Answer – 2) A job analysis is a step-by-step specification of an employment position's requirements, functions, and procedures.
Just as a seed cannot blossom into a flower unless the ground is properly prepared, many human resource management (HRM) practices cannot blossom into competitive advantage unless grounded on an adequate job analysis. Successful HRM practices can lead to outcomes that create competitive advantage. Job analyses, properly performed, enhance the success of these HRM practices by laying the foundation. Job analysis information can be applied to a variety of HRM practices. We now take a brief look at some of them. ESTABLISHING FAIR AND EFFECTIVE HIRING PRACTICES An employer's recruitment and selection practices seek to identify and hire the most suitable applicants. Job analysis information helps employers achieve this aim by identifying selection criteria, such as the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform a job successfully. A firm's managers and human resource (HR) professionals can then use this information to choose or develop the appropriate selection devices (e.g., interview questions, tests). This approach to selection is legally required. An employer facing discrimination charges must demonstrate to the courts that its selection criteria are job-related. To support this type of claim-relatedness, a firm must demonstrate that the challenged selection practice was developed on the basis of job analysis information. As one judge noted during a discrimination hearing, without a job analysis on which to base selection practices, an employer "is aiming in the dark and can only hope to achieve job-relatedness by blind luck." In the 1990s, the need for firms to base selection criteria on job analysis information became even more important due to the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. This law states that employment decisions concerning disabled candidates must be based on their ability to perform the essential functions of the job. For instance, if report reading were an essential job function, then applicants whose disabilities prevented them from reading could be lawfully denied employment (assuming there was no way to accommodate them). If, however, report reading were not an essential function, the inability to read could not lawfully serve as a basis for denial. The determination of which job functions are essential is made during a job analysis. DEVELOPING TRAINING AND APPRAISAL PROGRAMS Firms can also use job analysis information to assess training needs and to develop and evaluate training programs. Job analyses can identify tasks a worker must perform. Then, through the performance appraisal process, supervisors can identify which tasks are being performed properly or improperly. The supervisor can next determine whether improperly performed work can be corrected through training.
in part. this information may be used to help resolve such problems. Job analysis is used to identify that level of performance. on the relative worth or importance of each job to the organization. cooperation. step by step.
.. Job analysis also plays an important role in the development of productivity improvement programs.HR professionals also use job analysis information to develop relevant training programs. allowing HR professionals to develop training materials to teach trainees how to perform each task. Job worth is typically determined by evaluating or rating jobs based on important factors such as skill level. Most companies base pay rates. The job analysis may also identify unsafe practices. and working conditions. dependability. generalized form in which all workers are appraised on the basis of a common set of characteristics or traits that are presumed to be needed for all jobs (e. an employer may uncover potential dangers or hazards of a job. Without job analysis information. REMEDIAL USES Managers must sometimes discipline employees for their failure to properly carry out their job responsibilities. For instance. Job analysis information can also be useful from a safety and health point of view. such as tasks that are performed in a way that could cause injury. Expected performance levels are often specified during a job analysis. responsibility. The success of a training program is judged on the basis of the extent to which those performance levels have been reached. leadership). The information provided by a job analysis serves as the basis for job worth evaluations. organizations typically use a single. The role of job analysis is crucial here. While conducting a job analysis. Job analysis-based appraisal forms are superior to the generalized forms because they do a better job of communicating performance expectations and because they provide a better basis for giving feedback and for making HRM decisions. the organization must first specify training objectives or the level of performance expected of trainees when they finish the program. workers may be disciplined for refusing to perform tasks that they believe are not part of their jobs.g. Information obtained from a job analysis can be used to develop performance appraisal forms. effort. If the responsibilities and limits of authority of a job are delineated in a job analysis. An example of a job analysis-based form would be one that lists the job's tasks or behaviors and specifies the expected performance level for each. To evaluate the effectiveness of a training program. Various pay-for-performance programs provide rewards to employees who perform their jobs at or above some desired level. The job analysis specifies how each job is performed.
such as communication abilities. ability. assertiveness. Job content can be described in a number of ways. Ability—the capability needed to perform a non-motor task.DETERMINING THE TYPE OF INFORMATION TO BE COLLECTED A wealth of information may be gathered during a job analysis. Job context refers to the conditions under which the work is performed and the demands such jobs impose on the worker.
When gathering information about tasks. the expected performance levels. and the physical and mental demands on the worker. Skill—the capability to perform a learned motor task.
Worker requirements refer to the knowledge. the purpose of the action.
CONTENT. The analyst may also gather additional information about tasks. objectivity. working conditions. and worker requirements. Personal characteristics—an individual's traits (e. and reasoning or problem-solving abilities.g..
Job context refers to the conditions under which work is performed and the demands such work imposes on employees. mathematical abilities. work ethic) or their willingness/ability to adapt to the
. and the tools. and the type of training needed by a new worker to perform tasks satisfactorily. Specific types of job context information typically identified during a job analysis include reporting relationships. judgment. supervision received. depending on how specific one wants (or needs) to be. These terms are defined as:
• • •
Knowledge—the body of information one needs to perform the job. such as their relative importance. The different types of job content information are described in Exhibit 1. such as forklift operating skills and word-processing skills. authority. equipment. tact. or machinery used in the process. personal contacts. Job content refers to workers' job activities or what workers actually do on the job.
REQUIREMENTS. the job analyst seeks to determine what the worker does. personal characteristics. and credentials needed for effective job performance. Job analysis information may be divided into three categories: job content. Worker requirements refer to the worker qualifications needed to perform the job successfully. skill. The specific information falling within each category is described next. concern for others. job context.
the analyst should target information about the specific tasks of the job and the knowledge required to perform each task (i.
Intermediate Level Task
. willingness to treat others cordially). certifications. because these individuals lack sufficient expertise in the jobs being analyzed..g. The purpose or intended use of the job analysis dictates the particular information to be gathered. Exhibit 1 The Different Types of Job Content Information Broad Level Function or Duty
Definition: The major areas of the job-holder's responsibility. However. if a job analysis were to be used to develop a technical training program for new employees.
The sheer amount of information that can be uncovered during a job analysis may be overwhelming. the analyst should focus on information about subtasks (a step-by-step description of how the job is carried out) and the specific knowledge. etc. DETERMINING HOW TO COLLECT THE INFORMATION HR professionals often gather job analysis information. theories. Job analysis information may be gathered by interviewing these individuals. The appropriateness of each approach depends. but it is usually unnecessary to gather all possible data. and/or having them complete job analysis questionnaires.
Credentials—proof or documentation that an individual possesses certain competencies. willingness to work overtime. and abilities (KSAs) one would need to do well on that job. the facts. and licenses. in part. such as diplomas. For instance. ability to withstand boredom. If the purpose were to develop a written employment test to assess applicants' knowledge of the job.circumstances in the environment (e.. research. principles. skills. observing them at work. they must enlist the actual job incumbents and their supervisors to gather and interpret the pertinent information. on the type of information sought.. and service to the university/community. the analyst must decide how the job analysis will be used before deciding what information to seek. Example: A professor's functions are teaching.e. Therefore. one must know to be able to perform tasks satisfactorily).
expected performance levels. As the most frequently used job analysis method. and the conditions under which they perform their jobs.
Definition: An important activity that is not task specific. Example: "The professor uses several examples when explaining difficult concepts. However. interviews provide a potential wealth of information.• •
Definition: What a worker does when carrying out a function of the job. incumbents are asked to describe what they do. Example: The function of teaching requires a professor to perform several tasks like lecturing. Example: The task of providing lectures consists of several subtasks. such as reading the text and other relevant materials. deciding on what information to convey. Interviews with incumbents tend to focus on job content and job context information. Example: "Communicating"—a professor engages in this behavior when performing several tasks.
Job analysis interviews are structured conversations between the job analyst and one or more subject-matter experts. how they do it. it is an activity that results in a specific product or service. giving/grading exams. An interview usually takes between one and eight hours. one-on-one interviews can be quite time-consuming. such as lecturing and meeting with students.
Definition: Specific activities that distinguish effective from ineffective job performance. and worker requirements.
Specific Level Subtasks
Definition: The steps carried out in the completion of a task. and to provide further information concerning task importance. That is."
INTERVIEWS. Interviews are typically held with both job incumbents and their supervisors. training needs of new workers. and meeting with students. depending on the amount and depth of
. and determining how this information can be communicated in a clear and interesting manner. The typical role of the supervisor is to review and verify the accuracy of the incumbents' responses. such behavior is engaged in when performing a variety of tasks.
The observation allows the analyst to gain a better understanding of how the work is done and the KSAs needed to perform it.
QUESTIONNAIRES. Open-ended questions ask respondents to provide their own answers to the questions. Closed-ended questions are more commonly used because they provide greater uniformity of responses and are more easily scored. the best alternative is to conduct a group interview. when many people hold the same job title). As the name suggests. where several subject-matter experts are interviewed simultaneously. An inventory containing a list of task statements is called a task inventory.. observation means watching the incumbent perform the job. For instance. Grouping refers to categorizing jobs based on the similarity of
. For instance. they may increase their speed to impress the observer. When time constraints pose a problem.information sought.
OBSERVATIONS. Job analysis inventories ask respondents to rate each item in terms of its importance to the job. When analyzing such jobs. Observation is most useful when jobs are complex and difficult to accurately describe.g. When using this approach. A job analysis questionnaire containing only closed-ended questions is called a job analysis inventory. information can be collected much more quickly using this approach. the analyst observes or videotapes the job and then interviews the worker for clarification or explanation. Job analysis questionnaires contain either open-ended or closed-ended questions. or slow down in an effort to demonstrate how difficult their jobs are. Closed-ended questions ask respondents to select an answer from a list provided on the questionnaire. especially when the analyst must interview several people. analysts should be alert to the possibility that some workers may behave atypically when observed. Compared to interviews. one containing a list of worker ability requirements is called an ability inventory. such as assembly-line work. Companies use job analysis inventories when information is needed from several people (e. it is an excellent method for identifying subtasks performed in routine/repetitive types of jobs. Task inventories also request information regarding the frequency or time spent performing each task.
Sometimes a job analyst will supplement interviews with job analysis observations. Thus. While observation is usually used as a supplement to the interview.
Job analysis questionnaires ask subject-matter experts—workers and/or supervisors—to record job information in writing. interviewing can take a great deal of time. Whether or not observation yields sufficient data for the analysis depends on the type of information being collected. HR professionals sometimes base job analysis solely on observation. Companies also use inventories as a means of grouping jobs. however.
such as communicating job responsibilities to employees and specifying minimum job requirements. which contains a list of duties. General purpose job descriptions used by most companies provide only a brief summary of job analysis information. many fail to indicate subtasks. task ratings for importance and needed training. Once groups are established.tasks performed or skills needed.
. and evaluation criteria applicable to all jobs within a group. For instance.
GENERAL PURPOSE JOB DESCRIPTION. and job context.. performance standards may serve as a basis for developing certain types of performance appraisal forms. Subtask information may serve as a basis for developing training programs. The particular information contained in the job description varies depending on company preference and the intended use of the instrument. The format of job descriptions may be general purpose or special purpose." is typically used. essential functions. and thus lack sufficient detail for some HRM applications. ranging from "great need" to "no need. and a list of competencies needed for the job. A five-point rating scale. the organization can determine selection criteria. A job description method that provides more in-depth information is called the Versatile Job Analysis System (VERJAS). job summary. Job analysis inventories are also used to determine workers' training needs. training needs.
A general purpose job description is one that contains a variety of information that can be used for several purposes. tasks. a group would consist of jobs in which all workers performed similar tasks or needed similar skills. A typical general purpose job description contains the following sections: job identification. For instance. performance standards. it must be recorded in some systematic way to produce a job description (i. job context descriptions. DETERMINING HOW JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION WILL BE RECORDED Once HR professionals have collected job analysis information. a summary of job analysis findings). and job context information may serve as a basis for making job evaluation ratings that are needed to establish pay rates. Workers are presented with a list of tasks or abilities and are asked to indicate those for which they need training. and worker requirements. a manager would pull out a job description to review essential functions and worker requirements prior to developing interview questions for a job applicant.e.
but the topics covered are analyzed in more depth. the trend is changing. Job analysis is a key component of the HRM process. Critical factors are those that have been demonstrated to make the difference between success and failure in performing a job. Another special purpose method of job analysis is called the critical incident technique (CIT). the performance standards and training needs associated with the task. protect an organization from claims of discrimination. Many people used to refer it before by its traditional titles. mathematics. and things. and seven rating scales. and following instructions.SPECIAL PURPOSE JOB DESCRIPTIONS. Functional job analysis (FJA) focuses primarily on recording job content information. a relatively new term. indicating the level of worker involvement with data. It is
. Some of the more commonly used special purpose approaches are described next. The CIT has several useful HRM applications. But now. Each task is analyzed separately on a worksheet that contains a task statement (specifying what the worker does. Special purpose formats cover fewer topics. ultimately employers will benefit from the many uses that a thorough job analysis can provide. A key difference between general and special purpose job descriptions lies in the amount of detail they include.
Training And Development Answer – 5) Human Resource Management (HRM). Three of the scales are known as worker function scales. such as Personnel Administration or Personnel Management. that emerged during the 1930s. It originated in the military during World War II and was used to identify critical factors in human performance in a variety of military situations. it is a good tool for identifying selection criteria and training needs and for developing performance appraisal forms. While the performance of comprehensive job analyses can be time consuming. The other four scales indicate the level of ability needed in the areas of reasoning. job analysis will make the HR manager's job easier. language. From hiring and training to salary justification to remedial uses. The stories are then condensed to a single statement that captures the essence of the story. and can give the overall organization a competitive advantage. The incidents are usually collected in the form of stories or anecdotes that depict successful and unsuccessful job behaviors. The critical incident technique requires the job analyst to collect critical incidents from people familiar with the job. and the results or final product of the worker's actions). people.
Several special purpose job descriptions have been developed by a variety of HRM experts during the past 30 years. For instance. how it is done.
The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Functional. All the activities of employee. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. healthcare etc. programs. Industrial Relation. Performance Management. etc. Organizational. and Societal. there are four other objectives: Individual. Payroll. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. Retention. come under the horizon of HRM. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. Human Resource Management is defined as the set of activities.now termed as Human Resource Management (HRM). It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. and functions that are designed to maximize both organizational as well as employee effectiveness Scope of HRM without a doubt is vast. Human Resource Management is a management function that helps an organization select. Training and Development.
. training. TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. from the time of his entry into an organization until he leaves. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES
The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. HUMAN-RESOURCE-MANAGEMENT Human Resource Management is defined as the people who staff and manage organization. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. In addition to that. The divisions included in HRM are Recruitment. Out of all these divisions. It comprises of the functions and principles that are applied to retaining. one such important division is training and development. It is also applicable to non-business organizations. developing. train and develops. and compensating the employees in organization. such as education. recruit.
which in turn.
Answer – 6) Human Resource Management involves the development of a perfect blend between traditional administrative functions and the well-being of all employees within an organization. Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs. in return for their imparted skills and experience.Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals. Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society. Employee retention ratio is directly proportionate to the manner in which the employees are treated. Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness. A Human Resource Manager ideally empowers inter-departmental employee relationships and nurtures scope for down-the-rung employee communication at various levels. enhances the individual contribution to an organization.
These are checks conducted by the HR to verify and thereby confirm the validity of the employee’s actual performance matching the expected performance. The human resource department also maintains an open demeanor to employee grievances. to successfully meet strategic goals by managing staff effectively. to ensure collated and constructive enterprise productivity and development of a uniform organizational culture. essentially in that order.
. Recruiting the required workforce and making provisions for expressed and promised payroll and benefits. Empowerment of the organization. The Human Resource department has earned a number of related interpretations in time. Developing positive interactions between workers. Innovate new operating practices to minimize risk and generate an overall sense of belonging and accountability. Implementing resource strategies to subsequently create and sustain competitive advantage.The field is a derivative of System Theory and Organizational Psychology. Identify areas that suffer lack of knowledge and insufficient training. and accordingly provide remedial measures in the form of workshops and seminars. Every organization now has an exclusive Human Resource Management Department to interact with representatives of all factors of production. thus identifying individual needs and career goals. terminating and training staff. The department is responsible for the development and application of ongoing research on strategic advances while hiring. but continues to defend the need to ensure employee well-being. Employees are free to approach the human resource team for any conceived query or any form of on-the-job stress that is bothering them. Generate a rostrum for all employees to express their goals and provide the necessary resources to accomplish professional and personal agendas. Performance of employees is also actively evaluated on a regular basis. The Human Resource Management Department is responsible for:
Understanding and relating to employees as individuals.
To do their best. and a critical understanding of theories pertaining to post-modernism and industrial structuralism. The department bears the onus of converting the available task-force or hired individuals into strategic business partners. Promotions are conducted and are predominantly based on the overall performance of the individual. and provides an excellent opportunity for you to communicate with the employee about past performance. The performance appraisal is part of that process. This strategy calls for applications from diverse fields such as psychology. The HR functions with the sole goal of motivating and encouraging the employees to prove their mettle and add value to the company.
Answer – 3) The campus carries out its mission through the individual and collective contributions of its employees. but rather an ongoing process that takes place throughout the year. This is achieved via various management processes like workforce planning and recruitment. maintaining the hierarchy in the company and considering the stability of post and the salary obtained over a period of time. a Human Resource Management Department is responsible for an interdisciplinary examination of all staff members in the workplace. The Human resource department also looks at the possibilities of the employee migrating from one job to another.•
Promotions. administration and appraisals. industrial engineering. This is achieved via dedicated Change Management and focused Employee Administration. paralegal studies.
Ideally. staff members need to know that those contributions will be recognized and acknowledged. sociology. accompanied by the span or tenure he has served the organization. Overseeing performance and providing feedback is not an isolated event. Transfers or expulsion of services provided by the employee are some duties that are enforced by the human resource department.
. induction and orientation of hired task-force and employee training.
Explain that you would like the discussion to be a dialog. The employee can address accomplishments and things that could be done better. Remember that the performance appraisal summarizes the employee's contributions over the entire appraisal period (usually one year). It is not a step in the disciplinary process. It may occur as often as you believe is necessary to acknowledge the employee for accomplishments and to plan together for improved performance.evaluate the employee's job satisfaction. with input from both of you included in the final written document. Here are some suggestions to get the employee involved:
Schedule a mutually convenient time and place for the performance appraisal discussion. Explain that you will be doing the same and that you may exchange these documents a few hours before your meeting
Give the employee a list of questions to consider to evaluate his own performance. constructive feedback Appreciated for specific contributions Informed about current and future performance objectives Involved as a participant in the process
Preparing for the Appraisal
Both you and the employee play an important role in creating a productive performance appraisal process.
The goal of the performance appraisal process is to help the employee feel:
• • • • • •
Positive about the job Motivated to do well and to develop Benefited by specific. Allow enough time and ensure privacy. and make plans for the employee's future performance. Sample questions might be: o What have been your major accomplishments? o What could you have done better?
. For example:
Ask the employee to prepare a self-evaluation using the same form you will use for your draft. Give the employee some options about how to prepare for the discussion.
Here are some steps you can take to make it as successful as possible:
Create a supportive environment by stating clearly the purpose of the discussion. What can I do to help the employee do the job better and achieve developmental goals?
Conducting the Appraisal Discussion
Continue the momentum you have established throughout the year with your ongoing dialog about performance. Give positive recognition for performance that reinforces the goals of the work unit. making sure you have as much information as possible. Be as non-threatening and open as possible since the employee may be tense or uncomfortable.o o •
What could I do as your supervisor to help you do your job better? Would you like to see your responsibilities change? If so. Have the employee go first. Discuss what could have been done better. Identify your concerns and listen to the employee's explanations. You want to set the tone for an open and productive discussion. how?
Prepare a draft appraisal. based on the self-appraisal or the questions you provided in advance. Discuss key areas of responsibility and give examples of specific results. Ask lots of questions and get clarification to make sure you understand the employee's point of view. including:
o o o o o o
job description performance standards previous appraisals letters of commendation and/or criticism samples of work records of disciplinary action
Consider the question. Make sure you and the employee have an understanding the same understanding of future expectations regarding performance. Focus on future performance and be sure the employee takes responsibility for improvement.
. Ask your employee for help in resolving problems.
Written performance standards let you compare the employee's performance with mutually understood expectations and minimize ambiguity in providing feedback. How do you decide what's acceptable and what's unacceptable performance? The answer to this question is the first step in establishing written standards. you usually make a judgment about whether that performance is acceptable.
The Final Appraisal Document
Record the results of your discussion on the performance appraisal form. Standards identify a baseline for measuring performance. When you observe an employee's performance. standards exist whether or not they are discussed or put in writing.•
Discuss the employee's interests and potential new responsibilities. Discuss both of your roles in achieving new objectives while maintaining ongoing responsibilities.
Performance expectations are the basis for appraising employee performance. supervisors can provide specific feedback describing the gap between expected and actual performance. Ask the employee to sign the form. Having performance standards is not a new concept. emphasizing the benefits of your dialog.
Effective performance standards:
• • • • •
Serve as an objective basis for communicating about performance Enable the employee to differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable results Increase job satisfaction because employees know when tasks are performed well Inform new employees of your expectations about job performance Encourage an open and trusting relationship with employees
. Route to your manager for final signatures and placement in the employee's departmental personnel file. and explain that this signature acknowledges discussion of the contents. Give a copy of the signed appraisal to the employee. From performance standards. not necessarily agreement with them. Conclude on a positive note.
attainable by any qualified. waste reduced. quality. appearance.. or method of doing Be measurable.g. The employee should participate actively in their development.. A performance standard should:
Be realistic. e. Describe the conditions that exist when performance meets expectations Be expressed in terms of quantity. manner of performance. and fully trained person who has the authority and resources to achieve the desired result.g.g.. Quality: describes how well the work must be accomplished. How soon? . etc. competent. or Within what period? . The discussion of standards should include the criteria for achieving satisfactory performance and the proof of performance (methods you will use to gather information about work performance).
Characteristics of Performance Standards
Standards describe the conditions that must exist before the performance can be rated satisfactory. e. cost. the computer handbook project will be completed with only internal resources..g. Timeliness: answers the questions. e. Specifies accuracy. or effectiveness. Effective Use of Resources: used when performance can be assessed in terms of utilization of resources: money saved. all work orders completed within five working days of receipt. with specified method(s) of gathering performance data and measuring performance against standards
The terms for expressing performance standards are outlined below:
Quantity: specifies how much work must be completed within a certain period of time. time. precision. and they should be reviewed if the employee's job description is updated.Key Areas of Responsibility
Write performance standards for each key area of responsibility on the employee's job description. 95% of documents submitted are accepted without revision. in other words. By when? . e. Standards are usually established when an assignment is made.
.. enters 30 enrollments per day. effect.
g. Manner of Performance: describes conditions in which an individual's personal behavior has an effect on performance. e. financial records. you should identify how and where evidence about the employee's performance will be gathered. Commendations or constructive or critical comments received about the employee's work. 100A Forms are completed in accordance with established office procedures. expands statements of effectiveness by using phrases such as: so that. or as shown by. e. safety. as well as helping you in the future performance discussions. such as attendance. the most common of which are:
• • • •
Direct observation Specific work results (tangible evidence that can be reviewed without the employee being present) Reports and records.
Effects of Effort: addresses the ultimate effect to be obtained.
Since one of the characteristics of a performance standard is that it can be measured. etc. procedure. establish inventory levels for storeroom so that supplies are maintained 100% of the time..g. used when only the officially-prescribed policy. or rule for accomplishing the work is acceptable. in order to.. Specifying the performance measurements when the responsibility is assigned will help the employee keep track of his progress. inventory. Method of Performing Assignments: describes requirements.. There are many effective ways to monitor and verify performance. assists other employees in the work unit in accomplishing assignments.g. e.