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INTRODUCTION 1. The future development of ammunition is entirely dependent on and influenced by the strategies and the threats of the future. Primarily, ammunition is expected to get better in the fields of enhanced range, greater area coverage by a single shell and improved precision. The idea of a first round target hit has long been the goal of armies the world over. The conflicting requirements of heavier shells, longer range, light guns, superior mobility, accuracy and ballistics have brought the development programme of gun to a saturation limit. Thus there was a need to search for other means to achieve an increased range without loss of superior mobility and explosive content of the warhead. This led to the development of Rockets and missiles. 2. Tactical development on modern battlefield has called for engagement of targets at ever increasing ranges, with a consequent demand for increased accuracy. This has led to development of Precision Guided Munitions (PGMs) as well as Terminally Guided Munitions (TGMs), giving the projectile the ability to seek its target on arrival in the target area. Incorporation of guidance system especially at the target end and improvement in ammunition design will enable weapon systems to match the requirements of modern day battlefield. 3. General Guidance Sys : As guidance sys is the main brain behind the guided wpn sys. Most of the development is carried out in this area and they are: (a) Compound Guidance: Since preset guidance is not suitable for maneuvering tgt and all the way guidance will not be very effective in heavy ECCM environment. For tactical msls and rockets, compound guidance is found to be the most suitable. (b) On board Computer: On board computer permits real time processing of large volume of data. This coupled with complex image
which must be taken into consideration for examining the seeker functions. Long range indirect fire munitions however can be critically dependent on the accuracy of the initialization and midcourse guidance phases. including mission planning and pre-launch initialization.if the target has not already been acquired by the seeker before launch of the munition-may be merely an unguided ballistic path up to the point of target acquisition. The mid-course . target acquisition.processing algorithms facilitates scheme like terrain contour matching (TERCOM) and digital matching for correlations (DSMAC). as well as mid-course flight. initialization may be no more than pointing and firing (or releasing) the munition. terminal interception and warhead initiation. Inertial Guidance System (IGS) and Terrain Contour Matching (Tercom). 4. though some basic concepts are common to most weapon system applications. In the case of direct fire systems. or some short-medium range indirect fire systems. Guidance methods may vary greatly from that shown below. . Trajectory Phases The sequence of different trajectory phases is shown.
Command Guidance Command guidance is similar to beam riding in that the target is tracked by an external radar. 6. The missile is launched into this guidance beam and uses it for direction. Scanning onboard systems detect the missile in the presence of the beam and determine how close the missile is to the edges of it. but the beam rider method has been largely abandoned. This information is used to send command signals to control surfaces to keep the missile within the beam. However. Beam Rider Guidance The beam rider concept relies on an external ground.5.or ship-based radar station that transmits a beam of radar energy towards the target. the missile "rides" the external radar beam to the target. The tracking data from both radars are fed into a ground based computer that calculates the paths of the two vehicles. The surface radar tracks the target and also transmits a guidance beam that adjusts its angle as the target moves across the sky. Beam riding was often used on early surface-to-air missiles but was found to become inaccurate at long ranges. In this way. a second radar also tracks the missile itself. Limited improvement was possible using two different surface-based radar beams. .
Also note that command guidance is not limited just to radar. Mistral. An example of command guidance is the Russian SA-2 surface-to-air missile (used against US aircraft in North Vietnam). and receives the reflected energy to perform the homing process. commands are sent to the missile through a conventional wire or fiber optic cable that reels out from the missile back to its launcher. . Wire guidance is often used on anti-tank missiles like TOW. These commands are transmitted to a receiver on the missile allowing the missile to adjust its course. Another method that falls under command guidance is the use of wire guided systems. Homing guidance is generally used for final guidance of the projectile or missile onto the target. The various types of homing guidance are: a). which can be launched from both ground vehicles and helicopters. Example of this type of msl is Stinger. In this technique. 7.This computer also determines what commands need to be sent to the missile control surfaces to steer the missile on an intercept course with the target. Active: In the technique seeker emits energy to "illuminate" the target.
such as the launch platform or by a third party source. .b). c) Passive Homing: This type of homing relies on natural energy which is emitted or reflected from the target. Semi-active: The target is illuminated from a source external to the munition. The sensor in the projectile makes use of this energy to track the target.
This method is also sometimes called "track via missile" (TVM) since the missile acts as a conduit of tracking information from the target back to the ground control station. The advantage of TVM homing is that most of the expensive tracking and processing hardware is located on the ground where it can be reused for future missile launches rather than be . This technique is largely similar to command guidance but with a unique twist. Retransmission Homing Guidance: A more unusual example of homing guidance is the retransmission method. the missile has no onboard computer to process these signals. However. The target is tracked via an external radar. The subsequent commands are then retransmitted back to the missile so that it can deflect control surfaces to adjust its trajectory.8. The signals are instead transmitted back to the launch platform for processing. but the reflected signal is intercepted by a receiver onboard the missile. as in semi-active homing.
In that case they are called terminally guided sub munitions (TGSM). the method also requires excellent high-speed communication links between the missile and control station.destroyed. The essential difference between missiles and rockets is that while missiles are guided throughout the trajectory from launch to target. limiting the system to rather short ranges. Since long range rockets will be used against targets in depth areas of the battlefield. Due consideration has to be given to the type of terminal guidance that should be incorporated. specially in the field of long range tactical and ballistic msls. 9. TERMINAL GUIDANCE FOR MSLS AND ROCKETS 10. rockets are free flight bodies with no mid course guidance. Terminally Guided Sub munitions: The present trend is of multi warhead missiles. conventional observation will not be possible. It has to be reliable and cost effective. To destroy tgt distributed over an area small warheads with limited guidance sys are carried. Unfortunately. Guided rockets should retain the basic characteristics of free flight rockets therefore the only measure to overcome the inaccuracies at longer ranges is through terminal guidance. . Retransmission homing guidance is used on the Patriot surface-to-air missile.
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