CHARLES  BAUDELAIRE  –  WRITER  CRITIC,  AND  FRIEND  OF  PHOTOGRAPHER,  NADAR  

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A  FACE,  A  BODY,  A  PORTRAIT  ARE,  AND  CAN  BE,  VERY  DIFFERENT  THINGS.  THIS   LECTURE  ATTEMPTS  TO  LOOK  AT  FUNDAMENTAL  CATEGORIES  FROM  WHICH       THE  FIELD  OF  PORTRAITURE  HAS  PROCEEDED.  PORTRAITURE  HAS  DEVELOPED  FROM   BASIC  CATEGORIES:       PHYSIOGNOMY,       PHYSIOLOGY,       SOCIAL  DOCUMENT,       ETHNOGRAPHY,       AND  PERFORMANCE.  UNDERSTANDING  THESE  ASPECTS  OF  PHOTOGRAPHY  INFORMS   US  ABOUT  ITS  USES,  BUT  ALSO  HOW  APPROACHES  TO  THE  PORTRAIT  HAVE   DEVELOPED      

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PHYSI-­‐OG-­‐NOMY,  -­‐  (is  the  assessment  of  a  person's  character  or  personality  from  his   outer  appearance,  especially  the  face)    

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ALPHONSE  BERTILLON  WAS  A  FRENCH  POLICE  OFFICER  WHO  CREATED  AN       ANTHROPOMETRIC  (HUMAN  –  MEASUREMENT)  PHOTOGRAPHIC  SYSTEM  TO   IDENTIFY  'CRIMINAL'       FEATURES.  BY  IDENTIFYING  THE  DETAILS  OF  CRIMINALS,  HE  COMPILED  AN  INDEX  OF   EAR  TYPES  AND  SIZES,  LENGTHS  OF  ARMS,  NOSE  SHAPES,  AND  SO  ON.    

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“THE  SPEAKING  PORTRAIT”  –  PEARSON’S  MAGAZINE,  1901  

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ELEMENTS  OF  BERTILLON'S  WORK  STILL  EXIST  –       SUCH  AS  THE  COMBINATION  OF  PROFILE  AND  FRONTAL  SHOTS  WHEN   PHOTOGRAPHING  OFFENDERS.       IN  ADDITION,  BERTILLON’S  COLLECTION  OF  TYPES  OF  FACES  AND  NOSES  FORM  THE   BASIS  FOR  WHAT  WERE  LATER  COMPOSITE  SKETCHES  OF  SUSPECTS     PERPORTED  TO  OFFER  AN  IDEA  OF  A  ‘TRUE’  CRIMINAL.     OR  ‘A  TYPE’.     WHAT  A  MURDERER  LOOKS  LIKE     WHAT  A  THIEF  LOOKS  LIKE     WHAT  ‘TYPES’  LOOK  LIKE  –  A  TYPOLOGY,  A  CLASSIFICATION    

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FRANCIS GALTON DEVELOPED A PROCESS OF COMPOSITE PORTRAITURE WHEREBY THE FACES OF INDIVIDUALS WITH SHARED CHARACTERISTICS (A TYPE OF CRIME, AN ILLNESS, A RACE, ETC) WERE MULTIPLY EXPOSED TO PRODUCE A 'TYPICAL', OR 'AVERAGE' TYPE. ONE COULD THEREFORE IDENTIFY A CRIMINAL, OR SOMEONE WITH A DISEASE, BY LOOKING AT THEM AGAINST THE AVERAGE.  

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ALTHOUGH GALTON DEVELOPED THE TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE DISEASE, HE SOON USED IT TO SHOW RACIAL AND ETHNIC TYPES. GALTON'S CONSTRUCTION OF THE 'JEWISH' TYPE HERE REFLECTED HIS OWN ANTI-SEMITISM, AND HAD MUCH MORE TERRIBLE CONSEQUENCES AS THE NAZIS 50 YEARS LATER EMBRACED SYSTEMS OF RACIAL CLASSIFICATION IN ORDER TO JUSTIFY, LEGITIMISE, AND EVEN AUTHORISE THE MASS EXECUTION OF THE JEWISH RACE. THIS WAS CALLED THE 'FINAL SOLUTION', AND YOU MIGHT KNOW IT BETTER AS 'THE HOLOCAUST'.  

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PHYSIOLOGY,  -­‐    (branch  of  biology  dealing  with  the  funccons  and  accvices  of  living   organisms  and  their  parts,  including  all  physical  and  chemical  processes)  

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MUYBRIDGE  WAS  THE  MAN  WHO  FAMOUSLY  PROVED  A  HORSE  CAN  FLY.       ADAPTING  THE  VERY  LATEST  TECHNOLOGY,  HE  PROVED  HIS  THEORY  BY  GETTING  A   GALLOPING  HORSE  TO  TRIGGER  THE  SHUTTERS  OF  A  BANK  OF  CAMERAS.       THIS  EXPERIMENT  PROVED  INDISPUTABLY  FOR  THE  FIRST  TIME  WHAT  NO  EYE  HAD   PREVIOUSLY  SEEN  –  THAT  A  HORSE  LIFTS  ALL  FOUR  HOOVES  OFF  THE  GROUND  AT   ONE  POINT  IN  THE  ACTION  OF  RUNNING.       SEEKING  A  MEANS  OF  SHARING  HIS  GROUND-­‐BREAKING  WORK,  HE  INVENTED  THE   ZOOPRAXISCOPE,  A  METHOD  OF  PROJECTING  ANIMATED  VERSIONS  OF  HIS   PHOTOGRAPHS  AS  SHORT  MOVING  SEQUENCES,       WHICH  ANTICIPATED  SUBSEQUENT  DEVELOPMENTS  IN  THE  HISTORY  OF  CINEMA.     hgp://www.eadweardmuybridge.co.uk  

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IN SEARCH OF THE OBJECTIVITY, MAREY’S TECHNIQUES FOR PICTURING MOTION, PRODUCED A SELECTIVE REPRESENTATION OF THE BODY. – IT WAS AN EARLY ATTEMPT TO REMOVE THE HUMAN CHARACTER, THE FEATURES, THAT WERE NOT RELEVANT TO THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF MOTION. IN EFFECTIVE TO REMOVE ALL OF THE VISUAL SHAPES OF CHARACTER THAT THE PHYSIOGNOMISTS WERE INTERESTED IN. THIS WAS SHIFT AWAY FROM THE ANALYSIS & CLASSIFICATION OF THE HUMAN BODY, AS IN PHYSIOGNOMY. THE FRENCH PHILOSPHER, MICHEL FOUCAULT NOTED THAT THIS IN PART A SHIFT IN THE EXERCISE OF POWER AND CONTROL IN THE MODERN PERIOD. ESSENTIALLY THIS IS A JOURNEY TO GAIN A GREATER UNDERSTANDING OF THE MECHANICS OF THE BODY. REF:

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THE IMPULSE DRIVING BERTILLON'S, GALTON'S, AND ALSO MUYBRIDGE'S AND MAREY'S RESEARCH IS THE 'OBJECTIVE' SCRUTINY OF THE BODY, TO SUBMIT IT TO DOMAINS OF STATE OBSERVATION, SURVEILLANCE, CONTROL, KNOWLEDGE, DISCIPLINE, AND

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"ADDIE  CARD,  12  YEARS.  SPINNER  IN  NORTH  PORMAL  (I.E.,  POWNAL)  COTTON  MILL.   VERMONT.",  1910  

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CHILD  LABORERS  IN  GLASSWORKS.  INDIANA,  1908  

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LEWIS  W.  HINE  1-­‐19-­‐1909.  BIBB  MILL  NO.  1,  LOCATION:  MACON,  GEORGIA.       ‘MANY  YOUNGSTERS  HERE.  SOME  BOYS  WERE  SO  SMALL  THEY  HAD  TO  CLIMB  UP  ON   THE  SPINNING  FRAME  TO  MEND  THE  BROKEN  THREADS  AND  PUT  BACK  THE  EMPTY   BOBBINS.’  

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hgp://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-­‐17673213  

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JACOB  AUGUST  RIIS  (MAY  3,  1849  –  MAY  26,  1914)  WAS  A  DANISH  AMERICAN  SOCIAL   REFORMER  JOURNALIST  AND  SOCIAL  DOCUMENTARY  PHOTOGRAPHER.  HE  IS   KNOWN  FOR  USING  HIS       PHOTOGRAPHIC  AND  JOURNALISTIC  TALENTS  TO  HELP  THE  IMPOVERISHED  IN  NEW   YORK  CITY;  IMPOVERISHED  NEW  YORKERS  WERE  THE  SUBJECT  OF  MOST  OF  HIS   PROLIFIC  WRITINGS  AND       PHOTOGRAPHY.  HE  ENDORSED  THE  IMPLEMENTATION  OF  "MODEL  TENEMENTS"  IN   NEW  YORK.     HE  IS  CONSIDERED  ONE  OF  THE  FATHERS  OF  PHOTOGRAPHY  DUE  TO  HIS  DISCOVERY   OF  THE  USE  OF  FLASH  IN  PHOTOGRAPHY.       WHILE  LIVING  IN  NEW  YORK,  RIIS  EXPERIENCED  POVERTY  AND  BECAME  A  POLICE   REPORTER  WRITING  ABOUT  THE  QUALITY  OF  LIFE  IN  THE  SLUMS.       HE  ATTEMPTED  TO  ALLEVIATE  THE  BAD  LIVING  CONDITIONS  OF  POOR  PEOPLE  BY   EXPOSING  THEIR  TRADITIONALISM  TO  MIDDLE  CLASS  RIDICULE.  

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IMAGINE  IT'S  1888.  NEW  YORK  CITY.  THE  LOWER  EAST  SIDE  IS  THE  MOST  DENSELY   POPULATED  PLACE  ON  EARTH:       BLOCK  AFTER  BLOCK  OF  TENEMENTS  HOUSE  THE  WORKING-­‐POOR  IMMIGRANTS  OF   THE  CITY,  INCLUDING  ITALIANS,  IRISH,  GERMANS,  JEWS,  CZECHS  AND  CHINESE.     IMAGINE  THE  DARKNESS  OF  AN  UNLIT  CORRIDOR  IN  ONE  OF  THOSE  TENEMENTS,  A   CORRIDOR  THAT  OPENS  ONTO  WINDOWLESS  ROOMS,  10  FEET  SQUARE,  WHERE   ENTIRE  FAMILIES  LIVE  AND  MIGHT  EVEN  WORK  —  SEWING,  OR  ROLLING  CIGARS.     OUT  OF  THE  DARKNESS,  A  DOOR  OPENS.  A  MAN  WITH  A  DANISH  ACCENT  LEADS  A   TEAM  OF  AMATEUR  PHOTOGRAPHERS,  WHO  ARE  ACCOMPANIED  BY  A  POLICEMAN.   THEY  POSITION  THEIR  CAMERA  ON  A  TRIPOD       AND  IGNITE  A  MIXTURE  OF  MAGNESIUM  AND  POTASSIUM  CHLORATE  POWDER.  A   FLASH  EXPLODES,  ILLUMINATING  THEIR  SQUALOR.     IT  WOULD  TAKE  THE  PHOTOGRAPHERS  A  FEW  MINUTES  TO  RELOAD  THAT  EARLY   ANCESTOR  OF  THE  FLASH  BULB.  AND  THEN,  ON  TO  ANOTHER  TENEMENT  SCENE.     AND  DESPITE  THE  BLACKNESS  OF  A  ROOM  OR  AN  UNLIT  STREET,  A  PICTURE  IS  TAKEN,    

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JACOB  RIIS,  FORM  THE  BOOK,  “HOW  THE  OTHER  HALF  LIVES”       ITALIAN  MOTHER  AND  BABY,  RAGPICKER,  NEW  YORK,"  CA.  1889-­‐1890.  

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1847 DAGUERREOTYPE OF AUSTRALIAN ABORIGIANS. NGA: DOUGLAS T. KILBRUN AS WITH THE VICTORIAN OBSESSION OF COLLECTING THINGS – OF REMOVING THINGS FROM THEIR NATURAL PLACE & PUTTING THEM INTO COLLECTIONS FOR MIDDLE-CLASS EUROPEANS, SO PHOTOGRAPHERS ‘COLLECTED’ PHOTOGRAPHS OF ‘STRANGE FOREIGN PEOPLE’ FROM ITS EMPIRE. PHOTOGRAPHING THEM AS ‘OTHER’ (REMEMBER, PHOTOGRAPHY WAS A TOOL OF THE EMPOWERED MIDDLE-CLASS) AS WITH THE POOR, THE CRIMINAL, THE MAD, MADE THEM SOMEHOW MORE UNDERSTANDABLE – BUT THEY WERE PHOTOGRAPHED AS THESE STRANGE, ALIEN BEINGS. WE DON’T HAVE THE EMPATHY OF THE FSA (DOROTHEA LANGE OR WALKER EVANS) HERE, BUT AN OBJECTIVE GAZE – WHAT HAS BEEN THE ‘COLONIAL’ GAZE.

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CANTONESE WOMAN, GUANGZHOU, CHINA 1868-70, PHOTOGRAPHED BY JOHN THOMSON WE DON’T HAVE THE EMPATHY OF THE FSA (DOROTHEA LANGE OR WALKER EVANS) HERE, BUT AN OBJECTIVE GAZE – WHAT HAS BEEN THE ‘COLONIAL’ GAZE. THESE PHOTOGRAPHS WOULD EXIST ALONGSIDE THE OBSESSION WITH INVENTORIES, LISTS, AND MAPS TO PROVIDE AN ARCHIVE, A BODY OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THESE ‘OTHERS’   THESE  ANTHROPOLOGICAL  STUDIES,  WHERE  

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RICUDO  (MAN)  AND  OMARINO  (BOY).  PHOTOGRAPH  COURTESY  OF  MUSEUM  OF   ARCHAEOLOGY  AND  ANTHROPOLOGY,  UNIVERSITY  OF  CAMBRIDGE     TYPICAL  OF  ‘IMPERIAL  PHOTOGRAPHY  WHICH  SOUGHT  TO  RECORD  AND  DOCUMENT   HUMAN  “TYPES”    

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IN  THE  1930S,  THE  FSA  EMPLOYED  SEVERAL  PHOTOGRAPHERS  TO  DOCUMENT  THE   EFFECTS  OF  THE  GREAT  DEPRESSION  ON  THE  POPULATION  OF  AMERICA.  MANY  OF   THE  PHOTOGRAPHS  CAN  ALSO  BE  SEEN       AS  PROPAGANDA  IMAGES  TO  SUPPORT  THE  U.S.  GOVERNMENT'S  POLICY   DISTRIBUTING  SUPPORT  TO  THE  WORST  AFFECTED,  POORER  AREAS  OF  THE   COUNTRY.  LANGE'S  IMAGE  OF  A  SUPPOSED  MIGRANT  PEA       PICKER,  FLORENCE  OWENS  THOMPSON,  AND  HER  FAMILY  HAS  BECOME  AN  ICON  OF   RESILIENCE  IN  THE  FACE  OF  ADVERSITY.    

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LANGE:  “I  SAW  AND  APPROACHED  THE  HUNGRY  AND  DESPERATE  MOTHER,  AS  IF   DRAWN  BY  A  MAGNET.  I  DO  NOT  REMEMBER  HOW  I  EXPLAINED  MY  PRESENCE  OR   MY  CAMERA  TO  HER,  BUT  I  DO  REMEMBER  SHE  ASKED       ME  NO  QUESTIONS.  I  MADE  FIVE  EXPOSURES,  WORKING  CLOSER  AND  CLOSER  FROM   THE  SAME  DIRECTION.  I  DID  NOT  ASK  HER  NAME  OR  HER  HISTORY.  SHE  TOLD  ME  HER   AGE,  THAT  SHE  WAS  THIRTY-­‐TWO.       SHE  SAID  THAT  THEY  HAD  BEEN  LIVING  ON  FROZEN  VEGETABLES  FROM  THE   SURROUNDING  FIELDS,  AND  BIRDS  THAT  THE  CHILDREN  KILLED.  SHE  HAD  JUST  SOLD   THE  TIRES  FROM  HER  CAR  TO  BUY  FOOD.       THERE  SHE  SAT  IN  THAT  LEAN-­‐  TO  TENT  WITH  HER  CHILDREN  HUDDLED  AROUND   HER,  AND  SEEMED  TO  KNOW  THAT  MY  PICTURES  MIGHT  HELP  HER,  AND  SO  SHE   HELPED  ME.  THERE  WAS  A  SORT  OF  EQUALITY       ABOUT  IT”     ONE  OF  5  PHOTOGRAPHS,  SHOT  ON  GRAFLEX  5X4  CAMERA,  OF  MOTHER,  FLORENCE   OWENS  THOMPSON    

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CHILD  LIVING  IN  OKLAHOMA  CITY  SHACK-­‐TOWN,  AUGUST  1936,  FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION     LANGE  WOULD  WALK  THROUGH  THE  FIELD  AND  TALK  TO  PEOPLE,  ASKING  SIMPLE   QUESTIONS-­‐-­‐WHAT  ARE  YOU  PICKING?  .  .  .  HOW  LONG  HAVE  YOU  BEEN  HERE?   WHEN  DO  YOU  EAT  LUNCH?  .  .  .  I'D  LIKE  TO       PHOTOGRAPH  YOU,  SHE'D  SAY,  AND  BY  NOW  IT  WOULD  BE  "SURE,  WHY  NOT,"  AND   THEY  WOULD  POSE  A  LITTLE,  BUT  SHE  WOULD  SORT  OF  IGNORE  IT,  WALK  AROUND   UNTIL  THEY  FORGOT  US  AND  WERE  BACK  AT       WORK     WHAT ETHICAL QUESTIONS SHOULD WE BE ASKING OURSELVES AS PHOTOGRAPHERS HOW WE REPRESENT FAMINE?      

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ARTHUR ROTHSTEIN, FLEEING DUST STORM, CIMARRON COUNTY, OKLAHOMA 1936 ARTHUR ROTHSTEIN'S PHOTOGRAPH OF AN OKLAHOMA MAN AND HIS SON STRUGGLING AGAINST DUST-LADEN WINDS IS THE MOST POWERFUL IMAGE OF THE DUST BOWL.  

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hgp://www.imaging-­‐famine.org/conference/david.html  

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EVANS  MADE  FOUR  PHOTOGRAPHS  OF  ALLIE  MAE  BURROUGHS,  (1936),  AGAINST   THE  REAR  WALL  OF  THE  FAMILY'S  CABIN.  ALTHOUGH  COMPOSITIONALLY  SIMILAR,   THEY  RECORD  DISTINCT  FACIAL  EXPRESSIONS       RANGING  FROM  BEMUSED  COOPERATION  TO  BROODING  ANGER  AND   RESENTMENT–MOODS  CONVEYED  BY  A  SLIGHT  TILT  OF  THE  HEAD,  THE  FURROWS   AROUND  THE  EYES,  THE  ANGLE  OF  THE  PURSED  MOUTH.       IN  1938,  EVANS  SELECTED  FOR  HIS  SEMINAL  PUBLICATION,  AMERICAN   PHOTOGRAPHS,  THE  NEGATIVE  THAT  SHOWS  ALLIE  MAE  AT  HER  MOST  CONTENT,   WELCOMING,  AND  ACCESSIBLE.  BUT  IN  LET  US  NOW       PRAISE  FAMOUS  MEN,  EVANS  PRESENTED  A  MORE  CLOSED  AND  IRRITATED  ALLIE   MAE,  A  TROUBLED  VICTIM  OF  BOTH  THE  DEPRESSION  AND  THE  CAMERA'S   BURROWING  EYE.  IT  IS  THIS  PORTRAIT,  WITH  THE       PSYCHOLOGICAL  AMBIGUITY  OF  A  MONA  LISA,  WHICH  WAS  SEIZED  UPON  BY  EARLY   REVIEWERS  AS  THE  BOOK'S  QUINTESSENTIAL  IMAGE.  

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WALKER EVANS, FLOYD BURROUGHS,  1936     THIS  STUDY  OF  A  COTTON  FARMER  IS  ONE  OF  THE  MASTERPIECES  OF  EVANS'   LANDMARK  COLLABORATION  WITH  JAMES  AGEE,  LET  US  NOW  PRAISE  FAMOUS  MEN,       PUBLISHED  IN  1941.  FOR  THIS  PROJECT,  EVANS  AND  AGEE  SPENT  SEVERAL  WEEKS   WITH  THREE  TENANT  FARMERS  AND  THEIR  FAMILIES,  OBSERVING  THEIR  LIFESTYLES   AND       STUDYING  THEIR  DAILY  ACTIVITIES.  AGEE'S  INTENSELY  SUBJECTIVE,  AT  TIMES   AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL  WRITING  AND  EVANS'  STUNNINGLY  HONEST  IMAGES  OF  THE   FACES,       BEDROOMS,  AND  CLOTHING  OF  INDIVIDUAL  FARMERS  LIVING  ON  A  DRY  ALABAMA   HILLSIDE  LEAD  THE  READER/VIEWER  ON  A  LYRIC  JOURNEY  TO  THE  LIMITS  OF  DIRECT       OBSERVATION.  AS  A  SERIES,  EVANS'  PHOTOGRAPHS  SEEM  TO  HAVE  ELUCIDATED  THE   WHOLE  TRAGEDY  OF  THE  GREAT  DEPRESSION;  INDIVIDUALLY,  THEY  ARE  INTIMATE,       TRANSCENDENT,  AND  ENIGMATIC,  AS  IN  THIS  PORTRAIT  OF  THE  FARMER-­‐PATRIARCH   FLOYD  BURROUGHS.  

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DIANE  ARBUS  KILLED  HERSELF,  AGED  48,  ON  26  JULY  1971.  ON  THE  40TH   ANNIVERSARY  OF  HER  DEATH,  IT'S  WORTH  RECONSIDERING  HER  ARTISTIC  LEGACY.   HER  WORK  REMAINS  PROBLEMATIC  FOR       MANY  VIEWERS  BECAUSE  SHE  TRANSGRESSED  THE  TRADITIONAL  BOUNDARIES  OF   PORTRAITURE,  MAKING  PICTURES  OF  CIRCUS  AND  SIDESHOW  "FREAKS",  MANY  OF   WHOM  SHE  FORMED  LASTING       FRIENDSHIPS  WITH.  

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TWINS     JOHN  SZARKOWSKI,  THE  GREAT  AMERICAN  CRITIC  AND  CURATOR,  RECOGNISED   WHEN  HE  FIRST  SHOWED  HER  WORK  IN  HIS  NEW  DOCUMENTS  GROUP  EXHIBITION   AT  MOMA  IN  NEW  YORK  IN  1967,  THAT       FOR  ITS  TIME  IT  WAS  TRAILBLAZING  A  NEW  PHOTOGRAPHIC  AESTHETIC,  BY   CONFRONTING  AUDIENCES  WITH  A  GROUP  OF  PEOPLE  ALMOST  OUTCASTS  FROM   SOCIETY  IN  A    RAW  AND  UNFLINCHING,       DISTURBING  AND  ILLUMINATING  MANNER  

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GIANT     ARBUS  MAY  HAVE  FELT  AN  ENORMOUS  EMPATHY  WITH  THE  PEOPLE  SHE   PHOTOGRAPHED,  BUT  SHE  WAS  NOT  ONE  OF  THEM,  HOWEVER  MUCH  SHE   IDENTIFIED  WITH  THEIR  OUTSIDER  STATUS.       SHE  HAD  HER  OWN  TROUBLES,  BUT  THEY  WERE  OF  A  DIFFERENT  ORDER.       THE  WORK  SHE  LEFT  BEHIND  REMAINS  POWERFUL  NOT  JUST  BECAUSE  OF  ITS  DARK   FORMAL  BEAUTY  OR  ITS  STARK  VISION,       BUT  BECAUSE  IT  ASKS  QUESTIONS  OF  THE  VIEWER  ABOUT  THE  LIMITS  OF  LOOKING,   ABOUT  THE  VICARIOUSNESS  AND  PREDATORY  NATURE  OF  PHOTOGRAPHY,  AND   ABOUT  OUR  COMPLICITY  IN  ALL  OF       THIS.    

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WHEN  WE  LOOK  AT  AN  ARBUS  PHOTOGRAPH,  WE  CANNOT  HELP  FEELING  THAT  WE   ARE  INTRUDERS  OR  VOYEURS,  EVEN  THOUGH  HER  SUBJECTS  ARE  TIED  TO  A  TIME   AND  PLACE  THAT  HAS  ALL  BUT       VANISHED.  A  SENSE  OF  COMPLICITY  –  HERS  AND  OURS  –  LIES  AT  THE  VERY  HEART  OF   HER  POWER.  HER  IMAGES  HOLD  US  IN  THEIR  SWAY  EVEN  WHEN  OUR  BETTER   INSTINCTS  TELL  US  TO  LOOK  AWAY.       PERHAPS  HER  GREATEST  GIFT  IS  THAT  SHE  UNDERSTOOD  THAT  CONFLICT   INSTINCTIVELY,  AND  DID  MORE  THAN  ANYONE  TO  EXPLOIT  IT  ARTISTICALLY.    

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MARILYN  MONROE       –  THE  MASK  OF  CELEBRITY  DROPS,  A  MOMENTRY  INTERRUPTION  OF  THE   PERFORMANCE     RICHARD  AVEDON  WAS  ALREADY  WORLD  FAMOUS  FOR  ELEVATING  FASHION   PHOTOGRAPHY  TO  AN  ART  FORM  AND  FOR  HIS  INSIGHTFUL  PORTRAITS  

39  

IN  THE  AMERICAN  WEST  -­‐         FROM  1979  TO  1984,  AVEDON  TRAVELED  THROUGH  13  STATES  AND  189  TOWNS   FROM  TEXAS  TO  IDAHO,  EXPOSING  17,000  SHEETS  OF  FILM  THROUGH  HIS  8-­‐BY-­‐10-­‐ INCH  DEARDORFF  VIEW  CAMERA.     FOCUSING  ON  THE  RURAL  WEST,  AVEDON  VISITED  RANCHES  AND  RODEOS,  BUT  HE   ALSO  WENT  TO  TRUCK  STOPS,  OIL  FIELDS,  AND  SLAUGHTERHOUSES.  RATHER  THAN   PLAYING  TO  THE  WESTERN       MYTHS  OF  GRANDEUR  AND  SPACE,  HE  SOUGHT  OUT  PEOPLE  WHOSE  APPEARANCE   AND  LIFE  CIRCUMSTANCES  WERE  THE  ANTITHESIS  OF  MYTHICAL  IMAGES  OF  THE   RUGGEDLY  HANDSOME  COWBOY,       DASHING  OUTDOOR  ADVENTURER,  OR  BEAUTIFUL  PIONEER  WIFE.  THE  SUBJECTS  HE   CHOSE  FOR  THE  PORTRAITS  WERE  ORDINARY  PEOPLE,  COPING  DAILY  WITH   PERSONAL  CYCLES  OF  BOOM  AND       BUST.  

40  

IN  THE  AMERICAN  WEST     INSTEAD  OF  GLAMORIZING  THESE  FIGURES,  HE  BROUGHT  THEIR  VARIOUS  HUMAN   FRAILTIES  TO  THE  FOREFRONT.  ALL  HIS  SUBJECTS  ARE  PICTURED  AGAINST  A   SEAMLESS  WHITE  BACKDROP  THAT       REMOVES  ANY  REFERENCE  TO  PLACE,  AND  MANY  OF  THE  PORTRAITS  ARE   DRAMATICALLY  OVERSIZED,  SHOCKING  IN  THEIR  STARK  DETAIL.  VISITORS  TO  THE   EXHIBITION  COME  FACE-­‐TO-­‐FACE  WITH       IMAGES  THAT  SHATTERED  STEREOTYPES  OF  A  GLORIFIED  REGION    

41  

SINCE  THE  MID-­‐1980S,  STRUTH  HAS  MADE  AN  EXTENDED  SERIES  OF  FAMILY   PORTRAITS  IN  DIFFERENT  CULTURES  AROUND  THE  WORLD.      

42  

THOMAS  STRUTH  -­‐  THE  SMITH  FAMILY,  FIFE,  SCOTLAND  1989     EACH  FAMILY  PORTRAIT  IS  MADE  WITHIN  A  SIMILAR  SET  OF  RULES.  THE  PORTRAITS   ARE  NOT  MADE  TO  COMMISSION,  INSTEAD  THE  INITIAL  INVITATION  COMES  FROM   THE  ARTIST.  STRUTH  AND  THE       FAMILY  THEN  DECIDE  TOGETHER  ON  THE  LOCATION  OF  THE  PHOTOGRAPH  IN  THEIR   HOME  OR  GARDEN.  THE  MEMBERS  OF  EACH  FAMILY  ORGANISE       AND  POSE  THEMSELVES  RATHER  THAN  BEING  ARRANGED  BY  STRUTH.  THE  ONLY   STIPULATION  FROM  THE  ARTIST  IS  THAT  THEY  LOOK  STRAIGHT  INTO  THE  CAMERA.      

43  

44  

THOMAS  STRUTH,  THE  SHIMADA  FAMILY,  YAMAGUCHI,  JAPAN  1986     THE  FAMILY  PORTRAITS  RELATE  TO  STRUTH’S  EXTENSIVE  TRAVELS  WITH  THE  SITTERS   LARGELY  DRAWN  FROM  A  NETWORK  OF  FRIENDS  AND  WORKING  ASSOCIATIONS.   THE  FORMAL  SIMILARITIES       BETWEEN  THE  PORTRAITS  OF  FAMILIES  FROM  DIFFERENT  CULTURAL  BACKGROUNDS   THEREFORE  REVEAL  A  CERTAIN  SENSE  OF  COMMONALITY  AMONGST  OTHERWISE   VERY  DIFFERENT  PEOPLE.      

45  

RUFF  IS  PROBABLY  BEST  KNOWN  FOR  HIS  SERIES  OF  PORTAITS  THAT  BEGAN  1981.   THESE  ARE  THE  RESULT  OF  VARIOUS  ATTEMPTS  TO  REPRESENT  THE  INDIVIDUAL  IN  A   CONTEMPORARY  WAY.       BELIEVING  THAT  PHOTOGRAPHY  IS  ONLY  ABLE  TO  DEPICT  THE  SURFACE  OF  THINGS,   HE  CHOSE  THE  BUST  PORTRAIT  AS  THE  MOST  NEUTRAL  PHOTOGRAPHIC   COMPOSITION.    

46  

THE  CHOICE  ENSURES  THAT  THE  SITTERS  FACE  IS  EMPHASISED,  WHILE  AT  THE  SAME   TIME  PREVENTING  ANY  PERSONAL  OR  INDIVIDUAL  PSYCHOLOGICAL   INTERPRETATION.     UP  UNTIL  1985  THESE  PASSPORT  STYLE  PORTRAITS  WERE  SET  AGAINST  DIFFERENT   COLOURED  BACKGROUNDS.  THE  SUBJECTS  WERE  MOSTLY  FRIENDS  AND  FAMILY   AROUND  THE  AGE  OF  THIRTY,       WERE  TAKEN  FACE  ON  AND  ALSO  PROFILE.    

47  

IN  ORDER  TO  GET  “CLOSER  TO  REALITY”,  IN  1986  RUFF  STARTED  ENLARGING  THE   PORTRAITS  ON  A  SCALE  OF  3:1.       AS  THE  BACKGROUND  COLOUR  BECAME  TOO  DOMINANT  FOR  THE  LARGE  SCALE   PORTRAITS,  RUFF  INSTEAD  ADOPTED  A  NEUTRAL  GREY-­‐WHITE  BACKGROUND.     PRINTED  LARGER,  THAN  LIFE,  THIS  SERIES  IS  SIMULTAINEOUSLY  PARTICULAR  AND   NON  SPEIFIC  –  THAT  IS,  THE  PHTOGRAPH  HAS  BECOME  INDEPENDENT  OF  THE   PERSON  IT  REPRERESENTS;     IT  HAS  ITS  OWN  REALITY.  

48  

THE  SERIES  CAME  TO  AN  END  IN  1991  WHEN  THE  PHOTOGRAPHIC  PAPER  IT  WAS   PRINTED  ON  WAS  TAKEN  OUT  OF  PRODUCTION.     RUFF  STUDIED  UNDER  THE  BERND  BECHER.  HE  IS  PRE  OCCUPIED  WITH  THE   PARADOXES  OF  PERCEPTION  IN  EVERYDAY  LIFE  AND  IN  ART.     WHAT  IS  INTERESTING  ABOUT  HIS  WORK  IS  THE  STRAIGHT  FOCUS,  EXTREME   PRECISION,  THE  ELIMINATION  OF  ANY  ELEMENT  THAT  DOESN’T       COMPLETELY  FIT.  THE  PICTURE  APPEAR  TO  BE  VERY  FAMILIAR  AND  REAL,  YET  THERE   ALSO  APPEARS  TO  BE  A  BARRIER  BETWEEN  THE  VIEWER  AND  THE  PHOTOGRAPHS.     THE  FACADES  LIKE  PORTRAITS  PRESENT  LESS  OF  A  REALITY  OF  THE  SUBJECT  AND   MORE  OF  AN  IMITIATION/FABRICATION.  

49  

PARR’S  GRANDFATHER  ENCOURAGED  HIS  EARLY  INTEREST  IN  PHOTOGRAPHY,  AND   HE  STUDIED  AT  THE  MANCHESTER  SCHOOL  OF  ART.  IN  THE  EARLY  1980S,  PARR   PRODUCED  A  SERIES  OF       PHOTOGRAPHS  OF  NEW  BRIGHTON,  A  RUN-­‐DOWN  SEASIDE  RESORT  OUTSIDE   LIVERPOOL.  THE  GAUDY  AND  SOMETIMES  GROTESQUE  IMAGERY  OF  THESE  WORKS   SEEMED  TO  REFLECT  THE  SPIRIT  OF       THATCHER’S  BRITAIN,  WHILE  ECHOING  THE  TRADITION  OF  TACKY   SEASIDE  POSTCARDS.    

50  

THE  LAST  RESORT     MORE  RECENTLY,  PARR  HAS  ADDRESSED  THEMES  OF  CONSUMERISM,  MASS   TOURISM  AND  GLOBALISATION  WITH  A  DISTINCTIVE  WIT  AND  SENSE  OF  IRONY.       IN  COMMON  SENSE  1995-­‐9,  HE  USES  BRIGHT  COLOURS  AND  EXAGGERATED  CLOSE-­‐ UPS  TO  EXPLORE  THE  EXCESSES  OF  CONTEMPORARY  CAPITALISM.       MOTIFS  SUCH  AS  HEADS,  HATS,  HANDS,  FOOD  AND  DOGS  ARE  REPEATED   THROUGHOUT,  CREATING  A  SNATCHED  CATALOGUE  OF  OUR  ALL  TOO   FAMILIAR  SHORTCOMINGS.  

51  

THE  LAST  RESORT    

52  

New  Brighton.  From  'The  Last  Resort'.  1983-­‐85  

53  

Galway  Races.  IRELAND  1997  

54  

Common  Sense  1995  

55  

PUBLISHED  IN  1977,  THEATRE  OF  MANNERS  WAS  AN  IN  DEPTH  STUDY  OF  THE   PHOTOGRAPHERS  FAMILY  &  FRIENDS  –  THE  INTRICATE  RITUALS,  THE  TENSION   WITHIN  THE  RELATIONSHIPS  ARE  ALL       DOCUMENTED  USING  5X4  LARGE-­‐FORMAT.  AS  BARNEY  INDICATES:       BARNEY  INDICATES  IT  WAS  HER  ENAGEGEMENT  WITH    

56  

FROM  THE  SERIES,  THEATRE  OF  MANNERS  –  JILL  AND  POLLY  IN  THE  BATHROOM,   1987    

57  

“  I  HAVE  AN  ANTHROPOLOGICAL  AND  SOCIALOGICAL  FASCINATION  WITH  LOOKING   AT  PEOPLE.  I  DON’T  MAKE  ANY  ASSUMPTIONS  ABOUT  PEOPLE  THAT  I  PHOTOGRAPH.     I  DON’T  FEEL  IT’S  SOCIAL  COMMENTARY  BECAUSE  I’M  NOT  JUDGING  THEM.;  ITS  ALL   INSTINCT.  FOR  ME,  IT’S  A  GREAT  VISUAL  FEAST,  AND  THE  HOUSES  ARE  SETS  FOR   TAKING  PICTURES”.      

58  

THE  DAUGHTERS,  FORM  THE  SERIES,  THE  EUROPEANS,  2000  

59  

THE  EUROPEANS,  2000    

60  

ALEX  SOTH,  LIVES  IN  MINNESOTA,  NORTH  AMERICA.  HE  IS  INTERESTED  IN  THE   UNDERLING  NARRATIVE  OF  IMAGE  MAKING.  

61  

SLEEPING  BY  MISSISSIPPI  –  CHARLES,  VASA,  MINNESOTA  2002  –  THE  SERIES  CAME   FORM  ANOTHER  PROJECT,  THE  IDEA  WAS  THAT  ONE  PICTURE  WOULD  LEAD  TO   ANOTHER,  EG.  IF  ONE  DAY  HE       PHOTOGRAPHED  SOMEONE  COOKING  EGGS,  THE  NEXT  DAY  HE  WOULD  MAKE  A   PICTURE  OF  A  CHICKEN.  WHILST  MAKING  THE  WORK  HE  FOUND  HIMSELF  BY  THE   MISSISSIPPI  RIVER  AND  AN  IDEA  TO       SHOOT  A  PROJECT  THAT  DOCUMENTS  LIFE  IN  AND  AROUND  THE  REGION.       “IT  WAS  MORE  ABOUT  WANDERING,  ONE  THING  LEADING  TO  THE  NEXT  AND   SERENDIPIDITY”.      

62  

KYM,  POLISH  PALACE,  MINNEAPOLIS,  MINNESOTA  2000     SOTH  USES  A  10  X  8  LARGE  FORMAT  CAMERA  –  LIKE  OTHERS,  HE  SUBTELY  USES   FLASH  TO  GIVE  HIM  THE  SHARPNESS  THAT  HE  IS  AFTER.  

63  

SUNSHINE,  MEMPHIS,  TENNESSEE  2000  

64  

REBECCA,  2005,  FROM  THE  SERIES  NIAGRA  

65  

PIERRE  BERGE  

66  

DUTCH  BORN,  WAS  INITIALLY  A  COMMERCIAL  PHOTOGRAPHER,  FOR  NEWSPAPERS  &   ADVERTISING.  IN  THE  MID  80'S  SHE  BEGAN  SHOWING  HER  OWN  WORK  IN   GALLERIES,  ADOPTING  A  FORMAL       APPROACH  TO  PORTRAITURE.  SUBJECTS  WHERE  PHOTOGRAPHED  FULL  LENGTH  IN   COLOUR,  MOSTLY  WITH  DAYLIGHT,  SOMETIMES  WITH  SUPPLEMENTARY  ELECTRONIC   FLASH  LIGHTING.  SHE  SHOOTS       WITH  A  5X4  LARGE  FORMAT  CAMERA,  USING  ABOUT  4  TO  5  SHEETS  OF  FILM.  THE   FLASH,  IS  A  BATTERY  OPERATED  STUDIO  UNIT,  TO  SIMPLY  'FILL-­‐IN'  THE  SHADOWS.  

67  

HER  PORTRAITS  ARE  FRONTAL  AND  CENTRALLY  COMPOSED,  TAKEN  SLIGHTLY  BELOW   EYE  LEVEL.  THE  SUBJECTS  ALWAYS  STAND  AGAINST  A  MINIMAL  BACKGROUND,   USUALLY  WITH  A  CERTAIN       UNIFORMITY  OF  POSE  AND  CLOTHING.     DIJKSTRA'S  BEST  KNOWN  IMAGES  ARE  OF  THE  BEACH  PORTRAITS  OF  CHILDREN  AND   TEENAGERS,  TAKEN  BETWEEN  1992  AND  1996  ACROSS  EUROPE  AND  NORTH   AMERICA.  GAZING  DIRECTLY  AT  THE       CAMERA,  HER  SUBJECTS  SHOW  A  SELF-­‐CONSCIOUS  ATTITUDE,  PRESENTING   THEMSELVES  IN  A  PARTICULAR  WAY.  AS  SHE  INDICATES:  'THEY  CANNOT  HELP  SHOW   SOMETHING  DIFFERENT  AS  WELL',       WHETHER  ANXIETY,  VULNERABILITY,  OR  ADOLESCENT  AWKWARDNESS.    

68  

EVERY  DETAIL  OF  THEIR  BODY  LANGUAGE  AND  CLOTHING  REVEALS  THE  SOCIAL   STEREOTYPES  AND  THE  CROSS-­‐CULTURAL  DIFFERENCES  BETWEEN  EASTERN  EUROPE   AND  WESTERN  EUROPE.  EACH       PHOTOGRAPH  IS  MARKED  WITH  A  PRECISE  DATE  AND  LOCATION,  SUGGESTING  A   LINK  TOWARDS  AUGUST  SANDER'S  EARLY  WORK.  LIKE  HIM,  SHE  IS  INTERESTED  IN   THE  TYPOLOGY  OF  PEOPLE       (TEENAGERS,  MOTHERS,  SOLDIERS,  CLUBBERS),  ALSO  LIKE  SANDER,  SHE  WORKS  IN   SERIES,  AND  IS  INTERESTED  IN  DETAILS.  INTERESTINGLY  IT  IS  DIANE  ARBUS  WHOM   DIJKSTRA  SITES  AS  HER       GREATEST  INFLUENCE  ON  HER  CONCEPTUAL  APPROACH.  SHE  QUOTES  ARBUS,  WHAT   INTERESTS  HER:  'THE  GAP  BETWEEN  THE  INTENTION  AND  THE  EFFECT'.    

69  

CRITICS  COMMENT  ON  HER  WORK,  SUGGESTING  THAT  DIJKSTRA  OFTEN   PHOTOGRAPHS  PEOPLE  IN  'TRANSITIONAL'  MOMENTS:  WOMEN  SHORTLY  AFTER   GIVING  BIRTH,  MATADORS  JUST  AFTER  A  FIGHT.       THIS  TRANSITION  REFERS  TO  'RITES  OF  PASSAGE',  THE  UNEASY/SYMBOLIC  PATH   FROM  CHILDHOOD  TO  ADULTHOOD;  WOMEN  HOOD  TO  MOTHER  HOOD,  ALLOWING   THE  AUDIENCE  TO  REFLECT  ON       PHILOSOPHICAL  QUESTIONS  OF  LIFE  AND  BEING  HUMAN.     THE  MOTHER  AND  CHILD  SERIES,  PHOTOGRAPHED  AGAINST  A  NEUTRAL   BACKGROUND  CAPTURES  THE  TENSIONS  BETWEEN  -­‐  VULNERABILITY,   PROTECTIVENESS  (HOW  THE  MOTHER  HOLDS  THEIR  NEWBORN)  AND  PRIDE.    

70  

71  

72  

73  

74  

FOR  THE  PAST  THREE  YEARS  KATY  GRANNAN  HAS  ROAMED  THE  STREETS  OF  LOS   ANGELES  AND  SAN  FRANCISCO,  PHOTOGRAPHING  STRANGERS.  HER  SUBJECTS  ARE   MOST  OFTEN  PEOPLE  WHOM       OTHERS  PASS  BY  WITHOUT  NOTICE,  ANONYMOUS  INDIVIDUALS  WHO  HAVE  NOW   BEEN  TRANSFORMED  BY  PHOTOGRAPHY’S  PECULIAR  MAGIC.  

75  

GRANNAN  PHOTOGRAPHS  HER  SUBJECTS  IN  FRONT  OF  THE  TYPE  OF  WHITE  STUCCO   WALLS  THAT  CAN  BE  FOUND  ANYWHERE.  SHE  WORKS  MIDDAY  WHEN  THE  STRONG   NOON  LIGHT,  IN  TANDEM  WITH       THE  WHITE  WALLS,  TRANSFORMS  HER  CITY  STREETS  INTO  OUTDOOR  STUDIOS.  THE   LIGHT  IS  PRECISE  AND  INDISCRIMINATE,  DELINEATING  IN  HIGH-­‐PITCHED  DETAIL   GRANNAN’S  HUSTLERS,       STRUTTERS,  ADDICTS  AND  BEAUTY  QUEENS.  THE  TIMELESS  CHARACTERS  WHO   POPULATE  GRANNAN’S  BOULEVARDS  ARE  A  COMPENDIUM  OF  STREET  TYPES   RENDERED  WITH  MESMERIZING       INTENSITY,  SEPARATED  FROM  THEIR  COUNTERPARTS  OF  PAST  CENTURIES  BY  LITTLE   MORE  THAN  COSTUME  OR  HAIRSTYLE.    

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RICHARD  RENALDI  

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RICHARD  RENALDI  

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RICHARD  RENALDI  

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