blocks, brake drum, ball joints and fenders can be purchased (see Materials List at end of article). Frame. Construction begins with the frame (Fig. 1). While ordering the steel angle for the frame, have all the other steel cut that will be required for the truck. The frame consists of two side rails of 1/8-inch steel angle measuring 1-1/4 x 1-1/4x 54 inches, and three cross members each 17-1/2 inches long. Use a framing square to lay the frame rails and end pieces square with each other, then clamp and weld. The over-all outside dimension of the frame will be 18 x 54 inches. (Turn page)

A. A boy's dream come true. Note old-fashioned hand brake. B. Basic units: chassis, cab, radiator, seat, stake body, fenders. C. Chassis with brake handle, engine mount and steering unit. D. Close-up of ball-point steering, hand brake and accelerator. E. View of engine in place with drive leading to left rear wheel.

APRIL.

1965

63

m

SCIENCE & MECHANICS

APRIL,

1965

65

S&M's Antique Truck

F. Top view showing the clutch and chain arrangement, sprockets, jack shaft and pillow blocks. Engine is a 2-hp Briggs & Stratton. G. Mercury strap brake and brake band in position on the right rear wheel. Adjustment is by clevis attached to handle and brake rod. H. 10-tooth sprocket on clutch to 36-tooth sprocket on jack shaft; 12-toofh sprocket on jack shaft to 36-tooth sprocket on rear axle.

The four axle hangers (Fig. 1) are made of hot-rolled steel stock that can be bent cold in a vise. The rear hangers are shorter in height than the front hangers to compensate for the pillow blocks. Mount the hangers to the frame with 1/4-inch roundhead stove bolts. Axles. The spindle yokes for the front axle are made of 1/4x1-1/4-inch hot-rolled steel bent to shape in a vise. Drill the 1/2 -inch king bolt holes in the yoke ends. The front axle is 1-inch-diameter steel tubing 20-1/2 inches long. Weld the yokes to the tubing so they are centered on the tube ends and parallel. Clamp and weld this assembly. Drill the 1/2 -inch hole in the perch, then place it in the center of the axle at a 27° angle from the
66

horizontal plane and weld it. The spindles are identical except that the right-hand spindle arm has two 5/16-inch holes for mounting the drag link. Weld the wheel spindles (5/8 x 2-1/2-inch-long hex head bolts) to the spindle bodies at a 90° angle to the spindle arms. Make the rear axle of a 24-inch-long piece of 1 -inch-diameter steel tubing and pin the 5/8 -inch-diameter stub axles in the ends of the tubing with 1/4 -inch pins. The stub axles are simply 5/8-inch-11 hex-head bolts 5 inches long with their heads sawed off. They extend 2-1/2 inches outside the tubing to make an over-all axle length of 29 inches. Machine the drive plate (Fig. 1) from a {Continued on page 92)
SCIENCE & MECHANICS

APRIL,

1965

67

S&M's Antique Truck
(Continued from page 67)

I. Sheet metal or Fiberglass fenders should clear top of the tires by about 1-1/2 inches.
J. Rear view of the completed truck points

up faithful reproduction of original design.

piece of 3/16-inch hot-rolled steel turned to a 3-inch diameter and with a 1-inch hole bored in the center which will provide a slip-fit for the rear axle. Drill the two 1/4-inch holes in the plate 180° apart, then weld the plate to the left side of the axle and flush with the end of the tubing. Weld inboard on the axle, because the outside face of the plate must bolt flush to the drive wheel. Fabricate the brake adapter and drill the two 1/4-inch set-screw holes, then transfer the hole pattern in the brake drum to the brake-adapter plate and mount it to the plate with four 1/4-inch hex-head bolts. Now proceed with the following sequence on the rear axle (Fig. 1): (1) slip a locking collar and then a 1-inch pillow block onto the axle and slide it toward the drive plate; (2) slip on the 36-tooth sprocket (1-inch bore); (3) slip on the other 1-inch pillow block and locking collar; and (4) slide the brake drum assembly onto the axle with the adapter tubing pointing toward the center of the axle. Position the rear axle assembly so that the pillow blocks are in line with the rear axle hangers. Mount the pillow blocks to the hangers with 3/8-inch hex-head bolts and nuts, centering the axle for length. The brake drum and 36-tooth sprocket are positioned later. Mount the front axle to its axle hangers with 1 -inch U-bolts and shackles. Center the axle for length with the yokes at 90° angles to the frame. With the two axles thus mount92

ed, the wheelbase of the car should measure 38 inches. Complete the front axle assembly by threading the tie rod and drag link ends with 1 inch of thread on the ends. Screw the ball joints to the ends. The spindle bodies are held in place in the yokes with 1/2 x 4-inchlong hex-head bolts (king bolts) and lock nuts. Attach the tie rod to the holes in the spindle arms, and the drag link to the remaining hole in the right-hand spindle. Paint the frame before putting the wheels on the axles. Spread on a coat of metal primer, finishing with a coat of flat black enamel. Paint the wheels with bright red enamel. When the paint has dried put on the front wheels and lock nuts, with the lock nuts backed off 1/4 turn from the snug position so the wheels revolve freely. Tap the hub caps into place. The front wheels should have about 1/16-inch toe-in when properly mounted. The right rear wheel is the free wheel and is put on next. The left rear wheel is the drive wheel. Slip this wheel onto the axle, then transfer the screw-hole pattern from the drive plate to the wheel. Remove the wheel and drill and tap it for two 1/4-inch -20 tapped holes. Put the wheel back on and secure it to the drive plate with two 1/4-inch -20 hex-head bolts. Tighten the lock nut into place, then tap on the hub cap. Brake assembly. Make the brake band arm (Fig. 1) and mount it to the right rear
SCIENCE & MECHANICS

axle hanger. Thread the ends of the brake rod, then put a 2-inch-long, 90° bend in one end. The brake handle is a piece of 3/16-inch hot-rolled steel bent to shape in a vise. Place the brake band (Fig. 1 & Photo G) over the outside diameter of the brake drum, slipping the top loop hole of the band over the brake arm stud, and secure it with a nut. Slip the 90° bent end of the brake rod through the bottom loop hole of the brake band and secure it with a nut, then attach the clevis to the other end of the brake rod. With the brake handle attached to the frame, position the brake drum and snug it up with bolt and nut to assure firm action. Tighten the two set screws in the brake adapter on the axle. Engine mounting plate assembly. The engine mounting (Fig. 1 & Photo E) is made of 1/8-inch hot-rolled steel plate. Make the cutout for the jack-shaft sprockets (the elongated holes) and drill the four 1/4-inch corner hanger-mounting holes. Bend the four strap hangers in a vise. The two front hangers are both 9-3/4 inches long; the two rear hangers are 4-3/8 inches long. The rear hangers mount to the underside of the axle hangers in the forward hole of the pillow-block mounting holes. The two front hangers mount to the steel-angle frame cross member. The jack shaft (Fig. 1) is a piece of 5/8inch-diameter cold-rolled steel cut to a 6inch length. Mount the 36-tooth sprocket (5/8-inch bore) and the 12-tooth sprocket (Photo F) on the jack shaft, then slip the two 5/8-inch pillow blocks on the ends of the shaft with the locking collars outward. Mount this assembly to the engine plate in the elongated holes, snugging up the bolts. When you buy the engine, also get a throttle-control cable (Photo G) and four conduit clips for securing the cable to the frame. Lead the cable to the accelerator footpedal. Mount the centrifugal clutch onto the engine shaft and position the engine on the mounting plate, but don't tighten the bolts and nuts yet. Line up and tighten the sprockets (Photo H) so that the 36-tooth jack-shaft sprocket is in line with the clutch sprocket, and the smaller sprocket on the jack shaft lines up with the axle sprocket. Fit the chains so there is about 1/2 inch of slack halfway between the sprockets. Then tighten all mounting bolts in the engine holes and pillow-block holes. Steering unit. The steering shaft (Photo C) is 1/2-inch-diameter cold-rolled steel with 1 inch of thread on both ends. Drill the
APRIL, 1965

1/4-inch pin hole near the top of the shaft as indicated in Fig. 1. Later a pin is inserted here which prevents the wheel spinning on the shaft. Drill the 1/2-inch hole and the 5/16-inch hole in the pitman arm, then weld the pitman arm to the steering shaft as shown. Mount the steering shaft through the 1/2-inch hole in the axle perch and secure it with a lock nut. Attach the drag link (Photo C) to the 5/16-inch hole in the pitman arm. Make the steering-shaft support from a piece of 1/8-inch hot-rolled steel and weld the bushing to the underside in line with the 1/2-inch hole drilled in the support to receive the steering shaft. The accelerator (Photo G) is of welded construction, with holes drilled to accommodate the return spring, the swivel screw for the control cable and the hole for the spacer bushing which mounts to the frame. The crank (Photo C) is for appearance only. It is made of 1/2-inch diameter hotrolled steel heated and bent to shape. Drill a 1/2-inch hole in the center of the front cross member of the frame and weld a 1/2-inch I.D. bushing behind the hole to support the crank end. Use a cotter pin to hold the crank in the bushing. Bend the eight fender brackets of 1/8 x 3/4-inch hot-rolled steel in a vise. You can purchase a set of fiberglass fenders or make the fenders yourself of 22-gage sheet metal. If you make your own, have them sheared to the exact dimensions at the tin shop where you buy the metal. The tinsmith will also run the metal through his slip-roll sheet-metal former to produce the desired 10-inch radius. Note that the fenders all have a 1/2 -inch edge flange bent under for rigidity. Paint the fenders with a primer coat, then with glossy black enamel. You can stripe them with a striping tool or by using masking tape (use a fine brush). Mount the fender brackets (Photo I) to the frame so there will be approximately Wi inch clearance between the fenders and the top of the tires. Body. The floorboard is cut from Vi -inch plywood. Remember to mark and cut the elongated hole for the foot pedal, and drill the ^-inch clearance hole for the steering shaft. Give the floorboard a coat of shellac, followed by a coat of varnish. v Make the pedal wear plate (Fig. 1) of hot-rolled steel. After elongating the %0-inch hole in it, mount it over the elongated hole in the floorboard. The radiator (Fig. 2) is made of wood, the (Continued on next page)
93

S&M's Antique Truck
(Continued from page 93) top curved portion being cut from a piece of 4x4-inch lumber; the front and sides are plywood. It is assembled with Weldwood glue and flathead screws. The dashboard is cut from 1/2-irich plywood and screwed and glued to the radiator assembly. Paint the radiator assembly with bright red enamel, the radiator itself flat black trimmed with brass paint. The seat is made of plywood and assem-

bled with Weldwood glue and flathead screws. Upholster the backrest and seat cushion (Fig. 2) with 1-inch foam rubber and Naugahyde covering. Give the seat a primer coat, then one coat of bright red enamel. The seat cushion is left unattached, but is fitted snugly in place later. Cab. Clamp and bandsaw the stock for the two sides of the cab at the same time, after marking the contours of the cut as shown in Fig. 2. Cut the roof sections and back panel from 1/8-inch Masonite. Cut the back window opening for the Plexiglas and the two strips of molding that hold the Plexiglas in place. Assemble the cab with Weldwood glue and 3/4 -inch brads spaced at 2-inch intervals. Paint the roof of the cab glossy black and the sides bright red enamel. Then place the cab around the seat and fasten it to the sides of the seat with four 1/4 -inch carriage bolts. Mount the radiator and cab assembly to the floorboard; the radiator unit (Fig. 2) is

94

SCIENCE & MECHANICS

mounted 1/2i inch behind the front edge of the floorboard. The cab mounts flush with the rear edge of the floorboard. Use flathead wood screws turned in from the underside of the floorboard. Now pick up the whole floorboard assembly and fit it onto the frame, guiding the steering shaft through the clearance hole in the floorboard. The body is held to the frame with four 1/4-inch carriage bolts. Slide the steering shaft support over the steering shaft and attach it to the dashboard with two round-head screws. Insert the 1/4-inch pin in the steering shaft, then mount the steering wheel and cap it with an acorn nut. Mount the accelerator foot pedal through the elongated hole in the floorboard and attach it to the frame with spacer bushing, bolt and nut. Attach the throttle control cable (Photo D) to the pedal, put on the pedalreturn spring and adjust the cable for proper return action to the carburetor. Stake body. The stake body (Figs. 2 & 3) is made of 1/4 x 2-1/2-inch finished white pine. The rear stake section may be a permanent or removable installation. For a removable section make the two brackets shown in Fig. 2. The base for the stake body is of 1 x 4-inch white pine mounted to the bed of the stake body with flathead screws turned in from the top. Leave the stake sides their natural color, using a shellac sealer and a varnish finish. Mount the complete assembly to the frame by the four side straps secured to the base and frame with 1/4-inch roundhead screws. The headlights and taillights are optional. Add a radiator cap cut from the end of a file handle. Go over the truck thoroughly now, making sure all nuts and bolts are tight. Then fill the tank with gas and the crankcase with oil and start the engine (which is readily accessible from beneath the stake body). Adjust it for idling speed so that it will de-clutch automatically when you release the foot pedal. Hop in, and away you go. •

The incomparable lubricity of the dolphin oils has led to over 100 years use as superb lubricants for timepieces, micrometers, fine instruments, electrical contacts and all delicate mechanisms. Remains fluid at —20°F. Resists oxidation, gumming, evaporation. MAIL $1 for the multipurpose oil formulation in the famous 1/4-oz. round bottle.
WILLIAM F.NYE, INC., P.O. Box 927,New Bedford,Mass. Precision Lubricants tor Delicate Mechanisms Since 1644.

PORPOISE JAW OIL

APRIL,

1965

95

SIDEWALK PLAY CAR
By Elmer V. Clark youngsters faL IVELYalike will get and craftsman this thers a thrill out of tiny play car, which looks and drives like a real automobile except that it's scaled down to sidewalk-coaster size and travels at slow, safe speeds. It's driven by an auto starter motor of the type having a built-in reduction gear and is fitted with a foot brake, lever-operated clutch, pneumatic tires and a conventional steering gear. As pictured above, the original car measures 58 in. overall length, with a 42-in. wheelbase and 20in. tread, but allowable variations in dimensions and the necessity of adapting certain parts according to availability, may change these dimensions slightly. For these reasons certain dimensions have been purposely omitted and adaptation or substitution of parts has been left to the discretion of the builder. An example is the length and type of the springs specified in the construction details. Obviously, these can be longer, or even slightly shorter than the lengths given. The side frames are of 2 x 2-in. oak and, in order to avoid waste in forming the curved ends, or lifts, the members are built up to the rough shape by gluing together strips of ¾-in. stock. Before gluing the strips together, be sure that there is ample allow174

ance for bandsawing the curved sections at both ends of each piece. Use waterproof glue in the joints. After the glue is dry, bandsaw the curved ends and plane and sand the parts to the finished size. Apply a coat of shellac to prevent absorption of moisture. The side frames are joined near the ends with long studs, or draw bolts, and pipe spacers as shown on the blueprint on a following page. Note that the front and rear-spring shackles are mounted on the draw bolts and that these must be left loose so that the shackles can move freely. Note also that the brake pedal is pivoted on the same draw bolt as the front-spring shackles. In this case two spacers are used to serve only as collars to position the pedal. Exact sizes of the draw bolts and spacers are not important. Note especially the construction and

POPULAR MECHANICS

POPULAR MECHANICS

mounting of the front and rear axles on the springs. The front axle is fitted with drilled pads to which the underslung springs are bolted, but at the rear it will be noted that the axle bearings serve as spring pads. Shims of 1/8-in. flat steel are placed between the spring and the bearings, one shim being longer and having a drilled lug welded near the forward end to provide a bearing for the brake shaft when the band-type brake is used. When the shoe-type brake, shown in the detail above, is used, the brake-shaft bearing is attached to the car frame. The front axle is of the conventional autotype construction, the principal parts being made from pipe and flat steel, bent, welded and bolted together as in the blueprint. The drag link and tie rod can be taken from Ford Model-A steering linkage. Crosley or

American Austin parts may be substituted. Rods with ball joints also can be improvised. A Crosley or Austin steering gear can be used, the gear being mounted on a bracket under the hood. The steering shaft is approximately 22 in. long and ½ in. in diameter and is mounted on a generator bearing at the top end. The lower end of the shaft is fitted into an adapter sleeve, the size and length of the sleeve depending on the type of steering gear used. The steering wheel is 8 in. in diameter, the original being taken from a discarded toy. Although details on the blueprint show the starter motor welded to a rocker shaft, which passes through a hole drilled in the flange of the reduction-gear housing to which it is welded, for best results weld a bracket to the gear housing and then weld

the free end of the bracket to the rocker shaft. This construction will give a somewhat better clutch action when tightening and slackening the double V-belts with the clutch lever. The rocker shaft turns in bearings bolted to the side frames. The clutch shaft, with its tension spring, is mounted in the same manner. Use a 2-in. V-pulley on the reduction gear and a 5-in. pulley on the rear axle. Although double V-pulleys are shown, single-groove pulleys will serve the purpose quite satisfactorily. Only the rightrear ground wheel is fixed on the axle and serves as a driver. The left rear wheel turns free. This arrangement gives the necessary differential when turning. Details on pages 174 and 175 give the wiring diagram, construction of the battery bracket and the position of the controls. Note the arrangement of the brake switch and how it works in the motor circuit. When it is desired to stop, the clutch lever is pushed forward and the brake pedal depressed. A small lug welded to the inner end of the clutch-lever shaft opens the brake switch and stops the starter motor. The motor cannot be started until the clutch lever is pulled part way back. This arrangement prevents undue idling of the starter motor. With the pulley sizes given and with the gear ratios of the average reductiongear starter motor, the car travels at a speed of approximately five miles per hour. A 6-volt, 130-amp. battery will give about eight hours of service on one charge. Construction of the sheet-metal body is quite simple. It is made in three sections which consist of the hinged rear deck, the driver's compartment and the hood, which includes the separate false grille. The pattern for the grille is first laid out on 2-in. squares and then cut to the form shown, before bending and soldering. Sides of the cockpit and the hood are attached to the side frames with screws uniformly spaced. The seat bottom, floor boards and dash are cut from ½-in. plywood. The seat can be upholstered if desired. Bumpers, dummy lights and other fittings are optional with the builder.

35c
ICD

1962 MARCH APRIL

Make This Antique Auto for Your Children
(Battery-Powered)

1. Half-scale replica of 1901 touring car will delight youngsters, bring a touch of nostalgia to Dad and the older folks.

2. Home-shop electric welder will handle necessary welding, or welding shop will do the work for just a few dollars.

ANTIQUE AUTO
Half-Scale Replica of 1901 Touring Car
GEORGE E. JONES
THIS DELIGHTFUL LITTLE CAR of the

horseless-carriage age, Fig. 1, and the cover, will let the younger drivers of the family whiz around the neighborhood at a sizzling 5 m.p.h. with three chums aboard, and do it all day on one battery charge. Construction is simple and can be handled in any home workshop. Parts that are difficult to make, such as wheels, brakes, ball joints, etc., can be purchased. Start construct ion with the frame. Fig. 7. Cut the l-in.-sq. tubing to

length and file curved notches in the ends to receive the axles. If you have decided to make the axles, rather than buy them, do them next. Hacksaw the spindle yokes to length and bend them to shape in a vise. Drill the 1/2-in holes for the king bolts after the yokes are bent. Cut the front axle and weld the yokes to the ends, centering them on the axle parallel to each other. Position the axle on the frame side members and weld it in place. Fig. 2. Cut the steering-column

perch, drill a 1/2-in. hole in it and weld it to the front axle. Fig. 3. Cut the rear axle and butt-weld the cap screws to the ends. Weld, this assembly to the frame rails.

5. Wheels available from supplier can be fitted with 3-1/2-in. Morse internalexpanding brakes; used on rear only.

3. Closeup shows arm welded to bottom of steering cloumn, bracket welded to front axle to support end of column.

4. Brake handle is fitted on spacer to position it outside of body to it projects up through running board.

6. Shown in this photo are positions of electric motor, support, sprockets and chain. Brake is visible on far wheel M A R C H - A P R I L . 1 9 6 2 > II

Make the four gussets, Fig. 7, and weld them to the underside of the frame at the corners. Fabricate the front-wheel spindle assemblies. Fig. 7. Drill 5/16-in. holes in the

arms first. Make the brake-handle bracket and attach it to the left side of the frame, Fig, 4. Cut the floor pan and make notches in it for the bulkhead legs, steering column and

brake handle. Now, cut all rods to length and thread them: Drag link, tie rod, motor-hanger rod, brake rod, motor-adjusting rod and steering column, Fig. 7. Weld the pit-

12 < WORKBENCH

man arm to the steering column 1-1/2-in. from the end. Assemble the ball Joints on the tie rod and drag link. Bolt the ball joints to the spindle arms. Make the sprocket

coupling next. Clean off all grease, rust and weld spatter from the frame and paint it with metal primer, then one coat of flat-black enamel. When

the paint has dried, put on the front wheels, backing off the castelated nuts 1/4 turn from snug so the wheels spin freely. Pin the nuts with a cotter pin. Adjust the ball

MARCH

APRIl.

1 9 6 2 > 13

8. Parts for the car body are easily cut and formed with ordinary hand tools. Here fender is being cut to shape.

joints on the tie rod to produce 1/16-in. toe-in for the front wheels. Bolt the brake drum to the left, rear wheel. FIG. 5. and mount the brake-shoe assembly on the axle. Snug up the wheel with a castelated nut and lock with a cotter pin. Put on all hub caps. The right rear wheel is the drive wheel on which is bolted the 60 tooth sprocket, Figs. 6 and 7. Bolt the wheel to the axle, lock with cotter pin. The power plant for the car can Be a converted electric gear motor, a government surplus item selling for about $16 to $20. It will tun on 6 or 12 volts and is fully reversible. Burden Sales Co 900 West " O " St.. Lincoln. Nebraskka. has many types of these motors in store. Your power plant also can be a regular 2- or 3-brush auto generator. To convert the generator, remove the third brush if it has one and leave the grounded brush as is. The wire from the other brush goes to on outside terminal. The fields are s o l d e r - c o n n e c t e d and wires from the two fields are led to an outside terminal. Most auto shops can make the conversion. Position the motor on the hanger rod inserted through holes in the frame. Align the two sprockets and install the chain. Mount the motor rod to the motor and to the frame and adjust it's length so there is 1/2-in slack in the chain between

sprockets. Next bend the brake handle to suit a r m length. Fig. 7. and drill the rod and pivot holes Do not install the handle. Cut all parts of the body, Fig. 8, then use a couple of lengths of 2 x 4 clamped together t o make all bends Put all sub-assemblies, Fig. 9. together. Assemble radiator, hood, dash and bulkhead as one

unit. Fig. 10. Paint all body subassemblies with a coat of met.al primer. then a coat of glossy black enamel. Wheels can be gold or red Now, the final assembly: Position the floor pan; install the hood assembly, the fender assemblies and steering column. Fit the brake handle through the running-board slot and adjust it to the brake rod. Wire the motor to the battery and floor accelerator. The battery is located under the front seat, held by brackets fabricated to suit the battery size. Fasten all components with rivets or sheet metal screws. Hop in the car, flip the dash switch to forward and step down on the accelerator. You are under way for years of fun. Twenty-four parts and accessories f'or the car can. be purchased from: Ma-Jo Lektri-Kars. P. O. Box 3134. GlenOaks Station, Burbank. Calif. Write for a parts list.

9. One template ii uicd to make tour Irndrrt. Two, of courw, Arr terved in betiding to produce pairt.

all rt-

10. Shown are all sheet-metal components ready for assembly on the chassis. Black is the color of the original. 14 < W O R K B E N C H

Put your small fry in the driver's seat of this great little buggy and watch him grin

Build your kids the sidewalk classic
Designed by
ROBERT WOOLSON ITS BLACK FABRIC TOP, leather dashboard straps and gas headlamps, this bright red replica of its prototype—the open roadster of the early years of this century—will bring a twinge of nostalgia to grownups and a shriek of delight from the younger set. It does a safe, quiet 5 miles per hour, has a 12-volt electrical system driving a 12-volt automobile generator which serves as the motor, and carries its own built-in battery charger. It's great for everyday fun on the sidewalk and

sensational in the local Fourth of July parade. You can buy nearly all of the parts at your hardware store or at an automotive-parts store. Assembly is not difficult, particularly if you follow the pull-apart drawings carefully. Before you buy or cut any materials, run over the list of keyed parts and carefully check each one on the pull-apart drawings. This will give you a good idea of what goes where on the plywood frame. The dimensions of some of the parts you have to make, bolt sizes and other im501

FRONT PIECE, BODY OPENING FOR DRIVE-BELT ADJUSTMENT (IN ONE PANEL ONLY)

The steering column is held in position by a plywood support and metal brace to the frame. A metal angle serves as the top bearing

SEAT BACK TAKE BOLTS HOLDING CENTER TOP BOW

COUNTERSINK FOR CORNERIRON BOLTS

END PIECE, SEAT, 2 REQD.

portant information are in the keyed list along with parts nomenclature. Begin construction with the frame which is cut from a piece of 1/2-in. plywood. Cut the piece slightly oversize, about 1/8 in. all around, to allow for finishing the edges; there must be no splinters. Then lay out the hole pattern and drill all the holes which are located by dimension, except the holes F. Hole diameters are taken directly from the bolt sizes given in the parts list. The seven countersunk holes (indicated by concentric circles) are drilled and countersunk for l.5-in. No. 8 F.H. wood screws. These hold the brakeshaft supports and the front-fender support, parts No. 27 and 31. One hole, D, is not countersunk, as it takes the screw holding the lower end of the steering-column brace, part No. 59, which passes through the frame and turns into the front-fender support. Holes A and B in the frame must be drilled at an angle, hole A for the steering post and B for the brake cable. Drill hole A slightly undersize and at the approximate angle and then work it to size and the correct angle later on with a round

502

I I '

DOTTED LINES INDICATE POSITION OF RUBBER FLOOR MAT

CHASSIS FRAME, 1/2" PLYWOOD

SHAFT COLLARS

BRAKE-BAND TIGHTENER BRAKE ASSEMBLY

GROUND-WHEEL DRIVE

file when you fit the steering post. Also you'll have to do some work with the round file to bring hole B to the correct angle to take the brake cable without binding. Holes C, E, G and H are for the passage of wiring through the frame and only the approximate location is indicated. The four holes F take 10-24 F.H. screws (with nuts) and hold two 3-in. corner irons which serve as motor-mounting brackets. It's a good idea to have your motor on hand so that you can determine the distance between the pairs of holes, as it may vary from that given. Be sure of the over-all dimensions of the battery case before you cut the well and make the support. The front axle consists of a length of hardwood and two steel straps. Note in the pull-apart

BRAKE ECCENTRIC ASSEMBLY

503

KEYED PULL-APART VIEW (REAR WHEELS, FABRIC TOP, WIRING AND BATTERY NOT SHOWN)

KEYED LEGENDS
1. WHEEL, SEMI-PNEUMATIC, 12 x 1.75. BALL-BEARING. FOUR REQUIRED (SPARE WHEEL OPTIONAL) 2. SHAFT COLLAR, 1/2 IN. 3. WHEEL SPINDLE, 1/2 x APPROX. 3 IN. STEEL. TH'D. 1/2-13. TWO REQUIRED 4. HEX NUT, 1/2 IN., WITH WASHER 5. HEX NUT, 1/2 IN., TWO REQUIRED 6. HEX NUTS AND LOCK WASHERS, 1/4 IN. 7. FLAT SPACER WASHERS, ONLY TWO SHOWN; FOUR REQUIRED 8. AXLE STRAPS, TWO REQUIRED 9. AXLE, HARDWOOD 10. SAME AS PART NO. 6 11. SAME AS PART NO. 5 12. HEX-HEAD MACHINE BOLT, 1/4 X 2 1/3" 13. HEX NUT AND WASHER, VA IN., TURNS ONTO END OF STEERING ROD 14. TIE ROD 15. STEERING ROD 16. SAME AS PART NO. 12. NOTE THAT BOLTS NO. 12 AND 16 PASS THROUGH AXLE ONLY, NOT THROUGH FRAME 17. KINGBOLT, 1/2 x 2 1/2 IN., TWO REQUIRED 18. PIPE TEE, 1/4-IN. TWO REQUIRED. THREADS REAMED OUT TO TAKE 1/2-IN. KINGBOLT 19. STEERING ARM, TWO REQUIRED, R. AND L., ONE HAS THIRD HOLE FOR STEERING ROD 20. LOCK WASHER, 1/2 IN. 21. HEX NUT, 1/2 IN. 22. CHASSIS FRAME, 1/2-IN. PLYWOOD 23. CARRIAGE BOLT, 1/4 X 3 IN. TWO REQUIRED 24. FOOT SWITCH, DPST, PUSH-BUTTON TYPE, NORMALLY OFF 25. ROUND-HEAD 10-24 SCREW, 3/4 IN. LONG. REQUIRES TWO NUTS, LOCK WASHER BETWEEN NUTS AND TWO SPACER WASHERS 26. BRAKE PEDAL 27. FRONT-FENDER SUPPORT 28. SPOTLIGHT SWITCH, LEVER-ACTUATED, SPDT, BUT USED AS SPST ONLY 29. SHAFT COLLAR, 1/2-IN., ACTUATES SPOTLIGHT SWITCH. A SECOND COLLAR IS REQUIRED ON BRAKE SHAFT TO HOLD IT IN POSITION AFTER ASSEMBLY 30. WIRE BRAKE CABLE 1/8-IN. DIAMETER, OVERALL LENGTH APPROX. 28 1/2" 31. BRAKE-SHAFT SUPPORT, OR BEARING. TWO REQUIRED 32. BRAKE SHAFT, 1/2 x 17-IN. STEEL SHAFTING 33. BRAKE ECCENTRIC, 3-IN.-DIA. V-PULLEY 34. BRAKE RETURN SPRING, 6 3/4 IN. LONG, 1-IN.-DIA. COILS 35. ROUND-HEAD 10-24 SCREW. 2 IN. LONG. LOCKS END OF BRAKE BAND 36. BRAKE-BAND TIGHTENER, 2-IN. V-PULLEY 37. BRAKE BAND, 1/2-IN. V-BELT, OVERALL LENGTH APPROX. 16 1/2" 38. BRAKE-BAND LUG, 1/8 x 1 x 6-IN. STEEL OUTER END GIVEN ONE-QUARTER TWIST 39. SHAFT COLLAR, 1/2-IN. 40. BRAKE STUD, 5/16-.|N. STEEL, TWO REQUIRED. THREAD 5/16-18 AND FIT EACH WITH TWO HEX NUTS 41. REAR AXLE, 1/2 x 23 1/4-IN. LENGTH OF DRILL ROD 42. BRAKE DRUM, 4-IN. V-PULLEY. DRILL 5/16-IN. HOLES THROUGH WEB ON 2 1/8-IN. CENTERS FOR BRAKE STUDS 43. BALL-BEARING PILLOW BLOCK FOR 1/2-IN. SHAFT. TWO REQUIRED 44. MACHINE BOLT, 1/4 X 1 IN. WITH NUT AND LOCK WASHER. TWO REQUIRED. THESE BOLTS JOIN MOTOR MOUNTING LUGS TO 3-IN. CORNER IRONS, ONE LEG OF EACH IRON BEING CUT TO 2 1/8 IN. LENGTH. DRILL HOLES FOR BOLTS CENTERING 15/8 IN. ABOVE THE CORNER-IRON BEND 45. DPDT TOGGLE SWITCH. SEE WIRING DIAGRAM 46. BATTERY WELL AND SUPPORT 47. CORNER IRON, TWO REQUIRED TO SUPPORT DASHBOARD ** 48. 49. 50. 51. HEAD LAMP BRACKET HEAD LAMP, DRY-CELL POWERED, TWO REQUIRED PEDAL. ACTUATES START-STOP SWITCH FRONT FENDER, TWO REQUIRED. EACH CUT FROM 3/8-IN. PLYWOOD, 4 IN. WIDE, 12 IN. LONG WITH UPPER CORNERS ROUNDED TO 1-IN. RADIUS, LOWER OUTSIDE CORNER TO 2-IN. RADIUS 52. DASHBOARD, 3/4-|N. PLYWOOD 53. SOFT-IRON RIVETS, 1/8 x 3/4 IN. EXACT LENGTH DEPENDS ON WIDTH OF SHAFT COLLAR USED 54. STEERING CRANK 55. SHAFT COLLAR, 1/2 IN. NOTE THAT PARTS NO. 54 AND 55 ARE JOINED WITH RIVETS, PART NO. 53 56. NO. 8 WOOD SCREW 1 1/2- IN. LONG 57. STEERING COLUMN, 1/2 IN. DIA., 18 IN. LONG, STEEL SHAFTING 58. STEERING-COLUMN SUPPORT, 3/4-|N. PLYWOOD 59. STEERING-COLUMN BRACE 60. SCREWEYE, 1/2 IN. TWO REQUIRED. TAKES SWIVEL SNAP ON TOP STRAP 61. FRONT PIECE, BODY 62. SHEET-METAL SCREW, SIZE 1/2—8 (OR 10), BINDER HEAD, FIVE REQUIRED 63. CORNER IRON, 1 IN., FIVE REQUIRED TO ATTACH BODY TO FRAME. EIGHT REQUIRED FOR JOINING THE FOUR PARTS OF BODY 64. DRIVING AND DRIVEN V-PULLEYS, DRIVING PULLEY, 2 IN. DIA., 5/8-IN. BORE. DRIVEN PULLEY, 10 IN. DIA., 1/2-BORE. USE 1/2-IN, V-BELT, 34 IN. LONG 65. TURNBUCKLE, SIZE (CLOSED) 5 1/4 N HOLDS MOTOR IN FIXED POSITION 66. AUTO GENERATOR, 12-VOLT. SERVES AS MOTOR WITHOUT ANY ALTERATION 67. CARRIAGE BOLTS, VA X V/Z IN. FOUR REQUIRED WITH HEX NUTS AND WASHERS 68. CHARGER, 12-VOLT 69. TURNBUCKLE, PART NO. 65, IS FITTED WITH NUTS AND LOCK WASHERS TO PREVENT IT FROM LOOSENING 70. BACK PIECE, BODY, 3/8x 6 5/16 x 15 3/16-IN. PLYWOOD 71. SIDE PIECE, BODY. TWO REQUIRED. ONLY OWE HAS OPENING FOR BELT ADJUSTMENT 72. BUTT HINGE, 1 1/2-IN., TWO REQUIRED 73. BEARING, TOP END OF STEERING COLUMN 74. SCREW, 10-24, 1 IN. LONG 75. CORNER IRONS, 1-IN. AND 3-IN. SIZES, TWO REQUIRED OF EACH 76. REAR FENDER, 3/8 x 4 x 12-IN. PLYWOOD WITH THREE CORNERS ROUNDED TO 1-IN. RADIUS 77. RUBBER HOSE, 5/8-IN. O.D. 78. STEERING WHEEL, 1/2-IN. BORE, 10 1/4-IN., DIA., CAST-IRON V-PULLEY 79. SHAFT COLLAR, 1/2-IN. 80. ELECTRICIAN'S BLACK PLASTIC TAPE 81. SIDE OF SEAT, TWO REQUIRED 82. SEAT BOTTOM, 3/8.|N. PLYWOOD. MEASURES 8 1/4IN. WIDE, 21 7/8-IN. ON LONG SIDE, 20 IN. ON SHORT SIDE. PADDED WITH CORRUGATED-RUBBER STAIR TREAD 83. SEAT BACK 84. MOTOR-COMPARTMENT COVER, OR DECK. 3/8 x 8 3/4 x 16-IN. PLYWOOD 85. DECK HANDLE 86. LEATHER STRAP, TWO REQUIRED WITH BUCKLES 87. STOPLIGHT, 12-VOLT 88. HOOK AND EYE, 31/2 IN., HOLDS HINGED SEAT IN DOWN POSITION. EYE SCREWS INTO BACK OF SEAT NEAR BOTTOM. HOOK SCREWS INTO FRAME * PURCHASE A 24-IN. LENGTH OF DRILL ROD AND CUT TO REQUIRED LENGTH AFTER MAKING TRIAL ASSEMBLY. LENGTH MAY VARY FROM THAT GIVEN DUE TO POSSIBLE VARIATIONS IN WIDTH THROUGH PILLOW-BLOCK BEARINGS AND WHEEL HUBS ** INSIDE CORNER IRONS ARE USED THROUGHOUT ASSEMBLY. ALL 1-IN. IRONS JOINING BODY PARTS ARE HELD WITH 10-24 SCREWS AND SQUARE NUTS

505

Battery-powered headlights snap onto metal brackets attached to the dashboard. The brackets come with the lamps. Note also the construction of the front axle and the steering-knuckle assembly

506

The brake band is a 1/2-in. V-belt anchored to a stationary lug and a tightener, and passes around a V-pulley on the axle. Note the two studs which engage the wheel

view that there are three pairs of bolts that pass through the axle, the two kingbolts, the pair of carriage bolts holding the frame to the axle, and a pair of machine bolts that hold the three parts of the axle together. The wheel spindles swing on the kingbolts, which pivot 1/4-in. pipe tees. Threads in the body of the latter are reamed out to take the kingbolts in a close fit. A hex nut, lock washer and a steering arm are placed on each spindle before turning the latter into the threaded stem of each tee. You'll see the order of assembly in the pull-apart view. A shaft collar with setscrews holds each wheel. Assemble the rear axle in its bearings on the frame. Then make the brake-shaft supports and screw them in place on the underside of the frame, noting that the one that is grooved for the brake-band lug goes on the right side of the frame, viewed from the front. The complete brake assembly is shown pulled apart. There are two points to note especially in this assembly. First, the brake-band lug, part No. 38, drops into the groove in the brake-shaft support. The wood screw holding it in the groove passes through the frame from the top. side, through the lug and is turned into the brake-shaft support. The inner end of the lug is held by a 10-24 screw (with nut) which passes through a hole in the frame. This hole must be drilled through the

frame after the parts are located. Second, the screw holding the forward end of the brake band in the groove in the brake-band tightener, part No. 36, passes through the band and a hole in the tightener and shaft. Parts of the brake-eccentric assembly are shown on page 503. A 5/16 x 1 3/8-in. stud is crossdrilled near the unthreaded end to take the end of the brake cable. A nut and washer are run down on the stud and the cross-drilled end inserted in a hole drilled through one side of the pulley (eccentric) rim. The free end of the cable is passed through the hole near the end of the stud and the nut tightened, clamping the end of the cable securely in place. This arrangement provides adjustment of the brakecable length when the assembly is complete. The return spring is attached to the stud with a second nut and washer and the opposite end of the spring attaches to an anchor on the bottom of the frame. Note now the similarity between the groundwheel drive, and the brake assembly. Both make use of short studs, the unthreaded ends of which enter holes drilled through the inner half of the wheel webs. Two studs are required for the brake but only one for the drive. The steering gear is of simple construction and consists of the tie rod, steering-rod, crank,

507

Swivel snaps riveted to the ends of straps hook into screweyes in the top edge of the dash

the column, column support, brace and wheel. The latter is a 10.25-in.-diameter V-pulley, the V-groove being filled with a 5/8-in.-diameter rubber hose and then wrapped with electrician's plastic tape. This makes a neat, realistic wheel rim. When assembling the steering gear you may need to make some adjustment in the "geometry" by bending the arms so that the front wheels toe correctly. The body also is of the simplest construction, made entirely of 3/8-in. plywood and joined with 1-in. corner irons, each held in place with two 10-24 screws and square nuts. Parts for the seat are assembled in the same manner, using the same size irons and screws. The one exception 508

in this procedure is the method of joining one leg of each corner iron holding the body to the frame. Here a No. 8 or 10 sheet-metal screw 1/2 in. long (part No. 62) is used instead of a 10-24 screw and nut to join the leg of the iron to the frame. Dimensions of the seat bottom, fenders and hinged rear deck, or cover, will be found in the parts list. Rear fenders are joined to the body with corner irons (parts No. 75) and 10-24 screws and nuts. Front fenders are attached to dashboard and fender support with 1.5-in. No. 8 screws. Next step is to add the top and install the wiring. The top, authentic in appearance, consists of a metal frame covered with an artificial-

Assemble the top before placing it on the car. The metal frame, consisting of front, back and center bows, and braces, is made from aluminum rod and tubing that is available in all hardware, building supply, and hobby stores

CHARGER WIRING SCHEMATIC
X TERMINAL N O T USED BRAKE-LIGHT

SWITCH
ACCELERATOR

12-V. BATTERY

SWITCH

CHARGE OFF GO SWITCH GEN. 110-V. A.C.

110-V.+ 12-V. BATTERY CHARGER

COMPLETE ELECTRICAL WIRING SCHEMATIC FOR SIDEWALK CLASSIC
CENTER-OFF TOGGLE SWITCH STANDARD SURFACEMOUNTED UTILITY BOX CHARGE OFF GO AUTO GENERATOR # 16 WIRE BRAKE-LIGHT SWITCH S.P.S.T.-N.O. 110-V. A.C. CHARGE-OFF-GO SWITCH. D.P.D.T. (BOTTOM VIEW)

# 10
ACCELERATOR SWITCH D.P.S.T.

# 10
12-V. STORAGE BATTERY

N.O. PUSH BUTTON

# 16 WIRE

# 16

# 10 WIRE

# 16

12-V. 30-AMP. CHARGER

- +
12-V DC. OUT

110-V. DC. IN

STOP LIGHT

X

SWITCH TERMINAL NOT USED

510

Ready access to all electrical equipment—battery, motor, switch and charger—is made possible by the hinged seat, top and deck, which tilt forward. The seat is held down with a hook

leather fabric, the pattern for which is given on page 509. Overall measurements before hemming are shown with the exception of one dimension, from the rear window opening to the bottom of the back flap, which is given after hemming. Don't cut the fabric until after you have made and assembled the bows and braces. You can bend the center bow by hand, but you run the risk of getting an uneven bend and spoiling the contour of the roof as a result. Instead, borrow an electrician's conduit bender for this job. After bending, flatten at the points indicated and drill holes for the bolts. Then bend the front and back bows, flatten the ends slightly, and also drill the holes for the bolts. The holes in the front bow for the bolts that hold the upper end of the braces are located and drilled after a trial assembly. Now refer to the drawing on page 509 for the location of the holes for the bolts holding the center bow to the ends of the seat. Drill these holes and mount the assembled bows temporarily so that you can more easily fit the fabric top. Lay the fabric over the bows and determine the location of the pleats, or tucks, and the amount to be turned under for the hems. This done, sew

The electricals are housed in the body, with the battery in a well under the seat. Note the position of the charger and the "off-go-charge" switch. Note also the use of snap-on terminal clamps on the battery

511

The back drop, or flap, of the fabric top is attached to the back of the seat with storm-sash hangers. The rear window is fitted with a sheet of clear plastic

swivel snap to the free end of each strap, fastening with split rivets. The back drop, or flap, of the top attaches to the back of the seat with three storm-sash hangers. Note that the sash half of the hanger is riveted to the lower edge of the fabric, while the other half of each hanger is attached to the back of the seat with 10-24 screws and hex nuts. Note that when everything is assembled the hinged seat, deck and top tip forward to give access to the electricals, motor, battery, charger and the off-run-charge switch. The exact location of the switch and charger is of no importance; place them so there is access to each. When wiring, follow the wiring diagram which gives the wire sizes to use. Wires from the startstop, foot-controlled switch and to the stoplight switch are stapled to the underside of the frame. Before making the test run, be sure you have the correct tension on the driving V-belt and that all nuts and screws have been properly tightened. The fifth, or spare, wheel pictured is optional. The carrier is simply a threaded 1/2-in. stud and shaft collar installed on the back body panel. Brackets for the headlights (the brackets come with the units) are screwed to the dashboard as shown.
colors are optional

the hems all around, making the pleats as you go. Cut the opening for the rear window. Cut thin, clear plastic about 1/2 in. larger all around than the opening and sew in place. After pleating and hemming, fold the forward end of the fabric around the front bow and fasten with split rivets. Note that the leather straps are attached to the top with split rivets at the pleats and at the front edge of the fabric. Attach a

The wiring from the foot-operated switch and the stoplight switch is stapled to the underside of the frame. Wire sizes are indicated on the schematic

Paint colors are optional. The original pictured was painted a bright red with a silver striping, an attractive combination. The top of the plywood frame was finished in natural color. The disk wheels were sprayed with silver paint. There are some interesting decorative touches that you can add which will increase the authentic look and at the same time make the car more fun to own. For example, if you shop around, you should b.e able to find one of those old rubber-bulb operated auto horns. If you can find one with a shiny brass bell, so much the better. The same material you used to make the top would serve very well as a covering fabric if you chose to upholster the seats. You wouldn't have to be fancy. Just cover the wooden seat and back with 1 or 1.5-in. of foam rubber, cover with the fabric, then tack to the edges of the seat. Use large-headed colored upholstery nails. For a final touch of authenticity, drive some of these nails into the back and the seat in a grid pattern, with about 6 in. between nails, to imitate the old upholstery buttons.
See also: bicycles; cars, midget; stage coach; train, children's; unicycle.

512

HOW I BUILT THE

Flying Cart
By Hubert Luckett OU'RE almost ready to believe in flying carpets when you open the throttle and see a 200-lb. load float eerily off the ground. Tip the handles slightly and you have to brace yourself to keep this wheel-less Flying Cart from skittering down the drive faster than you want
CONTINUED

That's a 200-lb. load — four 504b. bags — entirely supported on a cushion of air.

162 POPULAR SCIENCE JULY I960

Plywood, plastic, and aluminum make the airframe

FINISHED "HULL" showing how fan shroud and rounded contours in the plenum chamber are obtained, using sawed-to-shape plywood covered with a skin of sheet aluminum and plastic film.

ALUMINUM IS FASTENED to inner curve of struts by bending a flange over flat against the plywood, and securing with stapling gun. Aluminum is slit every 1-1/2" to make a smooth bend.

to follow. More—you can easily trundle a 100-lb. load across a soft, soggy lawn with this machine and never leave a mark. The Flying Cart is a true ground-effect machine (GEM). It has no wheels. It glides on a cushion of compressed air supplied by a modified chainsaw engine and a four-bladed wooden prop. I built the "airframe" of ordinary lumberyard materials for $59.75. If you're well supplied with plywood scraps you can cut that figure in half. Engine and props are from an outboard air-drive unit sold by Airboats, Inc. (3323 N. Florissant Ave., St. Louis 7). New, they cost $130. How it got that way. The cart didn't start out as a search for an improved wheelbarrow—it happened the other way around. The building itch came with the first story I read about air sleds, and intensified with each story thereafter. It was a challenge to build a totally new kind of vehicle before all the development problems were trampled to death—and all the unanswered questions were answered—by multimillion-dollar research programs. I doodled the requirements. It would have to be: • Reasonably easy to build with ordinary home-workshop tools. • Adaptable to continuing changes and experiWrite for fuller drawings Want to build the Flying Cart? The drawing at left shows enough for you to proceed on your own. For larger scale drawings, send $1 to: FLYING CART, Popular Science, 355 Lexington Ave., New York 17, N. Y.

CROSS-LAPPED STRUTS are clamped

between main frames, glued and screwed to the spacer block. Note floor flange that anchors leg of the platform covering engine.

PLASTIC FILM is folded double under the clamps. Sheet-metal screws hold the two aluminum clamping strips. Plywood clamp at bottom is held by wood screws.
CONTINUED

Add the deck, motor mount, and prop
DECK IS SEPARATE ASSEMBLY

held by bolts securing the motor mount. Side rails are notched to engage upper corners of the struts and rabbeted to receive 1/4"-plywood deck cover. Wiremesh blade guard is clamped between deck and hull.

M T R MOUNT is bolted through OO the deck and upper main frame. Hardwood blocks clamping ends of each pair of angles add rigidity to the mounting assembly.

hub after the engine is in place. Vanes were added after the first trials to counteract torque effect and improve the air flow.
164 POPULAR SCIENCE JULY 1960

PROPELLER MUST BE BOLTED to the

mental modifications, yet functional in its most elementary form. • Large enough to carry a practical load—not a toy. • Small enough for one man to handle and not pose an awkward storage problem. • Cheap enough for a modest budget. All of these points apparently ruled out a riding vehicle. So when someone suggested an air barrow, it seemed like a happy choice. The one that didn't work. Take one leftover sheet of plywood that happened to be 34" by 48"; nail one-by-fours to the edge to form an open box; cut a hole 24-1/2" in diameter in the center of the plywood sheet, and you have the body of my first "feasibility-study" model. A 1/2-hp. electric motor driving a 24", three-bladed cast-aluminum exhaust-fan prop supplied the air. I wanted to see if the crudest possible rig would provide any encouragement to go ahead with the project. It almost didn't. When I switched it on, the shop filled with a wild roar and a dense cloud of dust, but there were no signs of levitation. The air stream was hitting the floor and bouncing right back through the fan blades. I extended the sides to 16" to get the fan farther from the floor. This time it teetered on the brink of floating. Backwash through the fan was greatly reduced. I rigged up a crude equalarm balance and found that the machine required
[Continued on page 226]

Author's sketchbook shows future plans

CONVERSION TO AN ANNULAR JET will be easy. According to theory, it should ride higher off the ground. Ill try a flat plywood bottom first, then tackle the problem of making a properly shaped core like this.

A LIGHTWEIGHT with keen balance may be able to ride it as is, with the throttle relocated on a reversed set of handles—but only on a smooth surface.

BIG DREAM awaits a cooperative neighbor. Two carts joined together (with engines turning in opposite directions) offers exciting riding possibilities.

-A

INVERTING THE ENGINE would lower center of gravity and allow use of standard prop with an engine rotating in conventional direction.

AN OVERSIZE SKIRT with a drawstring in the bottom edge may improve stability and performance as an air barrow over rough terrain.

165

How I Built the Flying Cart
[Continued from page 164]

68 pounds to balance with the motor not running—only four pounds when it was turned on. Scarcely a resounding success. But in spite of air leaks, turbulence, fan inefficiency, and high weight-to-power ratio— I was getting 64 pounds of lift. It wasn't hard to think up reasons for going ahead. The one that worked. Poring over all the research papers I could find, I came up with these rough specs: • Shape—square. For a given area, power, and operating height, the shape with the shortest perimeter gives the most lift. A square is the closest practical approach to the optimum circular shape. • Size—5' by 5'. The most significant factor in GEM performance is the "height-diameter" ratio ( h / d ) . Within limits you can trade one for the other and carry the same load. A larger vehicle would operate higher off the ground, but it becomes clumsy to use and a problem to store. • Design—plenum chamber. This is like an inverted saucer with the air cushion retained inside the bowl. It's the simplest of the proven GEM configurations, and gives good hovering efficiency close to the ground. • Power—chain-saw engine. The tentative design promised to lift about 30 to 35 pounds per horsepower, as nearly as I could estimate. A reasonable payload would require five hp. The lightest five hp. I could think of was a chain-saw engine. • Propeller— ??? This turned out to be a shopping problem. I was getting discouraged about finding one that would fit the shaft, blow the right way for engine rotation, and provide optimum load for the engine. But a half-dozen problems were solved at once when the Airboats unit was suggested to me. It uses a fivehp. Power Products chain-saw engine with reversed rotation and has a properly matched prop. Building the air frame. Problem: How do you make a close-fitting duct for the fan and a smoothly contoured bowl for the plenum chamber with ordinary woodworking tools? Fiber-glass laminate would give the needed shapes, but would be complex to mold, and also would be too heavy in the required strength. A skilled tinsmith could do it with sheet alumi226 POPULAR SCIENCE JULY 1960 CONTINUED

How I Built the Flying Cart
num, using aircraft-type construction, but that was beyond me. Plywood frames sawed to shape and covered with a skin of aluminum and plastic were the answer. The final design proved to be easy to build and turned out surprisingly strong and rigid for its weight. The completed machine, including the engine, weighs only 80 pounds. Building the Flying Cart. First I cut out the two 32" squares of 1/2" plywood and the eight 3/8" plywood struts. I made a trial assembly of these parts, which form the backbone of the vehicle, using 5" bolts and TeeNuts to clamp it together. All other dimensions were taken directly from this framework. After all the wood framing members of the "hull" were nicely fitted, they were taken apart and reassembled, with waterproof glue and wood screws for all joints. The sheet aluminum was fastened on next. The inner edge was screwed to the .1/2 "plywood first. The sheet was then pushed in tight against the inner curve of the struts and the bottom edge screwed to the one-by-two bottom frame. The 1/2" overhang at each end of the aluminum sheet was snipped every 1-1/2", the lip hammered flat against the strut and stapled with a stapling gun. The fan shroud went on next, with the top and bottom edges fastened in a similar fashion. Enclosure of the plenum chamber was completed by clamping six-mil polyethylene across the corners, using the two l/8"-by-l" aluminum strips and the sawedto-shape l/4"-plywood bottom piece. The deck was assembled dry, placed in position and the notches for the struts marked. After the notches were cut, it was reassembled, with glue and screws. First tryout. I didn't wait for such niceties as handles, throttle control, blade guard, and proper motor support, to see if it would work. With the major structure finished, I bolted a pair of angles directly to the frame to support the motor. The engine took hold on the third pull of the starter rope. With a roar from the unmuffled exhaust and a cloud of dust from my driveway as it was swept clean by the air blast, the Flying Cart was first airborne at dusk one Sunday afternoon. It rose about three inches from the ground and hovered there. Startled faces popped up in neighboring windows
2 2 8 POPULAR SCIENCE JULY 1960

How I Built the Flying Cart
and a horde of small fry materialized from nowhere. Cries of "What is it?" were soon replaced by, "Can I ride?" I soon paid for my impatience. The motor support proved to be too limber and vibration broke the straps holding the gas tank. Back in the shop, the motor support was stiffened by clamping the ends of the angles tightly between hardwood blocks and adding a second pair perpendicular to the first. Handles and flexible-cable throttle control came next. Remembering the demand for rides, I made a removable platform to cover the engine. Supporting legs went through 1" holes in the deck and top main frame and were anchored with slip-in floor flanges screwed to the bottom main frame. Early trials of the finished vehicle quickly led to the first two modifications. It would carry a load nicely on smooth pavement, but got into trouble on rough ground or going over a curb. A flexible skirt at the bottom caused the rigid part of the craft to ride high enough to clear obstacles. The skirt easily conforms to uneven surfaces and retains the air seal. This also eliminated most of the pushing in climbing hills. By holding the machine level on a slope, all the air escapes on the downhill side, thus providing thrust to push the cart uphill. If you let go of the handles, reaction to the prop torque made the whole cart spin around. Vanes set in the air stream counteracted this, after a bit of fussing to get the correct pitch. An unexpected bonus resulted: The vanes seemed to smooth the air flow in the plenum chamber and gave a measurable improvement in lift. The plastic corners are a considerable aid to the experimenter. With cloth ribbons stuck to various surfaces inside the chamber, a light shining through one corner •will let you observe air-flow patterns through the other three. Some curious things have shown up. Under certain operating conditions, part of the air flow seems to want to give a negative lift. It may actually be creating a suction that is limiting the operating height of the vehicle. Next step: modification of the air flow to eliminate this apparent negative lift. The machine may yet prove to be large enough to ride successfully.

m

GAS RATION SPECIAL
Go to market, beach or visit friends on one of these babies and forget your gas worries. You can cover 100 miles or better on one gallon of precious fuel.

by Howard G. McEntee

W

ITH gasoline and oil getting scarcer all the time, it behooves those of us who are able, to arrange our transportation in such a manner that a little of these commodities will go a long way. A small motor scooter is one of the most economical forms of powered transportation. Unfortunately the supply of these vehicles is limited, with new ones unobtainable, and used ones scarce and prohibitively priced. The answer seems to be ''build your own." The scooter to be described was evolved after the writer secured a second hand engine 90

in fair shape. This was carefully reconditioned, and worn parts replaced, whereupon it was found to be very reliable in operation. This engine is a Lauson RSC, rated at 1.5 H.P., but any engine of from 3/4 to 2 H.P. or so is satisfactory, as they are all of about the same size and general arrangement. The prospective builder will probably be unable to secure a new engine, but the second hand field is very large. An advertisement in the local newspaper will usually bring results. Only general dimensions will be given as a building guide, since the construction will Mechanix Illustrated

naturally be governed largely by what parts the builder can gather together, as was the case here. Construction starts, of course, with the frame, which is made of 1-1/8"x3/16" soft angle iron. Beds are a fine source of this material. First the side pieces are cut to length; then with a hacksaw, slots are cut at points A and B (see drawing) on the vertical side, up to but not through the horizontal side, or, in other words, to the apex of the angle. The pieces may then be bent easily in a vise. After each side member is bent at the two points, and the three cross pieces are cut to size, together with the center motor support piece, they are about ready for welding. First, however, six slots should be cut. four for mounting the engine and two for the rear axle. Those for the engine must be positioned
Left: Completed scooter with lights, horn and rear vision mirror. Some states require twin headlights and tail light for these vehicles. Check with your Motor Vehicle Bureau. Below: Side view shows principal construction points. Motor is at right angles to chassis.

August, 1943

91

Parts details.

Most materials can be obtained from junk. Frame is made from old bed rails.

according to the particular unit to be used, but should be measured so that the motor pulley comes at about the point shown. The welding can be handled by any well equipped auto repair shop. After these initial welds are made, the side members must be cut once more at points C so that they may be bent inward at the front. The bearing for the front wheel fork on this scooter is a cast iron piece about 7-1/2" tall and with a tubular stub at top and bottom. It was made for heavy commercial delivery bicycle use. but a bearing tube from an ordinary adult bike will do very well. This piece is held between the upward and inward bent front ends of the frame with a single bolt. The bracing pieces running from points C on the frame up to the top of the bearing tube are of 1"x1/8" angle iron bolted at top and bottom and also welded at the latter point. The tube should slant to the rear at an angle of about 20 degrees. At points A on the frame a 5/16" bolt is run from side to side with a spacer of small diameter gas pipe between the side members.
92

The front fork will have to be built up as there is no bicycle part of the correct size. The lower ends, or prongs, of the fork are cut from an old bike frame and are brazed to a piece of 1-5/8" diameter tubing which is 5" long. The prong pieces should be fitted through oblong holes cut in the lower side of the tubing and curved to butt snugly against the inside of the upper portion. The stem of the fork is also cut from a bicycle so as to make available the threaded upper end. This piece is brazed into the 1-5/8" tubing which is first bored or filed out for a snug fit. The bearings and cones from a bicycle fork assembly, together with the nuts and washer that hold them in place, complete this part of the machine. The neck is much longer than those used on bicycles and must be built up from one of the latter plus a piece of tubing that will fit inside the stem of the fork. The same tightening arrangement as used in standard bike practice is satisfactory. Bicycle handlebars and lubber grips are used. The seat is mounted over the motor and is held on a cut-down bike seat post brazed to
Mechanix Illustrated

Here is bare frame with seat support and engine mount shown. Cut slots for hold-down bolts to fit your particular motor.

Closeup of sturdy front fork construction. Licenses are required by some states

a curved piece of 1" diameter tubing. This tubing is braced by two pieces of 3/4"x1/8" angle iron which run back to the main frame. The seat itself is of a large, well sprung type that makes for comfortable riding. All joints of the seat support are brazed and the whole tripod may be removed from the frame by taking out three bolts. We come now to the power and drive mechanism, where lie most of the procurement and construction headaches. The wheels are heavy duty type with ball bearings, carrying husky 4 ply tires of 10x3 size. The rear tire must be of the so-called "lug base" style, meaning that the tire has moulded ridges running crosswise around the inner circumference, which fit into slots pressed in the steel wheels. These ridges or lugs prevent the tire from slipping around the wheel under power. Do not try to use a smoothtype tire as it is wasted time, a fact ascertained by sad experience. Either style of tire, however, may be used on the front wheel. These tires are usually of single tube construction with no inner tube. Wheels for these small tires are usually made in three pieces, consisting of a hub carrying the ball bearings, and two pressed steel discs to fit in the tire, the three sections held together by [Continued on page 132]
Above: Gas tank feeds motor by gravity. Dome shaped gadget near wheel is generator. Right: Clutching arrangement is operated by idler pulley (center) which raises and lowers to engage or disengage driver pulleys. Wheel itself (with sprocket) is in turn driven by chain from sprocket on pulley shaft, August, 1943

93

Gas Ration Special
[Continued from page 93] bolts. The rear axle is simply a 7" length of 3/8" diameter rod threaded at both ends and fitting snugly through the center of the bearing on each end of the hub. Spacers between the outside of the bearing and the frame sides position the wheel securely. The sprocket on the rear wheel is an 18 tooth unit of the disc type, held in place oh the wheel by three 3/16" bolts and pipe spacers. The sprocket is held out from the wheel far enough so that it clears the tire by about 3/8", and must be adjusted to rotate absolutely true, with no radial or side wobble. The long bolts are inserted in place of three of the short ones that hold the wheel parts together. Although the sprocket shown is a special unit, most bicycle dealers can supply one with the proper number of teeth, and which can be drilled for the three bolts. The chain is standard bicycle variety of 1" pitch and 3/16" width, and the two sprockets must, of course, be of similar description. The chain is about 30" in length. While on the subject, it might be said that while the chain mentioned has proved quite satisfactory and will give good service if cleaned and oiled occasionally, a much tetter drive may be had from the s»-called No. 41 N chain. This is 1/2" pitch and 3/16" wide and is used on many racing bicycles as it is more suited to high speed work. The sprockets must be of the same type. It is quite possible to use V-belt drive from the counter-shaft to the rear wheel. If this is done the wheel pulley should be about 5-1/2" dia meter with a 3" countershaft pulley, the idea being to get a 2-1 ratio between the two. The countershaft sprocket is a 9-tooth size, also a standard bike part, with an added steel hub. The shaft is 5/8" diameter and is carried in a self-aligning ball bearing pillow block at each end. Ordinary bronze-bushed bearings are quite usable, but must be oiled more often. The sprocket hub should be pinned to the countershaft with a taper pin or plain 1/8" diameter rod. Set-screws .simply will not hold here for any length of time unless used with a keyway of some sort. After trying vainlv to make the sprocket stay put, it was finally pinned, keyed and held by two set screws, and has not budged since being so fastened. The countershaft is cut flush with the bearing on the right end but projects 2-1/4" beyond the left bearing. On this end are fastened two 5-1/2" diameter pulleys. The motor pulley is the type with 1-3/4", 2-1/4" 2-3/4", and 3-1/4" steps, only the first and third of -which are utilized. The "gear shift" is very simple but highly satisfactory. The two V-belts are left in place at all times but are too loose to provide any power transfer from motor to countershaft. When the shift lever is pushed downward, a pulley is lowered onto the top of the inner belt, 132 tightening it so that the countershaft is driven. For high "gear" the lever is then raised upwards past the center position where both belts are loose, until another idler pulley is forced up against the underside of the other belt, which tightens it and again drives the counter shaft, but at a higher speed. The two idler pulleys are of ball bearing construction, and each is held to the shift rod by a single 1/4" diameter bolt. Roller skate wheels are good for this use; if flanged pulleys are obtained they must have a width inside the flanges of at least 1/2". Plain bearing types are not advisable here as the pulleys turn at high speed and are under considerable load. Some means must be provided to hold the shift arrangement in the desired position, whether up or down. An auto brake lever ratchet and pawl have been adapted for this use, and while the make is unknown, the builder can probably find something satisfactory at his local supply store or "junkie." Most of these ratchets are designed to hold in only one direction and slip the other way, so the teeth must be filed to such a shape that they will hold in either direction. The pieces are usually case-hardened but can be softened for drilling and filing by bringing them to a red heat for a few minutes, then allowing them to cool slowly. The ratchet piece was drilled large enough to fit over the bearing of the shift lever and is braced by a piece of 1"x3/16" steel running down to the frame. The bearing is a piece of brass tubing 5/8" in diameter with 1/32" wall thickness, inside which is the shaft itself, a length of 1/2" diameter rod, turned down to 3/8" at each end and threaded. The tubing is brazed to the angle iron seat braces. The shift lever is bolted onto its shaft with the pawl on the overhanging rear and actuated by a 3/16" rod run forward through the wooden handle. A spring keeps the pawl tightly against the ratchet except when the push rod button is depressed. The shift rod which carries the two idlers is held to the lever by a single 1/4" diameter bolt and another bolt of the same size keeps the lower end of the rod in place. The slot is 3-1/2" long which allows the rod a vertical movement of about the same distance. Both of the bolts are provided with bronze bushings to reduce wear. The rod must be held out about 7/8" from the frame so that one idler can be placed on each side. The holes for the idler pulley boits should not be drilled until the motor and countershaft are mounted and the pulley and belts put temporarily in place to be sure the idlers will be in the proper location. A spring coupling is provided between the lever and rod as may be seen in the illustration. The rod is bent out at right angles at the top and an [Continued on page 142]

Gas Ration Special
[Continued from page 132]

extension made from a 3/8" diameter bicycle rear wheel shaft bolted on. This slides through two holes in a U-shaped metal piece, with a spring at top and bottom. A bolt over the upper end keeps the whole assembly in place and is turned tight enough to place the springs under considerable pressure. Such a device prevents overstretching the belts and makes the drive smoother. This completes the heavy construction work, but many other details remain. The floor boards are of 9/16" plywood held on with bolts. On one side a cut-down bike kick-stand is fastened, bolted both to the floor and the frame for strength. The motor is fitted with a simple muffler and a long tail pipe and is surprisingly quiet in operation. Construction details are shown on the drawings. The muffler body tubing and the exhaust pipe ends are closed with discs of 1/16" steel sheet brazed in place. The small tubing has about 20-1/4" dia. holes in each piece which appear to be ample. A guard piece of 3/4" x 1/8" strap iron, bent upward at the front and bolted to the floor board, runs rearward about on the centerline of the frame. The rear end is supported by the angle p i e c e which guides the after end of the brake cable. This "It has no practical guard projects about 1" lower than the muffler and protects the brake mechanism, and the countershaft pulleys as well, when the machine is being lifted over curbs and other obstacles. The sheet metal gas tank is fastened to the seat support in front and the vear is held up on a frame of 3/4"x1/8" strap iron. This frame is extended over the tank to form a handle that is very convenient when lifting the vehicle. Front and rear fenders are bent from No. 20 gauge sheet steel; the one in front is braced by strips of 16 gauge sheet riveted in place. Both fenders are the flat crownless type,—all that can be made without extensive sheet metal working equipment. The brake is external contracting and works on an ordinary 3-1/2" V-pulley keyed to the countershaft. The brake band, cut from 20 gauge steel, has a lining of heavy leather. A simple toggle arrangement tightens the band around the V-belt and is actuated by a foot pedal on the floor board. The two are connected by a piece of auto choke wire.
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The carburetor controls of choke and throttle are on the handlebars, operated by bicycle-type flexible wire cables. Some States (such as New Jersey) require two headlights and a tail light before a license will be granted. The lights used here are all bicycle products operated by a small bike generator driven by the rear tire. As this does not produce quite high enough voltage, the generator is now being belt driven from the countershaft. A great deal of experimentation has been done to ascertain the proper drive ratios. Although the photos show different size pulleys on the countershaft (they were 5" diameter for "high" and 6-1/2" for "low") these have been replaced by two of 5-1/2" dia., which seems about right for the motor used. The ratio from motor to rear wheel (using pitch diameters of the pulleys which average 1/4" less than outside diameter) and including the 2 to 1 afforded by the chain drive is thus about 4.2 to 1 for high and 7 to 1 for low. This provides a top speed of about 25 m.p.h. in high and makes for easy starting and plenty of power for hill climbing in low. Using the p u l l e y s shown in the photos, the ratios were 3.8 to 1 and 8.3 to 1 respectively, but these were thought to be a bit too value, but it works!' far each way for best results. All the belts and pulleys are ordinary 1/2" wide home workshop equipment. A simple device was developed to prevent the V-belts from pulling when the shift is in neutral, a natural tendency even though they are quite loose. An angle bracket is mounted on the motor crankcase, the end projecting outwards just in front of and below the motor pulley. To this are bolted two strips of brass 1/8"x5/8"x2" long,bent so they just clear each belt when it is tightened to the running position. They prevent the belts from wrapping around the pulley when loose. Persons under 19 years of age comprise 45% of the Soviet Union's population, compared with 32% in Great Britain, 30% in France. Because eating spoiled food may cause animals to become ill, home economists advise burying any spoiled canned food with a tablespoonful of lye to each quart.

This Scooter

MECHANICS and HANDICRAFT
If you can fix a bike, you can build a put-put that's almost as convenient as a second car and costs far less to run.

By Howard G. McEntee
simply get on YOUthe throttle and this homemade scooter and go. There's no clutch, no gearshift. Open you're off. Tackling a grade? It shifts down automatically. When the going is easy, it shifts up again. Hard to build? No. Though it looks like

These are the main parts, but you'll need such extras as bolts and nuts, 1/2" and 3/8" pipe, lock

washers, sheet metal for fenders, wheel dust seals, and brake and idler springs.

something off a sweet-running assembly line, it isn't a tough job. If you can take a bike apart and get it together again, you can handle this, too. Scooters are taking thousands to work, school, play, and the corner drugstore for just pennies a day. And no wonder. These little puddle jumpers are a cinch to handle. They park on a grease spot, and can be licensed at bargain rates. This one's a bargain in other ways, too. What's it got? A lot, in view of today's high prices. Here's what your $75 buys: An easy-starting, lightweight two-cycle engine, an automatic clutch with variable drive ratio, an efficient brake, pneumatic tires, chain drive, lights, and a spring-mounted foam-rubber seat. The engine is the most expensive item, but fortunately there are reliable two-cycle engines available for $25 or less.* If you have a suitable engine or can rebuild a used one (see PS, June '51 p. 187), this figure can drop to the vanishing point. What'll it do? You won't beat even a Model A from the light in this little job. But the take-off is smooth, and you'll get where you're going at something like 20 miles an hour. Although it would bust before making Pikes Peak, it will take you up easy grades and can be walked up stiff ones
POPULAR SCIENCE

under its own power. The brake is effective, starting is a cinch, and roadability is good. The machine is light enough to carry if necessary, and one man can put it into an auto luggage compartment. Welding does it. The cost includes $6 for welding the frame, and it's money well spent. Although you could bolt or rivet the frame together, you'd have to overlap members or provide gussets at all joints. But welding service is available everywhere, and a welded frame is much easier to make, neater looking, and stronger. You'll find most welders cooperative, especially if you cut and fit frame members correctly and clamp them in proper alignment. Electric welding is preferable. It's less likely to warp the stock. Cutting the frame. Two 45" lengths of angle iron must be cut, bent, and welded at two points. For the 30° upward bend, cut through one flange of each piece 12 1/2" from an end. Watch yourself, for these members are not identical; you need a right and a left. Bend the uncut flange, spreading open the cut. Then have 1/8" reinforcing plates welded across the breaks. The second bends are in the other flanges, and require narrow notches. These are closed up by bending, and need no reinforcing, just careful welding. The front of the frame is filed to fit around the head. Try to make the two parts a reasonably close

Measuring 12 1/2i" from ends of main frame members, cut through one flange, and bend the other up about 30°. Be sure to make one right, one left. Cut 1/8"-thick braces to be welded across the breaks. Weld across them inside the angle also. First bend (at right) has been welded in both members and a 3/8"-wide V notch cut 2" above it. Second bend closes these notches, ready for welding. Clamps hold a crosspiece in place. Head (in hand) will be welded to rounded frame ends.

match, but don't fret about it, for welding will close up small gaps. Assembling the frame. The fork turns in ball bearings like those in the wheels, but made for a 3/8" axle. The 1" pipe for the head can be bored out in a lathe to fit the bearings, or filed by hand, since the outer race does not turn. Cut the angle brace. Then wire it and the head in place for welding, or drill the frame members for a clamping bolt and have the holes welded

up later. Make sure the head is vertical to the frame, as viewed from the front, or your wheel will be askew. Note that, except for the axle slots, no holes are made in the vertical flanges of the long frame members. All other holes go in the top flanges, which don't carry much of the load. The scooter shown was assembled mostly with square-shoulder carriage bolts, for which you must file the hole square. This

Diagonal frame brace is welded between the head

and first crosspiece. This and center one are angle stock, the rear one flat iron. Round off corners that touch fillets inside frame sides, for a close fit. Bore ends of head for bearings, and drill fork crosspieces for kingbolt, before welding.

Makings of a wheel hub. Ball bearings are in place in the shells. Center spacer must clamp between inner races without binding the bearings. A lathe is ideal for facing spacers squarely to length. Felt seals prolong bearing life. Bolts and nuts clamp hub together.

Industrial type sprocket used here was bored out to clear the axle spacer. Sprocket is set off by four spacers 1 9/16" long, cut from 3/8" pipe. Spacer ends against sprocket are square, but inner ends are filed to contour of hub shells. The holes in the shells must be opened out to clear 1/4"-20 bolts.

Front engine mounts rest directly over the center frame crosspiece. The rear ones sit on the bearing hangers, and therefore are 1/8" shorter. All mounts are cut from 1/2" pipe. Iron straps across them provide an inboard support for the engine base, in which the mounting holes are 3 1/4" apart.

takes only a few seconds and saves time in assembly, because it isn't necessary to fumble underneath with wrenches to hold a bolt while cinching up the nut. Lock washers under all nuts are, of course, a must if you want the scooter to be roadworthy. Don't under any circumstances omit them. Wheels. These are 10" by 2.75" tubeless pneumatics, inflatable through a valve. Valveless (semi-pneumatic or zero pressure) tires give a harder ride. Be sure to get the heavy-duty grade, since light-service tires of both types aren't recommended for much more than wheelbarrow speeds. , At least the rear wheel must be the lugbase type, having molded protuberances on the tire that fit indentations in the hub. Make certain you have this kind, or you may find the hub going around while tire, scooter, and rider stay put. To prevent the bearings from turning directly on the axle, the inner races must be clamped against a center spacer. This and outside spacers can be cut from ordinary 1/2" pipe drilled out a bit. Each center spacer must be carefully fitted. If too long, it won't allow the hub to be assembled; if too short, it will bind the bearings. Each wheel must turn freely when clamped with axle nuts with the center spacer in. Start with this spacer a trifle long, and shorten it a little at a time. The front axle is simply a 1/2" hex bolt 5 1/2" long. If you can't get one 8" long for the rear axle, use a square-head machine bolt or a 1/2" shaft threaded at both ends. Chain drive. The roller chain shown is No. 41, 1/2" pitch and 1/4" wide. This is stronger than necessary. Similar chain 1/8" wide is stocked by bicycle stores and will serve as well. The sprockets should give a ratio of about 2 1/2 to 1. The large (32-tooth) sprocket is fastened to the rear hub with 1/4"-20 bolts on spacers cut from 3/8" pipe. Mount the wheel and spin it to help you true up the sprocket. Countershaft. Bearings are the selfaligning type, which make assembly easier than rigid bearings. The 1/2" countershaft must be at 90° to the frame, with the rear axle parallel to it, for quiet chain operation. The small sprocket (13-tooth) must be pinned to the shaft. Setscrews will not hold. Drill a hole through hub and shaft, ream with a No. 3 taper reamer, and drive in a taper pin.

A crossbar of 1/2" shafting is filed flat where it crosses the frame, and bolted on. Brake lever is welded of 1/2" pipe and 1" strap as at left. It pivots on the crossbar. So does the idler bracket on the drive side and the kick stand on the other. Pointed end of brake lever strikes frame crosspiece as a stop. Brake band is looped over, riveted, and notched to form clevis as at right. Clevis pin is unthreaded portion of a bolt. Lower end of brake band is bolted to frame crosspiece. Engine will rest directly on straps, not on nuts shown.

A shaft collar goes between this sprocket and the nearer bearing. The brake drum takes the side thrust at the other bearing. Leave just a little end play. Brake. Use a 3 1/2" steel or cast-iron flat pulley for the drum if possible—a die-cast one will wear rapidly. The scooter shown has an iron V pulley with the sharp ridge turned off the flanges. Pin the drum fast, or use two setscrews tightened against flat spots on the shaft. The brake band is a flexible strip of 1/16" by 3/4" steel. Bend the band around the drum before riveting on some 1/8"-thick woven brake lining. Bolt the lower end of the band to the frame crosspiece and form the other into a clevis as shown. Extra holes in the brake lever allow for adjustment, and a spring normally holds the band off the drum. Braking action tends to wrap the band around the drum, which makes the brake very responsive. Engine. For the engine shown, cut four mounts from 1/2" pipe and two straps of 1/8" by 1" stock. These give an inboard support for the engine base, which is narrower than the frame. The engine comes with a governor, which should be removed. An auto choke cable 72" long is connected to the throttle. Attach a spring to hold the throttle closed unless the button on the handlebars is pushed. The muffler on this engine interferes with

the drive pulley. Take it off, separate the two aluminum castings, and, using the mounting holes and port in one as a template, mark new ones on the other. Drill and file them out. Plug unneeded holes with bolts and gasket cement, leaving the original cylinder port as the exhaust. Before mounting the engine, put lock washers under the three screws that hold the crankcase to its base. Tighten the screws hard. You don't want them to loosen under vibration, for they are difficult to reach with the engine in place. Belt drive. It's the centrifugally controlled pulley, acting as both clutch and variable-ratio drive, that makes the 1-hp. engine perform as well as it does. Some pulleys of this type will serve as a clutch, but offer little or no ratio change. The one I used, a V-Plex clutch model 18T9*, shifts from a drive-belt diameter of 3/4." at rest to one of 2 1/4" at high speed. The keyway on the engine crankshaft may not be long enough to let the pulley slide close in. To remedy this, grind out one of the two keys cast into the bore of the pulley. An idler keeps the belt taut. Adjust the pull of the idler spring so that it holds the belt taut over the entire shift range, yet leaves the belt loose when the engine is
idling. [Continued on next page]

Ends of frame head receive ball bearings like those in the wheels, but with 3/8" hole. Here the lower bearing is on the king bolt over lower fork crosspiece. Spacer held in the hand goes between the bearings inside the head. Short spacer raises nut above top crosspiece for access. Be sure to use lock washer.

Motor pulley changes flange spacing as engine revs up, changing ratio and also acting as a clutch. Idler takes up belt slack. It consists of two ball bearings bolted to straps that pivot on the crossbar. Muffler has been reversed to clear drive pulley. Its cylinder-mounting boss is now the exhaust opening. felt washers and dust caps to keep grease in and dirt out. If you can't buy them, you can improvise them from felt rings and 1/2" washers, with a smaller washer inside the felt ring, as shown in the photos. The trimmings. In fitting the seat support, make certain it clears the carburetor, gas tank, and muffler by at least 1/4" all around. Cut the floor boards from 3/8" or 3/8" plywood, and attach them with 1/4" carriage bolts. Some states require a tail light, head lamp, and horn before the scooter can be licensed. Battery lights sold for bicycles will serve, but if you want to use a magnetotype (battery-less) lighting outfit that is powered from a wheel, better check its legality in your state. Trial run. Follow instructions on the engine name plate for mixing oil with gasoline. Always close the fuel petcock and if possible run the carburetor dry (which takes several minutes) when leaving the scooter overnight. Otherwise the carburetor jets are likely to clog with oil, making starting difficult. Be sure to carry your starting rope at all times. A scooter with a centrifugal clutch can't be started by pushing, although in an
|34 POPULAR SCIENCE

The best over-all drive ratio will depend on the kind of roads you travel. In flat country, with 13- and 32-tooth sprockets, a 4" pulley on the countershaft may suffice. In hilly territory, a 5" pulley may be necessary, or you may want a smaller drive sprocket. Fork assembly. Like the wheel bearings, those in the head should be clamped against a center spacer. Remember to insert Seat frames are fastened with 1/4" bolts. Make certain the brace in rear frame clears the carburetor amply. Kick stand goes on this end of crossbar. Valve springs, turned over a pair of nuts on each rear frame bolt, rest in shallow holes in plywood seat. The seat must hinge to
give access to gas tank.

emergency you can probably start the engine with a handkerchief, knotted at one end and twisted into a short starting rope. If the scooter tries to get away from you at low engine speeds, lower the idling speed. Also,check the belt idler tension. Fit a stop to the idler bracket if necessary. On the other hand, failure to "take hold" may be due to too large a belt or insufficient idler tension.

Remember that most belts will stretch after short use, so it's well to start with a slightly tight one. Up- and down-shifting will be governed in part by the tension of the idler spring, so you may want to experiment with this. Get your license, practice on some lonely road until you get the feel of the thing, and you're set for happy scootering. END

A quick yank starts the engine. Run carburetor dry when you slop, or jets may clog with oil.

MI's

HIGHWAY KART

You don't need a trailer or a station wagon to haul this kart to a track-you can drive it there on public roads!
By R. J. Capotosto
RIVING a kart is a real thrill. Seated on a low-slung frame only inches from the ground, you teel as if you're doing 80 mph when you're doing 20. Yet it's surprisingly safe. The low center of gravity and a width two-thirds the length make it almost impossible to flip a kart in a tight turn. Just about everyone who tries a kart gets the urge to own one—and if you've got that urge, you get a bonus in building the MI Highway Kart. Since karts are generally driven on special tracks, it is not necessary to register them. However, transporting a
90

CLAMPS and a piece of angle-iron hold kingpin brackets in position for welding. Mechanix Illustrated

SHEET STEEL is cut and bent to shape, then spot-welded beneath the sissy rails.

ENGINE MOUNTING plate is tack-welded at first since it may require shifting later.

NOTES: FRAMING MEMBERS, BUMPERS AND SEAT RAILS ARE ANGLE IRON WITH JOINTS WELDED. OF REAR AXLE ROD AND PLATE ARE OF COLD-ROLLED STEEL FRONT AXLE BRACKETS ARE OF HOT-ROLLED STEEL.

BRAKES are the internal expanding type. Two are needed for kart used on highways.
92

BOTTOM view with the belly pan welded in place. Note bends in the control rods. Mechanix Illustrated

THROTTLE control linkage is simple but foolproof. Return spring is on the right.

DON'T overtighten the nut on the kingpin. Use a slotted nut and a cotter pin.

CUSHIONS are foam rubber. A Boltaflex cover is stapled to the plywood backing.

RETURN spring connected to brake linkage is strong enough to pull pedal back.

READY for the road. Latex paint was used to give tires white sidewalls. Headlights 24 inches above ground comply with the law for night driving.
EVER READY 12V FOG LAMP (2)

BRACKETS are adjustable so that headlights may be lowered when not required.
94

HEADLIGHT ASSEMBLY

TAIL LIGHT

LICENSE PLATE LIGHT SINGLE CONTACT 4 C.P. TURN LIGHT
DOUBLE CONTACT LAMP 4 C.P. (2)

kart is often a problem. It can be hauled in a station wagon—if you own a wagon—or it can be towed on a trailer. Either way, the lugging can be quite a nuisance. With this in mind, our model was designed so that registration could be obtained, making it possible to drive the kart to its destination on public roads. Our plates were obtained in New York. However, regulations vary and the requirements would have to be checked in other states. First we had to supply three things: proof of ownership (a bill of sale for the engine); an affidavit stating that the kart was built by ourselves; and a list of the parts used. To make the kart legally roadworthy it had to have front and rear bumpers, a brake on each r e a r wheel, headlights, taillights, turn signals, a rear license plate and a horn. In use, the head-

GROUND

SEE NOTE

BRAKE LIGHT STOP SWITCH RED LEAD RED LEAD 12-VOLT GENERATOR BUILT INTO ENGINE

LIGHT SWITCH

BLINKER

SHORTING SWITCH

BLACK LEAD

DPDT TURN SWITCH TURN LIGHT SINGLE CONTACT 4 C.P. (2)

FOR HEADLIGHT USE CLEAR FOG LAMP (2) NOTE: IF TWO STOP LIGHTS ARE REQUIRED USE ANOTHER SWITCH

WIRING DIAGRAM FOR 12-VOLT SYSTEM

WITH TWO BRAKES, the linkage must be set so that both will be applied at once.

HAND CRANK for engine's impact starter folds up out of the way when not in use. 95

LARGE-SCALE PLANS are available with complete text and photos. Send $3 to MI Plans Service. Fawcett Bldg., Greenwich, Conn., and specify Plan WB-4, Mi's Highway Eart.

MICRO MUFFLER is shown being bolted over exhaust port of Clinton E-65 engine.

LIGHT switches and a switch for shorting out engine are on panel below wheel.

CRANK is pressed after four turns, releasing a spring which starts the engine.

lights are required to be 24 inches above the ground. A permanent arrangement of this sort would not be desirable, so we mounted the lights on adjustable brackets which allow them to be lowered. Electrifying the kart was simplified by using a Clinton E-65-1100 series engine with a built-in, 12-volt flywheel generator. This eliminates the need for a heavy battery, relay and external generator. The engine delivers 5.2 hp and it has a 5.76 cubic inch displacement, putting it in the Class A category. It is fitted with an impact starter and four turns of the crank followed by a press to release the spring are sufficient to start the engine. A Mercury centrifugal clutch permits no-load starting and load-free idling and it automatically applies the load to the engine at its most efficient speed. Brakes are the six-inch internal expanding type. If you do not plan to register the kart, one brake will be sufficient as a Class A rig. For simple and sturdy construction, angle-iron is used throughout. This eliminates welding of fish-mouth joints on tubing, something which is rather difficult unless you're an experienced welder. Welding angle-iron is very easy by comparison. It's also easy to shape the angle-iron by cutting slits or notches in one side and bending it in a vise. Start construction by cutting all the angle-iron to size and forming it as shown in the drawings. Cut the notches with a hack saw and save the triangular waste pieces. These can be used to fill in the spaces formed where the slits open up on reverse bends. When cutting notches, drill a 3/16-in hole at the base of the V to allow proper bending clearance. File all cuts clean to remove burrs prior to welding. The 3/8-inch holes for the brake and [Continued on page 112] Mechanix Illustrated

Highway Kaxt
[Continued from page 96]

throttle studs should also be drilled at this time. To simplify the welding, clamp the pieces together and tack-weld them first. Then check the positioning to see if it's all right to complete the welds. We used a Lincwelder 100 and obtained excellent results. The 1-1/4x1/2-in. kingpin brackets should be clamped in perfect alignment before they are welded in place. These brackets are made by heating the metal to a cherry red and then bending them in a vise. If your welder is equipped with a carbonarc torch, you will find it excellent for heating the metal. The rear axle and brake flange are also attached at this time. Note that the rear axle is offset to allow for the sprocket on the left side. The engine mounting plate is made from quarter-inch steel plate. It has elongated slots to allow for proper alignment of the engine. A simple way to make the slots is to drill the two end holes and cut out the material between. Use a keyhole saw or, better still, a jig saw with a finetoothed blade and a slow speed. Wax the blade and feed the work slowly. Since this plate may have to be moved slightly on final assembly, tack-weld it into place. The throttle and brake linkages are assembled as shown in the drawings. Make the control rods from quarter-inch coldrolled steel, threaded at each end. Temporarily attach the rod assemblies to the frame, clamping them at the stop guide brackets. The rods should not bind when the pedals are operated. The return springs should also be in place at this time so that proper tensioning and positioning is obtained. When all checks out, the units can be assembled to the frame. The firewall, belly pan, dash and side pieces under the sissy rails are cut from 20-gauge sheet steel with heavy-duty shears. Bending is required to fit the side pieces into place. Attach all these plates by spot-welding every inch. The steering knuckles are made by welding 3/4x4-inch cap screws to steel tubing of half-inch inside diameter. Drill and tap the tubing to accept a grease fit[Continued on page 116] May, 1962

Highway Kart
[Continued from page 112] ting, taking care to remove any burrs that may form on the inside. The cotter pin hole in the axle also may be made at this time. Determine the location of the hole by placing the wheel with bearings on the axle. Then remove the wheel and thread a nut onto the axle, noting the exact location of the hole. Lock the nut in place with a second nut and then drill through the flat side of the nut. The wheels, incidentally, are available from the Indus Corp., 1815 Madison Ave., Indianapolis 25, Ind. The steering tie rods are threaded at each end for a distance of one inch so that there will be sufficient adjustment for toe-in. The steering rod and wheel are made of 3/8-inch cold-rolled steel. The large bend in the wheel may be made cold but the sharp bends will have to be heated. The 3/8-inch bronze bushings are pressed into the top and bottom of the steering rod tube. A plastic mallet is good for driving them in. As an added safety feature, the wheel and arm are welded to the steering rod after assembly. Make sure that the arm is in alignment with the steering wheel before welding. The carburetor throttle lever is connected directly to the throttle linkage through a length of throttle cable. Attach the cable to the body of the engine with a bracket made from a scrap of 20-gauge steel. The separate gas tank is mounted directly behind the driver's seat, again using 20-gauge steel for straps. The electrical system is next added by following the wiring diagram. Use stranded wire and tape all the leads in a neat bunch so that none will dangle. The taillights and turn lights are screwed directly to the frame by drilling small holes at the rear of the fixtures. The stop light switch must be positioned so that it closes the circuit when the brake pedal is depressed one half of its travel. Naturally, the engine must be running to provide current for this test. The upholstery consists of a quarterinch plywood backing, a two-inch foam rubber filler and a covering of Boltaflex, a product of Bolta Products, Division of The General Tire and Rubber Co., Law[Continued on page 118]
May, 1962

Highway Kart
[Continued from page 116] rence, Mass. Pull the material tight over the foam and staple it to the rear of the plywood. The Indus wheels do not come with white walls as shown. We used a latex paint for this. Be sure to clean the rubber thoroughly before painting. All metal parts of the kart should be given a coat of metal primer before painting them with enamel. The lamp brackets, control rods, etc., are sprayed with aluminum paint. To add to the looks of the kart, a ribbed rubber floor mat is used. Due to the space limitations where the engine is positioned, it is not possible to make full turns of the impact starter crank. However, the crank is connected through a ratchet and full turns are not necessary. Our kart, including everything but the engine, was built for $116. The 5.2-hp engine with built-in 12-volt generator was $85.74, bringing the total cost to $201.74. Naturally, you can build the kart for considerably less if you don't want to include the features necessary for highway use. MI has made arrangements with the Finecrafts Products Co., Box 7031, Jersey City 7, N. J., to supply readers with the parts for this kart. Write to them for a price list. •

Versatile is the word for this golfcart-runabout. Grandmother, Mother, Dad and the kids all find use for it

GOLF CART-OR FAMILY RUNABOUT
First, it's a golf cart powerful enough to carry two adults and equipment up steep slopes. But it's also a heart-saver for the aged, "legs" for an invalid, and a "school bus" or shopping "car" for Mom. It features twin-motor drive, four speeds forward and reverse, coil-spring suspension, 2-wheel brakes and tricycle steering, plus a built-in battery charger PART I
By Tom Riley

SPEEDS UP TO 20 m.p.h. and 30 to 40 miles on a single charging of the batteries make this cart an ideal utility vehicle for any home, farm or business. The cart is wide and low, both to assure stability on any terrain and to provide ample room for any of several combinations of motors and batteries. First step in the construction is to make the main frame, Figs. 7 and 10, of steel channels and angles. Arc welding is required in this assembly. The next step after the main frame is assembled is to assemble the drive-unit frame, Figs. 7 through 11. The rear cross member of this frame is a length of 3/4-in. pipe that pivots

in two U-shaped brackets bolted to plates that are welded to the rear cross member of the main frame. The brackets are a loose fit on the pipe. Strips of inner-tube rubber then are wrapped on the pipe under the brackets to provide a "snubbing" pivot. Stub axles for the rear wheels are welded to a length of pipe to produce a complete axle, that will give a width of 41-1/2 in. between the outer sides of the tires. This leaves a clearance of 3/4 in. between the tires and the outer edges of the cart's main frame. The drive-unit frame is made narrow enough to clear the brake drums on the wheels. Coil springs used in the rear suspension are kept aligned by 3/4-in.
POPULAR MECHANICS

pipe caps bolted to spring plates at the front of the drive-unit frame and to the 2in. cross member of the main frame. A long 3/8-in. bolt with fuller balls at each end is used to "snub" the frames together and to prevent sidesway of the drive-unit frame. The lower right-hand detail in Fig. 7 shows the snubber bolt, springs and pivot-bracket setups. A piece of 3/4-in. plywood is bolted to the drive-unit frame to support the motors. Slotted holes in the plywood permit the motors to be moved to allow adjustment of chain tension. Heavy turnbuckles are attached to the frame and to the motors near the shaft ends to "hold" this adjustment. Wheels, which should be purchased before assembling the drive-unit frame because of the need for measurements, can be of several types. For the rear, the wheels should have 4.80 or 5.50 x 8 turf-type tires, such as used on most golf carts. A less ex-

pensive substitute are wheels torn light aircraft, which are available as war surplus. These have tires with a channel tread, and are complete with bearings, hubs, and spindles. Also available are 6in. brake drums and sprockets drilled to fit the wheels. For the front wheel of the cart a rounded tire is best. A 14-1/2-in. balloon aircraft tire or a 16-in. standard industrial tire should be used. The fork assembly is made as shown in the left-hand detail, Fig. 7. Either turned brass bushings or ball bearings can be used, pressed into a counterbored length of pipe or tubing. The latter then is welded over a hole drilled in the 3-in. frame channel, Figs. 6 and 10. Three types of d.c. electric motors can be used for the cart. Sprockets and chains from light motorcycles are used with each to deliver a speed of from 350 to 400 r.p.m. to the rear wheels. Aircraft starter motors,

Spend your time improving your game, instead of walking. The cart gets you around in half the time

Photo of frame front end shows location of fork, foot and hand brakes, extreme turning angle possible

Fig. 8, available as war surplus, can be used if only moderate power is required. Although rated at 24 volts, they are designed for intermittent service and should be run with four batteries producing 12 volts, or three batteries that will provide 18 volts. Most of these motors turn only about 100 r.p.m., so a large sprocket is fitted on the motor and a smaller one on the wheel. Check the r.p.m. rating of any type motor before obtaining sprockets. A second type aircraft motor, also available as surplus, is a high-speed unit that rotates at about 5000 r.p.m., which makes it necessary to use a gear reducer of from 5-to-l or 10-to-l to reduce the speed to a point where chains and sprockets can handle it. A third type motor, the most expensive, is a propulsion or traction motor, Fig. 9, such

168

POPULAR MECHANICS

Drive-unit frame with aircraft starter motors installed. Note turnbuckles from the frame to motors

Here drive unit is fitted with propulsion motors, such as used tor golf carts and industrial lifts

2" CHANNEL

APRIL 1958

169

2" CHANNEL

EYEBOLT

STEEL FLAT

TURNBUCKIE CHANNEL ANGLES ANGLE HEAVY SPRING

PARKING-BRAKE CABLE

as is used for golf carts, electric lifts and the like. They are available from the larger motor manufacturers. Brakes for the rear wheels of the cart can be made in two ways. If you purchase wheels with 6-in. drums, parking brakes of the external-contracting type, used on the drive shaft of Plymouth cars, can be 'modified for use as shown in the right-hand detail, Fig. 7. A second type of brake is to bolt a double V-pulley to each wheel and use two V-belts as "brake bands." The latter brake is efficient, but wears rapidly. Arrangement of the cables for both the

hand and foot brakes is shown in Fig. 10. The parking-brake handle can be one picked up in an auto-wrecking yard. The seat back and three floorboards now are cut from 3/4-in., exterior-grade plywood. Ten 2-in.-dia. holes in the back are located toward the center so mud from the tires will not spatter through. These, and nine holes in the seat floorboard ventilate the charger and batteries. The seat front, cut from 1/2-in. plywood also is attached, after being slotted for the reversing switch, Figs. 11 and 13. Figs. 1 through 5 show just a few of the

STEERING HANDLE CHARGER

BATTERIES

SPEED CHANGER

SINGLE WHEEL

"ACCELERATOR" SWITCH REVERSING SWITCH 2" VENTHOLES LOCATION OF BASIC PARTS REAR SPRING MOTORS

DRIVE-UNIT FRAME

170

POPULAR MECHANICS

Springs used to counterbalance the hoods of some automobiles are strong enough for the fork assembly

many uses for this versatile golf cart-runabout. If it is to be used by an invalid, the cart should be fitted with hand, rather than foot controls. The "accelerator" pedal can be replaced with a lever-controlled switch on the instrument panel or glove shelf. Brakes also can be operated by a long lever projecting upward through the floorboard and positioned for the driver to grasp it easily. An upward-projecting extension handle also will have to be fitted on the reversing-switch. It is important that this switch be handy for any driver, as it can be used to brake the cart in an emergency. If the cart is to be driven on streets or highways, check with city and state officials for types of licenses required before constructing the cart. You may find that your state or city does not permit a vehicle of this type to be driven on the streets or on the highways. Next month will be shown the installation of wiring, battery hook-up and attachment of the body sides, front and seat.
This view of cart shows neat appearance of seat and rear deck. Note reverse lever at front of the seat

APRIL 1958

GOLF CART- RUNABOUT
PART II By Tom Riley

A FTER COMPLETING the main frame, drive-unit frame and all other work described in Part I last month, the next step in construction of the cart is installation of the batteries. Heavy-duty, 6-volt batteries rated at 170-amp. hours or better should be used to assure maximum performance. Batteries having bolt-on connecting posts are the best for installation in the cart, as they allow interconnection of the batteries with inexpensive "bus bars" of 1/8 x 3/4-in. aluminum flats, Fig. 19. Screw strips of 3/4 x 3/4-in. hardwood to the floorboard

around the batteries to keep them in place. Batteries shown in Fig. 19 are standardsized, grouped in a rectangle and centered in the cart. If long, narrow batteries are used, place them four in a row across the center of the seat space. Weld a frame of 3/4-in. steel angles for a hold-down and secure this frame on two ends by means of long 5/16-in. bolts passed through the floorboard. This arrangement is similar to that used to hold the battery in an automobile. The lower, left-hand detail in Fig. 15 shows how four 6-volt batteries can be hooked together for 12 volts, the detail to the right shows a WIRING 24-volt hookup. Note the FIELD REVERSING 6-volt take-off for lights. ARMATURE SWITCH If the cart is used on the street, it will require a horn and lights as well as a license. When extra accessories are installed, tap each unit from a different battery. This distributes the electrical drain so that .RELAY one battery is not overtaxed. Because the batteries are charged as a unit, when the other three RESISTANCE COIL were fully charged, the battery from which all the accessories were draining still would not be up to IGNITION SWITCH standard. BATTERY HOOKUP FOOT SWITCH Next, it is necessary to 6 VOlTS TO LIGHTS FOR 12 VOLTS ("ACCELERATOR") determine the method to POPULAR MECHANICS

use for reversing the motors you are going to use. Most traction motors have 3 or 4 terminals on the outside, with a diagram printed on the motor or terminal box, so no changes are necessary in this type of motor. Most surplus aircraft motors will require that short leads be run through the brush cover to extra terminals on an insulated base outside the motor, as shown in Fig. 16. Reversing diagrams sometimes are supplied with these surplus motors, but it is best to have an electrician check to make sure it is right. A diagram supplied with motors used on the original cart was incorrect; it recommended reversing the polarity of the brushes, resulting in a dead short, because these particular motors had grounded armatures. Fig. 16 shows how these were correctly reversed. It still is best to check with an electrician before connecting your motors. The heavy-duty reversing switch required, Figs. 17 and 21, is obtained inexpensively by rebuilding an old-style 50 to 100-amp. double-pole, double-throw service entrance switch. They can be obtained at some electricians' shops because they are being replaced in homes today with less exposed disconnects. Raise the two center, or hinge, jaws of the switch about 3/4 in. on pipe spacers, so the blades will clear the end jaws by 3/16 in. when they are level, Fig. 17. Replace the two blades and handle with two 5-in.-long copper blades, pivoted at the middle. Bolt a block of insulating material between the blades at the center, then attach a new handle. If necessary, reposition the four outer jaws on the base plate so they fit under the new blades. Bolts securing all six jaws to the base should extend about 3/4 in. below it, so they
CHARGER DIAGRAM 115 VOLT TO 12-24 VOLT TRANSFORMER 25 AMP. AT 24-VOLT CAPACITY,

HOOKUP FOR REVERSING STARTER MOTORS

MAIN TERMINAL
FIELD

INSULATED BRUSH FRAME GROUND REVERSING SWITCH

GROUND BRUSH

NEG TO BATTERIES '

12 TO 18 VOLTS FROM SPEED CONTROL

Above, wiring diagram for reversing aircraft starter motors as corrected by builder of original cart. Jt still is best to have electrician check motors

INSULATING MATERIAL

COPPER OR ALUMINUM STRIPS

17

WIRING (UNDERSIDE)

Reversing switch for cart, above, is made by modifying switch used originally in house wiring. They sometimes can be obtained at an electrician's shop Photo, below, shows installation of four, 6-volt batteries, with hold-down frame. Charger and timer are in foreground. Wiring diagram is shown at left

115-VOLTPLUG

12-HR. TIMER SWITCH 20-AMP., 115-VOLT CAPACITY INDICATOR LIGHT

SELENIUM RECTIFIER SINGLE-PHASE BRIDGE CIRCUIT, 15 TO 20-AMP. CAPACITY AT 26 VOLTS 12 TO 24-VOLTS D.C. TO BATTERIES

MAY 1958

177

Speed-control unit, above, consists of four autostarter relays and a rectangular resistance coil

Reversing switch, above, is raised on pipe spacers so that wiring can be run in the space beneath it

+ TO BATTERIES

TO REVERSING SWITCH SPEED CONTROL

ALUMINUM BUS BAR

2" FRAME A N G L E ,

ELECTRIC-CABLE CLAMP RUBBER WASHERS

BUS BAR 221 SIDE VIEW -H/B

Above, wiring diagram and layout of speed control shows how resistance coil is offset to keep it well below rear deck. Below, hood is marked for cutting

can accommodate two nuts and cable terminals. On the underside of the switch base, cross-connect the four outer terminals as indicated in Fig. 17, using copper or aluminum strips. The switch handle is a 1/4 x 1/2 x 10-in. steel flat, twisted 90 deg. just beyond the insulating block to which it is bolted. The end is ground down and threaded to accept a small gear-shift knob from an automobile steering-column lever. To vary the speed of the cart motors, a speed control is assembled from four 6-volt auto-starter relays, which pass the electric current through a varying length of chrome-nickel resistance wire, Figs. 20 and 22. In operation—see Fig. 22—closing relay No. 1 causes the current to pass through the full length of the resistance coil, resulting in low speed. Closing relays 2, 3 and 4 give constantly higher speeds, with No. 4 producing full speed because it allows the current to bypass the resistance coil. Use auto relays that have no connection between the relay coil and its main terminals, such as for a 1946 to 1954 Plymouth. Most Ford relays, for example, look the same, but have the relay coil wired internally to one of the main terminals, which will cause the 12 to 24-volt current to feed back through the 6-volt coils, causing either a heavy "short" or chattering of the relays. If available, 24-volt aircraft relays, which have silver contacts, are best. Drill holes 3 in. apart in a 1/8 x 3/4 x 11-in. aluminum bar and bolt the motor-side terminals of the relays to it. Bolt the four relays to a 4 x 12in. piece of 1/4-in. hardboard, using rubber washers as indicated in the lower detail, Fig. 22, to quiet the click when they operate. Connect the four relay housings together with a small wire to provide a 6-volt ground. Making the resistance coil is a cut-and-try matter, depending on the wire, motor type and voltage used. Try about 10 ft. of POPULAR MECHANICS

178

1/8-in.-dia. chrome-nickel resistance wire, wrapped around a 2 x 6 to form a rectangular coil. Because the wire gets hot when the cart is running, mount the coil above the relays, and extending out from them as in Fig. 22. For the same reason, connect the coil to the relays with electric serviceentrance cable clamps, rather than by looping the wire around the relay terminals. The clamps also allow you to tap off anywhere along the coil. Connect the clamps so there is more coil between relays 1 and 2, than between the others. If this produces too slow a first speed, cut down on the length, if too fast, add more resistance wire between the first two relays. The speed control is bolted to the center of the 2-in.angle crossframe with two pieces of steel angle, Fig. 22. The 6-volt wire from the batteries and the four wires from the relays to the "accelerator pedal" need be only 18-ga. stranded wire, secured to the underside of the floorboards. On the original cart, the accelerator switch, Fig. 24, was a long-wearing, silver-contact type made especially for this purpose by one of the larger golf-cart manufacturers. Some heavy-duty surplus radio switches also can be used. They are a "shorting type" switch. The wiper arm of the switch contacts each following terminals before disconnecting from the preceding terminal, providing a smooth action. The heavy wiring from the batteries to the speed control, reversing switch and motors, Fig. 15, should be 6 ga. or heavier. Autobattery cable is excellent but expensive. House-service cable can be used, but is less

AUTO-ACCELERATOR PEDAL

24

"ACCELERATOR" SWITCH (SHORTING-TYPE SWITCH)

satisfactory because it is difficult to bend at sharp angles. The built-in charger is an optional feature, but it definitely simplifies servicing. The charger shown in Fig. 19 produces more than 20 amps, at 24 volts, and has both a 12 and 24-volt output. An 18-volt transformer would have to be used, if that current were used in your cart. Mount the transformer on brackets about 1/2 in. above the floorboard, so wiring can be located beneath it. A 12-hour, spring-wound timer switch, such as used for large fans, is mounted under the seat. The wiring diagram is shown in Fig. 18. Figs. 14 and 25 show how the two sides, rear panel and rear deck, cut from 1/2-in. plywood are attached and trimmed with linoleum trim strips and steel angles. The side rails on the rear of the cart are bent

SCREW V PLYWOOD

%" PLYWOOD

MAY 1958

179

from 1/2-in. Thin-Wall electrical tubing. The hood of the cart is formed from a single sheet of 1/8-in. hardboard, measuring 24 x 76 in. Cut this panel after it has been clamped or screwed to the center of the floorboard, with about 5 in. extending below it. Then bend and clamp the ends of the hardboard to the frame. Push it down until the top end assumes an even curve, then screw it to the floorboard every 8 in. Now, mark the vertical lines of the doorway and any pleasing curve desired for the top and bottom edges of the hood; Fig. 23. Remove the hood and cut it with a bandsaw, or cut it in place with a handsaw. The glove, or package, shelf, shown in the photos in Part I of this article, is cut from 1/2 or 3/4-in. plywood and screwed to the inside of the hood at a convenient height. An instrument panel is screwed to the glove shelf at about a 10-deg. angle. Install a keyed "ignition" switch and any other accessories desired on the panel. The hand-brake lever is fastened to the underside of the glove shelf with a metal bracket. Upholstering of the seat cushion and back may be done by a professional, or at home, if a heavy-duty sewing machine is available. The cover material of the seat should be weather-resistant plastic, and the filling should be two 2-in. layers of foam rubber cemented together. The seat cushion is assembled around a sheet of 1/2-in. plywood, the completed cushion resting on hardwood strips, right-hand detail, Fig. 25. Note that the seat cushion is slanted slightly, to provide more comfortable seating. The degree of slant will vary, depending on the necessary clearance above the batteries being used. Drill a few holes in the bottom of the seat cushion to provide air escapes for the filling. The seat back is formed in the same manner as the cushion, except that it is assembled on a sheet of 1/4-in. plywood. The completed back then is screwed permanently to the seat back. It is necessary to have the seat cushion removable to permit access to the batteries. The completed cart can be painted with any enamel, lacquer or other exterior-type finish. The original cart was finished with a vinyl-lacquer, two-color "spatter" paint, that has the advantage of producing a tough, heavy finish in one coat, and does not require a spray gun for application. Rubber floor matting, obtainable at most auto-supply stores, is used to cover the rear deck, floorboards and glove shelf. Metal enamel should be used on the wheels, rails and steering column of the cart. If the cart is to be used for golfing, two lengths of web strapping are screwed to the top edge of the seat back. The golf bags then can be strapped in place. * * * 180

IMPLE construction and low cost enable any boy to have one of these ice scooters First get a 2 by Y-in. plank, 6 ft. long, round the front end, and attach a back-

both from the underside of the body. To simplify driving the screws and to prevent splitting the wood, you

BICYCLL

FORK

slip a washer on tlxm against the head, and drive them in. Brackets on each side of the backbone are also advised, these being attached to the backbone pieces before they are fastened down on the body. You will note that there are three blocks set in between the backbone pieces. The forward two are spaced to provide a mast
171

step and the aft one helps to support the steering column. The blocks are fastened in place by means of carriage bolts as shown in Fig. 2. The front runner support is an old bicycle fork, which is cut off, flattened and drilled to suit as shown in Fig. 4. The fork is clamped to the front end of the backbone with heavy flat-iron straps, these being welded to the fork, or bolted to it with short machine screws so they will not interfere with the inside piece that turns. The steering post is similarly attached with flat-iron straps. It consists of a length of

pipe which serves as a bearing for a steel rod. A short arm about 6 or 8 in. long is attached to the steering fork, and one of similar length is pinned and clamped to the steering column, both extending out toward one side and linked together with a 1/4 or 3/8-in. iron connecting rod. This is threaded at both ends, after which the ends are bent over at right angles to fit holes in the arms. Be sure that the pivot points work freely. Two nuts on each end, locking each other, are better than only one nut, which is likely to come off. Runners are all the same size. They are cut out of %-in. boiler plate by means of a hacksaw, and the lower edges are filed to a sharp edge as shown in Fig. 5. One of the runners is attached to the front fork by means of a steel rod, threaded at both ends for nuts, and a couple of spacers that center the runner between the ends of the fork. The spacers may be cut from pipe. The rear runners are pivoted between two lengths of angle iron bolted to the ends of the rear crosswiece. which is a 2 by 6-in. plank, 4 ft. long. For a sail you can use muslin, double stitched and hemmed. The corners should be reinforced for strength. Eyelets (grommets) are inserted along the mast and boom edges of the sail for light rope lacing. The boom should extend upward at an angle sufficient to clear the rider's head as well as the steering wheel. Fig. 1 shows how a hook on the bottom fits an eyebolt through the mast. However, an eye welded to a ring that can be clamped to the mast is preferable because any hole through the mast tends to weaken it.

Ice Marked Off for Hockey Game With Salt and Ochre
\
To mark the ice with indelible boundary lines for a game of hockey, mix equal parts of salt and red ochre powder and apply as shown in the drawing at the left. The salt will melt the ochre into the ice to leave a line that is easy to see and will last as long as the ice remains frozen.

Waxing Ski Runners
A chemical heat pad will be found effective in warming ski runners for the application of a coat of wax. When the wax is put on the warm runners it will flow freely and can be rubbed down to a smooth finish in a few seconds.

..
172

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RED O [ H U POWDt R

,

MIXED

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