What is health?

Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

What is a disease? A disease is a condition in which the health of an organism is impaired .

What are the types of diseases ? Diseases can be divided into four main types: - pathogenic - deficiency - hereditary - physiological

Pathogenic diseases
What is a pathogen?
A pathogen is a micro-organism that can cause disease.

Types of pathogens     Bacteria Protozoa Fungi Viruses

Bacteria are all around us, in the air, on objects and normally found in and on the human body. A pathogenic bacteria is one that causes disease in the host. An example of a common bacteria that affects the human system is Staphylococcus(staph)  Staphylococcus, particularly Staphylococcus aureus, are one of the most common causes of human disease. Most staphylococci colonize the skin and mucous membranes of people without disease. Some symptoms of Staphylococcus are :Rash,Nausea,Vomiting,Headache,Confusion, Agitation,etc . There are two main categories of treatment for staph infections, surgical and antibiotic treatment. Pus drainage is the main surgical treatment however other surgical removal of sources of infection may be required. There are many antibiotics that are effective against staph ,some are nafcillin, cefazolin, dicloxacillin, clindamycin. Staph can be prevented by washing hands regularly, wearing protective garments (for example, masks, gloves, and gowns) ,having penetrated skin sites clean and protected (covered with sterile dressings) and refrain infected sores or wounds from direct contact with personal-care items such as razors, bandages, etc.

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Protozoans are unicellular eukaryotic organisms
The protozoan diseases vary from mild to life threatening. Almost all human beings have protozoa in their body at some point in their lifetime.Protozoa is responsible for several serious

human diseases such as ameobiasis, Chaga’s disease, malaria, African sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, and taxoplasmosis. Malaria is one of the deadliest protozoan diseases. Nearly, 800,000 people die of
malaria every year. It is transmitted by the female anopheles mosquito. Once they enter the human body, they undergo maturation in the liver and blood cells. Symptoms include fever with chills and rigor followed by excessive sweating.

 Fungal infections are infections caused by a fungus, a type of microorganism. Two common causes of fungal infections are a fungus called tinea and yeast infections caused by the fungus Candida albicans. Some very common types of fungal infections are:        Athlete’s foot Jock itch Ringworm Digestive tract (gastroenteritis) Lungs Mouth (oral thrush) Vagina (vaginal yeast infection, vaginal thrush)

Ringworm – This a skin infection due to a fungus. Ringworm occurs when a type of fungus called
tinea grows and multiplies on your skin (beard, feet, scalp, groin area, etc)

 People can get ringworm from contact with someone who has the infection, contact with
items contaminated by the fungus, or pets that carry the fungus.  Symptoms of ringworm are Itchy, red, raised, scaly ring patches that may blister and ooze .  Ringworm can be treated by: 1) Keeping your skin clean and dry, 2) Apply over-the-counter antifungal or drying powders, lotions, or creams, 3) Washing sheets and nightclothes every day while you are infected.

 Ringworm can be prevented by keeping your skin and feet clean and dry, avoid touching
pets with bald spots, wearing sandals or shoes at gyms, lockers, and pools.

Viruses A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of an organism Some common viral respiratory infections are:      sinusitis tonsillitis influenza bronchitis pneumonia

Some viruses dangerously infect your nervous system:  rabies  meningitis  encephalitis Some viral infections that develop on your skin are:  mumps  measles  smallpox Some viruses that causing symptoms for lifetime are:  hepatitis  herpes simplex  chickenpox ~ shingles

Some sexually transmitted viruses are:    HIV HPV genital herpes

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a type of virus called a retrovirus, which infects humans when it comes in contact with tissues such as those that line the vagina, anal area, mouth, or eyes, or through a break in the skin. If your HIV infection advances to the stage of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), then your existence becomes one of staying alive Some symptoms of HIV/AIDS are: fever, chills, rash, night sweats, muscle aches, sore throat, fatigue and swollen lymph nodes Most often AIDS/HIV is spread by: sharing drug needles ,contact with infected blood ,infected blood transfusions ,sexual contact with semen and vaginal secretions and women passing it to their baby during pregnancy or childbirth.

There is no cure for HIV/AIDS but there are preventative measures that people could follow such as: safe sex, using safe blood ,sterile needles and safe razor & blade.

How pathogens are transmitted?
Droplet infection (though the nose)  This is spread when people cough, sneeze or talk tiny droplets fly out of your mouth and nose. If you have an infection, those droplets will contain microorganisms. Other people breathe in the droplets, along with the viruses or bacteria they contain.  Diseases such as flu (influenza), tuberculosis and the common cold are spread in this way.

Direct contact(eg. reproductive organs)   This is spread by direct contact of the skin Diseases such as Athletes foot and some sexually transmitted diseases {eg. genital herpes }are spread this way Contaminated food (through the mouth) This is spread by eating raw or undercooked food, or drinking water contaminated by sewage. By doing this people take large numbers of microorganisms straight into their body{ gut} Diseases such as Cholera (contaminated water), Salmonella (contaminated food) are spread this way. By body fluid (through breaks in the skin) This is spread when pathogens enter the body from body fluids such as blood and semen and through fresh, bleeding cuts and scratches as well as through needle punctures. For example. Diseases such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis are spread this way. Vectors (usually through the skin or through the mouth)  This is spread by a vector ,whichis an animal which spreads disease-causing organisms from one host to another without suffering any harm itself.  Diseases such as Malaria {mosquitoes} , Dysentery {houseflies} ,Plague {rats}are spread this way.

Deficiency diseases are diseases that are caused by the lack of some particular nutrient in a person's diet. Some common deficiency diseases, their causes and treatment are:
Night-blindness This disease makes a person unable to see properly in the dark. The person’s eyes become dull and listless and the skin becomes dry. If not treated in time, the person may become blind. Cause: This disease is caused due to the deficiency of vitamin A in the diet. Treatment: A person suffering from night-blindness should take a diet rich in vitamin A. Carrots, fish, fruits, milk, butter, etc., are all good sources of vitamin A. Malnutrition A person who suffers from malnutrition becomes weak and thin. The person shows poor growth compared to other people and gets tired easily. There may be swelling on the feet and hands. The hair becomes very thin and skin of the person gets dark and starts peeling. Cause: Deficiency of proteins and carbohydrates causes this disease. Treatment: Patients of this deficiency should eat food rich in proteins and carbohydrates. Milk, cereals, starch and sugars, meat and eggs should be a part of their diet.

Scurvy: People suffering from scurvy have swollen and bleeding gums. They lose weight and become weak. Their teeth start shaking and become loose. Cause: This disease is caused due to the deficiency of vitamin-C. Treatment: Oranges, citrus fruits, cabbage, amla, etc., should be included in the diet of the patient.

Hereditary Genetic diseases are disorders that are inherited by a person from his or her parents or are related to some type of spontaneous genetic change Types of Genetic Disorders 1 Single gene disorders including Mendelian Disorders 2 Multifactorial and polygenic disorders 3 Disorders with variable modes of transmission 4 Cytogenetic disorder: including autosomal disorders and sex chromosome disorders

SINGLE GENE DISORDERS Single gene disorders are genetic conditions caused by the alteration or mutation of a specific gene. Single gene disorders are often heritable (run in families), and therefore, individuals with a family history of a single gene disorder may be at risk for passing the condition onto their children. Some examples of single gene disorders include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia and Tay-Sachs disease.

Maltifactoral or polygenic disorders Multifactorial or polygenic are genetic disorders that are likely associated with the effects of multiple genes in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors. They include heart disease and diabetes. Complex disorders often cluster in families, they do not have a clear-cut pattern of inheritance. This makes it difficult to determine a person’s risk of inheriting or passing on these disorders. Complex disorders are also difficult to study and treat because the specific factors that cause most of these disorders have not yet been identified. Some examples of multifactorial inheritance are: heart disease, high blood pressure, Alzheimer’s disease, Arthritis diabetes, cancer, and obesity.

Disorders with variable modes of transmission Heredity malformations are congenital malformations which may be familial and genetic or may be acquired by exposure to teratogenic agents in the uterus. Heredity malformations are associated with several modes of transmission. Some multifactorial defects are cleft lip, congenital heart defects, pyloric stenosis etc. Certain congenital malformations are either multifactorial or by a single mutant gene

Cytogenetic Disorders Cytogenetic Disorders may be as a result of alterations in the number or structure of the chromosomes and may affect autosomes or sex chromosomes. An example of a cytogenetic disorder is down syndrome . Down syndrome is a genetic condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. The extra chromosome causes problems with the way the body and brain develop.Down syndrome is the most common single cause of human birth defects. Some symptoms of down syndrome are :
       Decreased muscle tone at birth Excess skin at the nape of the neck Flattened nose Separated joints between the bones of the skull (sutures) Single crease in the palm of the hand Small ears Small mouth

Treatment There is no specific treatment for Down syndrome, however there are some measures that can be helpful to persons suffering from down syndrome. Such measures are: When breast-feeding, the baby should be well supported and fully awake. The baby may have some leakage because of poor tongue control. However, many infants with Down syndrome can successfully breast-feed. Obesity can become a problem for older children and adults. Getting plenty of activity and avoiding high-calorie foods are important. Before beginning sports activities, the child's neck and hips should be examined. Behavioral training can help people with Down syndrome and their families deal with the frustration, anger, and compulsive behavior that often occur. Parents and caregivers should learn to help a person with Down syndrome deal with frustration. At the same time, it is important to encourage independence.

Physiological diseases Physiological disease is a disease in which the organs or the systems in the body malfunction causing illnesses. Physiological diseases are normally caused when the normal or proper functioning of the body is affected because the body's organs have malfunctioned, not working or the actual cellular structures have changed over a period of time causing illness. Some examples of physiological diseases are: asthma, hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma and stroke.

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