# CONDUCTION PRACTICALS

CONDUCTION INSTRUCTIONAL MANUAL FOR THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METAL ROD .

CONDUCTION THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METAL ROD INTRODUCTION – Thermal conductivity is the physical property of the material denoting the ease with a particular substance can accomplish the transmission of thermal energy by molecular motion. one end of which is heated by an electric heater while the other end of the bar projects inside the cooling water jacket. . and whether or not it is a homogeneous material. The middle portion of the bar is surrounded by a The temperature of the bar is cylindrical shell filled with the glass wool. The heater is provided with a dimmer stat for controlling the heat input.e. the temperature and pressure to which it is subjected. 7) Cooling Jacket diameter = 75 mm. its crystalline structure of a solid. Water under constant head condition is circulated through the jacket and its flow rate and temperature rise are noted. Thermal conductivity of a material is found to depend on the chemical composition of the substance or substances of which it is composed. gas. while the radial temperature distribution is measured by separate thermocouples at two different sections in the insulating shell. the phase (i. SPECIFICATIONS – 1) Length of the metal bar = 450 mm 2) Size of the metal bar (diameter) = 25 mm 3) Test length of the bar = 250 mm. liquid or solid) in which it exists. DESCRIPTION – The experimental set up consists of the metal bar. measured at five different positions. 4) Number of thermocouples mounted on the bar = 5 5) Number of thermocouples in the insulation shell = 4 6) Heater Coil (Band type) – Nichrome heater.

Cp = specific heat of water. Positions 1 to 5 – Thermocouple positions on metal bar Positions 6 to 9 – Thermocouple position in the shell Positions 10 to 11 – To measure rise in temperature of cooling water 9) Dimmer stat for heater coil – 2 A. T = (T11 – T10) Thermal conductivity of bar at section AA can now be calculated as – Qw = . After attaining the steady state temperature heat flowing out of section AA (water) of bar qw = m.C. Heat conducted through the section BB of the bar = = qw + Radial heat loss between sections BB and AA 2  K L ( T6 – T7 ) q bb = qw + ln ( ro / ri ) . Cp  T Where. 13) Stop clock. The negative sign is introduced because heat flows in the direction of decreasing temperature & serves to make the heat flux in the positive direction. 230V A. 10) Digital Voltmeter.CONDUCTION 8) Temperature Indicator : 0-300oC with channel selector switch.KAA . THEORY – The heater will heat the bar at its end and heat will be conducted through the bar to the other end. m = mass flow rate of cooling water. 11) Digital Ammeter 12) Flask for measuring water flow rate. ( dt/dx ) AA x A The value of (dt/dx)AA is obtained graphically.

2) Give input to the heater by the dimmer stat. K = 0.CONDUCTION Where.KCC x (dt/dx)CC x A Thus the thermal conductivity of bar at different sections can be calculated.S.2 Kcal/hr-m. .) Thermal conductivity at section BB can be calculated as – qBB = .oC (Assume value for the powder in M. say 15 minutes and continue this till a satisfactory steady state condition is reached. units.KBB x ( dt / dx )BB x A Heat conducted through the section CC – 2KL (T9 – T8) q cc = qBB + ln (ro/ri) and qCC = . 6) Note the mass flow rate of water in Kg/hr and temperature rise in oC. 3) Start the cooling water supply through the jacket and adjust it to about 300 to 350 CC/min 4) Go on checking the temperature at some specified time intervals. 5) Note the temperature readings 1 to 11.K. PROCEDURE – 1) Put ON the electric supply.

CONDUCTION OBSERVATION TABLE – Sr. Thermocouple No. qBB = qw + ln ( ro / ri ) = .KAA .KBB . KAA= Kcal / hr – m – oC. ( dt / dx ) AA x A A = /4 . 2  K L ( T6 – T7 ) 2. Temperature (0c) = . qAA = qw = m .d2 d = diameter of the bar = 25 mm. ( dt / dx )BB x A . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Radial distances of thermocouples in insulating shell – ri = 40 mm ro = 80 mm CALCULATIONS – 1. cp ( T11 – T10 ) Kcal/hr. No.

KCC . Thermal conductivity of three sections can be calculated and its variation with temperature can be studied. 2. 3) Run the equipment once in a week for better performance. The temperature of the bar decreases alone the length of the bar and can be plotted. dimmer knob should be used gently. qCC = qBB + ln ( ro / ri ) = . . 2) When the experiment is over turn the dimmer knob to Zero position. PRECAUTIONS – 1) Selector switch. ( dt / dx )CC x A RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS – 1.CONDUCTION 2  K L ( T9 – T8 ) 3.

CONDUCTION INSTRUCTIONAL MANUAL FOR THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INSULATION POWDER .

The present apparatus is suitable for finding out thermal conductivity of materials in powdered form. Four thermocouples are embedded on inner sphere . SPECIFICATIONS – 1) Diameter of inner sphere 2) Diameter of outer sphere : 10 cm. Power supply to the heater is given through a dimmer stat and is measured by a voltmeter and an Ammeter. 8) Digital Ammeter. DESCRIPTION – The apparatus consists of two thin walled concentric copper spheres. 7) Digital Voltmeter. Thus the determination of this property is one of the considerable engineering significance.CONDUCTION THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INSULATION POWDER AIM – To determine the thermal conductivity of insulating powder. The insulating powder is packed between two shells. Physical meaning of thermal conductivity is how quickly heat passé through a given material. There are various methods of determination of thermal conductivity suitable for different materials. The inner sphere houses the heating coil. 3) Mica heater Nichrome wire (200) watt. : 20 cm. Chromel . INTRODUCTION – Thermal conductivity is one of the important properties of the materials and its knowledge is required for analyzing heat conduction problems. 6) Digital temperature indicator : 0 – 300 0c.alumel thermocouples are used to measure temperatures. : Asbestos. Heating coil is Nichrome wire wound on mica sheet. 4) Open type dimmerstat 5) Insulating powder : 2 Amp.

Under steady stat conditions.ri ) . 5) Repeat the experiments for different heat in put. All ten temperatures are measured on a temperature indicator by operating a selector switch. EXPERIMENTS – The value of thermal conductivity of the powder can be calculated by using following equation. (Note . PROCEDURE – 1) Put on main switch.CONDUCTION and six thermocouples are embedded on outer sphere.The power should not exceed – 40 watts otherwise heater wire is likely to burn. 6) After experiment is over put the dimmer to zero position and make the main switch off. These readings enable to find out the thermal conductivity of the insulating powder.) 3) Wait for one hour for steady state conditions. 2) Apply input power by operating dimmer stat.Tout ) Q = ( ro . 4) Note down the readings in observation table. 4  k ri ro ( Tin .

T5 + T6 + T7 + T8 + T9 + T10 Tout = 6 3) Heat input (q) – q = V x I Watts. Inner sphere Sr.CONDUCTION OBSERVATIN TABLE – 1) Radius of inner sphere ( ri ) : 50 mm. 2) Radius of outer sphere (ro ) : 100 mm. Voltmeter v Ammeter I T1 Temp.  x ri x ro x ( Tin – T out) . 4) Thermal conductivity – q x ( ro – ri ) k = 4 . No. in oc T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T2 T3 T4 T5 CALCULATIONS – 1) Average temperature for inner sphere – T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 Tin = 4 2) Average temperature for outer sphere – 0 c. 0 c. in c o Outer sphere Temp.

3) Run the equipment once in a week for better performance. .CONDUCTION PRECAUTIONS – 1) Selector switch. dimmer knob should be used gently. 2) When the experiment is over turn the dimmer knob to Zero position.

CONDUCTION INSTRUCTIONAL MANUAL FOR HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH CONPOSITE WALL .

230 V. A small hand press frame is provided to ensure the perfect contact between the slabs. ammeter. Single phase. To plot temperature gradient along composite wall structure. 3. 2) Nichrome heater wound on mica heater of 300-Watt capacity. to read the temperature at the surface. 0-2 Amp. 2. A dimmerstat is provided for varying the input to the heater and measurement of input is carried out by a voltmeter. . While removing plates do not disturb thermocouples.CONDUCTION HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH CONPOSITE WALL AIM – 1. 3. Use the selector switch knob and dimmer knob gently. 2. SPECIFICATIONS – 1) Slab assembly arranged symmetrically on both sides of the slab. 4) Voltmeter 5) Ammeter 6) Digital temperature Indicator. which forms a composite structure.Thermocouples are embedded between interfaces of the slabs. 3) Dimmer stat open type. Close the box by cover sheet to achieve steady environmental conditions. Keep the dimmer stat to zero before starting the experiment. 1. See that plates are symmetrically arranged on both sides of the heater plates. To determine total thermal resistance and thermal conductivity of composite wall. Three types of slabs are provided both sides of heater. DESCRIPTION – The apparatus consists of a central heater sandwiched between two sheets. 2. PRECAUTIONS – 1. Operate the hand press properly to ensure perfect contact between the plates. PROCEDURE – Arrange the plates in proper fashion on both sides of heater.

mild steel = b. Voltmeter v Ammeter I Thermocouple reading (C) T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Mean Readings : T1 + T2 TA = 2 T3 + T 4 TB = 2 T5 + T 6 TC = 2 T7 + T8 TD = 2 0 c. 6.CONDUCTION 4. Take readings of all the thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until fairly steady temperatures are achieved and rate of rise is negligible. 0 c. Slab diameter = 300mm. No. Sr. . Wall thickness: a. 0 c. Note down the reading in observation table. Wood = 2. adjust the input at the desired value. 5. Start the supply of heater by varying the dimmerstat. 0 c. backelite = c. Observations and observations table: Composite slabs: 1.

CONDUCTION Calculations :Practically:1) Heat flow rate for one side of slab VxI q= Heat flow rate = ---------.17 w/mk .kwood :.0.=b1 + b2 + b3 Theoretically :Given :.17 w/mk km.s :. 2) Total thermal resistance of composite slab (TA – TD) ------------------.[W / m2] A Where A = π / 4 x d2 D= dia. of plates.K/W q Rtotal = 3) Thermal conductivity of composite slab.50 w/mk kbackelite :. b Kcomposite = --------------.[W] 2 q Now Q= Heat flux = ---------.W/mk Rtotal x A b = Total thickness of composite slab.0.