You are on page 1of 20

1.

Which of the following is (are) important in determining whether a reaction occurs?


I.

Energy of the molecules

II.

Orientation of the molecules

A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

Both I and II

D.

Neither I nor II
(Total 1 mark)

2.

The compounds with the molecular formula C4H9Br all undergo nucleophilic substitution
reactions when warmed with sodium hydroxide solution. The equation for each of the
reactions is

C4H9Br + OH C4H9OH + Br

When the reaction of one of these compounds was investigated the following kinetic data were
obtained.
Experiment number
1
2
3

(a)

Initial [C4H9Br]
/mol dm
0.010
0.020
0.020

Initial [OH ]
3
/mol dm
0.010
0.010
0.020

Initial rate of reaction


3
1
/mol dm min
3

2.010
3
4.010
3
4.010

Explain the term nucleophilic substitution.


.
.
.
(2)

(b)

Deduce the order of reaction with respect to C4H9Br.


.
(1)

(c)

Deduce the order of reaction with respect to OH and explain your answer.
.
.
.
.
(2)

(d)

State the rate expression for the reaction.


.
(1)

(e)

Calculate the value of the rate constant for the reaction and state its units.
.
.
.
.
(2)

(f)

Give the equations for the mechanism of this reaction.

(2)

(g)

Define the term rate-determining step and identify this step in the mechanism.
.
.
.
(2)

(h)

Define the term molecularity and deduce its value in the mechanism.
.
.
.
(2)
(Total 14 marks)

3.

The reaction between NO2 and F2 gives the following rate data at a certain temperature.
What is the order of reaction with respect to NO2 and F2?
[NO2]/mol dm

[F2]/mol dm

Rate /mol dm min


1

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.1

0.4

0.2

NO2 order

F2 order

A.

first

first

B.

first

second

C.

second

first

D.

second

second
(Total 1 mark)

4.

Which step in a multi-step reaction is the rate determining step?


A.

The first step

B.

The last step

C.

The step with the lowest activation energy

D.

The step with the highest activation energy


(Total 1 mark)

5.

(i)
Draw a graph to show the distribution of energies in a sample of gas molecules.
Label the axes and label your curve T1. Using the same axes, draw a second curve to
represent the distribution of energies at a higher temperature. Label this curve T2.

(3)

(ii)

State and explain, with reference to your graph, what happens to the rate of a reaction
when the temperature is increased.
..
..
..
..
..
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

6.

The data below refer to a reaction between X and Y.


Initial concentration /
3
mol dm

(i)

Initial rate of reaction /


3 1
mol dm s

Experiment

0.25

0.25

1010

0.50

0.25

4.010

0.50

0.50

8.010

Define the term order of reaction.


..
..
..
(1)

(ii)

Deduce the order of reaction with respect to both X and Y. Explain your reasoning.
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
(4)

(iii)

Write the rate expression for the reaction and calculate the rate constant, including its
units.
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
(4)

(iv)

Calculate the initial rate of reaction when the initial concentrations of X and Y are 0.40
3
3
mol dm and 0.60 mol dm respectively.
..
..
..
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

7.

The graph below shows the volume of carbon dioxide gas produced against time when excess
3
3
calcium carbonate is added to x cm of 2.0 mol dm hydrochloric acid.
V

l u

(i)

i m

Write a balanced equation for the reaction.


..
..
(1)

(ii)

State and explain the change in the rate of reaction with time. Outline how you would
determine the rate of the reaction at a particular time.
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
(4)

(iii)

Sketch the above graph on an answer sheet. On the same graph, draw the curves you
would expect if:
3

I.

the same volume (x cm ) of 1.0 mol dm HCl is used.

II.

double the volume (2x cm ) of 1.0 mol dm HCl is used.

Label the curves and explain your answer in each case.


..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
(5)
(Total 10 marks)

8.

The rate expression for a reaction is shown below.


2

rate = k[A] [B]

Which statements are correct for this reaction?


I.

The reaction is second order with respect to both A and B.

II.

The overall order of the reaction is 4.

III.

Doubling the concentration of A would have the same effect on the rate of reaction
as doubling the concentration of B.

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

9.

Based on the definition for rate of reaction, which units are used for a rate?
3

A.

mol dm

B.

mol time

C.

dm time

D.

mol dm time

(Total 1 mark)

10

10.

Values of a rate constant, k, and absolute temperature, T, can be used to determine the activation
energy of a reaction by a graphical method. Which graph produces a straight line?
A.

k versus T

B.

1
T
k versus

C.

ln k versus T

D.

1
ln k versus T
(Total 1 mark)

11.

The rate expression for a particular reaction is


Rate = k[P][Q]
Which of the units below is a possible unit for k?
2

A.

mol dm min

B.

mol dm min

C.

mol dm min

D.

mol dm min

(Total 1 mark)

12.

(a)

Define the term rate of reaction.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(1)

11

(b)

The reaction between gases C and D is slow at room temperature.


(i)

Suggest two reasons why the reaction is slow at room temperature.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

A relatively small increase in temperature causes a relatively large increase in the


rate of this reaction. State two reasons for this.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Suggest two ways of increasing the rate of reaction between C and D other than
increasing temperature.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

12

13.

The reaction 2X(g) + Y(g) 3Z(g) has the rate expression


2

rate = k [X] [Y]

The concentration of X is increased by a factor of three and the concentration of Y is increased


by a factor of two. By what factor will the reaction rate increase?
A.

B.

C.

12

D.

18
(Total 1 mark)

13

14.

The reaction between two substances A and B


A + B C + D
has the following rate expression:
rate = k [B]
Draw the graphical representation of:
[ A

[ A

a g

a i n

s t

t i m

[ B

[ B

t i m

a g

a g

t i m

a i n

s t

[ A

a i n

s t

t i m

r a t e

a g

a i n

s t

[ B

r a t e

r a t e

[ A

r a t e

[ B

]
(Total 3 marks)

14

15.

What happens to the rate constant (k) and activation energy (Ea) of a reaction when the
temperature is increased?
A.

k increases and Ea is unaffected.

B.

k decreases and Ea is unaffected.

C.

Ea increases and k is unaffected.

D.

Ea decreases and k is unaffected.


(Total 1 mark)

16.

Some reactions occur in a series of steps. Which is the best description of the rate-determining
step in a reaction mechanism?
A.

The step involving the greatest number of reactant particles

B.

The step involving the smallest number of reactant particles

C.

The step releasing the most energy

D.

The step with the highest activation energy


(Total 1 mark)

15

17.

(a)

The table below shows kinetic data for the following reaction
C + D E + F

(i)

Initial rate
3
1
/ mol dm min

Experiment

[C] / mol dm

2.010

3.010

1.010

4.010

3.010

2.010

6.010

6.010

3.010

[D] / mol dm

Deduce the order of reaction with respect to both C and D, giving a reason in each
case.
C ......................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
D ......................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(4)

(ii)

Deduce the rate expression for this reaction.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

16

(iii)

Use data from Experiment 1 to calculate a value for the rate constant for this
reaction and deduce its units.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Define the term half-life and calculate the half-life for a first-order reaction with a rate
2
1
constant of 3.3 10 min .
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

17

18.

For the reaction 2NO2(g) + F2(g) 2NO2F(g) the accepted mechanism is


NO2(g) + F2(g) NO2F(g) + F(g)
slow
NO2(g) + F(g) NO2F(g)
fast
What is the rate expression for this reaction?
2

A.

rate = k[NO2] [F2]

B.

rate = k[NO2][F2]

C.

rate = k[NO2][F]

D.

rate = k[NO2]

(Total 1 mark)

19.

Nitrogen(II) oxide reacts with hydrogen according to the following equation:


2NO(g) + 2H2(g) N2(g) + 2H2O(g)
The table shows how the rate of reaction varies as the concentrations of the reactants are
changed.

(a)

Experiment

Initial [NO] /
3
mol dm

Initial [H2] /

0.100

0.100

25310

0.100

0.200

5.0510

0.200

0.100

1.0110

0.300

0.100

2.2810

mol dm

Initial rate /
3 1
mol (N2) dm s
6

Determine the order of reaction with respect to H2 and with respect to NO.
H2 ................................................................................................................................
NO ..............................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Write the rate expression for the reaction.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

18

(c)

Calculate the value for the rate constant, and state its units using the data from
experiment 1.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

A suggested mechanism for this reaction is as follows.


H2 + NO
X
X + NO Y + H2O
Y + H2 N2 + H2O

fast step
slow step
fast step

State and explain whether this mechanism agrees with the experimental rate expression in
(b).
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(e)

Explain why a single step mechanism is unlikely for a reaction of this kind.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

19

(f)

Deduce and explain how the initial rate of formation of H2O compares with that of N2.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

20