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CHAPTER FOUR

LEARNING AREA: Interdependence Among Living Organisms and the Environment LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
4.1 Interdependence among Living Organisms 4.2 Interaction between Living Organisms 4.3 Food Web 4.4 Photosynthesis 4.5 Conservation and Preservation of Living Organisms

Learning Objective: 4.1 Analysing the interdependence among living organisms Learning Outcomes: State what species, population and community are. State what habitat and ecosystems. Identify various habitats in one ecosystem. 1. Draw lines to match the following statement with the correct terms. It is made up of different population of organisms living together and interacting with one another in the same Species habitat. It is a group of individuals of the same species that live and reproduce in a habitat at the same time. Population Community
2.

It is a group of similar living organisms. They can successfully breed together to produce new offspring which are in turn able to reproduce.

Draw lines to match the following statement with the correct terms. It is made up of living and non living components. Environment Examples of non living components are light, water, temperature and minerals. It is formed when different communities interact with Ecosystem one another and their environment in a habitat. Habitat It is the natural home of an organism where it lives and reproduces.

3.

Draw lines to match the following living organisms with the correct habitat.

The Artic

Desert

Bushes

Seashore

Learning Outcome: Explain through examples the interdependence among living organisms and the environment to create a balanced ecosystem.

1.

The picture below shows interdependence among living organisms and the environment.

a. Based on the picture, underline the correct answer in the statement below. If the number of cows in the area increases, the population of grass will (increase / decrease). b. Based on your answer in (a), predict what would happen to the population of rabbits in the area. The population of rabbits in the area will (increase / decrease). c. If the population of the fish increases rapidly, predict the effect on the oxygen level in the pond. If the population of the fish increases rapidly, the oxygen level in the pond will (increase / decrease). d. Based on your answer in (c), predict one effect on the population of microorganisms in the pond. The population of microorganisms in the pond will (increase / decrease).

Learning Objective: 4.2 Evaluating the interaction between living organisms Learning Outcomes: List the type of interactions between living organisms. Explain with examples the interactions between living organisms. Justify the importance of interaction between living organisms and the environment 1. Complete the table below to list the types of interactions between living organisms using the words given. Mutualism Interaction Prey-predator Parasitism Example Frog and insect Tapeworms and humans Commensalisms Remora fish and sharks Lichen and algae Competition 2. Fishes in a pond

Underline the correct answer in the statements below to explain the interaction between a cat and a mouse. a. A cat is a hunter that hunts its food at night and is called the (prey / predator). b. A mouse searches food at night and becomes a (prey / predator) because it is often being hunted by cats.

3.

Write True (T) or False (F) for the following statements to justify the importance of interaction between buffaloes and the environment.

a. If the population of buffaloes increases rapidly, the population of grass will also increase. b. If the population of birds increases rapidly, the population of insects will decrease. c. If all the grass in the area dies, the population of buffaloes, birds and insects will also decrease.

Learning Objective: 4.2 Evaluating the interaction between living organisms Learning Outcome: Explain through examples the advantages and disadvantages of biological control in regulating the number of pest in certain areas. 1. The diagram below shows chickens being used as a biological control in regulating the number of pest such as grasshoppers in a field of maize and paddy.

Tick (/) in the correct column to show the advantages or disadvantages to farmers by using chickens as a biological control to regulate the number of grasshoppers. Advantage a. Chickens prey on grasshoppers b. Grasshoppers feed on paddy plants c. Chickens feed on paddy and corns d. Chicken dropping (faeces) are natural fertilisers to paddy and maize plants e. Grasshoppers feeds on maize plants Disadvantage

Learning Objective: 4.3 Synthesising food web. Learning Outcomes: Explain what producers, consumers and decomposers are. Combine a few food chains to construct a food web. 1. Complete the statements below to explain the following terms using the words given. feeding food dead

a. Producers are living organisms that are able to make their own ____________.
b. Consumers are living organisms that are not able to make their own food.

They get their food by ___________________on other organisms. c. Decomposers are living organisms that feed on the remains of _____ organisms. 2. The diagram below shows examples of living organisms.

Rat Paddy Grasshopper Chicken

Eagle Snake Frog

i) Complete the two food chains below by using the examples above. Paddy Paddy Grasshopper Rat Snake Eagle Eagle

ii) Combine the two food chains above to construct a food web in the box below.

Paddy

Learning Objective: 4.3 Synthesising food web Learning Outcomes: Construct a pyramid number from a food chain. Relate the food web and the pyramid number to energy flow. Predict the consequences if a certain component of living organisms in the ecosystem are missing. 1. The table below shows the population of different living organisms living in the same habitat. Living organisms Grass Caterpillars Snakes Frogs Population 20000 1200 20 400

Label the pyramid of number below using the information in the table above with the correct living organisms according to its population. a. b.
S

d.

c.

2.

The diagram below shows the energy flow of a food chain in a food web. Grass Caterpillars Frogs Snakes

Underline the correct answer in the statement below to relate the food web and the pyramid number to energy flow. As the number of the organisms in the pyramid number decreases, the amount of energy transferred along the food chain (increases / decreases).

3.

Based on the pyramid number above, underline the correct answer in the statement below to show the consequences to the population of snakes and caterpillars if the population of frogs decreases.

The populations of snakes will (increase / decrease) while the population of caterpillars will (increase / decrease).

Learning Objective: 4.4 Analysing photosynthesis Learning Outcomes: State what photosynthesis is. State the factors required for photosynthesis. State the products of photosynthesis.

1.

Complete the statement below to show what photosynthesis is. Photosynthesis is the process in which green plants uses ________ energy to produce food.

2.

Label the diagram below to state the factors needed for photosynthesis using the words given. Sunlight Water Carbon dioxide

a) __________________ _ b) ________________

Chlorophyll

c) ________________

+
Light energy Chlorophyll

3.

Complete the word equation below to state the products of photosynthesis.

Carbon dioxide

Water

________________

________________