DES Group 7 -- Session No.

1 Friday 31 August 2012 Group Facilitator: Scott Dougan Choose the BEST answer(s) for each question

1) Vidarabine -- an adenosine analog -- gets converted to a triphosphate by viral thymidine kinase, after which the triphosphate can serve as a substrate for viral DNA polymerase. A) Camptothecin; Adenosine B) Etoposide; Cytosine C) Vidarabine; Adenosine D) Acyclovir; Thymidine E) Azithromycin; Uracil Remember, “vidarabine” is just adenosine arabinoside = adenosine with an arabinoside group. 2) Why does this drug cause chain termination in viral DNA replication? The steric hindrance from the arabinoside group – due to arabinosides’ planar configuration – prevents DNA elongation by Pol III once it’s been incorporated. 3) In eukaryotic cells undergoing DNA replication, _____________ is used to remove the RNA primers. (circle all that apply) A) FEN-1 B) DNA Pol I C) DNA Pol II D) DNA Pol III E) RNaseH F) Primase G) DNA Helicase (DNaB) (Bonus: Which enzyme is it in prokaryotes?) DNA Pol I is the prokaryotic RNAse; it removes the RNA primer, and does this in a forward manner, i.e. in the 5`3` direction.

or “DNA proofreading.36-7. the notes also remark that molecular oxygen. What essential metabolite might he be missing.” The function of DNA Pol II is uncertain. You perform an arterial blood-gas measurement revealing a pH of 7. PCO2 38-42 mmHg.25. He has been self-medicating with large quantities of over-the-counter calcium carbonate antacids. Leonard McCoy comes into your clinic complaining of severe nausea and weakness. He is experiencing: A) Uncompensated metabolic alkalosis B) Compensated metabolic alkalosis C) Compensated metabolic acidosis D) Compensated respiratory alkalosis E) Uncompensated respiratory acidosis . He is experiencing: A) Uncompensated metabolic acidosis B) Uncompensated metabolic alkalosis C) Compensated metabolic acidosis D) Compensated respiratory acidosis E) Uncompensated respiratory acidosis 8) Dr. and proline. He presents with a history of peptic ulcer disease and has been experiencing gastric pain for the past two weeks. HCO3. PCO2 50. and appears to be breathing very slowly and deeply.22-25 mmol/L). PCO2 68. 4) What cofactor(s) do prolyl hydroxylase and lysl hydroxylase need to function? What disease do you get if they’re missing? Vitamin C (also known as “Ascorbate” if they want to try and trick you). while the hydrophobic sequences are rich in glycine. 7) The Marlboro man comes to your clinic. Desmosine is responsible for the rubbery properties of elastin. and HCO3. copper (II) is an essential cofactor for lysyl oxidase. ferrous iron (Fe2+) and alpha-ketoglutarate are cofactors. You perform an arterial blood-gas measurement revealing pH 7. and HCO3.46.35.DNA Pol III is the main enzyme of 5`-3` DNA synthesis. but it is also involved with 3`-5` exonuclease activity.44.31 mmol/L. Remember that 3 allysyl side chains plus 1 unaltered lysyl side chain from the same or neighboring polypeptides form a desmosine cross-link. He presents with dyspnea and irritability (“dyspnea” = shortness-of-breath). and the entire complex produces succinate (a TCA cycle intermediate) and CO2. valine. (Normal ranges pH 7. the enzyme that forms allysine from lysine. and what enzyme is affected? Cu2+. 5) The hydrophilic sequences of ELASTIN are rich in lysine and alanine. you suspect a defect in connective tissue production. 6) Over the past six months Harold Crick has been experiencing chronic arterial aneurysms in his circle of Willis (located in the brain) and aorta.

their positive charges attract the negatively-charged DNA. and allow the DNA to wrap around histones to form chromatin [chromatin = DNA + protein (histones)] 13) The octomer of the nucleosome is made up of the core histones: 2 molecules each of H2A. which means it’s easier for O2 to associate with the hemoglobin.from the Fe. The reason decitabine is an anti-cancer drug is that it hypomethylates DNA of the gene p15INK4b.3-BPG means fewer intermolecular ionic bonds keeping the α and β Hb subunits clamped down to each other. 14) The drug decitabine causes DNA hypomethylation and increased transcription. The oxidation can come from some drugs (like nitroglycerin) or reactive oxygen species (free radicals). H3 and H4  146 bp of DNA associate. deacetylation and methylation both “close down” chromatin. All of this is occurring on the beta chain. which suck away that extra e. These are the two positively charged (cationic) amino acids. Decitabine is used in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.3-BPG levels which would result in a left shift on the Hb-O2 binding curve and an increased blood hemoglobin O2 affinity. 12) Histones are particularly rich in two amino acids. making it more heterochromatic and more difficult to transcribe. you accurately diagnose her as having methemoglobinemia which occurs because: Oxidation of the iron in the heme from Fe2+ to Fe3+ (“ferrous” to “ferric” iron) causes the anemia and the color change (“chocolate cyanosis”). . 10) A patient with a congenital hexokinase deficiency would experience reduced 2. the amino acid glutamate at position 6 is replaced by the amino acid valine at position 6. H2B. What are the names of these two? Why are they useful in making chromatin? Lysine and arginine. acetylation and demethylation both “open up” the chromatin (make it more euchromatic). When O2 loads on Hb the Hb becomes known as oxyhemoglobin. p15INK4b is an anti-cancer gene. in that it prevents a normal cell from turning into a cancer cell by inhibiting cyclin dependent kinases. Less 2. Remember that methylation reduces transcription because the chromatin is all compact and balled up. 11) In sickle-cell anemia resulting in production of hemoglobin S (HbS).9) Your friend experiences a paper cut and notices her blood has a curious chocolate color. Fresh from your first semester of medical school.

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